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Sample records for area south dakota

  1. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... public that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Dakota Grassland... Grassland Conservation Area on September 21, 2011, with the purchase of a 318.18-acre grassland easement...

  2. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...FF06R06000-FXRS1265066CCP0S2-123] Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and...Service) has established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, the 554th unit of...The Service established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area on September 21,...

  3. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an...

  4. Results of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) drought analysis (South Dakota drought 1976)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    LACIE using techniques developed from the southern Great Plains drought analysis indicated the potential for drought damage in South Dakota. This potential was monitored and as it became apparent that a drought was developing, LACIE implemented some of the procedures used in the southern Great Plains drought. The technical approach used in South Dakota involved the normal use of LACIE sample segments (5 x 6 nm) every 18 days. Full frame color transparencies (100 x 100 nm) were used on 9 day intervals to identify the drought area and to track overtime. The green index number (GIN) developed using the Kauth transformation was computed for all South Dakota segments and selected North Dakota segments. A scheme for classifying segments as drought affected or not affected was devised and tested on all available 1976 South Dakota data. Yield model simulations were run for all CRD's Crop Reporting District) in South Dakota.

  5. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Jackie Groce, Acting District Ranger, Black Hills National Forest.... Telephone Number: (605) 343-1567. E-mail: comments-rocky-mountain-black-hills-mystic@fs.fed.us...

  6. 75 FR 47755 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Pactola Project Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota... by March 2011. ADDRESSES: Send written comments to Robert J. Thompson, District Ranger, Black Hills... Dakota 57702. Telephone Number: (605) 343-1567. E-mail:...

  7. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  8. Altitude of the Top of the Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoli, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara. Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and artesian springs that originate from confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the altitude of the top(structure contours) of the Minnekahta limestone within the area of the Black Hills Hydrology Study. The depth to the top of the Minnekahta Limestone can be estimated at a specific site by subtracting the altitude of the top of the formation from the topographic elevation. However, caution is urged in determining the depth to the top of the formation in areas on the map where the contours are approximately located.

  9. Altitude of the top of the Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and artesian springs that originate from confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the altitude of the top (structure contours) of the Inyan Kara Group within the area of the Black Hills Hydrology Study. The depth to the top of the Inyan Kara Group can be estimated at a specific site by subtracting the altitude of the top of the formation from the topographic elevation. However, caution is urged in determining the depth to the top of the formation in areas on the map where the contours are approximately located.

  10. Altitude of the Top of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and artesian springs that originate from confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the altitude of the top (structure contours) of the Minnelusa Formation within the area of the Black Hills Hydrology Study. The depth to the top of the Minnelusa Formation can be estimated at a specific site by subtracting the altitude of the top of the formation from the topographic elevation. However, caution is urged in determining the depth to the top of the formation in areas on the map where the contours are approximately located.

  11. Altitude of the Top of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and artesian springs that originate from confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the altitude of the top (structure contours) of the Deadwood Formation within the area of the Black Hills Hydrology Study. The depth to the top of the Deadwood Formation can be estimated at a specific site by subtracting the altitude of the top of the formation from the topographic elevation, However, caution is urged in determining the depth to the top of the formation in areas on the map where the contours are approximately located.

  12. Potentiometric surface of the Minnekahta Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and springs that originate from the confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the potentiometric surface of the Minnekahta aquifer within the study area. The map provides a tool for evaluating ground-water flow directions and hydraulic gradients in the Minnekahta aquifer.

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Madison Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and springs that originate from the confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the potentiometric surface of the Madison aquifer within the study area. The map provides a tool for evaluating ground-water flow directions and hydraulic gradients in the Madison aquifer.

  14. Potentiometric surface of the Inyan Kara Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and springs that originate from the confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the potentiometric surface of the Inyan Kara aquifer within the study area. The map provides a tool for evaluating ground-water flow directions and hydraulic gradients in the Inyan Kara aquifer.

  15. Potentiometric surface of the Minnelusa Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and springs that originate from the confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the potentiometric surface of the Minnelusa aquifer within the study area. The map provides a tool for evaluating ground-water flow directions and hydraulic gradients in the Minnelusa aquifer.

  16. Potentiometric surface of the Deadwood Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and springs that originate from the confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the potentiometric surface of the Deadwood aquifer within the study area. The map provides a tool for evaluating ground-water flow directions and hydraulic gradients in the Deadwood aquifer.

  17. Altitude of the Top of the Madison Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study arca arc Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and artesian springs that originate from confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.The purpose of this map is to show the altitude of the top (structure contours) of the Madison Limestone within the area of the Black Hills Hydrology Study. The depth to the top of the Madison Limestone can be estimated at a specific site by subtracting the altitude of the top of the formation from the topographic elevation. However, caution is urged in determining the depth to the top of the formation in areas on the map where the contours are approximately located.

  18. Distribution of hydrogeologic units in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Schleicher, John R.; Fahrenbach, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. The map in this report is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps that are being produced for the study. Other maps include structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these aquifers where an upper confining layer is present. Flowing wells and artesian springs that originate from confined aquifers are common around the periphery of the Black Hills.

  19. Workforce Brief: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In South Dakota, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare and healthcare support occupations will see growth of about 25 percent; over 2,500 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. There will be a 24 percent increase in the number of…

  20. SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF

    E-print Network

    , more livestock grazing, less cover for pheasants to live in, predators, cold and dry springs, too much on : Blizzards kill pheasants. A good example was the blizzard of March 1966. About 85 percent of our pheasants in several counties in north-central South Dakota were killed. When severe blizzards strike, the winter

  1. Selected hydrogeologic data for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrogeologic data on wells and springs in the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The data were used to create potentiometric maps for these five aquifers.

  2. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  3. Availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation made in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota, concluded that Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development of the three major aquifers investigated (the Inyan Kara, the Minnelusa, and the Madison). Ground-water availability and quality were evaluated on the basis of unit thickness and depth, potentiometric-surface altitudes and gradients, estimated recharge and discharge rates, estimated aquifer transmissivities and storage coefficients, reported yields of existing wells, and concentrations of ions in the water that may affect its use as a community supply. The Inyan Kara aquifer has the least potential for additional development because of reported small well yields , the proximity of the outcrop, and concentration of radium-226 exceeding 5 picocuries per liter. The Minnelusa aquifer is unsuitable for development in the eastern two-thirds of the study area because the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate commonly exceed the recommended maximum level for community water supplies. The Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development because it has the greatest recharge rate, has areas with significant fracture permeability, yields as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells, and has satisifactory water quality, though it is hard (hardness 120 to 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard (hardness greater than 180 milligrams per liter). (USGS)

  4. The South Dakota Ethanol Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the need for biorenewable fuels increases, the ethanol industry in the U.S. continues to thrive and grow. The same is true here in South Dakota as well. In fact, South Dakota has been a leader in ethanol production for years, and will continue to be for years to come. This industry is making a...

  5. South Dakota Tourism Leopard Frog

    E-print Network

    South Dakota Tourism Leopard Frog . and Myths, Cliches and Reality What we actually know and what we hope to find out about the frogs and toads ofSouth Dakota. by Tate D. Fischer, Kenneth F. Higgins. A common cliche states that you have to kiss a lot of frogs before you find your charming prince: myth

  6. South Dakota geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    South Dakota is normally not thought of as a geothermal state. However, geothermal direct use is probably one of the best kept secrets outside the state. At present there are two geothermal district heating systems in place and operating successfully, a resort community using the water in a large swimming pool, a hospital being supplied with part of its heat, numerous geothermal heat pumps, and many individual uses by ranchers, especially in the winter months for heating residences, barns and other outbuildings, and for stock watering.

  7. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Badlands Wild 64,250 94-567 USDI-NPS Wind Cave NP 28,060 57-16...

  8. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Badlands Wild 64,250 94-567 USDI-NPS Wind Cave NP 28,060 57-16...

  9. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Badlands Wild 64,250 94-567 USDI-NPS Wind Cave NP 28,060 57-16...

  10. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Badlands Wild 64,250 94-567 USDI-NPS Wind Cave NP 28,060 57-16...

  11. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Badlands Wild 64,250 94-567 USDI-NPS Wind Cave NP 28,060 57-16...

  12. South Dakota Kids Count Project: 1994 Factbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry; Dykstra, De Vee

    This factbook provides data on the well-being of South Dakota children. It is intended as a vehicle for policy makers, advocates, the media, and service providers to raise awareness on the status of children in South Dakota. Section 1 of the factbook is an introduction and overview on South Dakota demographics. Section 2 presents special reports…

  13. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  14. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  15. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  16. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  17. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  18. The Arts in South Dakota: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Ron, Comp.; Bell, Rebecca L., Comp.; Amiotte, Arthur D., Comp.; Murray, Janette K., Comp.; Huenemann, Lynn F., Comp.

    This bibliography pulls together some of the available resources on the arts in South Dakota and the Dakota Territory. In preparing this bibliography, the arts were defined as broadly as possible. The major arts areas identified are: (1) Visual Arts (painting, sculpture, photography, graphic arts and printing, architecture, decorative and…

  19. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Dakota. 32.61 Section 32.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota. The following...

  20. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Dakota. 32.61 Section 32.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota. The following...

  1. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Dakota. 32.61 Section 32.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota. The following...

  2. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Dakota. 32.61 Section 32.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota. The following...

  3. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Dakota. 32.61 Section 32.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota. The following...

  4. 2008 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Mark Anderson, Director of the USGS South Dakota Water Science Center, with Dr. John H. Marburger, III, Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. Dr. Marburger was the keynote speaker for the 2008 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, held on April 17...

  5. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  6. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    and the life cycle assessment analysis of engineered storm water control methods common to South DakotaSouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 1 #12;Introduction South Dakota's Water Resources Research

  7. Geothermal resource assessment, South Dakota: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Seven geothermal aquifers in South Dakota contain an accessible resource base of about 11,207 x 10/sup 18/ J. The potentially productive geothermal aquifers are: Deadwood Formation (Cambrian), Winnipeg Formation + Red River Formation + Englewood Limestone (Ordovician through Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), Minnelusa Formation (Mississippian-Permian), Inyan Kara Group (Cretaceous), and Newcastle Sandstone (Cretaceous). The resource estimate was obtained by first using heat flow, thermal conductivity, temperature gradient, and stratigraphic data to estimate aquifer temperatures. The heat content of each aquifer was determined from the product of the volumetric heat capacity, aquifer volume, and temperature difference between the aquifer and the mean annual temperature for a 14 x 14 grid of 240 km/sup 2/ cells. Geothermal fluid temperatures range from about 120/sup 0/C in the Deadwood Formation in the Williston Basin to about 30/sup 0/C for the Newcastle Sandstone in south-central South Dakota. The area containing the resource lies largely west of the Missouri River. About 10,000 km/sup 2/ of the resource area is characterized by anomalously high heat flow values greater than 100 mW m/sup -2/.

  8. Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the Minnelusa aquifer. Three conceptual models, which are simplifications of lumped-parameter models, are considered for evaluation of mixing conditions and general ground-water ages. For a simple slug-flow model, which assumes no mixing, measured tritium concentrations in ground water can be related through a first-order decay equation to estimated concentrations at the time of recharge. Two simplified mixing models that assume equal proportions of annual recharge over a range of years also are considered. An ?immediate-arrival? model is used to conceptually represent conditions in outcrop areas and a ?time-delay? model is used for locations removed from outcrops, where delay times for earliest arrival of ground water generally would be expected. Because of limitations associated with estimating tritium input and gross simplifying assumptions of equal annual recharge and thorough mixing conditions, the conceptual models are used only for general evaluation of mixing conditions and approximation of age ranges. Headwater springs, which are located in or near outcrop areas, have the highest tritium concentrations, which is consistent with the immediate-arrival mixing model. Tritium concentrations for many wells are very low, or nondetectable, indicating general applicability of the timedelay conceptual model for locations beyond outcrop areas, where artesian conditions generally occur. Concentrations for artesian springs generally are higher than for wells, which indicates generally shorter delay times resulting from preferential flowpaths that typically are associated with artesian springs. In the Rapid City area, a distinct division of isotopic values for the Madison aquifer corresponds with distinguishing 18O signatures for nearby streams, where large streamflow recharge occurs. Previous dye testing in this area documented rapid ground-water flow (timeframe of weeks) from a streamflow loss zone to sites located several miles away. These results are used to ill

  9. Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of wildlife areas in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A soils map for land evaluation in Potter County (Eastern South Dakota) was developed to demonstrate the use of remote sensing technology in the area of diverse parent materials and topography. General land use and soils maps have also been developed for land planning LANDSAT, RB-57 imagery, and USGS photographs are being evaluated for making soils and land use maps. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general land use and a general soils map. RB-57 imagery supplemented by large scale black and white stereo coverage was required to provide the detail needed for the final soils map for land evaluation. Color infrared prints excelled black and white coverage for this soil mapping effort. An identification and classification key for wetland types in the Lake Dakota Plain was developed for June 1975 using color infrared imagery. Wetland types in the region are now being mapped via remote sensing techniques to provide a current inventory for development of mitigation measures.

  10. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  11. Geology and pegmatites of part of the Fourmile area, Custer County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Andrew J.; Redden, Jack Allison

    1953-01-01

    The Fourmile area, Custer County, S. Dak., is underlain by pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks that surround the granitic core of the Black Hills. The main structure in the area is the upright limb of an overturned anticline that plunges about 30 ? S. 10 ? E. Three units of metamorphic rocks are described that have a total thickness of at least 7, 700 feet. The oldest of these units, a quartz-mica schist, is more than 6, 500 feet thick. The overlying unit, about 200 feet thick, is composed of thin beds of amphibolite and hornblende schist, lime-silicate rock, cordierite-biotite schist, microcline-biotite schist, and other types of rocks. The youngest unit, a quartz-mica-feldspar schist, is more than 1,000 feet thick. The presence of kyanite, staurolite, cordierite, and sillimanite in the rocks indicates that they have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism. About 420 pegmatites were mapped in the quartzmica-schist and the quartz-mica-feldspar schist. A few thin pegmatites in the third unit were not mapped. Most of these are concordant with the schistosity and relict (?) bedding of the enclosing metamorphic rocks. They are as much as 250 feet thick and range from 10 to 2, 600 feet in length. Nine peqmatites are zoned and classified as heterogeneous. The remainder are homogeneous and are poorly zoned. The major constituents are plaqioclase, quartz, perthite, and muscovite. The accessory minerals are tourmaline, apatite, garnet, and biotite. Beryl was observed in 15 peqmatites. The heterogeneous pegmatites contain commercial deposits of potash feldspar, mica (sheet and scrap), and beryl.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS AND USE OF WILD TURKEY ROOST SITES IN SOUTHCENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    CHARACTERISTICS AND USE OF WILD TURKEY ROOST SITES IN SOUTHCENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA BY RANDALL ALLEN;CHARACTERISTICS AND USE OF WILD TURKEY ROOST SITES IN SOUTHCENTRAL SOUTH DAKarA This thesis is approved diameter wild turkey roost plots and control plots on a study area in Gregory County, South Dakota, during

  13. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on major hydrologic processes. Finally, conservative tracers were weighted preferentially in model calibration, which distributed model errors of optimized values, or residuals, more appropriately than would otherwise be the case The latter item also provides an estimate of the relative effect of geochemical evolution along flow paths in comparison to mixing. The end-member mixing model estimated that Wind Cave sites received 38 percent of their groundwater inflow from local surface recharge, 34 percent from the upgradient Precambrian aquifer, 26 percent from surface recharge to the west, and 2 percent from regional flow. Artesian springs primarily received water from end members assumed to represent regional groundwater flow. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gasses (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oxygen), and tritium at selected sites and used to estimate groundwater age. Apparent ages, or model ages, for the Madison aquifer in the study area indicate that groundwater closest to surface recharge areas is youngest, with increasing age in a downgradient direction toward deeper parts of the aquifer. Arsenic concentrations in samples collected for this study ranged from 0.28 to 37.1 micrograms per liter (?g/L) with a median value of 6.4 ?g/L, and 32 percent of these exceeded 10 ?g/L. The highest arsenic concentrations in and near the study area are approximately coincident with the outcrop of the Minnelusa Formation and likely originated from arsenic in shale layers in this formation. Sample concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite were less than 2 milligrams per liter for 92 percent of samples collected, which is not a concern for drinking-water quality. Water samples were collected in the park and analyzed for five trace metals (chromium, copper, lithium, vanadium, and zinc), the concentrations of which did not correlate with arsenic. Dye tracing indicated hydraulic connection between three water bodies in Wind Cave.

  14. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 87 (2008) 85 STATUS OF MARBLED GODWITS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    2008-01-01

    --South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit South Dakota State University Department of Wildlife destroyed or degraded by farming and ranching practices. These ac- tivities further slowed the recovery

  15. A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA by Tara L. Wertz A thesis submitted Sciences (Wildlife Option) South Dakota State University 1986 #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 11 Date Date #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

  16. Microgravity Measurement in Black Hills of South Dakota

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Microgravity measurements were collected to determine groundwater-storage changes in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota during 2009-12. This relative-gravity measurement was made in the Doty focus area to the northwest of Rapid City, SD....

  17. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

  18. The Death of Distance: Documenting the Effects of Distance Education in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Steve; Amiotte, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    South Dakota has arguably the most technologically advanced educational system in the United States. The state boasts a population of approximately 750,000 residents, distributed across an area measuring approximately 250 by 400 miles. South Dakota is experiencing a shortage of specialist teachers and university faculty, and the vast geographical…

  19. A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschee, Bonni F.; Boschee, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents' decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling…

  20. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  1. Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

  2. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  3. South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)

    DOE Data Explorer

    WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

    There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

    There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and transmission system expansion. [Copied from http://sdwind.com/about/

  4. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  5. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  6. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  7. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  8. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  9. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  10. 76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... ) (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC...cases, ammonia (NH 3 ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)). These precursors...at the two Class I areas are SO 2 , organic carbon and NO X . South Dakota...

  11. Peer Reviewed A Typology of South Dakota Muzzleloader Deer Hunters

    E-print Network

    -line muzzleloaders (Merrion et al. 1999). In South Dakota, USA, muzzleloader hunting for white-tailed deer (OPeer Reviewed A Typology of South Dakota Muzzleloader Deer Hunters JASON R. BOULANGER,1, muzzleloader deer (Odocoileus spp.) hunters using a self-administered mail survey to gain better understanding

  12. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  13. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  14. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  15. Area Service Agencies for North Dakota Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    Area service agencies have been structured in many states to enhance service while preserving local school districts. A variety of patterns of cooperation have developed. In North Dakota a study team considered issues, based on the organizational and financial characteristics of existing area service agencies, about the organization of the…

  16. DEMOGRAPHICS OF WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA WETLANDS AND BASINS BRYAN A. RIEGER

    E-print Network

    DEMOGRAPHICS OF WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA WETLANDS AND BASINS BY BRYAN A. RIEGER A thesis submitted South Dakota State University 2004 #12;11 DEMOGRAPHICS OF WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA WETLANDS AND BASINS on this project, Dr. Jonathan Jenks and Dr. Kenneth Higgins. #12;iv Abstract DEMOGRAPHICS OF WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

  17. Distribution of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2004-01-01

    Heads of hunter-harvested deer (Odocoileus sp.) and elk (Cervus elaphus) were collected from meat processing plants throughout South Dakota (USA) from 1997 through 1999 to determine distribution of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in eastern and western South Dakota. A total of 2,848 white-tailed deer (WTD) were examined for P. tenuis, of which 578 (20.3%) were infected with the parasite. Of 578 deer infected, 570 (98.6%) were harvested east of the Missouri River. Our results indicate that P. tenuis is widely distributed throughout eastern South Dakota and limited to the southcentral region of western South Dakota. Infected WTD were documented in 37 of 44 counties in eastern South Dakota and three of 22 counties in western South Dakota. No meningeal worms were found on the meninges or cranial surfaces of 215 mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) or 344 elk examined. These findings further define the distribution of the parasite throughout the state. We suggest that the Missouri River acts, in part, as a physical barrier to the westward expansion of P. tenuis to the grasslands of western South Dakota. PMID:15137501

  18. Water levels in bedrock aquifers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    This report on water levels in bedrock aquifers in South Dakota is the result of a continuing investigation begun in 1959 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources. The purpose of the investigation is to collect data on the artesian water supply in the bedrock aquifers and to present these data in data reports that will aid in planning the use and conservation of water from these aquifers in South Dakota. The locations of wells were data have been collected are included. (USGS)

  19. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  20. The state of South Dakota's child: 2010.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ann L

    2011-01-01

    The year 2009 brought the second consecutive year of a decreased number of births, declining from the recent 2007 crest noted in the state and nationwide. This decrease could be an echo from the decline in births noted after the 1980 crest or could also reflect effects of the economic recession. The 2009 cohort of births included 21 percent of racial minority newborns that parallels national observations. A sharp decrease is noted in infant deaths in 2009 (for a rate of 6.7 per 1,000 population), returns its rate to a level comparable to previous years but slightly higher than the preliminary 2009 national rate of 6.3. Changing perceptions of hazards accompanying infant sleep may be affecting the designated causes given for sudden deaths of sleeping infants. Sudden unexplained infant death remains more frequent in South Dakota than nationwide. PMID:21337919

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    A total of 33 sites have been identified and assessed for their hydropower potential. Information as to the potential megawatts of capacity for 4 of the sites was not available; however, these sites have been identified as having hydropower potential and are included in the group of 33. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results for site capacities range from 35 kilowatts to 234 megawatts. Most of the sites have potential capacities of under 1 megawatts. The unadjusted hydropower potential for South Dakota was identified as being 1,124 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results lower this estimate 38% to 695 megawatts. The greatest reduction in undeveloped potential occurs at developed sites with current power production. These sites have a Hydropower Evaluation Software estimated capacity of 285 megawatts, a 50% reduction in capacity. The number of sites does not change, only the identified capacity is reassessed.

  2. Connecting the Schools: Another Phase of South Dakota's Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2001-01-01

    Explains South Dakota's Connecting the Schools project that distributed hardware and software for K-12 schools, as well as provided training; developed the Digital Dakota Network (DDN), a high-speed statewide telecommunications network that provides data and video services to educational and governmental communities and helps with network design;…

  3. Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

  4. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

  5. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...demonstrates in the application that: (1) Such variance is necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or other relevant physical conditions; and (2) The proposed alternative will achieve...

  6. Isopach and structure contour mapping of thin bentonite and shale beds in an area of mapped lineaments, central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chleborad, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The N aquifer is an important source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona. The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to monitor long-term effects on the groundwater resources of the mesa as part of withdrawals from the aquifer by the strip-mining operation of Peabody Coal Co. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by the mine increased from 95 acre-feet in 1968 to more than 4,000 acre-feet in 1984. In 1985, withdrawals from the mine wells were temporarily reduced to about 2,500 acre-feet. Water levels in the confined area of the aquifer declined as much as 87 feet from 1965 to 1985 in some municipal and observation wells within about a 15-mile radius of the mine well field. In 1986, measurements indicated some recovery in water levels in most of these wells because of an approximate 90-percent reduction in pumpage from Peabody Coal Co. wells during the last half of 1985. Part of the drawdown in municipal wells is due to local pumpage. Water levels have not declined in wells tapping the unconfined area of the aquifer. Chemical analyses indicate no significant changes in the quality of water from wells that tap the N aquifer or from springs that discharge from several stratigraphic units, including the N aquifer, since pumping began at the mine. (USGS)

  7. Water levels through 1989 in bedrock aquifers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Douglas R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, has collected water-level data for 237 wells completed in bedrock aquifers throughout South Dakota. The water levels are presented in hydrographs in the main body of the report and in tables in a Supplemental Information section at the end of the report. The data are organized by county, in alphabetical order.

  8. Flow-system analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota--conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic Madison aquifer, which is defined as the upper, more permeable 100 to 200 ft of the Madison Limestone, and the Madison confining unit, which consists of the lower, less permeable part of the Madison Limestone and the Englewood Formation. Overlying the Madison hydrogeologic unit is the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, which includes the Minnelusa aquifer in the upper, more permeable 200 to 300 ft and the Minnelusa confining unit in the lower, less permeable part. The Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units outcrop in the study area on the eastern flank of the Black Hills where recharge occurs from streamflow losses and areal recharge. The conceptual model describes streamflow recharge, areal recharge, ground-water flow, storage in aquifers and confining units, unsaturated areas, leakage between aquifers, discharge from artesian springs, and regional outflow. Effective transmissivities estimated for the Madison aquifer range from 500 to 20,000 ft2/d and for the Minnelusa aquifer from 500 to 10,000 ft2/d. Localized anisotropic transmissivity in the Madison aquifer has tensor ratios as high as 45:1. Vertical hydraulic conductivities for the Minnelusa confining unit determined from aquifer tests range from 1.3x10-3 to 3.0x10-1 ft/d. The confined storage coefficient of the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units was estimated as 3x10-4 ft/d. Specific yield was estimated as 0.09 for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers and 0.03 for the Madison and Minnelusa confining units. Potentiometric surfaces for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers have a general easterly gradient of about 70 ft/mi with local variations. Temporal change in hydraulic head in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers ranged from about 5 to 95 ft in water years 1988-97. The unconfined areas were estimated at about 53 and 36 mi2 for the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units, respectively, in contrast to an aquifer analysis area of 629 mi2. Dye-tracer tests, stable isotopes, and hydrogeologic features were analyzed conjunctively to estimate generalized ground-water flowpaths in the Madison aquifer and their influences on the Minnelusa aquifer. The western Rapid City area between Boxelder Creek and Spring Creek was characterized as having undergone extensive tectonic activity, greater brecciation in the Minnelusa Formation, large transmissivities, generally upward hydraulic gradients from the Madison aquifer to the Minnelusa aquifer, many karst springs, and converging flowpaths. Water-budget analysis included: (1) a dry-period budget for declining water levels; October 1, 1987, to March 31, 1993; (2) a wet-period budget for rising water levels, April 1, 1993, to September 30, 1997; and (3) a full 10-year period budget for water years 1988-97. By simultaneously balancing these water budgets, initial estimates of recharge, discharge, change in storage, and hydraulic properties were refined. Inflow rates for the 10-year budget included streamflow recharge of about 45 ft3/s or 61 percent of the total budget and areal recharge of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Streamflow recharge to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was about 86 percent of the total streamflow recharge. Outflow for the 10-year budget included springflow of 31 ft3/s or 42 percent of the total budget, water use of about 10 ft3/s or 14 percent, and regional outflow of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Ground-water storage increased 9 ft3/s during the 10-year period, and net ground-water movement from the Madison to Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit was about 8 ft3/s.

  9. Transition year labeling error characterization study. [Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, N. J. (principal investigators)

    1980-01-01

    Labeling errors made in the large area crop inventory experiment transition year estimates by Earth Observation Division image analysts are identified and quantified. The analysis was made from a subset of blind sites in six U.S. Great Plains states (Oklahoma, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, North and South Dakota). The image interpretation basically was well done, resulting in a total omission error rate of 24 percent and a commission error rate of 4 percent. The largest amount of error was caused by factors beyond the control of the analysts who were following the interpretation procedures. The odd signatures, the largest error cause group, occurred mostly in areas of moisture abnormality. Multicrop labeling was tabulated showing the distribution of labeling for all crops.

  10. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...are applicable to surface coal mining operations in South Dakota...been adopted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act...regulations in this chapter. The full text of a rule is in the permanent...part apply to all surface coal mining operations in South...

  11. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 87 (2008) 141 STATUS OF WESTERN WILLETS IN SOUTH DAKO-

    E-print Network

    2008-01-01

    --South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit South Dakota State University Department of Wildlife already been destroyed or degraded by farming and ranching prac- tices. These activities further slowed

  12. 40 CFR 282.91 - South Dakota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false South Dakota State-Administered Program. 282...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED...STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.91 South Dakota State-Administered Program....

  13. 40 CFR 282.91 - South Dakota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false South Dakota State-Administered Program. 282...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED...STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.91 South Dakota State-Administered Program....

  14. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project..., District Ranger, Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, South Dakota 57730. Telephone Number: (605) 673- 4853. E-mail:...

  15. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, South Dakota 57730. Telephone Number...Ranger District, Black Hills National Forest, 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, South Dakota 57730. Nature of...

  16. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  17. Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

  18. Dakota :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the Dakota software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of Dakota-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quanti cation, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of Dakota's iterative analysis capabilities.

  19. Application of LANDSAT digital data for monitoring drought. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    A technique utilizing transformed LANDSAT digital data for detection of agricultural vegetative water stress was developed during the 1976 South Dakota drought, and expanded to the U.S. Great Plains the following year to evaluate its effectiveness in detecting and monitoring vegetative stress water stress over large areas. This technique, the green index number (GIN), indicated when the vegetation within a segment was undergoing stress. Segments were classified as either moisture-stressed or normal using remote sensing techniques combined with a knowledge of crop condition. The remote sensing-based information was compared to a weekly ground-based index (the crop moisture index) provided by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce. The approaches used and the results from the GIN monitoring program are presented.

  20. SURVIVAL OF MALE MERRIAM'S WILD TURKEYS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    SURVIVAL OF MALE MERRIAM'S WILD TURKEYS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA By Thomas C MERRIAM'S WILD TURKEYS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis is approved as a creditable support from the following organizations and agencies: The National Wild Turkey Federation, South Dakota

  1. Advanced Largemouth Bass Production and Stock Contribution to Small South Dakota Impoundment Fisheries

    E-print Network

    sport fish in South Dakota, ranking highly in surveys of anglers and competitive fishing events. Nearly onethird of South Dakota resident anglers fish small water bodies, so maintaining small with me on the bioenergetics portion of this project. I thank the many South Dakota Game, Fish

  2. ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION

    E-print Network

    ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION BY LOWELL E 2006 #12;ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION Lowell E. Schmitz May 2006 Few studies

  3. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...National Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY...proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 250,000...System (NFS) lands from the ongoing mountain pine beetle epidemic, and to help...

  4. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... the Federal Register on Monday, August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48120). This corrected notice of intent is being...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain...

  5. Consumer Resource Management Competencies for Vocational Family and Consumer Sciences in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluckman, Delores

    This document describes a project conducted in South Dakota to develop and validate competency task lists in the area of consumer resource management. During the project, the following activities took place: literature on validation was reviewed; an outline was structured for content based on current references by a panel of two teachers and two…

  6. 75 FR 78208 - Black Hills National Forest, Northern Hills Ranger District; South Dakota; Steamboat Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Northern Hills Ranger District; South Dakota; Steamboat... Black Hills National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan. The Steamboat Project Area covers.... Main Street, Spearfish, SD 57783. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to...

  7. Statistics of South Dakota School Libraries, 1986-1987 [and] 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Donna, Comp.

    These two reports present statistical information on South Dakota public, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and private school libraries for the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years. Data in the following areas are included for both years: enrollment served, total circulation, circulation per capita, book circulation, circulation per volume,…

  8. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  9. Lightning fires in North Dakota grasslands and in pine-savanna lands of South Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lightning strike fires which occurred between 1940 and 1981 were studied in mixed-grass prairie grasslands and in pine-savanna lands in the Northern Great Plains region. A majority (73%) of ignitions occurred during July and August, while a lesser number was recorded in April, May, June, and September. The April-September period is also the average time of the freeze-free period and approximates the average distribution period for thunderstorm activity in this region. The area burned by each of 293 lightning fires (most of which were suppressed) ranged from 0.004-1158.3 ha (mean = 10.8 ha). The frequency of lightning fires in mixed-grass prairie grasslands averaged 6.0/yr per 10,000 km2 in eastern North Dakota, 22.4/yr per 10,000 km2 in southcentral North Dakota, 24.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in western North Dakota, and 91.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in pine-savanna lands in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. The ecological role of lightning-set fires is discussed relative to the development of resource research and management plans and to the interpretation of historical records of natural fire occurrence in the Northern Great Plains region.

  10. LASER SAFETY MANUAL SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES & TECHNOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Anagnostou, Dimitris E.

    LASER SAFETY MANUAL SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES & TECHNOLOGY Created: 06/15/07 Revision Date: 09/07/2007 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY #12;2 Table of Contents 1.0 SDSM&T Laser Safety Policy.................................................................................................3 2.1 Authorized Laser User

  11. Changes in Walleye Food Habits Throughout Lake Oahe, South Dakota,

    E-print Network

    stomach samples during the annual fish population survey conducted by the South Dakota Department of Game) and the stomach excised and pre- served in formalin. Stomach contents were flushed into a petri dish, and prey for each stomach. Samples were dried at 60°C for 24 hr in a drying oven. - Zooplanktonlengths weremeasured

  12. 78 FR 9891 - South Dakota Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers South Dakota Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The duties of the Task Force... erosion. DATES: The Task Force will hold a meeting on February 26, 2013 from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30...

  13. South Dakota School Health Profiles. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the status of elementary health and health education in public schools throughout South Dakota during the 2005-2006 school year. The study was designed to provide current data collected from both elementary and secondary school principals and teachers regarding health and physical education curricula,…

  14. South Dakota Social Studies Curriculum Guide, Kindergarten-Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Pierre. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This K-12 social studies curriculum guide was developed to provide local schools in South Dakota with a point of departure for their own curriculum development. There are five sections to the guide. Section one, "Social Studies Standards of Excellence," discusses shared decision making and commitment, community support for the social studies,…

  15. Wiring the Schools: South Dakota Does It Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Describes a statewide project in South Dakota to wire its elementary and secondary school classrooms for distance education courses. Discusses the use of minimum-security inmates from state prisons to do the wiring; the rural environment; the governor's role; upgrading the electrical infrastructure; security concerns; political issues; inmate…

  16. South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This directory lists contact information for educational programs, human services, and other resources for children, youth, and families in South Dakota. Sections cover adult basic education programs, alcohol and drug treatment facilities, career learning centers, clothing, community health nurses, community mental health centers, consumer credit…

  17. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    , only one project was funded in South Dakota, titled "Geochemistry of Dissolved Organic Carbon the status of their water resources. Newly funded research projects included: A project on precision farming was included in the research program for 1999 to improve management of farm fertilizers and chemicals so

  18. 76 FR 35936 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  19. 76 FR 35935 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  20. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    . Animal feeding operations are a major industry in South Dakota and across the Midwest. The practice, and industry through research, education, and service. To accomplish this mission, SDWRI provides leadership. Together with the state's largest industry, agriculture, it will play an important role in the economic

  1. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    will continue to be a priority for research. Animal feeding operations are a major industry in South Dakota, and industry through research, education, and service. This report is a summary of activities conducted during industry, agriculture, it will play an important role in the economic future of the state. Enhancement

  2. 78 FR 48764 - South Dakota Disaster # SD-00061

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster SD-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  3. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  4. The Instructional Media Center at South Dakota State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Instructional Media Center (IMC) at South Dakota State University. Highlights include its mission and goals; staff--professional, career service employees and student assistants; four service groups--instructional technologies, media production, instructional telecommunications, and media resources; budget; and successes. (AEF)

  5. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Ann. Chap. 34A-1. (7) Water pollution control, S. D. Comp...within one-half mile of a flowing water well or a domestic water well without the owner's permission...of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  6. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Ann. Chap. 34A-1. (7) Water pollution control, S. D. Comp...within one-half mile of a flowing water well or a domestic water well without the owner's permission...of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  7. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    . Non-point source pollution from agricultural land is an important issue in South Dakota. Runoff models's Water Resources Research Institutes program is administered through the College of Agricultural August 1, 2000. Dr. Kelley is also the head of the Agricultural and Biological Sciences Engineering

  8. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  9. A SURVEY OF THE FISHES AND HABITAT OF THE WHITE RIVER, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    by the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks through Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration (Project Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, the U. S. Geological Survey, South Dakota State University at eleven study reaches between the Nebraska border and Lake Francis Case. I sampled a total of 4,015 fishes

  10. WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of

    E-print Network

    177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Newcastle Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, E S; Robinson, K; Geer, K A; Blattspieler, J G

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Newcastle 1/sup 0/x2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Many of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled and described. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, interpreted from an aerial radiometric survey, were outlined. Areas favorable for uranium deposits in the subsurface were evaluated using gamma-ray logs. Based on surface and subsurface data, two areas have been delineated which are underlain by rocks deemed favorable as hosts for uranium deposits. One of these is underlain by rocks that contain fluvial arkosic facies in the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations of Tertiary age; the other is underlain by rocks containing fluvial quartzose sandstone facies of the Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Tertiary age above the Wasatch Formation, all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and most rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and all rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group.

  12. 2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second exceeded the previous peak of record set in 1997 by 1,500 cubic feet per second. For the cities of Fargo, and Moorhead, Minn., and the surrounding area, the stage of the Red River remained above flood stage for nearly 2 months. In addition to high stage and flow on the main-stem Missouri and Red Rivers, peak of record stage and discharge were recorded at many U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the Missouri River and Red River Basins. Several reservoirs and lakes in the region also experienced record stage elevations from the high flows during the 2009 spring snowmelt floods.

  13. Compilation of selected hydrologic data, through water year 1992, Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell

    1994-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quailty, and springflow data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1992, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). Water-level data are presented for 32 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tabular data. Water- quality data are presented for 12 surface-water sites and 5 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, cyanide, phenols, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Spring data are presented for 83 springs and 21 stream reaches with significant springflow components. Data presented include site information, discharge, and field water-quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH.

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  15. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...The NRCS State Conservationists for South Dakota and North Dakota have determined that changes must be made to the NRCS State Technical Guides concerning State wetland mapping conventions. The two States are proposing to issue joint State wetland mapping conventions. The joint State wetland mapping conventions will be used as part of the technical documents to conduct wetland determinations on......

  16. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age underlie the entire northern Great Plains of the United States. These rocks form 5 artesian aquifer systems that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming and extend more than 600 miles to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in the Canadian Province of Manitoba. Generally, the principal direction of flow in each aquifer is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of geologic structure, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Major fracture systems or lineaments traverse the geologic section and are either vertical or horizontal conduits, or barriers to, groundwater flow. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale of minimal permeability, halite beds, and stratigraphic traps or minimal-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. Interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments. During the Pleistocene Epoch, thick ice sheets completely covered the discharge areas of the bedrock aquifers. This effectively blocked flow northeastward from the system and, at some locations, it may have caused a reversal of flow. The existing flow, system therefore, may not have reached hydrologic equilibrium with the stress of the last glacial period. (USGS)

  17. Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearer, J.S.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

  18. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

  19. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

  20. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  1. Yellow Perch in South Dakota: Population Variability and Predicted Effects of Creel Limit Reductions and

    E-print Network

    57274, USA DAVID O. LUCCHESI South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, 4500 South Oxbow Avenue Perca flavescens in six South Dakota lakes over 4­5 years. We also simulated the effects of reductions of minimum total length limits (229 and 254 mm). Population indices varied widely among lakes and among years

  2. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 141 THE PREHISTORIC RECORD

    E-print Network

    2005-01-01

    structures, scales, and otoliths. How- ever, trace fossils of fish may also be recognizable in the fossil University Brookings, SD 57007 SOUTH DAKOTA'S FOSSIL FISHES Fossil evidence from many locations in South. South Dakota's fossil fish date back to the Paleozoic Era, approximately 500 million years ago

  3. SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 1 ROLLIN D. SPARROWE, South Research Unit, Brookings3 -,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus on counties. The history of white-tailed deer popula- tions in eastern South Dakota parallels that of deer

  4. Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007 flow of 26,000 cubic feet per second was generated entirely within an intervening drainage area of only 44.4 square miles. An especially large flow of 44,100 cubic feet per second was documented for this location in 1972. The 2007 peak flow of 18,600 cubic feet per second for Battle Creek at Hermosa (station 06406000) was only slightly smaller than the 1972 peak flow of 21,400 cubic feet per second. Peak-flow values from 2007 for three sites with small drainage areas (less than 1.0 square mile) plot close to a regional envelope curve, indicating exceptionally large flow values, relative to drainage area. Physiographic factors that affect flooding in the area were examined. The limestone headwater hydrogeologic setting (within and near the Limestone Plateau area on the western flank of the Black Hills) has distinctively suppressed peak-flow characteristics for small recurrence intervals. Uncertainty is large, however, regarding characteristics for large recurrence intervals (low-probability floods) because of a dearth of information regarding the potential for generation of exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. In contrast, the greatest potential for exceptionally damaging floods is around the flanks of the rest of the Black Hills area because of steep topography and limited potential for attenuation of flood peaks in narrow canyons. Climatological factors that affect area flooding also were examined. Area thunderstorms are largely terrain-driven, especially with respect to their requisite upward motion, which can be initiated by orographic lifting effects, thermally enhanced circulations, and obstacle effects. Several other meteorological processes are influential in the development of especially heavy precipitation for the area, including storm cell training, storm anchoring or regeneration, storm mergers, supercell development, and weak upper-level air flow. A composite of storm total precipitation amounts for 13 recent individual storm events indicates

  5. Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

  6. ANALYSIS OF AERIAL SURVEYS AND TOLERANCE OF LANDOWNERS FOR A CANADA GOOSE FLOCK IN NORTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    ANALYSIS OF AERIAL SURVEYS AND TOLERANCE OF LANDOWNERS FOR A CANADA GOOSE FLOCK IN NORTHEASTERN AND TOLERANCE OF LANDOWNERS FOR A CANADA GOOSE FLOCK tN NORTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA Abstract THOMAS C. TACHA Four-fall goose concentration areas and 200 interviews from a random sample of landowners living in the study area

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Williston Basin Province Assessment Team

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  8. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown...-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

  9. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown...-Hour Standard) Designated area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

  10. Aftermath of 2007 Hermosa Flood, South Dakota

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These homes in the Hermosa, SD, area were moved from their foundations during the August 17, 2007, flood. A system of severe thunderstorms on August 17, 2007, caused heavy precipitation and flash flooding in and near Hermosa, SD....

  11. Aftermath of 2007 Hermosa Flood, South Dakota

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Water standing in low-lying areas on the flood plain of Battle Creek on August 19, 2007. A system of severe thunderstorms on August 17, 2007, caused heavy precipitation and flash flooding in and near Hermosa, SD....

  12. Aftermath of 2007 Hermosa Flood, South Dakota

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A system of severe thunderstorms on August 17, 2007, caused heavy precipitation and flash flooding in and near Hermosa, SD. Low-lying areas in the southern and southeaster parts of Hermosa were inundated by flooding along Battle Creek....

  13. South Dakota Project to Articulate Continuing Education in Nursing (Project SPACE). Summative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Univ., Brookings. Coll. of Nursing.

    Results of an evaluation of the South Dakota Project to Articulate Continuing Education in Nursing (Project SPACE), which was the extent to which the three-year project had been a value to South Dakota nurses, were presented. According to the Executive Committee's assessment, the project increased quantity and quality of continuing education…

  14. ECOLOGY OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    ECOLOGY OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA BY CHAD P. LEHMAN in Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2005 #12;ECOLOGY OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS with this project while pursuing his Masters Degree. As a fellow turkey chaser, he provided valuable assistance

  15. Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Roberta L.

    Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota Fang during granite differentiation and late- stage pegmatite evolution, Li isotopic compositions pegmatite and possible metasedimentary source rocks in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. The Harney Peak

  16. FOOD HABITS OF COYOTES AND RED FOXES IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    FOOD HABITS OF COYOTES AND RED FOXES IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA AS DETERMINED BY FECAL ANALYSIS Major in Wildlife Sciences South Dakota State University 2004 #12;11 FOOD HABITS OF COYOTES AND RED War on Terror. I would also like to thank Jacquie Gerads. Her 2000 work on relative coyote densities

  17. South Dakota Arts Council: Long Range Plan. Fiscal Years 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Arts Council, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South Dakota Arts Council submitted this FY 2006 annual report to the Governor and Legislature. It presents the 530 grants that were awarded with funds from the State of South Dakota and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency. Fiscal Year 2006 grant funds of $977,000 generated $12 million in local cash matching funds. These…

  18. PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCI.. YOLo 59 (1980) 147 PHEASANT USE OF SOUTH DAKOTA WETLANDS

    E-print Network

    1980-01-01

    PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCI.. YOLo 59 (1980) 147 PHEASANT USE OF SOUTH DAKOTA WETLANDS DURING THE WINTER, South Dakota were selected for an investigation of the use of wet- lands as winter cover by pheasants effects on pheasant use while percent of roundstem bulrush (Scirpus acutus and S. valtdus) within

  19. HABITAT SELECTION AND USE BY BREEDING HEN PHEASANTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1999-2001

    E-print Network

    HABITAT SELECTION AND USE BY BREEDING HEN PHEASANTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1999-2001 BY Rebecca D BY BREEDING HEN PHEASANTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1999-2001 This thesis is approved as a creditable. Schilowsky 2007 Habitat selection and use by breeding female ring- necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

  20. 75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...Dakota PrairieWind Project (Project) in Aurora, Bule and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota...service roads to access the facilities in Aurora, Brule and Jerauld Counties in eastern...the City of White Lake within Brule, Aurora and Jerald Counties, South...

  1. 75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project AGENCY...) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed South Dakota PrairieWind Project...-megawatt wind-powered generation facility. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the ROD, or for...

  2. 75 FR 69436 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given that the State of South Dakota has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota...

  3. Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota CHRISTOPHER s. DEPERNO, STEVEN L, fawn, migration, OeJocoi/eus virgin/anus dacotensis, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. Migration between winter and summer ranges by white-tailed deer (Odocoi/eus virginianus) is most pronounced in northern

  4. Aftermath of 2007 Hermosa Flood, South Dakota

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Standing water in the Hermosa area on August 19, 2007. More than 10 inches of rain in 3 hours were reported during the system of severe thunderstorms on August 17, 2007, that caused flash flooding in and near Hermosa, SD....

  5. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification Date 1 Type Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora... Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County Bon Homme County Brookings County Brown... Aurora County Unclassifiable/Attainment Beadle County Unclassifiable/Attainment Bennett...

  6. Sundance folio, Wyoming-South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Darton, Nelson Horatio, 1865-1948.; Smith, W. S. Tangier (William Sidney Tangier), 1869-1962.

    1905-01-01

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  7. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER

    E-print Network

    2005-01-01

    Models were developed for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population inhabiting the Black, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 559-W #12;120 Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science-resident licenses (Huxoll 2004). South Dakota deer hunters spent an average of $1,581 per year on deer hunting alone

  8. South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota solar-energy-system performanceevaluation, June 1980-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    The South Dakota School of Mines site is the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Visitor's Center in Keystone, South Dakota. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 45% of the heating load and 53% of the observation room cooling load. The system is equipped with 2000 square feet of flat-plate collector panels double-glazed with a black chrome absorber surface; 3000 gallons of water in an insulated tank for sensible heat storage; a two-stage fuel oil furnace for auxiliary heating; and direct expansion electric air conditioning units for auxiliary cooling. The actual heating and cooling provided are 42% and 12% respectively. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fueld savings, electrical energy expense, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are among the performance data listed. A control problem is reported that kept the collector pump running 24 hours a day for 18 days. Performance data are given for each subsystem as well as for the overall system. Typical system operation and the system operating sequence for a day are given. The system's use of solar energy and the percentage of losses are given. Also included are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, long-term weather data, chemical analysis of the antifreeze solutions, sensor technology, and typical weather and performance data for a month. (LEW)

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Mitchell Quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Mitchell map area. The purpose of this program is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1479 line miles are in this quadrangle.

  10. South Dakota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Sowers, R.A.

    1996-10-04

    Reports findings of a survey of all primary wood-using mills in South Dakota in 1993 and compares those findings with earlier surveys. Reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county. Also reports the quantity, type, and disposition of wood and bark residues generated by South Dakota`s primary wood-using industry.

  11. Estimated recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1931-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.; Driscoll, D.G.; Hamade, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual recharge from streamflow losses and infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas is estimated for water years 1931-98. All estimates are for recharge that contributes to regional ground-water flow patterns and that occurs in outcrop areas connected to the regional flow system. Estimates exclude recharge to outcrop areas that are isolated from the regional flow system, which generally results in ground-water discharge to area streams. Streamflow recharge is calculated directly for 11 streams in the Black Hills area that have continuous-record gaging stations located upstream from loss zones, using available records of daily streamflow, against which estimated loss thresholds (from previous investigations) are applied. Daily streamflow records are extrapolated, when necessary, using correlations with long-term gages, to develop annual estimates of streamflow recharge for 1950-98. Streamflow recharge is estimated for a number of smaller basins using loss thresholds for miscellaneous-record sites. Annual recharge estimates are derived from synthetic records of daily streamflow for 1992-98, which are based on drainage-area ratios applied to continuous-record gaging stations. Recharge estimates are further extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins during 1992-98, relative to overall streamflow recharge.Streamflow recharge also is estimated for small drainage areas with undetermined loss thresholds that are situated between larger basins with known thresholds. Estimates for 1992-98 are based on estimates of annual streamflow derived using drainage-area ratios, with assumed losses equal to 90 percent of annual streamflow. Recharge estimates also are extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins.Precipitation recharge for 1931-98 is estimated using relations between precipitation and streamflow (or basin yield) for representative gaging stations. Basin yields are first normalized, relative to drainage area, by expressing in inches per unit of drainage area. Yields are further converted to yield efficiencies, by dividing by precipitation on contributing drainage areas. Relations between yield efficiency and precipitation are identified, which are developed for use in generically estimating annual yield for given areas, based on average yield efficiency and annual precipitation. The resulting annual yield is used as a surrogate for estimating annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Annual yield (or recharge) efficiencies are estimated to range from about 2 percent to in excess of 30 percent, with corresponding average annual recharge estimates ranging from 0.4 inch in the southern Black Hills to about 8.7 inches in the northwestern Black Hills.Estimates of precipitation recharge for 1931-49 are used to estimate streamflow recharge for the same period, based on correlations between the two variables for 1989-98. Combined streamflow and precipitation recharge to both aquifers averaged about 344 ft3/s for 1931-98. Streamflow recharge averaged about 93 ft3/s, or 27 percent of combined recharge, and precipitation recharge averaged about 251 ft3/s, or 73 percent of combined recharge. Combined recharge ranged from 62 ft3/s in 1936 to 847 ft3/s in 1995. The lowest recharge amounts generally occurred during the 1930?s; however, a more prolonged period of low recharge occurred during 1947-61.For 1931-98, average precipitation recharge to the Madison aquifer is about 3.6 inches, compared with 2.6 inches for the Minnelusa aquifer. However, recharge volumes to these aquifers are nearly identical because th

  12. Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

  13. An occurrence of autunite, Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, Rollin C.

    1953-01-01

    In July 1952 an occurrence of autunite was found in the northern part of the Black Hills, South Dakota, during a reconnaissance for radioactive deposits. The autunite occurs as fracture coatings and disseminations in siltstone of the Deadwood formation of Cambrian age and is concentrated mainly in the lower 2 feet of the siltstone at the contact with an intrusive rhyolite porphyry; the radioactive zone is exposed in two old workings, which are 90 feet apart. An 18-inch vertical channel sample of the autanite-bearing siltstene contained 0. 048 percent uranium. The gangue minerals are fluorite and limonite. The uranium is believed to have been introduced into the siltstone by solutions of magmatic origin that migrated along the lower contact of the siltstone after or during emplacement of the porphyry'

  14. Insecticide residues in big game mammals of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Greichus, Y.A.; Hugghins, E.J.

    1967-01-01

    An analysis was made of eight insecticide residues in the renal fat tissue of 23 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 13 mule deer (O. hemionus), 9 pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), and 2 elk (Cervus canadensis) collected in South Dakota during the fall of 1964. Identification and quantitative analysis of the insecticide residues were accomplished by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Eighty-five percent of the samples had residues of DDT with an average of 0.13 ppm. DDD residues were found in 11 percent of the samples, DDE in 38 percent, dieldrin in 38 percent, and lindane in 15 percent, with an average of 0.07, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.04 ppm, respectively. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and aldrin were not detected in concentrations above the limits of the experiment set by the investigators.

  15. Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  16. FIRST REPORT OF CHARCOAL ROT (MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA) ON SUNFLOWER IN NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September, 1998 symptoms suggestive of charcoal rot were observed on oilseed sunflower plants in western North Dakota (ND) and western South Dakota (SD). Symptoms, first observed on plants approaching physiological maturity, consisted of silver-gray lesions girdling the stem at the soil line, p...

  17. 78 FR 77644 - Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Teckla...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming... Dakota and portions of the Thunder Basin National Grasslands, private lands, BLM lands, and state lands... Grasslands in Douglas, WY at (307) 358- 4690. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf...

  18. Ontogenetic patterns in prey use by pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska

    E-print Network

    Ontogenetic patterns in prey use by pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River, South Dakota Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA Summary The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus composition for pallid sturgeon is believed to change from macroinvertebrates to fish, it is unclear at what

  19. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  20. Comparing geotechnical to geologic estimates for past overburden in the Pierre-Hayes, South Dakota area: an argument for in-situ pressuremeter determination ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.S.; Nichols, T.C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge of past overburden thickness is useful for designing underground structures such as waste repositories. This study attempts to determine if a correlation can be made between a geologic estimate and two types of geotechnical calculations of past overburden thickness. In the Pierre-Hayes area, Late Cretaceous Pierre Shales is the only bedrock present, but clasts of the Miocene Ogallala Formation were found in the Pleistocene deposits, suggesting that rocks of the Ogallala Formation once covered this area. Based on the geologic estimate, the Ogallala surface was 1100 ft higher than the present surface. Of the two types of geotechnical data acquired for the Hayes site, the laboratory overconsolidation ratios indicate a past overburden thickness value of 2300 ft, whereas the in situ pressuremeter overconsolidation ratios indicate 1318 ft. We, therefore, believe that in situ determination is a better indicator of past overburden that the laboratory results. However, why the two test results differ to this degree is unknown at present.-from Authors

  1. 75 FR 60102 - South Dakota PrairieWinds Project (DOE/EIS-0418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...wind project to be the best available, least-cost...and incorporation of Best Management Practices (BMPs), Applicants...for the South Dakota Prairie Winds Project...The Federal Emergency Management Agency has not...

  2. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  3. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false South Dakota State-Administered Program...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...Chapter 34A-6, Solid Waste Disposal... (4) Unauthorized State Amendments....

  4. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false South Dakota State-Administered Program...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...Chapter 34A-6, Solid Waste Disposal... (4) Unauthorized State Amendments....

  5. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ..., District Ranger, Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer..., 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, South Dakota 57730. Nature of Decision To Be Made The decision to...

  6. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Finding of Discrimination Against Transgender Employee (discrimination against employees in South Dakota. For example, in 2013, a transgendertransgender people to date reported experiences of harassment or mistreatment at work, and 47% reported experiences of discrimination

  7. MOVEMENTS, SURVIVAL, AND SIGHTABILITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    MOVEMENTS, SURVIVAL, AND SIGHTABILITY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTHEASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA BY TRENTON in the sightability surveys, especially C. Mosby, B. Tycz, G. Wolbrink, and pilots D. Gilbert and G. Colombe. Long

  8. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...Pete Lien and Sons, Inc., for the purpose of mining for chemical grade limestone within mining claims on National Forest System land....

  9. Influence of Gizzard Shad on Fish Community Ecology in Northeastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes

    E-print Network

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ December 2011 Aquatic Section Leader Department Secretary John Lott Jeff Vonk Fisheries Program important species in many of the systems in which they occur. South Dakota is at the northwestern edge

  10. Status of Exotic and Previously Common Native Coccinellids (Coleoptera) in South Dakota Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last two decades, three previously common coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) have declined in abundance in South Dakota, while two invasive species (Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Harmonia axyridis (Pall...

  11. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). LACIE third interim phase 3 accuracy assessment report. [South Dakota and U.S.S.R.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An accuracy of 90/85 was achieved with the October estimates which had a relative bias of -9.9 percent and a coefficient of variation of 5.2 percent for the total wheat production in the USGP. The probability was 0.9 that the LACIE estimate was within + or - 15 percent of true wheat production for the USGP. The LACIE spring wheat production underestimates in August, September, and October were the results of area underestimates for spring wheat in the USNGP region. The winter wheat blind study showed that the average proportion estimates were significantly different from the average dot-count, ground truth proportions at the USSGP and USGP-7 levels.

  12. Continuing Development of a Collaborative Plan to Further Engage South Dakota in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An ongoing set of research planning activities have occurred in South Dakota as a consequence of the past two years of NASA-EPSCoR Preparation Grants. During this time a group of approximately 60 scientists, engineers, and university administrators in South Dakota have been directly involved as "theme team" members in a series of five all-day meetings to identify the research and technological priorities that are consistent both with NASA-ESE's interests and the State's expertise. Institutions represented within the group's membership include: South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, South Dakota State University, Augustana College, University of South Dakota, USGS EROS Data Center, Si ranks College, Santa Gleska University, Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, USGS Water Resources Division, US National Weather Service, and the SD Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Many of these organizations are also members and affiliates of the SD Space Grant Consortium. The evolving plan has been guided by the following desirable actions: 1. To establish new contacts and strengthen existing linkages with NASA Centers, relevant NASA researchers, and key personnel at the USGS EROS Data Center. 2. To promote participation from the State's major research institutions, State agencies, and relevant businesses in South Dakota that are interested in strengthening our scientific and technological enterprises. 3. To develop the State's scientific talent and infrastructure for enhanced competitiveness in research, development, and technology-based economic development. 4. To encourage greater participation by under represented groups, especially Native Americans, in scientific education and research. 5. To build greater public and political support in South Dakota for the overall science, engineering, and technology enterprise. 6. To communicate the benefits of current and future NASA programs to the progress and development of South Dakota, the Northern Great Plains Region, and the Nation.

  13. 76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South Dakota State Implementation Plan (SIP) addressing regional haze submitted by the State of South Dakota on January 21, 2011, as amended by a submittal received on September 19, 2011. This SIP revision was submitted to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) and our rules that require states to prevent any future and remedy......

  14. NCI Community Cancer Centers Program - Pilot Site Profile - Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    Cancer.gov

    The Sanford USD Medical Center is the largest tertiary hospital in South Dakota with nearly 500 beds. It serves as the primary teaching institution for the Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota. The Medical Center serves as a regional institution, with half of its patients coming from outside the immediate Sioux Falls community. The Sanford Cancer Center is the region's largest, treating more than 1,278 new patients in 2005.

  15. Avian use of natural versus planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, K.K.; Higgins, K.F.

    2003-01-01

    We compared avian use of naturally occurring and planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA, to evaluate whether planted woodlands support the same avian communities as natural woodlands. A stratified cluster sample was used to randomly select 307 public areas in which to survey planted (n = 425) and natural (n = 99) woodland patches. Eighty-five species of birds were detected in eastern South Dakota woodlands, 36 of which occurred in ??? 5 of 524 patches surveyed. The probability of occurrence for 8 of 13 woodland-obligate species was significantly greater in natural woodland habitats than in planted woodland habitats. Four of these species breed in relatively high numbers in eastern South Dakota. Only one woodland-obligate occurred less frequently in natural woodlands. Probability of occurrence for 6 edge and generalist species, including the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater [Boddaert]), was significantly higher in planted woodlands. The avian community of planted woodlands was dominated by edge and generalist species. The homogeneous vegetation structure typical of planted woodlands does not appear to provide the habitat characteristics needed by woodland-obligate birds. We conclude that planted woodlands do not support significant numbers of woodland-obligate species and may negatively impact grassland-nesting birds by attracting edge and generalist bird species and predators into previously treeless habitats. Planted woodlands cannot be considered equal replacement habitats for natural woodland patches when managing for nongame woodland bird species. However, the preservation and maintenance of natural woodlands is critical for woodland-obligate species diversity in the northern Great Plains.

  16. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A project was undertaken in Meade County, South Dakota to provide (1) a general county-wide resource survey of land use and soils and (2) a detailed survey of land use for the environmentally sensitive area adjacent to the Black Hills. Imagery from LANDSAT-1 was visually interpreted to provide land use information and a general soils map. A detailed land use map for the Black Hills area was interpreted from RB-57 photographs and interpretations of soil characteristics were input into a computer data base and mapped. The detailed land use data were then used in conjunction with soil maps to provide information for the development of zoning ordinance maps and other land use planning in the Black Hills area. The use of photographs as base maps was also demonstrated. In addition, the use of airborne thermography to locate spoilage areas in sugar beet piles and to determine the apparent temperature of rooftops was evaluated.

  17. Geographic Variability in Geocoding Success for West Nile Virus Cases in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Christine L.; Griesse, Jennifer; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of assigning each case a set of coordinates that closely approximates its true location, is an important component of spatial epidemiological studies. The failure to accurately geocode cases adversely affects the validity and strength of conclusions drawn from the analysis. We investigated whether there were differences among geographic locations and demographic classes in the ability to successfully geocode West Nile virus (WNV) cases in South Dakota. We successfully geocoded 1,354 cases (80.8%) to their street address locations and assigned all 1,676 cases to ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs). Using spatial scan statistics, significant clusters of non-geocoded cases were identified in central and western South Dakota. Geocoding success rates were lower in areas of low population density and on Indian reservations than in other portions of the state. Geocoding success rates were lower for Native Americans than for other races. Spatial epidemiological studies should consider the potential biases that may result from excluding non-geocoded cases, particularly in rural portions of the Great Plains that contain large Native American populations. PMID:19577505

  18. ENSO's Effects on the Wind Energy Production of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    An aging infrastructure, environmental concerns, and growing demand threaten to undermine the reliability and long-term sustainability of the current fossil fuel electricity supply and transmission system. It is widely agreed that renewable energy sources will become increasingly important in the evolution to a next generation electric grid. In this study we investigated the use and value of climate information in determining the location and performance of wind power turbines in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Fifty years of hourly wind speed data were used to evaluate the possible influence of seasonal and interannual climate variability on wind power production at four location in South Dakota. The El Nino Southern Oscillation is a documented source of climate variability in the Northern Great Plains. Our results documented a dominant El Nino influence on the probability of a lull in wind speed, with a stronger influence in the eastern half of the state. Information on wind speed lulls in important to the wind energy industry because these are periods when no energy is being produced. All of the locaitons also showed a slight decrease in power production potential during El Nino events. Our preliminary results confirmed that information on climate variability and change can be of significant use and value to future wind power planning, siting, and performance.

  19. Water movement in till of east-central South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, S.J.; Ruedisili, L.C.; Barari, A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that control the flow of water through till are poorly understood. Hydrographic analyses, field hydraulic conductivity measurements, and major-ion sampling were conducted on weathered and unweathered tills at 22 sites in east-central South Dakota. Water from a buried outwash aquifer was also chemically analyzed and carbon age dated. The upper part of most till has been weathered and exhibits extensive secondary permeability. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/sec; typically 10 to 200 times higher than the hydraulic conductivity of unweathered till. Hydraulic gradients within weathered tills average seven times lower than within unweathered till. Water infiltrating below plant roots is believed to principally recharge and discharge the weathered till. Total dissolved solids were significantly higher in the weathered till than in the unweathered till. Water extracted from unweathered till is, in turn, up to three time higher in major-ion concentrations than water from the underlying outwash aquifer. Carbon-14 age dates from outwash aquifer water exceed 9000 years before present. Results indicate that Tittle to no water passes from the weathered till through the unweathered till into the buried outwash aquifer. Discharge from the weathered till is hypothesized to be primarily local lateral flow to sloughs, streams and ponds, combined with evapotranspiration losses during periods of high water table.

  20. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which large quantities of wastes might be injected with minimal danger of contamination of fresh-water aquifers and-oil-producing strata, are available.. The strata and types of reservoirs that deserve primary consideration for waste disposal are the Winnipeg Formation of Middle Ordovician age as a deep salaquifer, the Permian to Jurassic salt beds as moderately deep-units in which solution cavities might be created for storage, the thick Upper Cretaceous shale beds as shallow hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs, and the Newcastle Sandstone of Early Cretaceous age as a shallow shale-enclosed sandstone reservoir.

  1. Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

    1979-01-01

    From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

  2. Grass hosts of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) between wheat-cropping cycles in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several grasses may serve as alternative hosts for cereal aphids during the interim between small-grain crops in South Dakota, but field studies to determine which grasses are important have not been undertaken. We sampled annual and perennial grasses for cereal aphids in 18 counties in South Dakot...

  3. FLIGHTLESS GIANT CANADA GOOSE DEPREDATION ABATEMENT AND DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED CROPS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    FLIGHTLESS GIANT CANADA GOOSE DEPREDATION ABATEMENT AND DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED CROPS IN SOUTH for the degree Master of Science South Dakota State University 1999 #12;ii FLIGHTLESS GIANT CANADA GOOSE of products or discrimination against products not mentioned. #12;Abstract FLIGHTLESS GIANT CANADA GOOSE

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Geothermal Potential at the Cheyenee River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Bergfeld, D.; Bruton, C.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.

    1999-10-01

    A geochemical investigation of well waters from the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota revealed considerable diversity in the chemistry of the fluids and indicated that waters from the Dakota Formation were the best candidates for direct-use geothermal applications. Geothermometry calculations for all wells suggest that formation temperatures are <90 C. Potential scaling problems from utilization of the waters would most likely be restricted to carbonate scale and could be offset by maintaining CO{sub 2} gas in solution.

  5. Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

  6. Math and science technology access and use in South Dakota public schools grades three through five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwietert, Debra L.

    The development of K-12 technology standards, soon to be added to state testing of technology proficiency, and the increasing presence of computers in homes and classrooms reflects the growing importance of technology in current society. This study examined math and science teachers' responses on a survey of technology use in grades three through five in South Dakota. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from a random sample of 100 public schools throughout the South Dakota. Forced choice and open-ended responses were recorded. Most teachers have access to computers, but they lack resources to purchase software for their content areas, especially in science areas. Three-fourths of teachers in this study reported multiple computers in their classrooms and 67% reported access to labs in other areas of the school building. These numbers are lower than the national average of 84% of teachers with computers in their classrooms and 95% with access to computers elsewhere in the building (USDOE, 2000). Almost eight out of 10 teachers noted time as a barrier to learning more about educational software. Additional barriers included lack of school funds (38%), access to relevant training (32%), personal funds (30%), and poor quality of training (7%). Teachers most often use math and science software as supplemental, with practice tutorials cited as another common use. The most common interest for software was math for both boys and girls. The second most common choice for boys was science and for girls, language arts. Teachers reported that there was no preference for either individual or group work on computers for girls or boys. Most teachers do not systematically evaluate software for gender preferences, but review software over subjectively.

  7. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of South Dakota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, water supply and quality, infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. Regional Distribution and Monitoring of Bats, Especially Species of Conservation Concern, Along the Lower Missouri River in South Dakota.

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Scott C.

    guidance, advise and editing. Thank you to South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks with special thanks to Alyssa Kiesow. Financial support was provided by South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department through the State of University of Nebraska State Museum for his assistance and advice; National Park Service (United States

  9. Lifelong Education Needs for Providing Pastoral Care for Post-Traumatic Stress in South Dakota National Guard Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirose, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout many communities in South Dakota the members of the South Dakota National Guard have been activated to serve in many different parts of the world since 2001. Approximately 20% of these individuals returned to their homes with some degree of PTSD (Hoge, et al., 2004). Pastoral Care has changed since September 11, 2001. The purpose of…

  10. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 89 (2010) 181 CULTURE OF ADVAnCED-SIZED

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    populations have become established, bass have become a popular sport fish among South Dakota anglers. Stone. Csargo2 1 South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks Blue Dog Lake State Fish Hatchery 44437 139A St's (1996) angler survey indicated that bass were a highly preferred sportfish, ranking fourth state- wide

  11. Estimating forage production for waterbirds and waterbird response to habitat management at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota.

    E-print Network

    at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota. BY Heather Nicole McWilliams A thesis submitted in partial to habitat management at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota. nlis thesis is approved this project. I would also like to thank Tom Koerner and all of the Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge staff

  12. 75 FR 70021 - South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ...60138-1265-6CCP-S3] South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind Energy Development; Record of Decision...statement (FEIS) on the South Dakota Prairie Winds Project issued by the Department of...

  13. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 76 (1997) 57 FLUCTUATIONS IN DAILY ACTIVITY OF

    E-print Network

    1997-01-01

    OF MUSKRATS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA Joel F. Lyons, Craig D. Kost, and Jonathan A. Jenks Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, South Dakota State University Box 2140B, Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT Daily muskrat. Muskrats were observed from 7 to 28 October and trapped from 6 to 10 and 16 to 21 November. During ice

  14. State of South Dakota's Child 2004 continued: out of home care for infants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ann

    2005-02-01

    South Dakota leads the nation in its percent of women in the workforce who have children under the age of six. Nationally, 64% of women with children this young are employed and this is the case for 78% of women in the state. Further, 60% of South Dakota's infants live in homes where either their single mother is employed or both their parents are employed outside of their home. Nearly half of all the state's infants and children under six receive nonparental care during their parents' working hours. The significance of this reality is profound as young children's experiences, during early formative periods of life, affect their current and future development. The dimensions of quality care for infants are described as well as the economic and policy dynamics that affect its delivery in South Dakota. PMID:15756777

  15. Summit-Watertown transmission line project, South Dakota. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to rebuild the existing Summit-Watertown 115-kV transmission line, located in northeastern South Dakota, and western Minnesota. Nearly 60 percent of the existing facility was replaced in 1965 after severe ice-loading broke structures and wires. Because of the extensive loss of the line, surplus poles had to be used to replace the damaged H-frame structures. These were of varying sizes, causing improper structure loading. Additionally, the conductors and overhead shield wires have been spliced in numerous places. This provides additional space on these wires for icing and wind resistance, which in turn create problems for reliability. Finally, a progressive fungal condition has weakened the poles and, along with the improper loading, has created an unsafe condition for maintenance personnel and the general public.

  16. Factors affecting road mortality of white-tailed deer in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Galster, Dwight H.; Schauer, Ron J.; Morlock, Wilbert W.; Delger, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 – 0.12 [percentage tree coverage] + 0.0002 [county area] + 5.39 [county hunter success rate] + 0.0023 [vehicle proxy 96–104 km/hr roads], model deviance = 33.43, ?2 = 27.53, df = 27) was chosen using a combination of a priori model selection and AICc. Management options include use of the model to predict road mortalities and to increase the number of hunting licenses, which could result in fewer DVCs.

  17. Macroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska.

    E-print Network

    Study No. 2424) administered through the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Additional albus) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska. By Kristen Lee Grohs A thesis submitted) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska. Kristen Lee Grohs August 2008 Macroinvertebrates were collected

  18. Estimation of Potential Bridge Scour at Bridges on State Routes in South Dakota, 2003-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2008-01-01

    Flowing water can erode (scour) soils and cause structural failure of a bridge by exposing or undermining bridge foundations (abutments and piers). A rapid scour-estimation technique, known as the level-1.5 method and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, was used to evaluate potential scour at bridges in South Dakota in a study conducted in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This method was used during 2003-07 to estimate scour for the 100-year and 500-year floods at 734 selected bridges managed by the South Dakota Department of Transportation on State routes in South Dakota. Scour depths and other parameters estimated from the level-1.5 analyses are presented in tabular form. Estimates of potential contraction scour at the 734 bridges ranged from 0 to 33.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 35.8 feet for the 500-year flood. Abutment scour ranged from 0 to 36.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 45.9 feet for the 500-year flood. Pier scour ranged from 0 to 30.8 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 30.7 feet for the 500-year flood. The scour depths estimated by using the level-1.5 method can be used by the South Dakota Department of Transportation and others to identify bridges that may be susceptible to scour. Scour at 19 selected bridges also was estimated by using the level-2 method. Estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour calculated by using the level-1.5 and level-2 methods are presented in tabular and graphical formats. Compared to level-2 scour estimates, the level-1.5 method generally overestimated scour as designed, or in a few cases slightly underestimated scour. Results of the level-2 analyses were used to develop regression equations for change in head and average velocity through the bridge opening. These regression equations derived from South Dakota data are compared to similar regression equations derived from Montana and Colorado data. Future level-1.5 scour investigations in South Dakota may benefit from the use of these South Dakota-specific regression equations for estimating change in stream head and average velocity at the bridge.

  19. Analysis of flood-flow frequency, flow duration, and channel-forming flow for the James River in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  2. An Annotated and Updated Species List of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An updated list of 79 species of Coccinellidae for South Dakota is presented. The list represents a net increase in the state coccinellid fauna from a previously published list of 66 species and subspecific taxa, and it also includes nomenclatural updates. Thirteen species have been added to the l...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELK SIGHTABILITY MODEL FOR THE BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELK SIGHTABILITY MODEL FOR THE BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BY EVAN C. PHILLIPS to pursue a master's degree in the field of wildlife and elk research. I thank her for the support, guidance Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. #12;v Abstract DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELK

  4. USGS Outreach at South Dakota School of Mines Field Affair Class

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Technician, Louis Leader Charge, demonstrates collection of stream discharge data to the Field Affair class from the South Dakota School of Mines on June 19, 2012. The demonstration is at Rapid Creek in Rapid City, SD (streamgage 06414000)....

  5. Organic Matter and Water Stability of Field Aggregates Affected by Tillage in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased tillage intensity has been associated with declines in soil organic matter (SOM). A case study was conducted (2001-2004) on adjacent farms (both in a two-year crop rotation) in eastern South Dakota to quantify tillage effects on components of SOM and soil aggregate stability. One farm used...

  6. Status of Paddlefish in Lake Francis Case, South Dakota Landon Lee Pierce

    E-print Network

    of Game, Fish and Parks office in Chamberlain, SD for assistance in the field and with equipment. I would, Project F-15-R, Study 1511, administered through the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. #12 and Will Schreck for being great friends and colleagues. I would like to thank all my old friends from Nebraska

  7. Demography and Socio-Economic Characteristics of South Dakota and lts Economic Regions. Bulletin Number 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, W. H.

    The information about South Dakota presented in this booklet is intended for use by both private and government sector planners and decisionmakers at every level who would profit from knowledge of the character of the underlying trends and forces at work within the State. The first half of the booklet is devoted to the State in general: History…

  8. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted. PMID:25588013

  9. South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soka, John Alex

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

  10. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 87 (2008) 63 LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING

    E-print Network

    2008-01-01

    AFFECTING HABITAT USE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF DUCKS ON STOCKPONDS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA Shawn M. May Wildlife. Eleven species of waterfowl occurred on stockponds, the most common being mallard, blue-winged teal, and gadwall. Overall productivity was 50 broods/100 pairs for both landscapes with data combined for mallards

  11. USGS Outreach at South Dakota School of Mines Field Affair Class

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologist, Janet Carter, demonstrates an interactive groundwater-flow model to the Field Affair class at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology on June 19, 2012, in Rapid City, SD. The model can be used to show how a contaminant can travel through an aquifer to a pu...

  12. Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction among State Agency Rehabilitation Counselors: South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marcheta; Satcher, Jamie

    The job satisfaction and organizational commitment of rehabilitation counselors working in public rehabilitation agencies in South Dakota are the focus of this study. Participants were 19 rehabilitation counselor survey respondents whose agencies agreed to take part in the study. A total of 34 surveys were mailed. Job satisfaction was measured…

  13. WOOD DUCK BROOD MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USE ON PRAIRIE RIVERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    WOOD DUCK BROOD MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USE ON PRAIRIE RIVERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA DIANE A. GRANFORS.'·2. SD 57007. USA ~ .· Absfm£'f: Wood duck (Air SI)0/1.5O) populations have been increasing in the Central Flyway. but little is known about wood duck brood rearing in prairie e

  14. Northeastern South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip L.

    Northeastern South Dakota's country schools are examined in this volume of the Mountain Plains Library Association's eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools. Rural school buildings are discussed in the broad social and historical context that shaped their form and style. Both national trends in…

  15. Southeastern South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Herbert

    The role of the rural school in southeastern South Dakota from the early days of the frontier to 1981 is examined in this portion of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools. Three hundred and eleven country schools in 21 southeastern counties are still standing, have been photographed, and are…

  16. FORAGE FISH POPULATIONS AND GROWTH OF MUSKELLUNGE IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR

    E-print Network

    ) in Big Stone Power Plant cooling reservoir, South Dakota, and other waters in the northern United states. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11. Table 11. Condition factor for 3 length intervals of tadpole madtoms (Noturus gyrinus), Big. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Back-calculated total lengths (mm) of tadpole madtoms (Noturus gyrinus), Big

  17. REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF RING-NECKED PHEASANTS IN CENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA'S WINTER WHEAT LANDSCAPE

    E-print Network

    REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF RING-NECKED PHEASANTS IN CENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA'S WINTER WHEAT LANDSCAPE this project, I never imagined I'd be known as "The Pheasant Guy". I'll never forget your kindness. Many thanks student at SDSU, I never imagined I'd travel to Lyman County to track pheasant chicks and end up finding

  18. Nest Site Characteristics of Ring-necked Pheasants in Eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Nest Site Characteristics of Ring-necked Pheasants in Eastern South Dakota JON R. PURVIS·, ANDY E measured during 1996 at 42 nests ofring-necked pheasants (Phasianus co/chicus) in Moody and Lake counties allow better assessment ofring-necked pheasant nesting cover for investigators in prairie landscapes

  19. HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA Teresa J), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus

  20. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  1. Spatial Distribution and Areawide Management of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica v. virgifera is an economically important pest of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt. The areawide management program was conducted from 1997 – 2001 in five states. The location in South Dakota encompassed 41.4 km2 and was dominated by corn and soybean fields. An IPM approach was used to suppres...

  2. Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, May 2, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnopoulos, Cheryl, Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

    This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University (South Dakota) faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are…

  3. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for South Dakota related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  4. 78 FR 77644 - Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Teckla...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota...impact statement (EIS) on a proposal by Black Hills Power (BHP) to construct and operate...miles long. It would cross portions of the Black Hills National Forest and private...

  5. HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA

    E-print Network

    HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA BY CORY E Crownover; your knowledge of bobcat habits and local expertise in the field was a major aspect bobcat stomach contents for what felt like a better part of a lifetime! Thank you for the great help

  6. ABUNDANCE OF COCCINELLIDS (COLEOPTERA) IN FIELD-CROP AND GRASS HABITATS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rich fauna of coccinellids occurs in eastern South Dakota, but the abundance of some species has declined in association with the establishment of an exotic lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, in the mid-1980s. In this study, coccinellids were sampled within field-crop and grass-plot habitats...

  7. Occurrence and seasonal incidence of mosquitoes on Indian reservations in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota during 1983.

    PubMed

    Easton, E R; Coker, R S; Ballinger, R

    1986-06-01

    A mosquito surveillance program designed to prevent future human cases of Western equine encephalitis or Saint Louis encephalitis was established in 1983 on Indian reservations under the jurisdiction of the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota. Standard New Jersey light traps were operated on all reservations throughout the summer season while CDC miniature and encephalitis virus surveillance traps were employed for shorter periods of time on 4 reservations. Aedes vexans was the most abundant species except on the Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Winnebago and Yankton Sioux reservations in which Culex tarsalis predominated and for the Sac-n-Fox where Aedes trivittatus occurred with the greatest frequency. PMID:2906969

  8. Implications of Best Management Practices on Channel Evolution within the Bad River Watershed: West Central South Dakota

    E-print Network

    : West Central South Dakota BY Kendall L. Vande Kamp A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment and Ash Creek, and to all the landowners who allowed us access on their property. Alex Brazeal and Henry Dakota Kendall L. Vande Kamp 2012 Stream channel morphology is highly variable among different landscapes

  9. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 69 TADPOLE MADTOM (NOTURUS GYRINUS)

    E-print Network

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 69 TADPOLE MADTOM (NOTURUS ABSTRACT A tadpole madtom (Noturus gyrinus) population was found in Erickson Is- land Slough, an upper Missouri River backwater in western North Dakota. We assessed basic tadpole madtom biology to obtain

  10. Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  11. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  12. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the betterment of all people in South Dakota. If people are provided equity and access, there is no limit to what they can accomplish. SDSM&T in the last three years has graduated nineteen American Indians with degrees in engineering, many of those students' tribal college transfers. This is a significant increase, as only forty American Indian had graduated in thirty years. NASA' presence on the SDSM&T campus has provided the necessary focus and encouragement for success to take place. We are building bridges in South Dakota and the builders are from Indian Country.

  13. Remote sensing of physiographic soil units of Bennett County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazee, C. J.; Gropper, J. L.; Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted in Bennett County, South Dakota, to establish a rangeland test site for evaluating the usefulness of ERTS data for mapping soil resources in rangeland areas. Photographic imagery obtained in October, 1970, was analyzed to determine which type of imagery is best for mapping drainage and land use patterns. Imagery of scales ranging from 1:1,000,000 to 1.20,000 was used to delineate soil-vegetative physiographic units. The photo characteristics used to define physiographic units were texture, drainage pattern, tone pattern, land use pattern and tone. These units will be used as test data for evaluating ERTS data. The physiographic units were categorized into a land classification system. The various categories which were delineated at the different scales of imagery were designed to be useful for different levels of land use planning. The land systems are adequate only for planning of large areas for general uses. The lowest category separated was the facet. The facets have a definite soil composition and represent different soil landscapes. These units are thought to be useful for providing natural resource information needed for local planning.

  14. Records of wells and chemical analyses of ground water in Charles Mix and Douglas counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, maintains a data base of information on water resources in the State of South Dakota. The ground-water site data for Charles Mix and Douglas Counties are presented in two tables, with the data organized by county and location. The chemical data for ground-water sites also are located in a table organized by geologic unit and location.

  15. Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

  16. Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N.

    1988-07-01

    Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

  17. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  18. Evaluation of factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT), conducted a study to evaluate factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota. The focus of this ice-force evaluation was on maximum ice thickness and ice-crushing strength, which are the most important variables in the SDDOT bridge-design equations for ice forces in South Dakota. Six sites, the James River at Huron, the James River near Scotland, the White River near Oacoma/Presho, the Grand River at Little Eagle, the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, and the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge, were selected for collection of ice-thickness and ice-crushing-strength data. Ice thickness was measured at the six sites from February 1999 until April 2001. This period is representative of the climate extremes of record in South Dakota because it included both one of the warmest and one of the coldest winters on record. The 2000 and 2001 winters were the 8th warmest and 11th coldest winters, respectively, on record at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which was used to represent the climate at all bridges in South Dakota. Ice thickness measured at the James River sites at Huron and Scotland during 1999-2001 ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 feet and 0 to 1.7 feet, respectively, and ice thickness measured at the White River near Oacoma/Presho site during 2000-01 ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 feet. At the Grand River at Little Eagle site, ice thickness was measured at 1.2 feet in 1999, ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 feet in 2001. Ice thickness measured at the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge site ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 feet in 1999, 0.9 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and 0 to 2.2 feet in 2001. At the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge site, ice thickness ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 feet in 2001. Historical ice-thickness data measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at eight selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota were compiled for 1970-97. The gaging stations included the Grand River at Little Eagle, the White River near Oacoma, the James River near Scotland, the James River near Yankton, the Vermillion River near Wakonda, the Vermillion River near Vermillion, the Big Sioux River near Brookings, and the Big Sioux River near Dell Rapids. Three ice-thickness-estimation equations that potentially could be used for bridge design in South Dakota were selected and included the Accumulative Freezing Degree Day (AFDD), Incremental Accumulative Freezing Degree Day (IAFDD), and Simplified Energy Budget (SEB) equations. These three equations were evaluated by comparing study-collected and historical ice-thickness measurements to equation-estimated ice thicknesses. Input data required by the equations either were collected or compiled for the study or were obtained from the National Weather Service (NWS). An analysis of the data indicated that the AFDD equation best estimated ice thickness in South Dakota using available data sources with an average variation about the measured value of about 0.4 foot. Maximum potential ice thickness was estimated using the AFDD equation at 19 NWS stations located throughout South Dakota. The 1979 winter (the coldest winter on record at Sioux Falls) was the winter used to estimate the maximum potential ice thickness. The estimated maximum potential ice thicknesses generally are largest in northeastern South Dakota at about 3 feet and are smallest in southwestern and south-central South Dakota at about 2 feet. From 1999 to 2001, ice-crushing strength was measured at the same six sites where ice thickness was measured. Ice-crushing-strength measurements were done both in the middle of the winter and near spring breakup. The maximum ice-crushing strengths were measured in the mid- to late winter before the spring thaw. Measured ice-crushing strengths were much smaller near spring breakup. Ice-crushing strength measured at the six sites

  19. High purity germanium crystal growth at the University of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-05-01

    High-purity germanium crystal growth is challenging work, requiring the control of individual crystal properties such as the impurity distribution, the dislocation density, and the crystalline structure. Currently, we grow high-purity germanium crystals by the Czochralski method in our laboratory in order to understand the details of the growing process, especially for large diameter crystals. In this paper, we report the progress of detector-grade germanium crystal growth at the University of South Dakota.

  20. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota through September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, E.B.; Freese, M.E.; Winter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of flood-flow frequency were made for 80 active continuous-record gaging stations and 105 discontinued crest-stage partial-record stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1981.) (USGS)

  1. A two-dimensional, finite-difference model of the high plains aquifer in southern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolm, K.E.; Case, H. L., III

    1983-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation, industry, municipalities, and domestic use in south-central South Dakota. The aquifer, composed of upper sandstone units of the Arikaree Formation, and the overlying Ogallala and Sand Hills Formations, was simulated using a two-dimensional, finite-difference computer model. The maximum difference between simulated and measured potentiometric heads was less than 60 feet (1- to 4-percent error). Two-thirds of the simulated potentiometric heads were within 26 feet of the measured values (3-percent error). The estimated saturated thickness, computed from simulated potentiometric heads, was within 25-percent error of the known saturated thickness for 95 percent of the study area. (USGS)

  2. Technical-assistance report on a geothermal heating utility for Lemmon, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this effort was to review work already done toward establishing a geothermal heating utility in Lemmon, South Dakota; to redefine the goals for such a project; and to recommend how the project might proceeed to completion. The minimum size Phase I suggested would provide heat for up to 62 buildings in a 9-block area. Total cost is estimated at $1,800,000 to 1,950,000. The geothermal source is expected to be 100 to 400 gpm of 160/sup 0/F water pumped from 500 feet deep. Proposed energy savings and energy cost savings are presented. Analysis indicates that the major geothermal development effort in Lemmon should be directed toward the Madison aquifer. The minimum project dictates simple reinjection of the water after primary thermal extraction, although other uses are attractive and may be promoted if this resource is developed. A wide range of funding sources was investigated. Most promising avenues appear to be some form of local bond financing, and loans from the Farmer's Home Administration or the HUD Urban Development action grant program. The report suggests that a municipally-owned geothermal district heating utility be established, and a bond issue approved to pay for the initial well drilling, which is the major risk in the whole venture. A UDAG grant for 25% of the well cost may be obtainable. If the well proves successful, then the rest of the project can go forward.

  3. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-278-2035, Twin City Fruit, F. L. Thorpe Co. , Deadwood, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, T.R.; Gunter, B.

    1990-04-01

    In response to a request from the South Dakota Health Department, an evaluation was made of possible exposure to methylene-bisphenyl-diisocyanate (MDI) among employees of Thorpe's, a jewelry facility located in a warehouse owned by Twin City Fruit in Deadwood, South Dakota. At this facility gold was casted, soldered, buffed, finished, packaged, and shipped. The facility employed 85 women and two men in two rooms of the warehouse basement. Insulation was applied by spraying MDI and polyol in a 1:1 mixture onto the warehouse ceiling, walls, and basement rooms adjacent to the jewelry facility. Five days after insulation spraying ceased, seven of 16 area samples had detectable quantities of MDI, but all were below NIOSH's recommended exposure limit of 50 micrograms/cubic meter. It was not possible to estimate the concentration of MDI in the jewelry facility during the spraying application. Thirteen employees had probable MDI induced respiratory diseases. Of these 13, one had respiratory symptoms persisting at least 6 days after the exposure and four had symptoms 2 months later. All blood tests for allergy to MDI were negative. Inadequate isolation procedures during the spraying operation were cited as the cause of these difficulties. The authors conclude that MDI exposure probably occurred during the application of the insulation material.

  5. Statistical and descriptive summaries of water-resources data for the Cannonball River basin, North Dakota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.; Zainhofsky, S.D.; Dressler, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Existing hydrologic data and information for the Cannonball River Basin were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation. This report presents a summary of surface-water quality and streamflow data, ground- water quality data, ground-water level data, water-use data, and other information compiled from the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, North Dakota Game and Fish Department, North Dakota Department of Health, North Dakota Parks and Recreation Department, North Dakota State Water Commission, and Standing Rock Sioux Tribe data bases. The data are summarized statistically or descriptively, depending on the amount or nature of the data.

  6. LEVEL III AND IV ECOREGIONS OF NORTH DAKOTA AND SOUTH DAKOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. Ecore...

  7. Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Brinkman, T.J.; Burris, B.M.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002-2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0-2 weeks, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; ??-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83-0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0-2 weeks of age, 26% at 2-8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  8. 75 FR 47035 - South Dakota Disaster #SD-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...announced locations. The following areas have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Dewey, Perkins, Ziebach, Cheyenne River Indian Reservation. The Interest Rates...

  9. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... areas and Hazard Mitigation throughout the State. You are further authorized to provide snow assistance... Turner Counties and the Pine Ridge Reservation located within Shannon County for Public Assistance....

  10. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in excess of the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentrations prior to 1980 to concentrations after 1980 indicates dissolved-solids concentrations have increased in the alluvial valleys of the Platte, the Republican, and the Arkansas Rivers, as well as in the Ogallala Formation?South hydrogeologic unit.Water-quality results indicate that human activities are affecting the water of the High Plains aquifer. Because there is a potential for water quality to become impaired relative to the historical uses of the aquifer, water quality needs to be considered when evaluating the sustainability of the High Plains aquifer. Data collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study will help to fill in gaps in water-quality information and provide additional information for understanding the factors that govern ambient water quality.

  11. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  12. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and temporal dynamics of phenology and TIN in mixed-grass prairie.

  13. Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

  14. Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

    1982-01-01

    Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

  15. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    . The core budget is supplemented by research grants from a state and federal agencies as well as private assistants and four undergraduate research assistants. The annual base grant from the United States and agencies across the state in the broad area of water resources. Graduate research training, technology

  16. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Schmer, F. A.; Streckfuss, J. T.; Wehde, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Change in the vegetative structure was taking place in the Black Hills. Temporal analysis of the areal extent of open meadows was accomplished using black and white and color infrared aerial photography. A reduction of nearly 1100 hectares of open meadows was determined using photointerpretation. Techniques were developed for the management of meandering lakes, including use of LANDSAT imagery for continuous monitoring, classification of hydrophytes on low altitude CIR imagery, and planning and evaluation of improvements and multiple uses on aerial photography and photo mosaics. LANDSAT data were analyzed statistically from small and entire study scene areas to determine the effect of soils stratifications of corn signatures. Band 5 early season and band 7 later season recorded the strongest evidence of the influence of soils on corn signatures. Significant strata were determined by a multiple range test.

  17. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  18. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  19. MerriaM's Turkey PoulT survival in The Black hills, souTh DakoTa

    E-print Network

    MerriaM's Turkey PoulT survival in The Black hills, souTh DakoTa By Chad P. Lehman, Lester D. Flake, 2008 531-W #12;78 © Intermountain Journal of Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2008 MerriaM's Turkey Poul investigated poult survival from hatching to 4 wks of age for Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

  20. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

  1. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

  2. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of South Dakota: New State Record for Anatis lecontei Casey and Erratum to Delete Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we provide collection information to add Anatis lecontei Casey to the list of South Dakota Coccinellidae based on its collection for the first time in the state. We also include an erratum to delete Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer from the list based on its mistaken inclusion in an...

  3. Geochemical data from groundwater at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, Edgemont, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.

  4. POPULATION ESTIMATION PROCEDURES FOR ELK AND DEER IN THE BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA: DEVELOPMENT OF A SIGHTABILITY

    E-print Network

    POPULATION ESTIMATION PROCEDURES FOR ELK AND DEER IN THE BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA: DEVELOPMENT my masters in elk research. It has been a wonderful learning and growing experience for which I am deployed, communication with landowners, and chasing collared elk in the early morning. My project could

  5. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 82 (2003) 213 MENINGEAL WORM IN A

    E-print Network

    2003-01-01

    of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) personnel was delivered to the Animal Dis- ease Research and Diagnostics- ment of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) personnel on 4 February 2001 in Charles Mix County, South Dakota west as western Manitoba (Bindernagel and Anderson 1972) in Canada and western Nebraska in the United

  6. RiveR Size and FiSh aSSemblageS in SouthweSteRn South dakota

    E-print Network

    by impacts of Missouri River dams on native large-river fishes and the unsuitability of rivers in the Great; Hoagstrom 2003). For example, dams modify assemblages by truncating fish dispersal up- stream (Luttrell etRiveR Size and FiSh aSSemblageS in SouthweSteRn South dakota Christopher w. hoagstrom,1 Steven S

  7. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF AMERICAN MARTENS AND COUGARS IN THE BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING

    E-print Network

    DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF AMERICAN MARTENS AND COUGARS IN THE BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA National Forest land and for contributing to the marten track-plate-box population survey. I thank Gary with an acetylene torch for the marten surveys. I appreciate the support of SDGF&P employees Steve Griffin, Mike

  8. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 83 (2004) 47 FOX SQUIRREL WEIGHT AND AGE STRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 83 (2004) 47 FOX SQUIRREL WEIGHT AND AGE of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) in mast and non-mast forests in the upper Midwest. Hourly observation Age structure, agriculture, emigration, forage, fox squirrel, habitat, harvest, immigration, Iowa

  9. Research, Issues, and Practices. Annual Curriculum and Instruction Research Symposium Conference Proceedings (1st, Vermillion, South Dakota, April 22, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

    The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to promote the professional sharing of current educational issues, to provide a forum for dialogue concerning relevant educational topics, and to share University of South Dakota faculty research interests. The proceedings are comprised of 10 presentations: (1) "Japan Related Education in…

  10. A multifaceted approach to prioritize and design bank stabilization measures along the Big Sioux River, South Dakota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multifaceted approach was used to manage fine-grained sediment loadings from river bank erosion along the Big Sioux River between Dell Rapids and Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Simulations with the RVR Meander and CONCEPTS river-morphodynamics computer models were conducted to identify stream-ban...

  11. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 76 (1997) 91 A SURVEY OF NATURAL RESOURCE

    E-print Network

    1997-01-01

    PROFESSIONALS PARTICIPATING IN WATERFOWL HUNTING IN SOUTH DAKOTA Jeffrey S. Gleason and Jonathan A. Jenks. In addition, we wanted to determine hunting activity, demographics, experience and preferences, as well as assess attitudes concerning current wa- terfowl management and hunting issues. One hundred and forty

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  13. 15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative is thin but printable) - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. Nature and timing of the latest Wisconsin advance of the James River lobe, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, S. C.; Paces, J. B.; Iles, D.; Cowman, T.

    2009-12-01

    Glaciation of the James River lobe area in eastern South Dakota (SD) produced several prominent geomorphic features of the Laurentide ice sheet record. During late Wisconsin time, the James lobe advanced southward in the James River lowland, overlapping the Prairie Coteau upland on the east and the Missouri Coteau on the west. The known southern limit of late Wisconsin till is the modern Missouri River Valley between Yankton and Richland, SD. North of the Missouri River, radiocarbon dates on wood in or beneath till from 12 sites in 10 counties of the southern James River lowland range from 12,050 to 12,880 14C yr B.P. and average 12,430 yr B.P. (~14,500 ka cal), with a mean reported uncertainty of 260 yrs. At most of these sites, including two within 20 km of Yankton, the dated wood is in till at depths as great as 58 m or in underlying sand and gravel. The dates are consistent with paleoecologic studies (e.g. Yansa, 2006) that indicate spruce parkland was in this region at that time prior to the glacial readvance. Outcrops of calcite-cemented glacial gravel cut by veins of banded travertine are present on a marginal escarpment of the James River valley, where it is incised into the 30-60-m-thick surface till of the James River lowland about 15 km north of the Missouri River. Twelve robust 230Th/U dates on calcite laminae ranging from 10.5 to 13.5 ka (mean 2s uncertainty of 0.4 ka) indicate that ground-water discharge from glacial-bed aquifers was closely related to the latest Wisconsin advance of the James lobe. Four dates on younger vug-filling calcite between 8.1 and 5.8 ka, as well as modern spring discharge, show decreasing initial 234U/238U with age. Stable-isotope data on dated travertine and modern spring water provide other means for evaluating environments of carbonate precipitation, including subglacial and/or subaerial settings and mixing of surface and ground water associated with ice-sheet dynamics. The 14C dates span the Bolling-Allerod time interval that ice core records show was markedly warmer than preceding glacial conditions. Thus, the late Wisconsin readvance of the James lobe, and similar readvances of the Des Moines and Lake Michigan lobes, may be complex dynamic responses of the Laurentide ice sheet to warming and increased meltwater.

  15. The Dakota Indian Family. Community Studies on the Pine Ridge Reservation. South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 470, May 1958.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malan, Vernon D.

    The traditional kinship organization of the Dakota Indians was compared with contemporary patterns of family living on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Effects of the cultural change on the economic and social conditions of the present day Pine Ridge Indians were evaluated. The study revealed remnants of the traditional kinship pattern and the nature…

  16. Estimation of Monthly Evaporation from Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2003-01-01

    Reservoirs on tributaries of the Red River of the North provide water for Fargo and Grand Forks, N. Dak., and other cities along the river. Adequate estimates of evaporative losses from the reservoirs are needed to determine the total water supply in the Basin. Many equations could be used to estimate lake or reservoir evaporation. However, in addition to measurements of air temperature, the equations require measurements of net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. Evaporation and air temperature data from energy budget evaporation sites at Wetland P1 in North Dakota and at Williams Lake in Minnesota are available. Air temperature data collected from climate stations near Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, from Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and from Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota also are available. Therefore, the combined data sets were used to estimate monthly evaporation from Lake Ashtabula, Orwell Lake, and Lake Traverse. Averaged monthly mean air temperatures determined for each reservoir study site were used to calculate monthly evaporation data sets for 1931-2001. Results from the procedure that estimates reservoir evaporation indicate that slight downward trends in annual evaporation occurred from 1931-2001. The trends may have been caused by the selected time period of the study, which began with the drought conditions in the mid 1930's and ended with the more wet conditions in the late 1990's. Average annual evaporation values for each reservoir for 1931-2001 correspond well with published average annual lake evaporation values for 1946-55.

  17. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

  18. Fishes and habitat characteristics of the Keya Paha River, South Dakota-Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harland, B.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Fishes were collected in four mainstem reaches and eight tributary reaches in the Keya Paha River basin during May and June 2002. Most reaches were characteristically run habitats with sand substrates and riparian pastures. Data were combined with historical records to construct a basin-wide ichthyofaunal list which comprised 38 species from seven families. Dominant species were sand shiners (Notropis ludibundus; 47%), red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis; 37%), and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni; 8%). Dominant game species were bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We found one species previously listed as rare in South Dakota - plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus), and four species not previously found in the Keya Paha River - silver chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), northern pike (Esox Indus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

  19. LANDSAT's role in HUD 701 programs. [New Jersey and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of states concerning the use of LANDSAT in support of the comprehensive planning assistance program (Title IV, section 701) of the Housing and Community Development Act (1974) which is aimed mostly at small communities and rural counties, shows: (1) state governments used or were aware of the application of LANDSAT for inventorying land use and land cover at the state and local level; (2) use of satellite data was associated with the development of automated geographic information systems and the computer capability of handling and analyzing mapped information and other data tied to geographic coordinates and boundaries; and (3) LANDSAT capabilities in states tend to be institutionalized within state government information services where they can be readily assessed by state agencies. A summary of the state program for New Jersey and South Dakota is presented along with the state development guide plans, the rationale for using the satellite, and potential applications.

  20. Distribution of boron in the Tip Top pegmatite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    Experimental evidence has shown the importance of boron on the crystallization behavior of granitic systems; however, the intercrystalline and intracrystalline distribution of boron in mineral phases crystallizing from granitic systems is not well documented. The distribution of boron between coexisting phases in the Tip Top pegmatite, South Dakota, is as follows: beryl ca = quartz ca = triphylite ca = montebrasite ca = potassium feldspar < biotite < albite < muscovite < spodumene << tourmaline. The bulk boron content of the Tip Top pegmatite decreases significantly with the termination of tourmaline crystallization. The significant decrease in boron in the inner zones of the pegmatite is consistent with the depletion of boron in the granite melt by either the crystallization of tourmaline from the granitic melt or the partitioning of boron into an exsolved aqueous solutions. 35 references.

  1. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive land use planning process model is being developed in Meade County, South Dakota, using remote sensing technology. The proper role of remote sensing in the land use planning process is being determined by interaction of remote sensing specialists with local land use planners. The data that were collected by remote sensing techniques are as follows: (1) level I land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies; (2) detailed land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:24,000 from enlargement color prints of high altitude RB-57 photography; and (3) general soils map interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies. In addition to use of imagery as an interpretation aid, the utility of using photographs as base maps was demonstrated.

  2. Geothermal feasibility-analysis II for Polo School District No. 29-2, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to heat the Polo High School and the community of Polo, consisting of 17 residential homes, 2 public school buildings, 5 commercial establishments, and the St. Liborius Church/School complex is addressed. Depending upon the availability of a water use permit from the South Dakota Department of Natural Resources and the payback period required for this type of project, there is heat energy in the existing geothermal resource to heat the Polo High School or even the entire community of Polo. The chemical analysis of the water indicates that any heat exchangers used should be stainless steel or thick-walled copper and piping should be plastic. An environmental assessment would be required to consider the disposal of geothermal fluid.

  3. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  4. Surface and subsurface microgravity data in the vicinity of Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Koth, Karl R.; Carruth, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Absolute gravity data were collected at 32 stations in the vicinity of the Sanford Underground Research Facility from 2007 through 2014 for the purpose of monitoring groundwater storage change during dewatering of the former Homestake gold mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, the largest and deepest underground mine in North America. Eight underground stations are at depths from 300 feet below land surface to 4,850 feet below land surface. Surface stations were located using Global Positioning System observations, and subsurface stations were located on the basis of maps constructed from survey measurements made while the mine was in operation. Gravity varies widely at many stations; however, no consistent temporal trends are present across all stations during the 7-year period of data collection.

  5. Water-quality characteristics for selected streams in Lawrence County, South Dakota, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Hayes, Timothy Scott

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980?s, significant economic development and population growth began to occur in Lawrence County in the northern part of the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Rising gold prices and heap-leach extraction methods allowed the economic recovery of marginal gold ore deposits, resulting in development of several large-scale, open-pit gold mines in Lawrence County. There was increasing local concern regarding potential impacts on the hydrologic system, especially relating to the quantity and quality of water in the numerous streams and springs of Lawrence County. In order to characterize the water quality of selected streams within Lawrence County, samples were collected from 1988 through 1992 at different times of the year and under variable hydrologic conditions. During the time of this study, the Black Hills area was experiencing a drought; thus, most samples were collected during low-flow conditions.Streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Lawrence County are affected by both geologic conditions and precipitation patterns. Most streams that cross outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation lose all or large part of their streamflow to aquifer recharge. Streams that are predominantly spring fed have relatively stable streamflow, varying slightly with dry and wet precipitation cycles.Most streams in Lawrence County generally have calcium magnesium bicarbonate type waters. The sites from the mineralized area of central Lawrence County vary slightly from other streams in Lawrence County by having higher concentrations of sodium, less bicarbonate, and more sulfate. False Bottom Creek near Central City has more sulfate than bicarbonate. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and cyanide concentrations were at or near the laboratory reporting limits for most sites and did not exceed any of the water-quality standards. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations at Annie Creek near Lead, Whitetail Creek at Lead, Squaw Creek near Spearfish, and Spearfish Creek below Robison Gulch were somewhat higher than at other sites. Mining activity, agricultural activity, and domestic development are possible sources of nitrogen to the streams. Increased mining activities were identified as the probable cause of increased nitrogen concentrations in Annie Creek.In the mineralized area of the northern Black Hills, detectable concentrations of trace elements are common in stream water, occasionally exceeding beneficial-use and aquatic-life criteria. In addition, many basins have been disturbed by both historical and recent mining operations and cleanup activities. The maximum dissolved arsenic concentration at Annie Creek near Lead (48 micrograms per liter) approached the current arsenic drinking-water standard. Concentrations at or greater than 5 micrograms per liter were found in samples from Annie Creek near Lead, Spearfish Creek above Spearfish, Whitetail Creek at Lead, and False Bottom Creek near Spearfish. Bear Butte Creek near Deadwood had one sample with a dissolved copper concentration that exceeded acute and chronic aquatic-life criteria. Bear Butte Creek near Deadwood had several manganese concentrations that exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter.Bed-sediment and water-quality data from selected sites in small drainage basins were used to determine if factors such as pH, arsenic concentrations in bed sediments, and calcite saturation control dissolved arsenic concentrations. Arsenic solubility is controlled by adsorption, mainly on ferrihydrite. In addition, adsorption/desorption of arsenic is controlled by the pH of the stream, with high arsenic concentrations appearing only at higher pH conditions (above 8). There are significant arsenic sources available to almost all the small streams of the northern Black Hills mining area, but arsenic is less mobile in streams that are not influenced to the higher pH values by calcite. Streams where arsenic is more mobile have lower iron concentrations i

  6. Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.; Holland, F.D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  8. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  9. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  10. Reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of the Belle Fourche irrigation project, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosier, Arthur J.

    1952-01-01

    The Belle Fourche irrigation project is in western South Dakota on the plains adjacent to the northeastern edge of the Black Hills. The project is drained by the Belle Fourche River and is characterized generally by broad shallow valleys that lie between hills with gentle slopes. The climate is semiarid. Most of the area is mantled by residual clay, terrace deposits, and alluvium. The terrace deposits contain much water and are the most permeable deposits in the project area. The alluvial deposits of the Belle Fourche River and of the creeks south of the river contain much sand and gravel and are relatively permeable. The alluvium of the creeks north of the river is predominantly clay and is only slightly permeable; it greatly resembles the residual clay of the weathered bedrock formations, which are mostly shale in this area. Although relatively abundant ground water is found in the unconsolidated materials above the bedrock formations, the ground water from the clayey deposits generally contains too great a concentration of objectionable salts to be fit for human or livestock consumption. The ground water in the more coarse materials is of better quality and in some small areas is satisfactory for domestic use. Most of the water for domestic use is hauled from deep artesian wells within the area. The chief source of ground water is seepage from irrigation canals in the terrace and alluvial deposits. When this water moves to areas of lower permeability a correspondingly greater rise of the water table compensates for the lower permeability and results in the waterlogging of many areas. Open drainage ditches have been constructed in all large areas that are affected by high ground-water levels. Except in those areas that are underlain predominantly by clayey materials, these ditches usually have proven to be satisfactory for the control of ground-water levels. However, lining the canals seems to be a more satisfactory method of preventing the seepage that causes high ground-water levels. A detailed investigation should be made of ground-water conditions in the Belle Fourche project area. Additional observation wells should be installed so that the effectiveness of the ground-water control measures can be determined.

  11. Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Dropping Out: Why Do South Dakota Students Just Say No to School and What Can We Do about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Toni

    South Dakota's graduation rate in 1986-87 was above the national average: 79.7% compared to 71.1%. The dropout rate for 1990 was 4.3%. Of 180 districts, 25 with large numbers of Native Americans have a dropout rate of over 7%. Increasing the rates of graduation for Native American students will require a comprehensive, long-range program. Schools…

  13. Appraisal of the water resources of the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, Beadle, Hand, and Spink Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuiper, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    A system of glacial outwash aquifers lie in the central James Valley in east-central South Dakota. Within this system, the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, which has an area of approximately 681 square miles, was simulated by means of a numerical ground-water flow model. The model estimates the yearly average recharge rate for that part of the aquifer lying west of the James River to be approximately 23,000 acre-feet per year. This rate is considerably more than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 9,800 acre-feet per year. It is expected that, since pumping will reduce discharge from the aquifer through evapotranspiration and flow to the James River, this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at recent pumpage rates for an indefinite period. For that part of the aquifer lying east of the river, estimated recharge is 6,800 acre-feet per year; a rate slightly smaller than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 7,200 acre-feet per year. It is estimated that this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at 7,200 acre-feet per year for approximately 50 years, at which time excessive drawdown would begin to cause reduced well yields at several locations. (USGS)

  14. Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

  15. Digital data sets for map products produced as part of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Clawges, Rick M.; Galloway, Joel M.; Carter, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disk contains digital data produced as part of the 1:100,000-scale map products for the Black Hills Hydrology Study conducted in western South Dakota. The digital data include 28 individual Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets: data sets for the hydrogeologic unit map including all mapped hydrogeologic units within the study area (1 data set) and major geologic structure including anticlines and synclines (1 data set); data sets for potentiometric maps including the potentiometric contours for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers (5 data sets), wells used as control points for each aquifer (5 data sets), and springs used as control points for the potentiometric contours (1 data set); and data sets for the structure-contour maps including the structure contours for the top of each formation that contains major aquifers (5 data sets), wells and tests holes used as control points for each formation (5 data sets), and surficial deposits (alluvium and terrace deposits) that directly overlie each of the major aquifer outcrops (5 data sets). These data sets were used to produce the maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Ruelle, R.

    1991-05-01

    The Missouri River in South Dakota is bordered by bluffs containing marine shale. Analyses of shale from these bluffs revealed that they contained maximum concentrations of 13.6 mg/kg dry weight selenium and 9.35 mg/kg dry weight cadmium. Wind and water erode the dry shale bluffs, releasing biologically available selenium to the river. Selenium also is present at relatively high concentrations in Missouri River tributary streams. The waterborne selenium is carried downstream and deposited in slack-water areas near islands and shorelines. Least tern (Sterna antillarum), a federally endangered species, and piping plover (Charadrius melodus), a federally threatened species, nest on Missouri River islands. Addled eggs of both species were collected during the 1988, 1989, and 1990 nesting seasons and were analyzed for selenium and other inorganics. The maximum concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of selenium detected were 13.0 and 11.1 respectively in piping plover and least tern eggs. Selenium concentrations remained elevated and stable in bird eggs during all three years of the study.

  17. Government Draw Bentonite Beds: a newly identified stratigraphic marker in the Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale, central South Dakota ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, T.C., Jr.; Chleborad, A.F.; Collins, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A grouping of four bentonite beds, herein named the Government Draw Bentonite Beds, is identified as a stratigraphic marker within the Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale. The beds are found west of Pierre, South Dakota, over an area of at least 130 mi2 (210 km2) where no other markers within the Virgin Creek Member have been identified. In this area, the Government Draw is a potential tool needed to determine the stratigraphic and structural relationships within the upper part of the Pierre Shale, heretofore little known. A better understanding of structural elements found in the Pierre Shale is needed to unravel the Late Cretaceous and younger geologic history of the area. -Authors

  18. Inventory of wetland habitat using remote sensing for the proposed Oahe irrigation unit in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, R. G.; Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

    1977-01-01

    An inventory of wetlands for the area included in the proposed Oahe irrigation project was conducted to provide supplemental data for the wildlife mitigation plan. Interpretation techniques for inventoring small wetlands in the low relief terrain of the Lake Dakota Plain were documented and data summaries included. The data were stored and tabulated in a computerized spatial data analysis system.

  19. Geohydrology and water quality of the Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyllonen, D.P.; Peter, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers are the principal sources of ground water in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming. The aquifers are exposed in the Bear Lodge Mountains and the Black Hills and are about 3,000 to 5,000 ft below the land surface in the northeast corner of the study area. The direction of groundwater movement is from the outcrop area toward central South Dakota. Recharge is by infiltration of precipitation and streamflow is by springs and well withdrawals. All three aquifers yield water to flowing wells in some part of the area. Measured and reported well yields in each of the three aquifers exceed 100 gal/min (gpm). A well open to the Minnelusa Formation and the upper part of the Madison Limestone yielded more than 2 ,000 gpm. Water from the Inyan Kara aquifer may require treatment for gross alpha radiation, iron, manganese, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment for sulfate and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Madison aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment of fluoride, gross alpha radiation, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers in the southern one-half of the study area, though very hard (more than 180 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate), is suitable for public water systems and irrigation. Flow between the Minnelusa and the Inyan Kara aquifers appears to be insignificant, based on the results of a digital model results. The model indicated there may be significant recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers by leakage between these two aquifers and perhaps deeper aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Mordenite and montmorillonite alteration of glass structures in a rhyolite pipe, northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, J.G. )

    1991-10-01

    Green structures, 0.5 to 1.5 in. across, occur in a Tertiary rhyolite pipe in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. The structures are of two types: angular to ellipsoidal masses and stretched or smeared structures. Thin section analysis revealed that those of the first type are massive, with no internal structure, and those of the second type are cellular and have classic flame structure characteristics. XRD indicated the composition to be a mixture of secondary mordenite (a zeolite) and montmorillonite. The first type is interpreted to be deuterically altered vitrophyre clasts and the second type to be altered vesicular structures produced by degassing of the magma in the pipe. Chemical analysis of the alteration material indicates a loss of alkalies and silica, with an increase in water, CaO, MgO and ferric iron when compared to the composition of fresh vitrophyre from the same pipe. The changes are in agreement with experimental work on the alteration of rhyolitic glass by a number of researchers. This is the first occurrence of mordenite reported for the Black Hills.

  1. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges to provide quality-assurance/quality-control measures for the level-1.5 scour estimates. An attempt was made to use the same flows among replicate analyses. Scour estimates do not necessarily have to be in numerical agreement to give the same results. For example, if contraction scour replicate analyses are 18.8 and 30.8 feet, both scour depths can indicate susceptibility to scour for which countermeasures may be needed, even though one number is much greater than the other number. Contraction scour has perhaps the greatest potential for being estimated differently in replicate visits. For contraction scour estimates at the various flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -7.8 to 5.5 feet, with a median difference of 0.4 foot and an average difference of 0.2 foot. Abutment scour appeared to be nearly as reproducible as contraction scour. For abutment scour estimates at the varying flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -17.4 to 11 feet, with a median difference of 1.4 feet and an average difference of 1.7 feet. Estimates of pier scour tended to be the most consistently reproduced in replicate visits, with differences between results ranging from -0.3 to 0.5 foot, with a median difference of 0.0 foot and an average difference of 0.0 foot. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulics Engineering Center River Analysis Systems (HEC-RAS) software package was used to model stream hydraulics at the 41 sites with level-2 analyses. Level-1.5 analyses also were completed at these sites, and the performance of the level-1.5 method was assessed by comparing results to those from the more rigorous level-2 method. The envelope curve approach used in the level-1.5 method is designed to overestimate scour relative to the estimate from the level-2 scour analysis. In cases where the level-1.5 method estimated less scour than the level-2 method, the amount of underestimation generally was less than 3 feet. The level-1.5 method generally overestimated contraction, abutment, and pier scour relative to the level-2 method, as intended. Although the leve

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  4. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  5. Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

  6. Evaluation of Skylab (EREP) data for forest and rangeland surveys. [Georgia, South Dakota, Colorado, and California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C. (principal investigator); Dana, R. W.; Greentree, W. J.; Roberts, E. H.; Norick, N. X.; Waite, T. H.; Francis, R. E.; Driscoll, R. S.; Weber, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four widely separated sites (near Augusta, Georgia; Lead, South Dakota; Manitou, Colorado; and Redding, California) were selected as typical sites for forest inventory, forest stress, rangeland inventory, and atmospheric and solar measurements, respectively. Results indicated that Skylab S190B color photography is good for classification of Level 1 forest and nonforest land (90 to 95 percent correct) and could be used as a data base for sampling by small and medium scale photography using regression techniques. The accuracy of Level 2 forest and nonforest classes, however, varied from fair to poor. Results of plant community classification tests indicate that both visual and microdensitometric techniques can separate deciduous, conifirous, and grassland classes to the region level in the Ecoclass hierarchical classification system. There was no consistency in classifying tree categories at the series level by visual photointerpretation. The relationship between ground measurements and large scale photo measurements of foliar cover had a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.75. Some of the relationships, however, were site dependent.

  7. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  8. South Dakota Space Grant Consortium: Balancing Indigenous Earth System and Space Science with Western/Contemporary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J.; Nall, J.

    2005-05-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth system and space science education, outreach and services to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five Tribal Colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight and reinforce the balance of Indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in Western/Contemporary Science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College and Tribal Community partnerships with the Rosebud Sioux Reservation (Sinte Gleska University), Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Oglala Lakota College), Standing Rock Sioux Reservation (Sitting Bull College) and Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation (Si Tanka) amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include but not limited to: NASA Workforce Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), NSF "Bridges to Success" Summer Research Program, NSF "Fire Ecology" Summer Research Experience, as well as geospatial and space science programs for students and general community members. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi (Black Hills Pow Wow - attendance of 14,000 Natives) to host Native Space Days 2005 (October 2005), NASA research and internship programs, and the NASA Student Fellowship Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the betterment of all people in South Dakota and the nation through developing a worldview and understanding of the integrated nature of all things, especially earth system and space science. If people are provided equity and access, there is no limit to what they can accomplish. SDSM&T in the last three years has graduated nineteen Natives with degrees in engineering, many of those students Tribal College transfers. This is a significant increase, as only forty Natives had graduated from SDSM&T between the years of 1970 and 2000. SDSM&T has seen a number of "historical firsts" in the past five years. We see this as being a direct result of creating for students an educational philosophy and process where Indigenous understanding and connections become the foundation on which to build a STEM degree program. NASA's presence on the SDSM&T campus and in South Dakota has provided the necessary focus and encouragement for success to take place. We are building bridges in South Dakota and the builders are from Indian Country.

  9. Sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and paleoenvironmental study of Paleocene Fort Union Formation in South Cave Hills of Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Best, W.A.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation consists of the Ludlow, Cannonball, and Tongue River Members and forms prominent buttes in the Cave Hills, north-central Harding County, South Dakota. Investigations in the North Cave Hills show that cliff-forming Tongue River sandstones are actually the marine Cannonball Member. Field/laboratory studies indicate a similar reinterpretation for the cliff-forming sandstones in the South Cave Hills. These strata include fine to very fine-grained silty/clayey quartz sandstone. Textural analyses indicate the sand grains are subangular to rounded, polished, and of low to moderate sphericity. Sedimentary/biogenic structures indicate a high-energy, mainland beach/nearshore marine depositional environment. The transgressive sequence includes foreshore or littoral, shoreface, and subshoreface or estuarine environments. Foreshore/littoral sediments consist of fine to very fine-grained, moderately well to well-sorted, low-angle wedge planar and wedge trough cross-bedded sandstone. Trace fossils are dominated by Skolithos-like burrows. Marine vertebrate remains include Elasmobrachii sp., Myliobatis sp., and Myledaphus sp. Shoreface deposits are similar to those of the foreshore. Sedimentary structures are dominantly low- and high-angle wedge trough cross-beds. Ophiomorpha burrows occur near the upper contact. Shoreface deposits are separated from the subshoreface deposits by extensively burrowed silty sandstone or an erosional surface. The subshoreface environment produced very fine-grained sandstone interbedded with clay-claystone and clay shale that is very thin to thin bedded with minor amounts of ripple lamination and low-angle cross-stratification. Pseudo-symmetrical and composite ripples; flaser, wavy, and lenticular bedding; and sand-filled trails and burrows are present.

  10. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential evapotranspiration, calculated in soil-water-balance analysis, ranged from 21.8 inches in WY 1983 to 27.0 inches in WY 1985, with a mean of 24.6 inches. Water use from the glacial aquifer system primarily was from the Elm aquifer for irrigation, municipal, and suburban water supplies, and the annual rate ranged from 1.0 to 2.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The MODFLOW-2005 numerical model represented the Elm aquifer, the Middle James aquifer, and the Deep James aquifer with model layers 1-3 respectively separated by confining layers 1-2 respectively. Groundwater flow was simulated with 75 stress periods beginning October 1, 1974, and ending September 30, 2009. Model grid spacing was 200 by 200 ft and boundaries were represented by specified-head boundaries and no-flow boundaries. The model used parameter estimation that focused on minimizing the difference between 954 observed and simulated hydraulic heads for 135 wells. Calibrated mean horizontal hydraulic conductivity values for model layers 1-3 were 94, 41, and 30 ft/d respectively. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values for confining layers 1 and 2 were 0.0002 and 0.0003 ft/d, respectively. Calibrated specific yield for model layer 1was 0.1 and specific storage ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0005 per foot. Calibrated mean recharge rates ranged from 2.5 in/yr where glacial till thickness was less than 10 ft to 0.8 in/yr where glacial till thickness was greater than 30 ft. Calibrated mean annual evapotranspiration rate was 8.8 in/yr. Simulated net streamflow gain from model layer 1 was 3.1 ft3/s.

  11. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

  12. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  13. HABITAT RESOURCE SELECTION BY GREATER SAGE GROUSE WITHIN OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN NORTH DAKOTA AND MONTANA

    E-print Network

    HABITAT RESOURCE SELECTION BY GREATER SAGE GROUSE WITHIN OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN NORTH enough!! #12;v Abstract HABITAT RESOURCE SELECTION BY GREATER SAGE GROUSE WITHIN OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN NORTH DAKOTA AND MONTANA Kristin A. Fritz July 2011 Populations of greater sage

  14. Resolving lithospheric and athenospheric anisotropy beneath broadband station RSSD in NW South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, M. A.; Schutt, D.

    2011-12-01

    Teleseismic shear waves from data-rich broadband station RSSD in the Black Hills of South Dakota are analyzed for the effects of shear wave splitting. Silver and Chan reported a small delay time of 0.6 seconds, which they attribute to an incoherent structural fabric due to multiple deformational episodes since the Achaean. This interpretation requires that shear due to plate motion is either not present or is accommodated at a depth below where the mantle deforms in the dislocation creep regime. A third possibility is that anisotropic fabric due to plate motion is present but cannot be resolved by the Silver and Chan method which assumes one flat layer of anisotropy. To test this third hypothesis, we present a new technique that shows promise in extracting multiple-layered anisotropy structure, such as that due to lithospheric and asthenospheric strain. We model anisotropy at RSSD by testing and statistically ranking possible models of multiple layer structure by comparing observed SKS to predicted SKS using the cross-convolution method of Menke and Levin, and a directed Monte-Carlo search method (the Neighborhood Algorithm) is used to guide the search through parameter space and produce maximum likelihood models. We then use the F test to rank the significance of the relative error reductions between the different model parameterizations. This combination of methods provides for statistical examinations of the fit of various complex models, and proves more effective than fitting back-azimuthal variations of splitting times. Furthermore, we test the power of this method to resolve various multi layer geometries at RSSD by generating and testing synthetic waveforms. Our one-layer model result agrees with that of Silver and Chan in that it indicates very little anisotropy. However, our results for more complex models indicate that larger degrees of anisotropy are in fact present. We present these results in terms of their statistical likelihood, and examine their implications for our ability to resolve lithospheric anisotropy.

  15. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.; Hoffman, E.B.; Wipf, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of flood flow frequency were made for 111 continuous-record gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council. The procedure characterizes flood occurrence at a single site as a sequence of annual peak flows. The magnitudes of the annual peak flows are assumed to be independent random variables following a log-Pearson Type III probability distribution, which defines the probability that any single annual peak flow will exceed a specified discharge. By considering only annual peak flows, the flood-frequency analysis becomes the estimation of the log-Pearson annual-probability curve using the record of annual peak flows at the site. The recorded data are divided into two classes: systematic and historic. The systematic record includes all annual peak flows determined in the process of conducting a systematic gaging program at a site. In this program, the annual peak flow is determined for each and every year of the program. The systematic record is intended to constitute an unbiased and representative sample of the population of all possible annual peak flows at the site. In contrast to the systematic record, the historic record consists of annual peak flows that would not have been determined except for evidence indicating their unusual magnitude. Flood information acquired from historical sources almost invariably refers to floods of noteworthy, and hence extraordinary, size. Although historic records form a biased and unrepresentative sample, they can be used to supplement the systematic record. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Seasonal movements and Home-range use by female pronghorns in sagebrush-steppe communities of western south dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, C.N.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal movements by pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) within the easternmost extension of sagebrush-steppe communities is limited. Current hypotheses regarding movement patterns suggest that pronghorns initiate seasonal movements in response to severe winter weather, snowfall patterns, spatial and temporal variation in forage abundance, and availability of water. From January 2002 to August 2005, we monitored movements of 76 adult (???1.5 years) female pronghorns on 2 study areas (Harding and Fall River counties) in western South Dakota. We collected 8,750 visual locations, calculated 204 home ranges, and documented 17 seasonal movements. Eighty-four percent (n = 55) of pronghorns were nonmigratory and 10% (n = 6) were conditional migrators. Mean distance between summer and winter range was 23.1 km (SE = 2.8 km, n = 13). Five adult pronghorns (8%) dispersed a mean distance of 37.6 km (SE = 12.4 km); of which 1 female moved a straight-line distance of 75.0 km. Winter and summer home-range size varied (P < 0.0001) between study sites. Mean 95% adaptive kernel winter and summer home-range size of pronghorns was 55.5 and 19.7 km 2, respectively, in Harding County and 127.2 and 65.9 km2, respectively, in Fall River County. Nonmigratory behavior exhibited by pronghorns was likely associated with minimal snow cover and moderate temperatures during winter 2002-2004. Variation in size of adult seasonal home ranges between sites was likely associated with differences in forage distribution and availability between regions. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. Alteration of sandstone as a guide to uranium deposits and their origin, northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1956-01-01

    Several uranium deposits are present in the Fall River sandstone of Early Cretaceous age on the northeast flank of the Black Hills, Butte County, South Dakota. The deposits are within a fine-grained, well-sorted, persistent basal sandstone unit that ranges in thickness from 2 to 18 feet and dips about 4° NE. Detailed mapping of about 2 square miles surrounding the deposits have shown that all the uranium occurrences and most of the areas of high radioactivity are where the color changes in the basal sandstone from reddish on the up-dip side of the the occurrences to yellowish-gray or buff down-dip. Radioactivity measurements show that uranium is distributed almost continuously along the sinuous red-buff contact for more than 5 miles. Laboratory work indicates that the red color is caused by the hematite resulting from the alteration of ferrous iron minerals and hydrous ferric oxides. The close association of the red-buff contact and the uranium deposits suggest that the two were formed by the same solutions. The uranium was probably deposited originally from ground water which moved down-dip and gradually changed from an oxidizing solution near the surface to a mildly reducing solution at depth. Concentrations of uranium have resulted from the localization of reducing conditions cause perhaps by structures superimposed on the regional dip, local thinning or decrease in permeability of the sandstone, or concentrations of pyritiferous carbonaceous material. The red alteration is probably the result of pre-Oligocene weathering that has extended downward in the more permeable beds about 200 feet below the ancient erosion surface. Oxidation of the primary uranium during the present weathering cycle has resulted in the formation of carnotite and possibly other secondary uranium minerals.

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Watertown NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota; Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-29

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Watertown Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 711 groundwater and 603 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that high uranium concentrations are derived predominantly from glacial aquifers of variable water composition located on the Coteau des Prairies. Elements associated with high uranium values in these waters include barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Low uranium values were observed in waters originating from the Cretaceous Dakota sandstone whose water chemistry is characterized by high concentrations of boron, sodium, and chloride. Stream sediment data indicate that high uranium concentrations are scattered across the glacial deposits of the Coteau des Prairies. A major clustering of high uranium values occurs in the eastern portion of the glaciated quadrangle and is associated with high concentrations of selenium, lithium, iron, arsenic, chromium, and vanadium. The sediment data suggest that the drift covering the Watertown Quadrangle is compositionally homogeneous, although subtle geochemical differences were observed as a result of localized contrasts in drift source-rock mineralogy and modification of elemental distributions by contemporaneous and postglacial hydrologic processes.

  19. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  20. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between pegmatite/country rocks: natural analogs for radionuclides migration. [Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Walker, R.J.; Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1983-10-01

    Comparison of trace element signatures of country rocks as a function of distance from the contact with two pegmatites, Tin Mountain and Etta, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, suggests that some elements such as K, Li, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, Zn and Pb, have migrated to distances of 4 to 40 meters during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. On the other hand, there is virtually no migration of rare earth elements (REE), Al, Sc, Cr, Hf, U, and Th. Biotite and muscovite are effective trace element traps for Li, Rb and Cs. Biotite has a greater affinity for Rb, Cs and Li than muscovite.

  2. Notes from the Field: Increase in Human Cases of Tularemia - Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, January-September 2015.

    PubMed

    Pedati, Caitlin; House, Jennifer; Hancock-Allen, Jessica; Colton, Leah; Bryan, Katie; Ortbahn, Dustin; Kightlinger, Lon; Kugeler, Kiersten; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul; Safranek, Tom; Buss, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia is a rare, often serious disease caused by a gram-negative coccobacillus, Francisella tularensis, which infects humans and animals in the Northern Hemisphere (1). Approximately 125 cases have been reported annually in the United States during the last two decades (2). As of September 30, a total of 100 tularemia cases were reported in 2015 among residents of Colorado (n = 43), Nebraska (n = 21), South Dakota (n = 20), and Wyoming (n = 16) (Figure). This represents a substantial increase in the annual mean number of four (975% increase), seven (200%), seven (186%) and two (70%) cases, respectively, reported in each state during 2004-2014 (2). PMID:26632662

  3. HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G. (principal investigator); Heilman, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

  4. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  5. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Resource and potential reclamation evaluation of Rattlesnake Butte study area, Dickinson coalfield, North Dakota: summary. Final report 1978-82

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, G.H.; Parish, L.M.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to collect baseline data for establishing reclamation objectives and lease stipulations. The report includes data on climate, physiography, geology, coal resources, and overburden. The study area, located in Southwestern North Dakota, lies within the unglaciated portion of the Great Plains Physiographic Province.

  7. Ectoparasites in black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from the largest reintroduced population of the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nyeema C; Livieri, Travis M; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    The black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes, is an endangered carnivore endemic to the grasslands of North America. We present the first investigation of ectoparasites associated with black-footed ferrets since reintroduction. We sampled more than 200 individuals from one of the largest and most successful reintroduced populations located in the Conata Basin of South Dakota, USA. We compared our findings with ectoparasite assemblages of sympatric carnivores and historic ferret records. We collected more than 1,000 ectoparasites consisting mainly of three flea and tick species, two of which were known historically from South Dakota. Despite our extensive sampling efforts, we did not detect any lice. This is notable because a putative host-specific louse, Neotrichodectes sp., was presumed to have gone extinct when black-footed ferrets were extirpated from the wild. The ectoparasite assemblage on black-footed ferrets comprised only generalist parasites, particularly those found on their prey such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.). Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant ectoparasite, representing 57% of all ectoparasites detected; a flea vector important in the persistence and transmission of plague. Black-footed ferrets like other endangered species undergo repeated parasite removal and vaccination efforts to facilitate population recovery, which may have unintentionally contributed to their depauperate ectoparasite community. PMID:24499333

  8. Assessment of fish abundance and species composition at selected sites in South Dakota: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, Alison

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted surveys of streams throughout the State of South Dakota during 2008-09 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) Program. During 2008-09, as part of the stream assessment, the USGS completed surveys of fish populations and species composition at 64 sites. Fish were inventoried at 60 of the 64 sites, but not at four of the sites because water was too low to sustain fish or specific conductivity was too high to electroshock effectively. Four of the sites were surveyed in 2000-04 during the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) project. Two wadeable sites and two boatable sites were revisited for quality-assurance/quality-control requirements. During the study, both wadeable and boatable streams were sampled using electrofishing equipment and methods. Of the 64 sites, 62 were wadeable and 2 were boatable. Procedures for sampling wadeable streams differed slightly from procedures for boatable streams. Backpack electrofishing equipment was used for wadeable streams, whereas boat electrofishing equipment was used for boatable streams. Wadeable streams also were fished in an opposite direction than boatable streams. Several species of fish were collected during the NRSA. Species diversity ranged from 0-11 species in wadeable streams and from 6-26 species in boatable streams. Many common species were sampled during the study. The most frequently sampled fish was the sand shiner (Notropis stramineus), with 609 individuals sampled. In contrast, only one heritage species, the skipjack herring (Alosa chrysochloris), was identified during 2008-09. Common anomalies found in fish caught were parasitic lesions, "black spot disease," and tumors. When comparing the fish sampling results for the four sites visited in both 2000-04 and in 2008-09, more individuals and species were collected during 2008-09 than in 2000-04 at two sites, whereas fewer were collected at the other two sites.

  9. Normal crop calendars. Volume 2: The spring wheat states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The state crop calendars for the principal spring wheat producing states within the United States are presented. These crop calendars are an update of those produced for the large area crop inventory experiment multilabeling task during 1978and are compiled for the foreign commodity production forecasting (FCPF) project of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing program.

  10. Water, Bed-Sediment, and Fish-Tissue Quality within the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, North Dakota and South Dakota, September 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    During September 2006, samples from public water-delivery systems, ground water, surface water, bed-sediment, and fish-tissue sources were collected at 32 locations within the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation and analyzed to aid in the evaluation of any immediate water-quality concerns. Samples were collected from Solen, Selfridge, and Fort Yates, North Dakota, water-delivery systems and included raw water samples and treated water samples from water users on the water-delivery systems. Samples from the Solen and Selfridge systems were analyzed for dissolved major inorganic and dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Samples from the Fort Yates system were analyzed for dissolved major inorganic concentrations, dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations, total and dissolved nutrient concentrations, total and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and volatile organic compound concentrations. Water samples were collected from ground-water wells throughout the reservation only in North Dakota and analyzed for dissolved major inorganic concentrations and dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Water samples were collected at locations on the Missouri River and its major tributaries within the reservation and analyzed for dissolved major inorganic concentrations and dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations; bed sediment was collected at these sites and analyzed for minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Fish-tissue and liver samples were collected from several species on the Missouri River near Fort Yates and analyzed for minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Results of the water-quality analysis revealed very little of concern, with the exception of elevated boron concentrations in the drinking water and ground water in the area of Selfridge and Solen and minor exceedences of total trihalomethanes in the Fort Yates water-delivery system.

  11. Compilation of Data to Support Development of a Pesticide Management Plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe, Charles Mix County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working with the Yankton Sioux Tribe to develop a pesticide management plan to reduce potential for contamination of ground water that may result from the use of registered pesticides. The purpose of this study was to compile technical information to support development of a pesticide management plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe for the area within the Yankton Sioux Reservation, Charles Mix County, South Dakota. Five pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) were selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the management plan approach because they had been identified as probable or possible human carcinogens and they often had been associated with ground-water contamination in many areas and at high concentrations. This report provides a compilation of data to support development of a pesticide management plan. Available data sets are summarized in the text of this report, and actual data sets are provided in one Compact Disk?Read-Only Memory that is included with the report. The compact disk contains data sets pertinent to the development of a pesticide management plan. Pesticide use for the study area is described using information from state and national databases. Within South Dakota, pesticides commonly are applied to corn and soybean crops, which are the primary row crops grown in the study area. Water-quality analyses for pesticides are summarized for several surface-water sites. Pesticide concentrations in most samples were found to be below minimum reporting levels. Topographic data are presented in the form of 30-meter digital elevation model grids and delineation of drainage basins. Geohydrologic data are provided for the surficial deposits and the bedrock units. A high-resolution (30-by-30 meters) land-cover and land-use database is provided and summarized in a tabular format. More than 91 percent of the study area is used for row crops, pasture, or hay, and almost 6 percent of the study area is covered by water or wetlands. Average monthly and yearly precipitation data are summarized in a tabular format. Irrigation information associated with permitted and licensed diversion points is provided. A composite of aerial photographs of Charles Mix County is provided. This report also describes and summarizes the data sets and files, and how the data are relevant to development of a pesticide management plan.

  12. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  13. SHIFTS IN LANDSCAPE ATTRIBUTES AND INTERACTIONS WITH ADULT WESTERN CORN ROOTWORMS IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT SITE FROM 1997-2001

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworms (CRW) create economic and environmental concerns in the Corn Belt region of the United States. In order to supplement the population control tactics of the areawide program in Brookings, South Dakota, we used GIS to examine the spatial relationships over a five-year period (1...

  14. The Impact of Four-Year Participation in Music and/or Athletic Activities in South Dakota Public High Schools on GPA and ACT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Finding the key to success for high school students has long been the goal for both school personnel and parents. This study examined the impact of four-year participation in music and/or athletics activities in South Dakota public high schools on student GPA and ACT scores. The data in this study were collected from five Class A high schools…

  15. South DakotaState University College of Agriculture & Biological Sciences Agricultural Experiment Station Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit Photos collected during the project are

    E-print Network

    birds. Pheasants and ducks often use alfalfa fields for nesting sites in spring and early summer. Mow with the typical peak of pheasant nesting. Trautman (1982) found that in South Dakota, unless rainy weather delays alfalfa harvesting, the normal first cutting of alfalfa destroys from 32 to 39% of incu- bating pheasant

  16. How Are You Going to Keep Them Down on the Farm...The South Dakota Rural Special Education Personnel Preparation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Joseph M.; And Others

    A state sponsored pilot project designed to provide special education services to rural South Dakota has attempted to overcome high teacher turnover due to lack of community resources, inappropriate preservice preparation, and poor relationships with administrators and peers. The model emphasizes retraining rural special educators as special…

  17. Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1999-01-01

    Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the upper Minnelusa Formation, which is caused by upward leakage of relatively fresh water from the Madison aquifer. The anhydrite dissolution and dedolomitization account for the net removal of minerals that would lead to breccia pipe formation by gravitational collapse. Breccia pipes in the lower Minnelusa Formation are uncommon; however, networks of interconnected breccia layers and breccia dikes are common. These networks, along with vertical fractures and faults, are likely pathways for transmitting upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. It is concluded that suspended sediment discharged at Cascade Springs probably results from episodic collapse brecciation that is caused by subsurface dissolution of anhydrite beds and cements of the upper Minnelusa Formation, accompanied by replacement of dolomite by calcite. It is further concluded that many breccia pipes probably are the throats of artesian springs that have been abandoned and exposed by erosion. The locations of artesian spring-discharge points probably have been shifting outwards from the center of the Black Hills uplift, essentially keeping pace with regional erosion over geologic time. Thus, artesian springflow probably is a factor in controlling water levels in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, with hydraulic head declining over geologic time, in response to development of new discharge points. Development of breccia pipes as throats of artesian springs would greatly enhance vertical hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of spring-discharge points. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the Minnelusa Formation also may be enhanced by dissolution processes related to upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. Potential processes could include dissolution resulting from leakage in the vicinity of breccia pipes that are abandoned spring throats, active spring discharge, development of subsurface breccias with no visible surface expression or spring discharge, as well as general areal leakage

  18. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-05-31

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

  20. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  1. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  2. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.; Finkbeiner, S.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared detection rates of passive and playback breeding bird survey techniques on elusive marsh birds - Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and Sora (Porzana carolina) - during a two-year study at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, in southwestern South Dakota. We conducted 151 passive point counts followed by playback-response surveys at the same points in marsh-bird habitat on the refuge. Playback surveys detected secretive water birds more frequently than our passive surveys, increasing rates for each species by factors of 2.4 to 7.0. The distance a bird was detected from a point varied with the species and the survey technique.

  3. IN SITU AND LABORATORY GEOTECHNICAL TESTS OF THE PIERRE SHALE NEAR HAYES, SOUTH DAKOTA - A CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERING BEHAVIOR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Thomas C., Jr.; Collins, Donley S.; Davidson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation of the Pierre Shale near Hayes, South Dakota, was conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey as a basis for evaluating problems in deep excavations into that formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the shale were determined through use of core holes drilled to a maximum depth of 184 m. In situ borehole determinations included a gravimeter survey, pressuremeter testing, thermal profile measurements, and borehole velocity measurements. Onsite and offsite laboratory measurements included rebound measurements, sonic velocity measurements of shear and primary waves, X-ray mineralogy and major element determinations, size analyses, fracture analyses, fabric analyses, and determination of thermal properties. The properties of the clay shale indicate problems that may be encountered in excavation and use of deep underground facilities.

  4. Remote sensing for evaluating post-disaster damage conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota tornado, 23 July 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusche, A. E.; Myers, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation. The immediate advantages of the data are identified as a 'quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.

  5. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Haakon School District, South Dakota. Final report, January 1977-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hengel, R.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report is a summary of a project which demonstrates the successful use of geothermal energy for service water and space heating of school, business and commercial buildings in the city of Philip, South Dakota. The project included a new well into the Madison limestone formation, a pipe line to the school and through the central business district to a treatment plant, the treatment plant and settling ponds, conversion of the existing space heating systems of the buildings to equipment suitable for heating with the geothermal energy and monitoring the system to determine operating characteristics and efficiency. The treated water is discharged into the north fork of the Bad River for use by down stream irrigators. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean supercontinent at ???2480 Ma. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  7. Attitudes and gender differences of high school seniors within one-to-one computing environments in South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mathew

    In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.

  8. 77 FR 30024 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension and Opportunity for Public Meeting; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...the Pactola Visitor Information Center, Pactola Marina North, and Pactola Marina South. The withdrawal created by PLO No. 7174...the Pactola Visitor Information Center, Pactola Marina North, and Pactola Marina South. The use of...

  9. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

  10. Natural groundwater recharge in an upland area of central North Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehm, B.W.; Moran, S.R.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnitude of groundwater recharge to coal aquifers in a 150-km2 area in west-central North Dakota was determined using three separate approaches: (1) the net water level rise in water-table wells; (2) calculations of the fluid flux between nested piezometers, using the Darcy equation and measured values of hydraulic conductivity and vertical gradients; and (3) evaluation of the inputs to and outputs from the coal aquifer, using a steady-state control volume approach in which the aquifer was divided into semi-rectangular cells bounded by equipotential lines and flow lines. Measurements of potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity permitted indirect determination of all components of flow into and out of the cell except the recharge input, which was determined by difference. All methods yielded consistent results on the order of 0.04-0.01 m yr.-1 These values, which represent 2-9% of the annual precipitation, are consistent with results of other studies on recharge throughout the prairies of North America. Evaluation of site hydrology and stable-isotope data indicates that recharge is restricted in both time and place. Most recharge occurs in late spring and in the fall following heavy rainfall events. During these seasons the ground is not frozen and vegetation is not transpiring large amounts of water. Some recharge may occur during very heavy localized summer storms, but it is not considered volumetrically significant. Major permanent depressions on the site are a source of significant recharge. In addition, the extensive area of ephemeral standing water bodies that result from snowmelt can produce significant amounts of infiltration over the entire site. ?? 1982.

  11. Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmer, F. A. (principal investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

  13. A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in Sanborn and parts of Beadle, Miner, Hanson, Davison, and Jerauld counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The drought in South Dakota from 1974-76 and the near drought conditions in 1980-81 have resulted in increased demands on the groundwater resources within many of the irrigated areas of the James River basin in eastern South Dakota. These increases in demand for irrigation water from the glacial aquifer system, and continued requests to the State for additional irrigation well permits, have created a need for a systematic water management program to avoid over-development of this system in the James River basin. An equally spaced grid containing 56 rows and 52 columns used to simulate the glacial aquifer system, was calibrated using water level data collected before significant groundwater development (before 1973). The aquifer was also simulated in 11 annual transient stress periods from 1973 through 1983 and in 12 monthly transient stress periods for 1976. The simulated pre-development potentiometric heads were compared to average water levels from 32 observation wells to check the accuracy of the simulate potentiometric surface. The average arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels was 1.68 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.38 ft. The non-pumping steady-state simulated water budget indicates that recharge from precipitation accounts for 97.1% of the water entering the aquifer and evapotranspiration accounts for 98.2% of the water leaving the aquifer. The sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that the model is most sensitive to reductions in recharge and least to changes in hydraulic conductivity. The maximum annual recharge varied from 0.10 inch in 1976 to 8.14 inches in 1977. The potential annual evapotranspiration varied from 29.9 inches in 1982 to 48.9 inches in 1976. Withdrawals from the glacial aquifer system increased 2.6 times between 1975 and 1976. The average annual arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels ranged from 3.88 ft in 1974 to 2.23 ft in 1982; the average absolute difference ranged from 4.70 ft in 1973 to 11.70 ft in 1982. In the 1976 monthly transient simulation, the maximum annual recharge rate 0.10 inch was distributed over the months of March, April, and September. The potential monthly evapotranspiration rate ranged from 12.50 inches in August to 0.00 inch during the winter when the ground was frozen. (Author 's abstract)

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN

  15. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  16. 77 FR 12563 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South Dakota and Kentucky; Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South... eligible proposers for funding projects to provide manufacturing extension services to primarily small- and... Diane Henderson, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Manufacturing Extension...

  17. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  18. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  19. Biological characteristics of the blue sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, N.M.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28) during the summer of 2000. Although five macrohabitats were sampled with electrofishing and hoopnets, most individuals were collected from riffle habitats and downstream of rock dams. Total length-weight relationships were log10W=-6.14+3.37(log10L) (r2 = 0.92) for blue suckers from the James River and log10W = -6.52+3.50(log10L) (r2 = 0.97) for fish from the Big Sioux River. Mean condition factors (K = W(105)/L3) of blue suckers were 0.79 (SE = 0.07) for the James River and 0.73 (SE = 0.07) for the Big Sioux River. Blue suckers between 500 and 700 mm dominated length distributions (range = 374-717 mm) of both samples. Ages ranged from two to nine years, but six-year-old fish were captured most frequently. Blue suckers grew rapidly during juvenile stages (< age 5); however, growth slowed afterward.

  20. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T/sub DM/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T/sub DM/ ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga, and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 +/- 0.08 and 2.20 +/- 0.20 Ga, respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 +/- 100 Ma.

  1. Mineral recorders of pegmatite internal evolution: REE contents of tourmaline from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Papike, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Trace rare earth elements (REE) have been determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for tourmaline samples from an internally zoned, rare-element, granitic pegmatite, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Total REE concentrations range from 40 ppm-0.2 ppm, and are highest in tourmaline from the exomorphic halo (country rock) and pegmatite border zone. Chondrite-normalized patterns are highly fractionated from light REE to heavy REE; and REE concentrations decrease in tourmaline from the outer wall zone and first intermediate zone, through the inner wall zone and third intermediate zone, to lowest levels in the pegmatite core. The REEs, as recorded by tourmaline, appear to behave compatibly in this pegmatite system due to early crystallization of apatite and other possible REE-sink minerals. The large range of REE concentrations and differences in slopes of chondrite-normalized patterns probably also reflect significant changes in the structural state of the pegmatite melt, caused by changes in pH/sub 2/O and other volatiles (B, F, P) as crystallization progressed. Tourmaline samples that appear to have been fluid-derived are HREE-depleted relative to coexisting silicate-melt-derived tourmaline. Tourmaline does not exhibit any strong preference for specific REEs, rather its REE content appears to reflect the REE content of the medium from which the tourmaline crystallized.

  2. Pedogenesis and paleoclimatic implications of the Chamberlain Pass Formation, basal White River Group, Badlands of South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, D.O. Jr. . Dept. of Geology); Evans, J.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Chamberlain Pass Formation is a new lithostratigraphic unit representing the first phase of deposition of the Paleogene White River Group in western South Dakota. The Chamberlain Pass Formation is entirely nonmarine, and has been subjected to intensive pedogenic modification. Pedogenic features within the distal overbank deposits of the Chamberlain Pass Formation have long been recognized, and classified as the Interior Paleosol Series. This study focuses on pedogenic features preserved within the channel sandstone and proximal overbank deposits of the Chamberlain Pass Formation, and proposes a new pedostratigraphic unit called the Weta Paleosol Series, to describe these features. The Interior and Weta Paleosol Series have a catenary soil relationship, based on differences in parent material and soil moisture conditions. A major difference between the two is the presence of pedorelicts within the Weta Paleosol Series, demonstrating sequential modification of soils as moisture conditions changed from wet to dry. The types of pedogenic features present within the Weta Paleosol Series, which include silcretes, calcretes, and zeolite mineralization with particular soil horizons, suggests that while previous interpretations of paleoclimates were essentially correct, paleosols of the Chamberlain Pass Formation were also subjected to periods of dryness. Counting of superimposed paleosols suggests a minimum of 60ky for deposition and pedogenic modification of the Chamberlain Pass Formation prior to a major period of incision and deposition of the overlying Chadron Formation.

  3. Geochemical survey to determine water-quality characteristics of the Big Sioux Aquifer in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibbrand, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    A geochemical survey of the Big Sioux aquifer, South Dakota was under taken to: (1) Estimate the quality of the water in the aquifer, (2) determine if there are any water-quality problems in the aquifer, and (3) design a water-quality monitoring network to monitor changes in present and potential water-quality problems. For most agricultural uses, the water in the Big Sioux aquifer is of acceptable quality. However, in some locations, the ground water is either marginally acceptable or unfit for human use. The major water-quality problem is the high nitrate concentrations (geometric mean of 4 and up to 120 milligrams per liter as N) found in many domestic water supplies. The fact that samples taken from observation wells located by rooads away from houses and barnyards show lower concentrations of nitrate (geometric means of 0.4 and up to 22 milligrams per liter as N) indicates that the source of nitrate pollution is probably localized and due to barnyard wastes. A monitoring network is proposed consisting of at least: (1) Three wells adjacent to domestic wells, (2) three wells about 1,000 feet away and down the potentiometric gradient from domestic wells, and (3) three wells at least 3,000 feet from any source of pollution. This monitoring network would provide information on changes in both localized nitrate pollution and other selected water-quality parameters. (USGS)

  4. A probable extralimital postbreeding assembly of bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south-central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

  5. A probable extralimital post-breeding assembly of Bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola breeds predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

  6. Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South and distribution of the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has generally been documented using radio (> 3 years). Standardized sampling for pallid sturgeon, which relies on a variety of gear types, has

  7. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. SURVIVAL AND HABITAT USE BY RING-NECKED PHEASANTS DURING TWO DISPARATE WINTERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    31tf.-U) SURVIVAL AND HABITAT USE BY RING-NECKED PHEASANTS DURING TWO DISPARATE WINTERS IN SOUTH-ne(·ked phca~ants (Ph(l.·jflllU8 co/chien,). \\Ve monit~red pheasant sun;\\'al and habitat use \\'ia radiotelemetl and radiomarked -18 female ring-necked pheasants at the onset of tht' 1996- 97 \\\\inter and monitored suni

  9. Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garavito, A.M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 A??, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ?? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 ?? 10-19 m2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 ?? 10-5 m-1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 ?? 10-11 m2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10-21 to 10-20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggebo, S.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Quamen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands to tillage has increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore, we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old [10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1 [cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity. Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields. Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

  11. A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in the northern three-fourths of Brown County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in a complex glacial-aquifer system that includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers in South Dakota. The average thickness of the aquifers ranges from 16 to 32 ft and the average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 240 to 300 ft/day. The maximum steady-state recharge to the aquifer system was estimated to be 7.0 in./yr, and the maximum potential steady- state evapotranspiration was estimated to be 35.4 in/yr. Maximum monthly recharge for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 2.5 in in May. The potential monthly evapotranspiration for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 7.0 in in July. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from steady-state conditions (pre-1983) was 0. 78 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.59 ft for aquifer layer 1 (the Elm aquifer) from 22 observation wells and 3.49 ft and 5.10 ft, respectively, for aquifer layer 2 (the Middle James aquifer) from 13 observation wells. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from simulated monthly potentiometric heads for 1985 in aquifer layer 1 ranged from -2.54 ft in July to 0.59 ft in May and in aquifer layer 2 ranged from -1.22 ft in April to 4.98 ft in November. Sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that it is most sensitive to changes in recharge and least sensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity. (USGS)

  12. Quantification of mass loading to Strawberry Creek near the Gilt Edge mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2006-01-01

    Although remedial actions have taken place at the Gilt Edge mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, questions remain about a possible hydrologic connection along shear zones between some of the pit lakes at the mine site and Strawberry Creek. Spatially detailed chemical sampling of stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in June 2003 as part of a mass-loading study by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the possible connection of shear zones to the stream. Stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution; discharge increased by 25.3 liters per second along the study reach, with 9.73 liters per second coming from three tributaries and the remaining increase coming from small springs and dispersed, subsurface inflow. Chemical differences among inflow samples were distinguished by cluster analysis and indicated that inflows ranged from those unaffected by interaction with mine wastes to those that could have been affected by drainage from pit lakes. Mass loading to the stream from several inflows resulted in distinct chemical changes in stream water along the study reach. Mass loading of the mine-related metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, principally occurred from the discharge from the Gilt Edge mine, and those metals were substantially attenuated downstream. Secondary loadings of metals occurred in the vicinity of the Oro Fino shaft and from two more inflows about 200 m downstream from there. These are both locations where shear zones intersect the stream and may indicate loading associatedwith these zones. Loading downstream from the Oro Fino shaft had a unique chemical character, high in base-metal concentrations, that could indicate an association with water in the pit lakes. The loading from these downstream sources, however, is small in comparison to that from the initial mine discharge and does not appear to have a substantial impact on Strawberry Creek.

  13. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  14. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the South American cactus...from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of South American cactus moth...non- quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of this pest. However,...

  15. Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

  16. Perspectives on the diagnosis, epizootiology, and control of the 1973 duck plague epizootic in wild waterfowl at Lake Andes, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Pearson, G L; Cassidy, D R

    1997-10-01

    An epizootic of duck plague occurred in early 1973 in a population of 163,500 wild waterfowl, primarily mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering on Lake Andes and the nearby Missouri River in southeastern South Dakota (USA). The diagnosis was based on pathologic lesions and confirmed by virus isolation. Control measures included quarantine, attempts to reduce virus contamination of the area, dispersal of waterfowl, and monitoring of wild waterfowl populations for mortality. The epizootic resulted in documented mortality of 18% and estimated mortality of 26% of the waterfowl at risk. Prompt implementation of control measures might have limited mortality to approximately 8%. Losses during the epizootic were equivalent to 0.12% of the annual mortality in the North American 1996 fall population of 80,000,000 wild ducks. The most likely sources of the infection were free-flying wild mallard or American black duck (Anas rubripes) carriers from the upper midwestern or northeastern United States. Duck plague serum neutralization antibodies were demonstrated in 31% of 395 apparently healthy mallards sampled prior to dispersal of the flock at Lake Andes, suggesting that tens of thousands of potential duck plague carriers entered the wild waterfowl populations of all four major flyways. Consequently, the absence of major epizootics of duck plague in wild waterfowl in the subsequent two decades is evidence that substantial numbers of duck plague carriers can occur in wild waterfowl populations without resulting in epizootic mortalities. The failure to isolate duck plague virus from apparently healthy mallards sampled during the epizootic raises questions concerning the validity of conclusions regarding the status of duck plague in wild waterfowl based upon negative results of random surveys conducted in the absence of epizootics. PMID:9391953

  17. Solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, near Edgemont, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Benzel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    This report releases solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. These cores were collected by Powertech Uranium Corporation, and material not used for their analyses were given to the U.S. Geological Survey for additional sampling and analyses. These additional analyses included total carbon and sulfur, whole rock acid digestion for major and trace elements, 234U/238U activity ratios, X-ray diffraction, thin sections, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and cathodoluminescence. This report provides the methods and data results from these analyses along with a short summary of observations.

  18. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J.; Nichols, A.D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs.

  19. Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northeastern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, Kathy R.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the altitude of the top of the Permian--and Pennsylvanian age Minnelusa Formation, the deepest aquifer in the northeastern Black Hills for which there is sufficient data available to construct a structural map. The Minnelusa Formation outcrops in the western part of the map area and is more than 3 ,600 ft below land surface in the northeastern corner of the area. The formation consists of interbedded sandstone, sandy dolomite and limestone, shale, siltstone, gypsum, and anhydrite. The upper beds are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. Small anticlines and synclines parallel the Minnelusa outcrop. Domal structures and peaks in the study area are the result of Tertiary-age intrusions. (USGS)

  20. Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

  1. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF FISHES IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR

    E-print Network

    Page 1. Percent number and, in parentheses, percent volume of stomach contents of 794 bluegills number of taxa per stomach of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) > 50 mm TL collected from the 3 areas........................................................14 3. Mean evenness value per stomach of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) >50 mm TL collected from the 3

  2. Analysis and evaluation of round hay bale breakwaters at Lake Sharpe, South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Grundy, Thomas Paxson

    1993-01-01

    the standard solution of an armored revetment of stone riprap has successfully halted this erosion, but it is too costly a method for general use in an area without a plentiful source of suitable stone. Because of the high cost of traditional methods, more...

  3. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Rapid City NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-30

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Rapid City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 417 groundwater and 477 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are in the central portion of the quadrangle in the Pierre Shale. Three main clusters of groundwater samples with high uranium values occur here. Associated with the high uranium concentrations are high values for calcium, potassium, magnesium, strontium, and specific conductance. Stream sediment data indicate high concentrations of uranium are usually found in the Pierre Shale. Scattered samples occur in the Graneros Shale and in the Paleozoic and Precambrian units of the Black Hills. Arsenic, cobalt, and yttrium are associated with the areas of high uranium concentration. No areas are indicated with strong potential for uranium mineralization.

  4. The Nation's Report Card Science 2009 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 4, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Guided by a new framework, the NAEP science assessment was updated in 2009 to keep the content current with key developments in science, curriculum standards, assessments, and research. The 2009 framework organizes science content into three broad content areas. Physical science includes concepts related to properties and changes of matter, forms…

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  6. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

  7. Arsenic loads in Spearfish Creek, western South Dakota, water years 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous small tributaries on the eastern flank of Spearfish Creek originate within a mineralized area with a long history of gold-mining activity. Some streams draining this area are known to have elevated concentrations of arsenic. One such tributary is Annie Creek, where arsenic concentrations regularly approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 mg/L (micrograms per liter) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A site on Annie Creek was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1991. This report presents information about arsenic loads and concentrations in Spearfish Creek and its tributaries, including Annie Creek. Stream types were classified according to geologic characteris- tics and in-stream arsenic concentrations. The first type includes streams that lack significant arsenic sources and have low in-stream arsenic concentra- tions. The second type has abundant arsenic sources and high in-stream concentrations. The third type has abundant arsenic sources but only moderate in-stream concentrations. The fourth type is a mixture of the first three types. Annual loads of dissolved arsenic were calculated for two reaches of Spearfish Creek to quantify arsenic loads at selected gaging stations during water years 1989-91. Mass-balance calculations also were performed to estimate arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows to Spearfish Creek. The drainage area of the upstream reach includes significant mineralized areas, whereas the drainage area of the downstream reach generally is without known arsenic sources. The average load of dissolved arsenic transported from the upstream reach of Spearfish Creek, which is representative of a type 4 stream, was 158 kilograms per year, calculated for station 06430900, Spearfish Creek above Spearfish. Gaged headwater tributaries draining unmineralized areas (type 1) contributed only 16 percent of the arsenic load in 63 percent of the discharge. Annie Creek (type 2), which has the highest measured arsenic concentra- tions in the Spearfish Creek drainage, contributed about 15 percent of the arsenic load in about 2 percent of the discharge of the upstream reach. Squaw Creek, which drains another mineralized area, but has only moderate in-stream concentrations (type 3), contributed 4 percent of the arsenic load in 5 percent of the discharge. Ungaged inflows to the reach contributed the remaining 65 percent of the arsenic load in 30 percent of the discharge. The calculated loads from ungaged inflows include all arsenic contributed by surface- and ground-water sources, as well as any additions of arsenic from dissolution of arsenic-bearing solid phases, or from desorption of arsenic from solid surfaces, within the streambed of the upstream reach. Mass-balance calculations indicate that dissolved arsenic concentrations of the ungaged inflows in the upstream reach averaged about 9 mg/L. In-stream arsenic concentrations of ungaged inflows from the unmineralized western flank of Spearfish Creek probably are generally low (type 1). Thus, in-stream arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows draining the mineralized eastern flank of Spearfish probably average almost twice that level, or about 18 mg/L. Some ungaged, eastern-flank inflows probably are derived from type 3 drainages, with only moderate arsenic concentrations. If so, other ungaged, eastern-flank inflows could have in-stream arsenic concentrations similar to those of Annie Creek. No significant arsenic sources were apparent in the downstream reach of Spearfish Creek. Over the course of the downstream reach, arsenic concentrations decreased somewhat, probably resulting from dilution, as well as from possible chemical adsorption to sediment surfaces or arsenic-phase precipitation. A decrease in arsenic loads resulted from various diversions from the creek and from the potential chemical removal processes. Because of a large margin of error associated with calculation o

  8. Carnotite-bearing sandstone in Cedar Canyon, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, James R.; Moore, George W.

    1954-01-01

    Carnotite-bearing sandstone and clay have been found in the Chadron formation of the White River group of Oligocene age in the southern part of the Slim Buttes area, Harding County, S. Dak. Locally the mineralized sandstone contains as much as 0.23 percent uranium. The uranium and vanadium ions are believed to have been derived from the overlying mildly radioactive tuffaceous rocks of the Arikaree formation of Miocene age. Analyses of water from 26 springs issuing from the Chadron and Arikaree formations along the margins of Slim Buttes show uranium contents of as much as 200 parts per billion. Meteoric water percolating through tuffaceous rocks is thought to have brought uranium and other ions into environments in the Chadron formation that were physically and chemically favorable for the deposition of carnotite.

  9. Update: Delayed onset Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream infections after exposure to contaminated heparin flush--Michigan and South Dakota, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    In March 2005, CDC reported a multistate outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream infections associated with use of syringes preloaded with heparin intravenous catheter flush. The heparin flush became contaminated during preparation by IV Flush, LLC (Rowlett, Texas). Thirty-six patients in four states were identified who had been exposed to the contaminated flush and subsequently experienced P. fluorescens bloodstream infection during December 2004-February 2005. Based on a recommendation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), IV Flush voluntarily recalled the preloaded syringes in late January; on January 31 and February 4, 2005, FDA issued nationwide alerts recommending that consumers and institutions stop using and return the preloaded syringes to IV Flush or the distributor (Pinnacle Medical Supply, Rowlett, Texas). Approximately 3 months after the product was recalled, patients in Michigan and South Dakota were identified with P. fluorescens bloodstream infections. As of April 2006, a total of 15 patients in Michigan and 13 in South Dakota had been identified with delayed onset P. fluorescens bloodstream infections, with occurrences ranging from 84 to 421 days after their last potential exposure to the contaminated flush. The patients all had indwelling central venous catheters and received treatment during October 2005-February 2006 at clinics known to have used the contaminated flush. This report describes the investigation of these cases, which determined that these were delayed onset cases of P. fluorescens bloodstream infection from a past exposure to contaminated flush, and provides recommendations for ongoing surveillance for delayed P. fluorescens bloodstream infections among similarly exposed patients. PMID:16960550

  10. Petrologic and geochemical links between the post-collisional Proterozoic Harney Peak leucogranite, South Dakota, USA, and its source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Peter I.; Bartlett, Cindy D.

    1998-12-01

    The Proterozoic terrane of the Black Hills, South Dakota, includes the composite Harney Peak leucogranite and associated pegmatites that were emplaced into metamorphosed pelites and graywackes. Available dates indicate that granite generation post-dated regional metamorphism and deformation that have been attributed to collision of the Wyoming and Superior cratons at ˜1760 Ma. Previous radiogenic and stable isotope work indicates that the exposed metasedimentary rocks are equivalent to sources of the leucogranites. In this study, whole rock and mineral compositions of the metasedimentary rocks were used to calculate the likely average residue mineralogies and melt fractions that would be generated by muscovite dehydration melting of the rocks. These were then used to model observed trace element compositions of the granites using published mineral/melt distribution coefficients. Model trace element melt compositions using pelitic and graywacke protoliths yield similar results. The models reproduce well the observed depletion of transition metals and Ba in the granites relative to metasedimentary protoliths. The depletion is due mainly to high proportion of biotite with variable amounts of K-feldspar in the model residue. Sr is also depleted in the granites compared to source rocks, but to a lesser relative extent than Ba. This is because of the low biotite/melt distribution coefficient for Sr and because high proportion of plagioclase in the residue is compensated by high Sr concentrations in protoliths. Rubidium, Cs and Ta behaved as slightly compatible to incompatible elements, and therefore, were not strongly fractionated during melting. Of the considered elements, only B appears to have been highly incompatible relative to residue during melting. The protoliths had sufficient B to allow tourmaline crystallization in those parts of the Harney Peak Granite in which Ti concentration was sufficiently low not to enhance crystallization of biotite. The reproducibility of observed trace element concentrations in the Harney Peak Granite by the models supports the often made proposition that metapelites and metagraywackes are common sources for leucogranites. This argues against mass input from the mantle into metagraywacke and metapelitic crustal sources or melting of amphibolites to generate the post-collisional Harney Peak and other similar peraluminous granite suites.

  11. Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson), or 0.4 to 2.4 cm (for the estimated transient cavity radius). The trend agrees with the observed thicknesses of the basal unit of the Crow Creek Member, but the actually observed thicknesses are larger than the calculated ones, indicating that not all of the basal unit comprises impact ejecta. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  12. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, Southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have Tdm ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have Tdm ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 ??0.08 and 2.20 ??0.20 Ga (???2200Nd = -15.5), respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 ??100 Ma (???2200Nd = -5.8 ??1.8). The Sm-Nd, O and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of these granitic rocks have been complicated to some degree by both crystallization and post-crystallization processes, and the age of the pegmatite and parts of the Harney Peak Granite complex remain uncertain. Processes that probably complicated the isotopic systematics of these rocks include derivation from heterogeneous source material, assimilation, mixing of REE between granite and country rock during crystallization via a fluid phase and post-crystallization mobility of Sr. The Nd isotopic compositions of the pegmatite and the Harney Peak Granite indicate that they were not derived primarily from the exposed metasedimentary rocks. ?? 1986.

  13. A digital-computer model of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    A finite-difference digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County. Average water levels and average base flow discharge (4.9 cu ft/s) of the Big Sioux River were based on data from 1970 through 1979. The computer model was calibrated for transient conditions by simulating monthly historic conditions for 1976. During 1976, pumpage was offset mostly by surface-water recharge to the aquifer from January through June and ground-water discharge from storage from July through December. Measured drawdowns during 1976 generally were less than 2 feet except in the Sioux Falls city well field where drawdowns were as much as 15 feet. The model was used to study the effects of increased withdrawals under three hypothetical hydrologic situations. One hypothetical situation consisted of using 1976 pumping rates, recharge, and evapotranspiration but the Big Sioux River dry. The pumping rate after 16 months was decreased by 40 percent from the actual pumping rate for that month in order to complete the monthly simulation without the storage being depleted at a nodal area. The second hypothetical situation consisted of a pumpage rate of 44.4 cubic feet per second from 60 wells spaced throughout the aquifer under historic 1976 hydrologic conditions. The results were that the aquifer could supply the additional withdrawal. The third hypothetical situation used the same hydrologic conditions as the second except that recharge was zero and the Big Sioux River was dry downstream from row 54. After 18 monthly simulations, the pumping rate was decreased by 44 percent to prevent pumping wells from depleting the aquifer, and, at that rate, 63 percent of the water being pumped was being replaced by water from the river. (USGS)

  14. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. Water resources and geology of Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, J.E.; Norton, James Jennings; Adolphson, D.G.

    1973-01-01

    Ground water suitable for public supply can be obtained from fractured metamorphic and igneous rooks at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, S. Dak. The memorial comprises three main drainage basins: Starling basin, Lafferty Gulch basin, and East Boundary basin. Ground water is most prevalent in Lafferty Gulch basin but Starling basin contributes the most surface water. The total water supply was obtained from springs until 1967 when increasing numbers of visitors required development of additional sources. As a result of this investigation, wells 3 and 4 were drilled in Lafferty Gulch basin and East Boundary basin. Well 3 is 200 feet deep in mica schist and granite. It produced 7.3 million gallons of water in 1968 and 7.7 million gallons of water in 1969, the total supply for the memorial. Well 4 is 500 feet deep, also in mica schist and granite. It is not used at the present time (1970) but will be used in the future when more water is needed. Water from both wells is potable, but the quality of water from well 3 is superior to that from well 4. Mica schist is the most abundant rock in the memorial. The more prominent hills and mountains, however, are in large, northerly striking granite sills, some of which are several hundred feet thick. Pegmatite sills and dikes are also numerous. The western boundary of the memorial is at the east edge of the Harney Peak Granite batholith. The dip of schistosity and bedding in schist adjacent to the batholith is about 30 ? E. but increases across the memorial to about 65 ? E. in the northeast corner. At some locations in the memorial, granite or pegmatite sills act as ground-water dams preventing the movement of ground water down gradient. A pegmatite or granite sill is probably the cause of the accumulation of water in the vicinity of well 3. The well flows when it is not being pumped. The occurrence of ground water is dependent upon the presence of joints and fractures in the schist and granite bedrock. The rocks themselves are relatively impermeable and would yield little or no water in their unaltered state. Mica schist that has been intruded by granite and (or) pegmatite is more fractured and yields more ground water in the memorial than mica schist alone. This condition may be due to jointing and to the greater fracturability of the intruded rocks in the vicinity of granitic intrusions. Ground water is also available from alluvium in major valleys such as Starling basin and the valleys of Grizzly Bear Creek and Battle Creek. Evapotranspiration is the greatest use-item in the water budget. An approximation of evapotranspiration based upon an average annual precipitation of 19 inches is 1,600 acre-feet, or 80 percent of the annual precipitation. Several locations in the memorial have potential as future, sources of ground-water supplies. The most promising areas are near spring 6 in the southeast corner and alluvium in the valleys of Battle and Grizzly Bear Creeks. Developed and potential water resources in the memorial probably are sufficient to meet demands beyond the year 2000.

  17. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...otherwise noted. North Dakota—PM2.5 (Annual NAAQS) Designated area...otherwise noted. North Dakota—PM2.5 [24-hour NAAQS] Designated...the tables titled “North Dakota—PM2.5 (Annual NAAQS)” and “North...

  18. Alexandria folio, South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Todd, J. E. (James Edward), 1846-1922.

    1903-01-01

    This research focuses on a new morphology of Alethopteris, the frond of a Carboniferous seed-fern tree, based on a series of orthogonal cross-sections of the leaflets, which are preserved in coal balls. The coal balls, ...

  19. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  20. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ? 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ? 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ? 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were associated with understory vegetation, drainages, and rugged terrain. These results identify the adaptability of the species to meet life history requirements in a variety of landscapes, and provide insight to how land use requirements vary within regional and management boundaries.

  1. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... the artificial spread of the South American cactus moth from infested areas in the State of Louisiana...) restrict the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial... prevent the artificial spread of this pest. However, there are currently no nurseries in Louisiana...

  2. 20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA - LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to the left leads into empty can storage area from which a can conveyor track, for flat oval cans, can be seen descending at a forty-five degree angle. Cement bases in the foreground held brining tanks into which cut fish were sluiced. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the Ridgway Area, Southwestern Colorado

    E-print Network

    Serradji, Hayet

    2008-01-30

    depositional sequences, with two incised valleys. Sequences are bounded by erosional surfaces or their correlative interfluve expressions. Sequence one starts in the underlying Burro Canyon Formation, continues into the Dakota Sandstone, and includes seven...

  4. 50 CFR 622.224 - Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic...622.224 Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals. (a) Allowable octocoral closed area. No...

  5. The Manson Impact Structure: 40Ar/39Ar Age and Its Distal Impact Ejecta in the Pierre Shale in Southeastern South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Izett, G A; Cobban, W A; Obradovich, J D; Kunk, M J

    1993-10-29

    The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages of a sanidine clast from a melt-matrix breccia of the Manson, Iowa, impact structure (MIS) indicate that the MIS formed 73.8 +/- 0.3 million years ago (Ma) and is not coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (64.43 +/- 0.05 Ma). The MIS sanidine is 9 million years older than (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectra of MIS shock-metamorphosed microcline and melt-matrix breccia interpreted earlier to be 64 to 65 Ma. Grains of shock-metamorphosed quartz, feldspar, and zircon were found in the Crow Creek Member (upper Campanian) at a biostratigraphic level constrained by radiometric ages in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota that are consistent with the (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 73.8 +/- 0.3 Ma for MIS reported herein. PMID:17812340

  6. The Manson Impact Structure: 40Ar/39Ar Age and Its Distal Impact Ejecta in the Pierre Shale in Southeastern South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izett, G. A.; Cobban, W. A.; Obradovich, J. D.; Kunk, M. J.

    1993-10-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of a sanidine clast from a melt-matrix breccia of the Manson, lowa, impact structure (MIS) indicate that the MIS formed 73.8 ± 0.3 million years ago (Ma) and is not coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (64.43 ± 0.05 Ma). The MIS sanidine is 9 million years older than 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of MIS shock-metamorphosed microcline and melt-matrix breccia interpreted earlier to be 64 to 65 Ma. Grains of shock-metamorphosed quartz, feldspar, and zircon were found in the Crow Creek Member (upper Campanian) at a biostratigraphic level constrained by radiometric ages in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota that are consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar age of 73.8 ± 0.3 Ma for MIS reported herein.

  7. The Manson Impact Structure: 40Ar/39Ar age and its distal impact ejecta in the pierre shale in southeastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izett, G.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Obradovich, J.D.; Kunk, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of a sanidine clast from a melt-matrix breccia of the Manson, Iowa, impact structure (MIS) indicate that the MIS formed 73.8 ?? 0.3 million years ago (Ma) and is not coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (64.43 ?? 0.05 Ma). The MIS sanidine is 9 million years older than 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of MIS shock-metamorphosed microcline and melt-matrix breccia interpreted earlier to be 64 to 65 Ma. Grains of shock-metamorphosed quartz, feldspar, and zircon were found in the Crow Creek Member (upper Campanian) at a biostratigraphic level constrained by radiometric ages in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota that are consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar age of 73.8 ?? 0.3 Ma for MIS reported herein.

  8. Geochemistry of water in aquifers and confining units of the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, J.F.; Kimball, B.A.; Downey, J.S.; Peter, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The geochemistry of water in five aquifers and two confining units in the Williston Basin of the Northern Great Plains is similar and is controlled by halite dissolution. In areas outside the Williston Basin ground-water is fresh and controlled by the solution chemistry of carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  9. Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow contributing to Crow Creek in the northwestern part of the study area indicated that the primary source of water is the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for Old Hatchery and Higgins Gulch springs, located north of Spearfish, indicated a source water originating from the outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation within the study area. Concentrations of three chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were used to characterize ground-water residence times in the study area. For the four wells where dye was detected, CFC-11 apparent ages ranged from 12 to 26 years, indicating that the wells contained months-old water mixed with years- to decades-old water. Logarithmic regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for water from 10 wells and distance to a possible conduit trending north through the area where dye was detected, yielded an r2 value of 0.71. Straight-line regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for the six wells closest to the possible conduit had an r2 value of 0.96. Two wells located relatively close to the outcrop areas had no or very low tritium values indicating relatively long residence times and diffuse ground-water flow. The tritium value of 7.2 TU in water from well COL where dye was detected, indicated that the water probably is a bimodal mixture, with a substantial portion that is older than 50 years. Water from well ELL, where dye was detected, had a tritium value of 19.7 TU and a CFC apparent age of 15 years, indicating that the sample from this well probably is a unimodal mixture with very little water older than 50 years. Comparison of the CFC apparent age for three spring sites (Cox Lake, 26 years; McNenny Pond, 26 years; Mirror Lake, 13 years) also indicated that Mirror Lake spring probably has a component of local recharge from formations that overlie the Minnelusa Formation. In the Madison aquifer, specific conductance ranges from 18 to 945 microsiemens per cen

  10. Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

  11. 75 FR 47755 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Pactola Project Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...forest resources from an existing insect and disease epidemic (mountain...resources, from the existing insect and disease (mountain pine...processes focused on reducing insects or disease on public and adjacent...reduce the potential for large-scale, intense wildfire...

  12. Geologic map of the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, E.; Redden, J.A.; Buscher, D.; Wilson, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Restricted outcrops of Archean (2.5 Ga) rock, primarily granite, are the basement for a thick sequence of early Proterozoic (2.4-1.8 Ga) metasedimentary units (fanglomerate, conglomerate, quartzite, iron-formation, graywacke, and shale) containing minor basaltic metavolcanic rocks and associated gabbroic sills. The map shows the complex lithologic sequence developed in an early Proterozoic rift basin or passive margin. Two major periods of folding have created a complex map pattern of the stratified rocks. Early Proterozoic (1.7 Ga) granite and pegmatite emplacement is the last recognized Precambrian event.

  13. Hydraulic properties of the Madison aquifer system in the western Rapid City area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, Earl A.

    1993-01-01

    Available information on hydrogeology, data from borehole geophysical logs, and aquifer tests were used to determine the hydraulic properties of the Madison aquifer. From aquifer-test analysis, transmissivity and storage coefficient were determined for the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, and vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv') along with specific storage (Ss') for the Minnelusa confining bed. Borehole geophysical well logs were used to determine the thickness and location of the Minnelusa aquifer, the lower Minnelusa confining bed, and the Madison aquifer within the Madison Limestone. Porosity values determined from quantitative analysis of borehole geophysical well logs were used in analyzing the aquifer-test data. The average porosity at the two aquifer-test sites is about 10 percent in the Minnelusa aquifer, 5 percent in the lower Minnelusa confining bed, and 35 percent in the Madison aquifer. The first aquifer test, which was conducted at Rapid City production well #6, produced measured drawdown in the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers. Neuman and Witherspoon's method of determining the hydraulic properties of leaky two-aquifer systems was used to evaluate the aquifer-test data by assuming the fracture and solution-opening network is equivalent to a porous media. Analysis of the aquifer test for the Minnelusa aquifer yielded a transmissivity value of 12,000 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 3 x 10-3. The specific storage of the Minnelusa confining bed was 2 x 10-7 per foot, and its vertical hydraulic conductivity was 0.3 foot per day. The transmissivity of the Madison aquifer at this site was 17,000 feet squared per day, and the storage coefficient was 2 x 10-3. The second aquifer test, which was conducted at Rapid City production well #5 (RC-5) produced measured drawdown only in the Madison aquifer. Hantush and Jacob's method of determining the hydraulic properties of leaky confined aquifers with no storage in the confining bed was used to evaluate the aquifer-test data by assuming the fracture and solution-opening network is equivalent to a porous media. The analysis of data from the RC-5 aquifer test showed that transmissivity was not equal in all directions. Hantush's method was used to determine the direction of radial anisotropy and magnitude of the major and minor axes of transmissivity. The major axis of transmissivity is at an angle of 42? east of north, and the transmissivity along this axis is about 56,000 feet squared per day. The minor axis of transmissivity is at an angle of 48? west of north, and the transmissivity along this axis is about 1,300 feet squared per day. The major axis of transmissivity intersects Cleghorn Springs, a large resurgent spring on the west edge of Rapid City. The shape of the potentiometric contours of the Madison aquifer near RC-5 agree with the orientation of the transmissivity ellipse. The average value of the storage coefficient from the isotropic analysis of the aquifer-test data was 3.5 x 10-4, and the average vertical hydraulic conductivity of the lower Minnelusa confining bed was 9.6 x 10-3 foot per day.

  14. Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV control panel room (room 139) at far left corner. The stairway leads to the commander's quarters and the senior battle viewing bridge at top right. Control and communication consoles at the right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. 67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA Major Research Area Paper Presentation

    E-print Network

    Tu, Yicheng

    in MRIs: Case study Soft Tissue Sarcomas by Hamidreza Farhidzadeh For the Ph.D. degree in Computer Science) in the case of tumor development, especially Soft Tissue Sarcomas (STS). CAD systems need continuousUNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA Major Research Area Paper Presentation Analysis of Soft Tissue Tumors

  18. 9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

    1983-01-01

    Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

  20. Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    The headwaters of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers drain the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, an area that has been affected by mining and ore-milling operations since the discovery of gold in 1875. A tributary to the Belle Fourche River is Whitewood Creek, which drains the area of the Homestake Mine, a gold mine that operated from 1876 to 2001. Tailings discharged into Whitewood Creek contained arsenopyrite, an arsenic-rich variety of pyrite associated with gold ore, and mercury used as an amalgam during the gold-extraction process. Approximately 18 percent of the tailings that were discharged remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along Whitewood Creek, and approximately 25 percent remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along the Belle Fourche River, downstream from Whitewood Creek. In 1983, a 29-kilometer (18-mile) reach of Whitewood Creek and the adjacent flood plain was included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly referred to as a "Superfund site." Listing of this reach of Whitewood Creek was primarily in response to arsenic toxicity of fluvial deposits on the flood plain. Lands along the lower Cheyenne River were transferred to adjoining States and Tribes in response to the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1999. An amendment in 2000 to WRDA required a study of sediment contamination of the Cheyenne River. In response to the WRDA amendment, the U.S. Geological Survey completed field sampling of reference sites (not affected by mine-tailing disposal) along the lower Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers. Reference sites were located on stream terraces that were elevated well above historical stream stages to ensure no contamination from historical mining activity. Sampling of potentially contaminated sites was performed on transects of the active flood plain and adjacent terraces that could potentially be inundated during high-flow events. Sampling began in 2009 and was completed in 2010. A total of 74 geochemical samples were collected from fluvial deposits at reference sites, and 473 samples were collected from potentially contaminated sites. Sediment samples collected were analyzed for 23 metals, including arsenic and mercury. Sequential replicate, split duplicate, and field quality-control samples were analyzed for quality assurance of data-collection methods. The metal concentrations in sediment samples and location information are presented in this report in electronic format (Microsoft Excel), along with non-parametric summary statistics of those data. Cross-sectional topography is graphed with arsenic and mercury concentrations on transects at the potentially contaminated sites. The mean arsenic concentration in reference sediment samples was 8 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), compared to 250, 650, and 76 mg/kg for potentially contaminated sediment samples at the surface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, the subsurface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, and the surface of the lower Cheyenne River site, respectively. The mean mercury concentration in reference sediment samples was 16 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg), compared to 130, 370, and 71 ?g/kg for potentially contaminated sediment samples at the surface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, the subsurface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, and the surface of the lower Cheyenne River site, respectively.

  1. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. 165.165 ...165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All...

  2. Preliminary report on the lignite resources of the Niobe area, Burke and Ward counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, Hal E.

    1977-01-01

    Two lignite beds, the Niobe and the Bonus, occur at strippable depths within the Niobe area. The Niobe bed averages 5 feet (1.5 meters) in thickness and the Bonus bed averages 8 feet (2.4 meters) in thickness. These beds lie in the lower part of the Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene). The demonstrated resources of both beds combined is 122 million tons (110 million tonnes), all of which are under less than 120 feet (37 meters) of overburden. The overburden consists of glacial till and shale. The lateral continuity of the coal has been locally interrupted by faulting, glacial outwash channels, and erosion. Folding and/or faulting occurs parallel to the Missouri Coteau escarpment and faulting occurs roughly perpendicular to the escarpment.

  3. View of Montevideo, Uruguay area of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Montevideo, Uruguay area of South America is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken form the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is Rio de la Plata which flows into the South Atlantic Ocean at the bottom of the picture. The red plume in the Rio de la Plata is probably sediment moving seaward. The Santa Lucia River enters the Rio de la Plata west of Montevideo and is at the mouth of the Sant Lucia. The white beach and sand dune areas are plainly visible along the coast. A major airport can be seen immediately east of downtown Montevideo. Major thoroughfares and residential areas, such as the bright one in the suburbs, are clearly visible, also. Farm tracts in green and gray rectangular patterns indicate agricultural regions.

  4. 50 CFR 622.224 - Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region § 622.224 Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals. (a) Allowable octocoral...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Denver Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming - USGS Province 39

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Denver Basin Province (USGS Province 39), Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Petroleum is produced in the province from sandstone, shale, and limestone reservoirs that range from Pennsylvanian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define seven total petroleum systems and twelve assessment units. Nine of these assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Gas was not assessed for two coal bed methane assessment units due to lack of information and limited potential; oil resources were not assessed for the Fractured Pierre Shale Assessment Unit due to its mature development status.

  6. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  7. Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

  8. Territorial disputes simmer in areas of South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-13

    This paper reports that China's award of an exploration cooperation contact in the Nansha area of the South China Sea has revived territorial disputes in the area centering ton the Spratly and Paracel islands. The key dispute is between China and Viet Nam, which earlier engaged in military action over ownership of the islands, believed to have world class potential for hydrocarbon discoveries. Those two nations, as well as Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, lay claim to overlapping boundaries of the Spratly Islands. Separately, China and Viet Nam dispute territorial claims in the Paracels. Tensions continue to mount, and regional governments are trying to negotiate compromises to avoid a repeat of warfare.

  9. 75 FR 10300 - South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...USCG-2010-0074] South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies...interested in serving on the South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee to submit...INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security Act...

  10. Reconnaissance-level assessment of water and bottom-sediment quality, including pesticides and mercury, in Yankton Sioux Tribe wetlands, Charles Mix County, South Dakota, June-July 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2006-01-01

    During June and July 2005, water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from selected Yankton Sioux Tribe wetlands within the historic Reservation area of eastern Charles Mix County as part of a reconnaissance-level assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey and Yankton Sioux Tribe. The water samples were analyzed for pesticides and mercury species. In addition, the water samples were analyzed for physical properties and chemical constituents that might help further characterize the water quality of the wetlands. The bottom-sediment samples were analyzed for mercury species. During June 2005, water samples were collected from 19 wetlands and were analyzed for 61 widely used pesticide compounds. Many pesticides were not detected in any of the water samples and many others were detected only at low concentrations in a few of the samples. Thirteen pesticides were detected in water samples from at least one of the wetlands. Atrazine and de-ethyl atrazine were detected at each of the 19 wetlands. The minimum, maximum, and median dissolved atrazine concentrations were 0.056, 0.567, and 0.151 microgram per liter (?g/L), respectively. Four pesticides (alachlor, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and dicamba) were detected in only one wetland each. The number of pesticides detected in any of the 19 wetlands ranged from 3 to 8, with a median of 6. In addition to the results for this study, recent previous studies have frequently found atrazine in Lake Andes and the Missouri River, but none of the atrazine concentrations have been greater than 3 ?g/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level for atrazine in drinking water. During June and July 2005, water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from 10 wetlands. Water samples from each of the wetlands were analyzed for major ions, organic carbon, and mercury species, and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed for mercury species. For the whole-water samples, the total mercury concentrations ranged from 1.11 to 29.65 nanograms per liter (ng/L), with a median of 10.56 ng/L. The methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.45 to 14.03 ng/L, with a median of 2.28 ng/L. For the bottom-sediment samples, the total mercury concentration ranged from 21.3 to 74.6 nanograms per gram (ng/g), with a median of 54.2 ng/g. The methylmercury concentrations ranged from <0.11 to 2.04 ng/g, with a median of 0.78 ng/g. The total mercury concentrations in the water samples were all much less than 2 ?g/L (2,000 ng/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level for mercury in drinking water. However, water samples from four of the wetlands had concentrations larger than 0.012 ?g/L (12 ng/L), the State of South Dakota's chronic standard for surface waters, including wetlands. Maximum methylmercury concentrations for this study are larger than reported concentrations for wetlands in North Dakota and concentrations reported for the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

  11. Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer in Gregory and Tripp Counties, South Dakota, water years 1985--2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Kyle W.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer is an important water resource for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in Gregory and Tripp Counties in south-central South Dakota and is used for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock water supplies. To better understand groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer, conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow were developed for the aquifer. A conceptual model of the Ogallala aquifer was used to analyze groundwater flow and develop a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in the aquifer. The MODFLOW–NWT model was used to simulate transient groundwater conditions for water years 1985–2009. The model was calibrated using statistical parameter estimation techniques. Potential future scenarios were simulated using the input parameters from the calibrated model for simulations of potential future drought and future increased pumping. Transient simulations were completed with the numerical model. A 200-year transient initialization period was used to establish starting conditions for the subsequent 25-year simulation of water years 1985–2009. The 25-year simulation was discretized into three seasonal stress periods per year and used to simulate transient conditions. A single-layer model was used to simulate flow and mass balance in the Ogallala aquifer with a grid of 133 rows and 282 columns and a uniform spacing of 500 meters (1,640 feet). Regional inflow and outflow were simulated along the western and southern boundaries using specified-head cells. All other boundaries were simulated using no-flow cells. Recharge to the aquifer occurs through precipitation on the outcrop area. Model calibration was accomplished using the Parameter Estimation (PEST) program that adjusted individual model input parameters and assessed the difference between estimated and model-simulated values of hydraulic head and base flow. This program was designed to estimate parameter values that are statistically the most likely set of values to result in the smallest differences between simulated and observed values, within a given set of constraints. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer calculated during the 200-year initialization period established initial conditions for the transient simulation. Water levels for 38 observation wells were used to calibrate the 25-year simulation. Simulated hydraulic heads for the transient simulation were within plus or minus 20 feet of observed values for 95 percent of observation wells, and the mean absolute difference was 5.1 feet. Calibrated hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.9 to 227 feet per day (ft/d). The annual recharge rates for the transient simulation (water years 1985–2009) ranged from 0.60 to 6.96 inches, with a mean of 3.68 inches for the Ogallala aquifer. This represents a mean recharge rate of 280.5 ft3/s for the model area. Discharge from the aquifer occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams through river leakage and flow from springs and seeps, and well withdrawals. Water is withdrawn from wells for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock uses. Simulated mean discharge rates for water years 1985–2009 were about 185 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) for evapotranspiration, 66.7 ft3/s for discharge to streams, and 5.48 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Simulated annual evapotranspiration rates ranged from about 128 to 254 ft3/s, and outflow to streams ranged from 52.2 to 79.9 ft3/s. A sensitivity analysis was used to examine the response of the calibrated model to changes in model parameters for horizontal hydraulic conductivity, recharge, evapotranspiration, and spring and riverbed conductance. The model was most sensitive to recharge and maximum potential evapotranspiration and least sensitive to riverbed and spring conductances. Two potential future scenarios were simulated: a potential drought scenario and a potential increased pumping scenario. To simulate a potential drought scenario, a synthetic drought record was created, the mean of which was equal to 60 percent of the mean estimated recharge rate for the 25-year simulation period. Com

  12. Applications of Skylab EREP photographs to mapping of landforms and environmental geology in the Great Plains and Midwest. [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The utility of Skylab 2 and 3 S-190A multispectral photos for environmental-geologic/geomorphic applications is being tested by using them to prepare 1:250,000-scale maps of geomorphic features, surficial geology, geologic linear features, and soil associations of large, representative parts of the Great Plains and Midwest. Parts of Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and South Dakota were mapped. The maps were prepared primarily by interpretation of the S-190A photos, supplemented by information from topographic, geologic, and soil maps and reports. The color band provides the greatest information on geology, soils, and geomorphology; its resolution also is the best of all the multispectral bands and permits maximum detail of mapping. The color-IR band shows well the differences in soil drainage and moisture, and vegetative types, but has only moderate resolution. The B/W-red band is superior for topographic detail and stream alinements. The B/W-infrared bands best show differences in soil moisture and drainage but have poor resolution, especially those from SL 2. The B/W-green band generally is so low contrast and degraded by haze as to be nearly useless. Where stereoscopic coverage is provided, interpretation and mapping are done most efficiently using a Kern PG-2 stereoplotter.

  13. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  14. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  15. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY AGENCY: National Park...South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY...SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby...South Fork National Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky,...

  16. Awareness of Accessibility Barriers in Computer-Based Instructional Materials and Faculty Demographics at South Dakota Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology and course delivery methods have enabled persons with disabilities to enroll in higher education at an increasing rate. Federal regulations state persons with disabilities must be granted equal access to the information contained in computer-based instructional materials, but faculty at the six public universities in South

  17. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

    Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

    Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

    The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

    The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much broader, topographically distinct pathway of former glaciation that narrows to about 190 km (120 miles) wide. South of Fargo this narrowed pathway splits into two distinct paths (broad dark swaths on the image) that were carved by the southward flowing glaciers. Arcuate glacial moraines (deposits of rocks that were carried by glaciers) can be seen near this split, near what is now the approximate boundary between the Hudson Bay and Gulf of Mexico drainage basins (the latter via the Mississippi River).

    This glacial landscape has features that were favorable for the transport of ice but are not now so favorable for the transport of water. As measured in the digital elevation data, the Red River decreases in elevation only 40 meters (130 feet) from Fargo to the Canadian border (top of image) over a straight-line distance of 235 kilometers (145 miles) along the glacial trough. This is a gradient of only 17 centimeters per kilometer (11 inches per mile), and the actual river gradient is much lower as it follows a longer curvilinear path. Areas surrounding the trough (more rugged and bright in the image) have variable but generally much steeper gradients. In simple terms, this is a fundamental cause of flooding in Fargo. The speed of drainage of the rainfall and snowmelt is greatly related to topographic slope. The steeper slopes and merging streams concentrate water runoff into the glacial trough at Fargo, while the lower gradients within the trough allow the water to spread (and flood) but not drain quickly away.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission was a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies, and was managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

    Size: 440x380 kilometers; 270x235 miles Location:

  18. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area...Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area...Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows:...

  19. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE HOPPERS IN THE RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH DISCHARGE FLY ASH INTO A VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE OGIVE SHAPED DEVICE BELOW THE HOPPER IS A RELIEF INTAKE VALVE FOR THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE "S" SHAPED CONDUITS TO THE LEFT OF THE HOPPERS CARRY BOILER FEED WATER FROM THE ECONOMIZERS (WATER PREHEATERS) TO THE BOILERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  2. Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

    2005-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

  3. Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 have orbits that are offset from each other by 8 days. During the time that the sensors on both satellites are operational, there is an opportunity for conducting analyses that incorporate multiple intra-annual high spatial resolution data sets for characterizing the Earth's land surface. In the current study, nine Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data sets, covering the same path and row on different dates, were acquired during a 1-year time interval for a region in southeastern South Dakota and analyzed. Scenes were normalized using pseudoinvariant objects, and digital data from a series of test sites were extracted from the imagery and converted to surface reflectance. Sunphotometer data acquired on site were used to atmospherically correct the data. Ground observations that were made throughout the growing season by a large group of volunteers were used to help interpret spectroradiometric patterns and trends. Normalized images were found to be very effective in portraying the seasonal patterns of reflectance change that occurred throughout the region. Many of the radiometric patterns related to plant growth and development, but some also related to different background properties. The different kinds of land cover in the region were spectrally and radiometrically characterized and were found to have different seasonal patterns of reflectance. The degree to which the land cover classes could be separated spectrally and radiometrically, however, depended on the time of year during which the data sets were acquired, and no single data set appeared to be adequate for separating all types of land cover. This has practical implications for classification studies because known patterns of seasonal reflectance properties for the different types of land cover within a region will facilitate selection of the most appropriate data sets for producing land cover classifications.

  4. Chemical and biotic characteristics of prairie lakes and large wetlands in south-central North Dakota—Effects of a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; McLean, Kyle I.; Aparicio, Vanessa M.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the prairie pothole region of North America is known for variability that results in significant interannual changes in water depths and volumes of prairie lakes and wetlands; however, beginning in July 1993, the climate of the region shifted to an extended period of increased precipitation that has likely been unequaled in the preceding 500 years. Associated changing water volumes also affect water chemical characteristics, with potential effects on fish and wildlife populations. To explore the effect of changing climate patterns, in 2012 and 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey revisited 167 of 178 prairie lakes and large wetlands of south-central North Dakota that were originally sampled in the mid-1960s to mid-1970s. During the earlier sampling period, these lakes and wetlands displayed a great range of chemical characteristics (for example, specific conductance ranged from 365 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius to 70,300 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius); however, increased water volumes have resulted in greatly reduced variation among lakes and wetlands and a more homogeneous set of chemical conditions defined by pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of major cations and anions. High concentrations of dissolved solids previously limited fish occurrence in many of the lakes and wetlands sampled; however, freshening of these lakes and large wetlands has allowed fish to populate and flourish where they were previously absent. Conversely, the freshening of previously saline lakes and wetlands has resulted in concurrent shifts away from invertebrate species adapted to live in these highly saline environments. A shift in the regional climate has changed a highly diverse landscape of wetlands (fresh to highly saline) to a markedly more homogeneous landscape that has reshaped the fish and wildlife communities of this ecologically and economically important region.

  5. 76 FR 3926 - Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... poverty populations. In some regions, LSC designates migrant service areas for grants that are designed to... populations based on the estimated number of eligible migrants as a portion of the total poverty...

  6. An evaluation of the signature extension approach to large area crop inventories utilizing space image data. [Kansas and North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Stinson, J. L.; Balon, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two examples of haze correction algorithms were tested: CROP-A and XSTAR. The CROP-A was tested in a unitemporal mode on data collected in 1973-74 over ten sample segments in Kansas. Because of the uniformly low level of haze present in these segments, no conclusion could be reached about CROP-A's ability to compensate for haze. It was noted, however, that in some cases CROP-A made serious errors which actually degraded classification performance. The haze correction algorithm XSTAR was tested in a multitemporal mode on 1975-76 LACIE sample segment data over 23 blind sites in Kansas and 18 sample segments in North Dakota, providing wide range of haze levels and other conditions for algorithm evaluation. It was found that this algorithm substantially improved signature extension classification accuracy when a sum-of-likelihoods classifier was used with an alien rejection threshold.

  7. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating their statistics over large areas.

  8. An inferred relationship between some uranium deposits and calcium carbonate cement in southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gott, Garland B.

    1956-01-01

    Evidence resulting from geologic mapping in the southern Black Hills indicates that the areas marginal to some of the larger carbonate-cemented sandstones constitute favorable geochemical environments for the localization of uranium deposits. To determine whether these favorable environments are predictable a limited experimental core-drilling program was carried out. An extensive deposit was discovered in an area marginal to a sandstone well-cemented with calcium carbonate. The deposit has not yet been developed, but from the available data it appears that there is a significant quantity of mineralized rock present containing as much as 3.0 percent eU3O8.

  9. USING SEMIOCHEMICAL-BAITS TO SUPPRESS ADULT CORN ROOTWORM POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT SITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Corn Rootworm Areawide Management Program was conducted from 1997 – 2001 in five states. The site in Brookings County, SD was organized into an areawide unit encompassing 41.4 km2. This area contained both northern and western corn rootworms, which are serious pests of corn in the U.S. Corn Belt...

  10. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Sioux Falls quadrangle, South Dakota. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Computer printer maps of the magnetic total intensity and the six radiometric parameters have been prepared in addition to the radiometric anomaly maps for this area. The magnetic total intensity map displays a rather subdued response pattern of broad low amplitude anomalies over much of the area with an average magnetic intensity of approximately 58,900 gammas. The radiometric response over much of the area is relatively low. Equivalent concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium only rarely exceed 3.2 ppM, 7.5 ppM and 1.4% respectively. A number of these zones of increased concentrations show corresponding anomalous responses on the uranium/potassium and/or uranium/thorium pseudo-contour maps. Based on this set of computer printer maps alone however, it is, at times, difficult to discern the contribution of coinciding local decreases in the potassium and thorium parameters to these ratio anomalies. Based on the criteria stated in the general section on interpretation, a total of seven uranium and seven thorium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. All of these features, described in Appendix B, exhibit only weakly to moderately anomalous responses. Due to the generally low radiometric levels encountered throughout the quadrangle along with the lack of any favorable indications for enriched accumulation of either uranium or thorium as seen in their radioelement distributions when correlated with the mapped geology and the weak, at best, evidence of preferential accumulations of either parameter, no follow-up work is recommended.

  11. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  12. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  13. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...329, including the waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay...

  14. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...329, including the waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay...

  15. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...329, including the waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay...

  16. Holocene environmental and climatic change in the Northern Great Plains as recorded in the geochemistry of sediments in Pickerel Lake, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Schwalb, A.

    2000-01-01

    The sediments in Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, provide a continuous record of climatic and environmental change for the last 12000 yr. Sediments deposited between 12 and 6 ka (radiocarbon) show extreme variations in composition, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of bulk carbonate, carbon isotopic composition of organic matter, and magnetic susceptibility. These variations reflect changes in sources of moisture, regional vegetation types, precipitation-evaporation balance, ground- and surface-water influx, water residence time, erosion, lake productivity, water level, and water temperature. The total carbonate content of late Pleistocene sediments steadily increased from <20% at the base of the core to as much as 80% in sediments deposited between 11 and 9 ka. By about 8 ka, the total carbonate content of the sediments had declined to about 40% where it remained with little variation for the past 8 kyr, suggesting relatively stable conditions. There are marked increases in values of ??13C and ??18O in bulk carbonate, and ??13C of organic matter, in sediments deposited between 10 and 6 ka as evaporation increased, and the vegetation in the watershed changed from forest to prairie. This shift toward more 18O-enriched carbonate may also reflect a change in source or seasonality of precipitation. During this early Holocene interval the organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments remained relatively low (2-3%), but then increased rapidly to 4.5% between 7 and 6 ka, reflecting the rapid transition to a prairie lake. The OC content fluctuates slightly between 4 and 6% in sediments deposited over the past 6 kyr. Like OC and total carbonate, most variables measured show little variation in the 13 m of sediment deposited over the past 6 kyr, particularly when compared with early Holocene variations. Although the magnetic susceptibility of this upper 13 m of sediment is generally low (<10 SI units), the upper six meters of the section is marked by striking 1 m cycles (ca. 400-500 yr periodicity) in susceptibility. These cycles are interpreted as being due to variations in the influx of eolian detrital-clastic material. Century-scale cyclic variations in different proxy variables for aridity and eolian activity from sediments deposited over the past 2000 yr in other lakes in the northern Great Plains, as well as in sand dune activity, suggest that aridity cycles were the dominant feature of late Holocene climate of the northern Great Plains. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  17. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  19. Appraisal of the water resources of the Big Sioux aquifer, Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Neil C.

    1980-01-01

    A finite-difference method digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, S. Dak. Average annual water levels in the Big Sioux aquifer and average base flow discharge 58 cubic feet per second on the Big Sioux River near Brookings were based on the period 1970 through 1976. The computer model was used to model transient conditions by simulating monthly periods from April through August 1976. Evapotranspiration and pumpage changes were made for each month. A computer simulation was made without irrigation pumpage which resulted in an increase in the base flow from 0.66 to 9 cubic feet per second for August 1976 in the Big Sioux River near Brookings. Two transient simulations , one with the drought conditions of 1976 and one using all the pumpage allowed by irrigation permits approved by the State as of February 1979 showed, as a result of pumpage, that there was a decrease in evapotranspiration and a decrease in discharge to streams which amounts to 26 and 31% of the total groundwater pumped. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are primarily calcium bicarbonate types and are chemically suitable for irrigation with respect to sodium hazard. Sepcific conductance of groundwater ranged from 407 to 1,790 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius. (USGS)

  20. Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

  1. Deposition of Crow Creek Member (Pierre Shale, Campanian), southeast South Dakota, and supposed relations to Iowa's Manson Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Witzke, B.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ludvigson, G.A. . Geological Survey Bureau); Hammond, R.H. )

    1994-04-01

    Previous dates from the Manson Impact Structure (MIS) indicated an age near the K-T boundary (65 Ma), but a date of 73.8 Ma was recently reported for a single breccia clast at Manson. The discovery of shock metamorphosed grains in roughly coeval Pierre Shale strata in S. Dak. led Izett et al. to propose that the Crow Creek Mbr contains Manson's distal impact ejecta. They indicated that Manson was covered by a seaway at that time, and postulated effects from an impact-triggered tsunami in the Western Interior. A study of Crow Creek strata from four sites in Yankton Co., S. Dak. was undertaken to evaluate the sedimentary context of the contained impact-derived grains. The sub-Crow Creek unconformity truncates lower Pierre strata eastward across S. Dak. and locally overlies the Niobrara Fm on the sioux Ridge. Probable leaf fossils are seen along this surface at one site. Basal Crow Creek strata reveal evidence of condensed sedimentation coincident with the onset of Bearpaw transgression, particularly occurrences of glauconite, abundant phosphate (pellets, phosphatized matrix, fish bone apatite), and foam-rich lithologies. Basal strata contain detrital grains (15--25% volume) derived from eastern source areas, including quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals and small clasts of siltstone, mudstone, shale, dolomite, limestone, and quartzite. Floating silt and sand-sized detrital grains persist in the overlying Crow Creek marls, indicating continuing detrital influx. Shock metamorphic planar deformation features (PDFs) are seen in many quartz grains (10-30% in basal unit) and some quartzite and siltstone grains; these are definitive for an impact-derived source. Was the MIS the source of these grains, and does the Crow Creek show evidence of a Manson-triggered tsunami Several obstacles remain and are discussed.

  2. Petrogenetic relationships between pegmatite and granite based on geochemistry of muscovite in pegmatite wall zones, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L. ); Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K. )

    1992-05-01

    The compositions of large samples of granitic pegmatite wall zones have been determined for a suite of ten pegmatites of diverse geochemical character and degree of compositional evolution in the Keystone area of the Black Hills. Whole-rock compositions are strongly peraluminous, and they deviate substantially from the granite minimum composition in quartz-albite-orthoclase normalized components, showing considerably more scatter than Harney Peak Granite whole rocks. Wall-zone minerals are commonly coarsely segregated, leading to large modal variability among whole rocks. These features make whole-rock samples of wall zones unsuitable for the determination of initial pegmatite bulk compositions. Trace and minor element compositions of muscovite separates from the wall zones were thus determined to eliminate the effects of modal variability on trace element concentrations so that geochemical differences between pegmatites could be modeled. Estimates of initial pegmatite melt trace element concentrations range from 800-4,000 ppm Rb, 100-1,000 ppm Cs, 200-2,000 ppm Li, and 1-50 ppm Ba. Trace element concentrations of muscovite from a given pegmatite generally cluster together, although several show considerable intra-pegmatite scatter, and there are large overlaps among different pegmatites. The geochemical characteristics of samples from the Etta pegmatite indicate mixing with and assimilation of country rocks. Exceptionally low Rb/Cs ratios of muscovite from the Etta pegmatite and similar to those of muscovite from K-feldspar-rich assemblages of other pegmatites where the Rb concentration of melt may have been buffered by crystallizing assemblages that had bulk Rb distribution coefficients close to 1.

  3. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-09-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22-21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12-9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  4. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake and retention ponds during May and September also contained cyanobacteria. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol concentrations were less than detection limits (0.005 ug/L) in all five of the Rapid Creek samples collected in May. Actinomycetes bacteria were present at the water treatment plant intake in May 2007, at a concentration of 6 colonies per milliliter. During this study, no taste-and-odor problems with the drinking water within the study area were reported. However, the presence of cyanobacterial taxa known to contain taste-and-odor producing strains (such as Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, and Anabaena) indicates the potential for taste-and-odor problems under certain physical and chemical conditions.

  5. Structural styles and depositional history of North and South Padre Island, OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    North and South Padre Island OCS areas were studied using 2-D seismic reflection data, check shot data, well logs and paleontological reports. Six salt structures occur beneath the present shelf edge. Shale occurs in over-pressured ridges beneath fault footwalls. We found that growth faults in the study area are similar in style to that of growth faults in the Brazos OCS area. However, they differ in maximum expansion periods. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above an over-pressured shale ridge. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) formed due to a large sediment influx that forced salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene due to further salt withdrawal We defined five depositional sequences from the Miocene (18.0, 16.3, 13.4, 10.5, and 6.2 Ma). Nine mini-basins are in the study area and they are connected by three main sediments pathways. Mechanism of the basin formation is controlled by the nature of depocenter shift. Depocenters formed by salt withdrawal and sediment influx do not shift. On the other hand, depocenters shift is controlled by fault expansion and sediment influx. We generated five stratigraphic cross-sections using detailed well log correlation to show the sand and shale sequences. Discontinuities in these sequences are common due to subsidence and the large number of faults in the study area. Presence of faults and shale bodies may cause formation of structural traps.

  6. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood deposits in conjunction with hydraulic calculations based on modern channel and valley geometry. Reach-scale paleoflood chronologies were interpreted for each study reach, which generally entailed correlation of flood evidence among multiple sites, chiefly based on relative position within stratigraphic sequences, unique textural characteristics, or results of age dating and flow estimation. The FLDFRQ3 and PeakfqSA analytical models (assuming log-Pearson Type III frequency distributions) were used for flood-frequency analyses for as many as four scenarios: (1) analysis of gaged records only; (2) gaged records with historical information; (3) all available data including gaged records, historical flows, paleofloods, and perception thresholds; and (4) the same as the third scenario, but ?top fitting? the distribution using only the largest 50 percent of gaged peak flows. The PeakfqSA model is most consistent with procedures adopted by most Federal agencies for flood-frequency analysis and thus was (1) used for comparisons among results for study reaches, and (2) considered by the authors as most appropriate for general applications of estimating low-probability flood recurrence. The detailed paleoflood investigations indicated that in the last 2,000 years all study reaches have had multiple large floods substantially larger than in gaged records. For Spring Creek, stratigraphic records preserved a chronology of at least five paleofloods in approximately (~) 1,000 years approaching or exceeding the 1972 flow of 21,800 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The largest was ~700 years ago with a flow range of 29,300-58,600 ft3/s, which reflects the uncertainty regarding flood-magnitude estimates that was incorporated in the flood-frequency analyses. In the lower reach of Rapid Creek (downstream from Pactola Dam), two paleofloods in ~1,000 years exceeded the 1972 flow of 31,200 ft3/s. Those occurred ~440 and 1,000 years ago, with flows of 128,000-256,000 and 64,000-128,000 ft3/s, respectively. Five smaller paleofloods of 9,500-19,000 ft3/s occurred between ~200 and 400 year

  7. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  8. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  10. Reaching North Dakota’s food insecure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For 1 in 12 North Dakotans the charitable feeding network is the difference between having food on the table and going hungry. The goal of this research was to determine needs, barriers to, and facilitators of optimal access to North Dakota’s charitable feeding programs. Focus groups and interviews ...

  11. Belle Fourche folio, South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Darton, Nelson Horatio, 1865-1948.

    1909-01-01

    ), Jacques Grollet (Jacques Grole), and Pierre Meunier. French authorities much later interrogated the eldest two Talon siblings, Pierre and Jean-Baptiste. When the Spanish located Jean G?ry, an early deserter of the French colony, he was living... carpenter, Lucien Talon, as having been a soldier (Joutel 1998:112). Under interrogation by the French government a decade later, however, Talon?s sons stated that their father practiced carpentry by trade (Bell 1987:225). Although Pierre and Jean...

  12. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  13. De Smet folio, South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Todd, J. E. (James Edward), 1846-1922.

    1904-01-01

    ). The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) included being aware of emotions as one of the main indicators of creativity. Ideas occur as a result of emotional and irrational factors (Torrance & Safter, 1999, p. 127). De Bono (1975), in the program he... in Agricultural Education has been both ?hands-on? and conceptual in intent (Parr & Edwards, 2004), experiential learning has been used as a foundational model of teaching and learning in Agricultural Education (Knobloch, 2003). Numerous researchers...

  14. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

  15. Fluid inclusions in the Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Implications for solubility and evolution of magmatic volatiles and crystallization of leucogranite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Peter I.; Ternes, Kim

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that magmatic fluids have strong influence on phase equilibria of granitic systems. A microthermometric study of fluid inclusions in the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, was undertaken to obtain direct evidence for the composition and evolution of magmatic fluids in a leucogranitic system and to evaluate their effect on liquid-lines-of-descent of leucogranite magmas. A previous stable isotopic study has demonstrated that the granite has not interacted with nonmagmatic fluids since its crystallization. Therefore, fluids found in the inclusions are of magmatic origin and present an opportunity to directly sample magmatic fluids trapped during crystallization of a granitic magma and during subsolidus conditions. The Harney Peak Granite was emplaced as multiple sills, dikes, and small intrusions, many of which differentiated into coupled aplite-pegmatite layers. Three types of fluid inclusions are found in the granite. Type 1 consist of variable saline H 2O?C0 2 mixtures with minor CH 4 or other gases. Inclusions of this type are found in tourmaline and quartz in aplite layers, are generally isolated, and have negative crystal shapes. They are interpreted to be primary. There is a general increase in salinity and decrease in isochore temperature with decreasing CO 2/H 2O ratio of the inclusions. The trend is ascribed to progressive change in fluid composition with crystallization due to the differential solubility of CO 2 and H 2O in the high-silica magma. Isochores, coupled with independently determined crystallization temperatures, suggest entrapment pressure ˜3.5 kbar, consistent with geobarometry in the wallrocks. Type 2 inclusions are carbonic fluids dominated by CO 2, whereas type 3 inclusions are saline aqueous fluids without a detected carbonic component. Both types are mostly found along healed fractures in quartz. They are interpreted to be secondary inclusions that formed as a result of unmixing of type 1 inclusions at subsolidus conditions during uplift and cooling of the Harney Peak Granite dome. Freezing-point depressions, birefringent daughter crystals, phase-equilibria considerations, and ?-track mapping of B and Li distribution in thin sections, all indicate that both type 1 and type 3 inclusions contain solutes such as K, Li, and B in addition to NaCl. Using published solubility models for H 2O and CO 2 in granitic melts and the composition of the most CO 2-rich type 1 inclusions ( X CO 2 = 0.55), the initial H 2O and CO 2 concentrations in the Harney Peak Granite magma are deduced to have been ˜3.5 wt% and 1500 ppm, respectively. The relatively low water concentration is consistent with temperatures of dehydration-melting reactions that produced the magma. It is suggested that the aplite-pegmatite segregations found in parts of the Harney Peak Granite are the result of initial rapid near liquidus crystallization of minerals with high Na/K ratios, including plagioclase and tourmaline, along a wide range of increasing ?H 2O. Aplite crystallization was followed by crystallization of relatively potassic residual liquid enriched in fluxing elements under conditions of high ?H 2O.

  16. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

  17. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

  18. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

  19. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

  20. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...