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1

77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota AGENCY: Fish and...in the eastern parts of North Dakota and South Dakota, which cover all...North Dakota; Jamestown, North Dakota; and Huron, South Dakota;...

2012-02-16

2

HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF WETLAND BIRDS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, surveys were conducted in 168 wetlands to evaluate the influence of habitat area on bird use of wetlands in western South Dakota. Wetland birds were surveyed using 18-m (0.1-ha) fixed radius circular-point counts. An av- erage of five species (SE = 0.30; range 0-17) occupied semipermanent and sea- sonal wetlands. Semipermanent wetlands with intermediate emergent vegeta- tion coverage

David E. Naugle; Kenneth F. Higgins; Kristel K. Bakker

1999-01-01

3

SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF  

E-print Network

- SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF GAME, FISH & PARKS Division of Wildlife By Robert B. Dahlgren Raymond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15 Game Farms? No. Sir! .. . .. .. .. .. ..... .. ... . .... 18 Close the Season

4

Statistics of South Dakota Libraries. 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota State Library 1975 annual report is presented in this volume, followed by tables of statistical data on services, resources, income, and expenditures for South Dakota public, academic, and special libraries. Sections include: (1) a summary of public library statistics by size of library and type of library; (2) map of areas with…

South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

5

Workforce Brief: South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In South Dakota, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare and healthcare support occupations will see growth of about 25 percent; over 2,500 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. There will be a 24 percent increase in the number of…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

6

South Dakota geothermal handbook  

SciTech Connect

The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-06-01

7

Selected hydrogeologic data for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents selected hydrogeologic data on wells and springs in the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The data were used to create potentiometric maps for these five aquifers.

Galloway, J. M.

1999-01-01

8

South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services (SDCES) is to "provide practical learning resources to address complex problems of youth and families, communities, agriculture, business, and industry." The SDCES is based at South Dakota State University, and their work includes creating fact sheets, reports, and educational materials on community development, Native American life, 4-H programs, and natural resources.

9

Availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An evaluation made in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota, concluded that Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development of the three major aquifers investigated (the Inyan Kara, the Minnelusa, and the Madison). Ground-water availability and quality were evaluated on the basis of unit thickness and depth, potentiometric-surface altitudes and gradients, estimated recharge and discharge rates, estimated aquifer transmissivities and storage coefficients, reported yields of existing wells, and concentrations of ions in the water that may affect its use as a community supply. The Inyan Kara aquifer has the least potential for additional development because of reported small well yields , the proximity of the outcrop, and concentration of radium-226 exceeding 5 picocuries per liter. The Minnelusa aquifer is unsuitable for development in the eastern two-thirds of the study area because the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate commonly exceed the recommended maximum level for community water supplies. The Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development because it has the greatest recharge rate, has areas with significant fracture permeability, yields as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells, and has satisifactory water quality, though it is hard (hardness 120 to 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard (hardness greater than 180 milligrams per liter). (USGS)

Peter, K.D.

1985-01-01

10

South Dakota Kids Count Project: 1994 Factbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This factbook provides data on the well-being of South Dakota children. It is intended as a vehicle for policy makers, advocates, the media, and service providers to raise awareness on the status of children in South Dakota. Section 1 of the factbook is an introduction and overview on South Dakota demographics. Section 2 presents special reports…

Haven, Terry; Dykstra, De Vee

11

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

12

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

13

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

14

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

15

South Dakota Tourism Leopard Frog  

E-print Network

kinds, thus they are good biological indicators of our own environment. Unfortunately, we know very and Fisheries Sciences Department of South Dakota State University (SDSU) will begin a county in the state. The SDSU Department of Wild- life and Fisheries Sciences has com- piled an audio cassette tape

16

Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

17

South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

Not Available

1980-06-01

18

Ecoregions of North Dakota and South Dakota: Interactive Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. This interactive map shows the ecoregions of North and South Dakota in increasing levels of detail (from level III to level IV). Clicking on the legend shows information for each type of ecoregion, including a photo and description, physiography, geology, soils type, climate, natural vegetation types, and land use/land cover. A downloadable version is available.

19

A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents' decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling in South Dakota were the opportunity for parents to strengthen their

Bonni F. Boschee; Floyd Boschee

2011-01-01

20

Wetland Resources of Eastern South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has recently posted a resource on South Dakota Wetlands. This report, by R. Johnson and K. Higgins, offers text, tables, and color illustrations of South Dakota's wetlands, including history of wetland drainage and the National Wetlands Inventory. Both reports may be browsed online or downloaded (.zip) from the respective sites.

Higgens, Kenneth F.; Johnson, Rex R.

21

B 729, OCTOBER 1998 SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

DIVISION SOUTH DAKOTA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT SOUTH DAKOTA GAME, FISH & PARKS U.S. FISH/BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES DIVISION SOUTH DAKOTA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT SOUTH DAKOTA GAME, FISH & PARKS U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;Sand Lake NWR is named "Wetland of International Importance

22

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

23

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2010-10-01

24

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2012-10-01

25

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2011-10-01

26

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2013-10-01

27

USGS Water Resources of South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of South Dakota site contains hydrologic data, including realtime streamflow, precipitation, and water use data. There are USGS water resources publications and information on projects such as the Black Hills Hydrology Study; the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Volatile Organic Chemicals National Synthesis; the Belle Fourche Watershed Assessment Study; and the Sensitivity of Ground Water to Contamination project in Lawrence County, South Dakota.

28

Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of wildlife areas in eastern South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A soils map for land evaluation in Potter County (Eastern South Dakota) was developed to demonstrate the use of remote sensing technology in the area of diverse parent materials and topography. General land use and soils maps have also been developed for land planning LANDSAT, RB-57 imagery, and USGS photographs are being evaluated for making soils and land use maps. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general land use and a general soils map. RB-57 imagery supplemented by large scale black and white stereo coverage was required to provide the detail needed for the final soils map for land evaluation. Color infrared prints excelled black and white coverage for this soil mapping effort. An identification and classification key for wetland types in the Lake Dakota Plain was developed for June 1975 using color infrared imagery. Wetland types in the region are now being mapped via remote sensing techniques to provide a current inventory for development of mitigation measures.

1975-01-01

29

Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

30

Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on major hydrologic processes. Finally, conservative tracers were weighted preferentially in model calibration, which distributed model errors of optimized values, or residuals, more appropriately than would otherwise be the case The latter item also provides an estimate of the relative effect of geochemical evolution along flow paths in comparison to mixing. The end-member mixing model estimated that Wind Cave sites received 38 percent of their groundwater inflow from local surface recharge, 34 percent from the upgradient Precambrian aquifer, 26 percent from surface recharge to the west, and 2 percent from regional flow. Artesian springs primarily received water from end members assumed to represent regional groundwater flow. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gasses (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oxygen), and tritium at selected sites and used to estimate groundwater age. Apparent ages, or model ages, for the Madison aquifer in the study area indicate that groundwater closest to surface recharge areas is youngest, with increasing age in a downgradient direction toward deeper parts of the aquifer. Arsenic concentrations in samples collected for this study ranged from 0.28 to 37.1 micrograms per liter (?g/L) with a median value of 6.4 ?g/L, and 32 percent of these exceeded 10 ?g/L. The highest arsenic concentrations in and near the study area are approximately coincident with the outcrop of the Minnelusa Formation and likely originated from arsenic in shale layers in this formation. Sample concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite were less than 2 milligrams per liter for 92 percent of samples collected, which is not a concern for drinking-water quality. Water samples were collected in the park and analyzed for five trace metals (chromium, copper, lithium, vanadium, and zinc), the concentrations of which did not correlate with arsenic. Dye tracing indicated hydraulic connection between three water bodies in Wind Cave.

Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D. R. G.

2012-01-01

31

Comprehensive Housing Market Analysis: Rapid City, South Dakota As of January 1, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rapid City, South Dakota Housing Market Area (HMA), located in the Black Hills of South Dakota, consists of Meade and Pennington Counties. The area is a tourist destination, with national attractions such as the Mount Rushmore National Memorial and th...

2008-01-01

32

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

33

Results of a Randomized Cloud Seeding Experiment in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year randomized crossover seeding experiment has been conducted in South Dakota to test effects of artificial nucleation upon supercooled convective clouds of spring and early summer. The associated rainfall observations have been analyzed by several statistical techniques. The principal conclusions are: 1) on days with isolated showers, rainfall has been heavier in the seeded target area than in the

A. S. Dennis; Alexander Koscielski

1969-01-01

34

SURVEY OF FURBEARERS IN FALL RIVER COUNTY SOUTH DAKOTA WITH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable soil substrates in 2 survey areas of Fall River County, South Dakota containing both public (i.e., Buffalo Gap National Grassland) and private rangeland were searched for evidence of furbearers with emphasis on swift fox (Vulpes velox) between 1 September and 4 November 1999. Surveys of roads, dams, creeks, and cowpaths were conducted by walking selected land quarter sections (64.8

Richard A. Peterson; Jonathan A. Jenks; Eileen Dowd Stukel

35

HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the trapping season of 1977-78 and 1978-79, 51 bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic helminths. Diaphragm, tongue, and masseter muscle samples from 153 bobcats were examined for trichinosis. Nematodes located included Toxascaris leonina in 46 of 51 (90%), Toxocara mystax in 2 of 51 (4%). Physaloptera prae­ putialis in

Elizabeth C. Schitoskey

36

Provisional Checklist of Mammals of South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution al patterns of mammals in South Dakota are among th e most poorly known for an y region of similar size in temperate N orth America . The only state-wide treatment of th e group was the mimeograph ed compilation by Over and Churchill (1945), which consisted mostly of nontechnical anecdotes . Consequently , much of what is known

Jerry R. Choate; J. Knox Jones

37

Growth of Crappies in South Dakota Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained age-and-growth data from 34 black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) samples from 25 water bodies and nine white crappie (P. annularis) samples from four water bodies in South Dakota from 1990 through 1993. Mean back-calculated length for black crappie was significantly different among water body type [i.e., small impoundments (< 40 ha), reservoirs (? 40 ha) and natural lakes] for

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis

1995-01-01

38

Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

2000-01-01

39

Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and cause-specific mortality of pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) have been well-documented in several western states and Canadian provinces. However, no information has been collected in western South Dakota, USA, where mixed-grass prairie habitats characterize rangelands. The objectives of our study were to determine survival and cause-specific mortality of adult (.18 months) and yearling (6-18 months) pronghorns and to determine monthly

CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JONATHAN A. JENKS; JARET D. SIEVERS; DANIEL E. RODDY; FREDERICK G. LINDZEY

2007-01-01

40

South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)  

DOE Data Explorer

WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and transmission system expansion. [Copied from http://sdwind.com/about/

41

Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change, South Dakota  

E-print Network

and forest land by year, South Dakota. Figure 2. ­ Area of forest land for top five forest types by stand Mountain juniper Elm/ash/black locust Forest land (1,000 acres) Foresttypes Small Medium Large 2009 trees (1,000 ft3 /year) 27,835.5 15.2 NA Annual harvest removals of live trees (1,000 ft3/year) 27

42

South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

Wegman, S.

1985-01-01

43

The Impact of Reagan Federalism on South Dakota and South Dakota Government.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This field network study is an account of how three essential features of Reagan federalism affected South Dakota government and programs from 1981-1983: (1) tightening eligibility requirements for entitlement programs to reduce costs; (2) combining 57 categorical grants into 9 block grants, which broadened program goals to permit wider state…

Farber, William O.

44

Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota  

E-print Network

), smooth softshell turtle (Apalone mutica), spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera), western painted213 Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota SARAH J. BANDAS1 and KENNETH F. HIGGINS, morphometric measurements were recorded for 755 turtles representing six species in South Dakota. Turtles were

45

A Critical Look At South Dakota Cable TV Franchising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the present status and future potential of cable television (CATV) in South Dakota is conducted. Chapter 1 offers a brief introduction to cable in the State and Chapter 2 discusses the value of CATV to South Dakota. The next Chapter presents a State plan for communications and the fourth deals with the subject of franchising. The…

Williamson, Rick P.

46

Encyclopedia of Research on Distance Education in South Dakota. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The action research reports compiled in this revised Encyclopedia focus on distance education in South Dakota. Contents include: "Designing Instruction for Distance Education: Guide to Best Practice" (Michael Simonson); "Effectiveness of Strategies Used by South Dakota Distance Education Teachers" (Jan Brockel); "Consortium: Key To Successful…

Simonson, Michael, Comp.; Crawford, Margaret, Comp.

47

Systematic Spacing of Townsites along Eastern South Dakota's Rail Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates townsite distribution in South Dakota's land settlement pattern. Reviews past theories explaining eastern South Dakota's systematic spacing of towns along rail lines. Indicates a correlation between railroad functions and town development, advancing the theory that nineteenth-century railroad technology, involving traffic control and…

Lockwood, Catherine M.

1990-01-01

48

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

49

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South. Antelope Creek, Lincoln, NE ..................... 26-2 4. Bear Creek Lake, CO.................................. 26-3 5. Big Sioux River & Skunk Creek, Sioux Falls, SD ......................................... 26

US Army Corps of Engineers

50

Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was < 10 ft. Using these criteria, about 14 sq mi of the study area are suitable for artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in the study area are estimated to range from 1.3 to 4.3 ft/day. Using an infiltration rate of 2 ft/day, a spreading pond with an area of 0.16 sq mi would be required to artificially recharge at a rate of 100 cu/sec/m. (Author 's abstract)

Emmons, P. J.

1987-01-01

51

An Educator's Guide to South Dakota's Natural Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website focuses on environmental education and includes pages on the flora, fauna, endangered species, and other natural resources of South Dakota. The pages feature descriptions and illustrations, and are intended for use by educators.

Jarrett, Martin J.; Survey, South D.

52

Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota  

Cancer.gov

Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota Sanford Cancer Center 1305 W. 18th Street Sioux Falls, SD 57105 www.sanfordhealth.org • Pat O’Brien, MD, President, Sanford USD Medical Center • Dan Blue, MD, President, Sanford Clinic •

53

Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

1975-01-01

54

University of South Dakota Mathematics/Science Symposium: First Eisenhower Focused Initiative K-12 Mathematics and Science Symposium Conference Proceedings (Vermillion, South Dakota, January 13-14, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers presented at a mathematics and science symposium. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for the interchange of the state-of-the-art mathematics and science education activities taking place within a South Dakota National Science Foundation State Systemic Initiative project within Southeast Area

Otto, Paul B., Ed.

55

Transition year labeling error characterization study. [Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling errors made in the large area crop inventory experiment transition year estimates by Earth Observation Division image analysts are identified and quantified. The analysis was made from a subset of blind sites in six U.S. Great Plains states (Oklahoma, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, North and South Dakota). The image interpretation basically was well done, resulting in a total omission error rate of 24 percent and a commission error rate of 4 percent. The largest amount of error was caused by factors beyond the control of the analysts who were following the interpretation procedures. The odd signatures, the largest error cause group, occurred mostly in areas of moisture abnormality. Multicrop labeling was tabulated showing the distribution of labeling for all crops.

Clinton, N. J. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

56

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 82 (2003) 213 MENINGEAL WORM IN A  

E-print Network

South Dakota State University Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT A 3.5-year old male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) collected in Febru- ary 2001 from Charles Mix County, South Dakota by South Dakota Department

57

Development of historic and synthesized unregulated streamflow for the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota, 1983-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit may have some affect on the hydrology of the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The Garrison Diversion Unit Monthly Operations Model was developed to analyze a wide range of streamflow conditions that could occur in the James River Basin. The purpose of this study was to compute monthly streamflows that are required as input to the model. Historic stream flow data were complied and record extension methods were used, when necessary, to compute monthly streamflow for 1983-91 for 15 gaging stations on the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The record extension methods used include Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1, Ordinary Least Squares, and drainage-area ratio. In addition to the historic streamflow, synthesized unregulated streamflow was computed for the 15 gaging stations on the James River for 1983-91 by eliminating the effects of Jamestown Reservoir, Pipestem Reservoir, Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, consumptive surface-water withdrawals, and wastewater withdrawals. Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1, Ordinary Least Squares regression, water-balance procedures, and drainage-area ratio method were used to compute the unregulated streamflows.

Emerson, D. G.; Niehus, C. A.

1994-01-01

58

Digital map of areas of little or no saturated thickness for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for boundaries of areas of little or no saturated thickness within the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was compiled from a digital coverage that was created for publication of paper maps in McGrath and Dugan (1993, Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer -- predevelopment to 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4088, 53 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

59

Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

Hamilton, L. J.

1985-01-01

60

Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.  

PubMed

Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota. PMID:23444597

Kightlinger, Lon

2013-01-01

61

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

26-1 OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Control 3. Antelope Creek, Lincoln, NE..........................26-2 4. Bear Creek Lake, CO......................................26-3 5. Big Sioux River & Skunk Creek, Sioux Falls, SD

US Army Corps of Engineers

62

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South 3. Aberdeen and Vicinity, SD 26-3 4. Antelope Creek, Lincoln, NE 26-3 5. Bear Creek Lake, CO 26-4 6. Big Sioux River & Skunk Creek, Sioux Falls, SD 26-4 7. Bowman-Haley Lake, ND 26-5 8. Buford Trenton

US Army Corps of Engineers

63

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca  

E-print Network

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held performance in length and weight of South Dakota yellow perch fingerlings. [Article copies available for a fee

64

Distribution, Roost Site Selection and Food Habits of Bats in Eastern South Dakota Vicki J. Swier  

E-print Network

Distribution, Roost Site Selection and Food Habits of Bats in Eastern South Dakota BY Vicki J, Roost Site Selection and Food Habits of bats in Eastern South Dakota Vicki J. Swier January 2003 From in Biological Sciences South Dakota State University 2003 #12;ii Distribution, Roost Site Selection and Food

Pedersen, Scott C.

65

Application of LANDSAT digital data for monitoring drought. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique utilizing transformed LANDSAT digital data for detection of agricultural vegetative water stress was developed during the 1976 South Dakota drought, and expanded to the U.S. Great Plains the following year to evaluate its effectiveness in detecting and monitoring vegetative stress water stress over large areas. This technique, the green index number (GIN), indicated when the vegetation within a segment was undergoing stress. Segments were classified as either moisture-stressed or normal using remote sensing techniques combined with a knowledge of crop condition. The remote sensing-based information was compared to a weekly ground-based index (the crop moisture index) provided by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce. The approaches used and the results from the GIN monitoring program are presented.

Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

66

Report on Pollution Affecting Water Quality of the Cheyenne River System, Western South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 1970, fish from the Cheyenne River Arm of Oahe Reservoir, and other areas throughout western South Dakota were found to have mercury in their flesh exceeding 0.5 parts per million (ppm). The report presents a follow up study to invest...

1971-01-01

67

VARIATION IN SMALL MAMMAL RICHNESS AMONG ECOTYPES IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammal diversity and distribution was assessed for three ecotypes at Oakwood Lakes Game Production Area in eastern South Dakota. Ecotypes were an eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) stand, native grassland con- sisting mainly of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Indian grass (Sorghas- trum nutans), and switchgrass (Panicium virgatum), and a cultivated corn (Zea mays) food plot. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

David F. Terrall; Nick G. Cochran; Jonathan A. Jenks

68

Lightning fires in North Dakota grasslands and in pine-savanna lands of South Dakota and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lightning strike fires which occurred between 1940 and 1981 were studied in mixed-grass prairie grasslands and in pine-savanna lands in the Northern Great Plains region. A majority (73%) of ignitions occurred during July and August, while a lesser number was recorded in April, May, June, and September. The April-September period is also the average time of the freeze-free period and approximates the average distribution period for thunderstorm activity in this region. The area burned by each of 293 lightning fires (most of which were suppressed) ranged from 0.004-1158.3 ha (mean = 10.8 ha). The frequency of lightning fires in mixed-grass prairie grasslands averaged 6.0/yr per 10,000 km2 in eastern North Dakota, 22.4/yr per 10,000 km2 in southcentral North Dakota, 24.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in western North Dakota, and 91.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in pine-savanna lands in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. The ecological role of lightning-set fires is discussed relative to the development of resource research and management plans and to the interpretation of historical records of natural fire occurrence in the Northern Great Plains region.

Higgins, K. F.

1984-01-01

69

Research Article Dispersal of Yearling Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

E-print Network

group. Dispersal distances in northern forest deer (Odocoileus sp., Alces alces, Capreolus capreolus max- imum dispersal distances of 16.8 km for individual yearling black-tailed deer (O. hemionus km for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Dakota and Minnesota, USA, respectively

70

Soil-moisture ground truth, Hand County, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil types were determined from the Soil Survey of Hand County, South Dakota. The soil types encountered on the soil moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil moisture data are presented. The data have been divided by range, township and section. The soil moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.

Jones, E. B.

1976-01-01

71

Rural Poverty in Three Eastern South Dakota Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 120 low-income families receiving food commodities in 3 eastern South Dakota counties provided a socio-demographic overview of family characteristics; tested the Culture of Poverty approach for classifying rural, low-income families; tested the homogeneity among these families; and presented implications for policy-making and program…

Satterlee, James L.; Riley, Marvin P.

72

E -A S -T -E R N South Dakota  

E-print Network

as well as people who live hun- dreds or thousands of miles away, benefit from South Dakota wetlands, natural lakes, rivers, and other water bodies mapped by the National Wetlands In- ventory (NWI). Percent and streams account for an- other 69,300 acres. Wetlands cover about 9.8 percent of the total land- scape

73

South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists contact information for educational programs, human services, and other resources for children, youth, and families in South Dakota. Sections cover adult basic education programs, alcohol and drug treatment facilities, career learning centers, clothing, community health nurses, community mental health centers, consumer credit…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

74

The Instructional Media Center at South Dakota State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Instructional Media Center (IMC) at South Dakota State University. Highlights include its mission and goals; staff--professional, career service employees and student assistants; four service groups--instructional technologies, media production, instructional telecommunications, and media resources; budget; and successes. (AEF)

Sheeley, Gary

1994-01-01

75

Dispersal of Yearling Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We captured and radiocollared 57 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns in western South Dakota, USA, during May 2002-2003 and radiotracked them through 15 months of age, by which time all surviving individuals had established a permanent home range. We classified 56% (n ¼ 19) of fawns as dispersers and 44% (n ¼ 15) as residents. Eighty-four percent (n ¼ 16) of

CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JONATHAN A. JENKS

2007-01-01

76

Research Article Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

E-print Network

. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 71(3):737­743; 2007) DOI: 10.2193/2005-685 KEY WORDS Antilocapra americana. Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations are distrib- uted throughout western South Dakota, USA, where of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA ABSTRACT Survival and cause-specific mortality of pronghorns (Antilocapra

77

South Dakota Low Income Families and Migration. Bulletin 637.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the U.S. Census definition of poverty, an attempt was made to determine: how many poverty level South Dakota families there were in 1970 and where they resided; the socioeconomic factors explaining county differences in poverty incomes; whether those factors explaining poverty incidence would correlate with county differences in the extent…

Montoya, Marco; And Others

78

BURROWING OWL FOODS IN CONATA BASIN, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) were studied in a prairie dog town of southwestern South Dakota. Pellets regurgitated by Burrowing Owls contained a wide variety of prey remains. Insects, spiders, small mammals, and vegetation were the most frequent items identified in the pellets. Mammals were consumed most frequently during spring and early summer. Insects were consumed in large numbers during the

Daniel W. Uresk; James G. Maccracken; Richard M. Hansen

79

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

80

WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of  

E-print Network

177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

81

2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second exceeded the previous peak of record set in 1997 by 1,500 cubic feet per second. For the cities of Fargo, and Moorhead, Minn., and the surrounding area, the stage of the Red River remained above flood stage for nearly 2 months. In addition to high stage and flow on the main-stem Missouri and Red Rivers, peak of record stage and discharge were recorded at many U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the Missouri River and Red River Basins. Several reservoirs and lakes in the region also experienced record stage elevations from the high flows during the 2009 spring snowmelt floods.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

2011-01-01

82

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Newcastle Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Uranium resources of the Newcastle 1/sup 0/x2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Many of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled and described. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, interpreted from an aerial radiometric survey, were outlined. Areas favorable for uranium deposits in the subsurface were evaluated using gamma-ray logs. Based on surface and subsurface data, two areas have been delineated which are underlain by rocks deemed favorable as hosts for uranium deposits. One of these is underlain by rocks that contain fluvial arkosic facies in the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations of Tertiary age; the other is underlain by rocks containing fluvial quartzose sandstone facies of the Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Tertiary age above the Wasatch Formation, all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and most rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and all rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group.

Santos, E S; Robinson, K; Geer, K A; Blattspieler, J G

1982-09-01

83

Soil moisture variation patterns observed in Hand County, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture data were taken during 1976 (April, June, October), 1977 (April, May, June), and 1978 (May, June, July) Hand County, South Dakota as part of the ground truth used in NASA's aircraft experiments to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The spatial variability observed on the ground during each of the sampling events was studied. The data reported are the mean gravimetric soil moisture contained in three surface horizon depths: 0 to 2.5, 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm. The overall moisture levels ranged from extremely dry conditions in June 1976 to very wet in May 1978, with a relatively even distribution of values within that range. It is indicated that well drained sites have to be partitioned from imperfectly drained areas when attempting to characterize the general moisture profile throughout an area of varying soil and cover type conditions. It is also found that the variability in moisture content is greatest in the 0 to 2.5 cm measurements and decreases as the measurements are integrated over a greater depth. It is also determined that the sampling intensity of 10 measurements per km is adequate to estimate the mean moisture with an uncertainty of + or - 3 percent under average moisture conditions in areas of moderate to good drainage.

Jones, E. B.; Owe, M.; Schmugge, T. J. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

84

Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age underlie the entire northern Great Plains of the United States. These rocks form 5 artesian aquifer systems that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming and extend more than 600 miles to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in the Canadian Province of Manitoba. Generally, the principal direction of flow in each aquifer is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of geologic structure, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Major fracture systems or lineaments traverse the geologic section and are either vertical or horizontal conduits, or barriers to, groundwater flow. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale of minimal permeability, halite beds, and stratigraphic traps or minimal-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. Interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments. During the Pleistocene Epoch, thick ice sheets completely covered the discharge areas of the bedrock aquifers. This effectively blocked flow northeastward from the system and, at some locations, it may have caused a reversal of flow. The existing flow, system therefore, may not have reached hydrologic equilibrium with the stress of the last glacial period. (USGS)

Downey, J. S.

1986-01-01

85

Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

Downey, J.S.

1986-01-01

86

Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

Myers, V. I. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

87

Biotelemetry of White Crappies in a South Dakota Glacial Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic telemetry was used to determine monthly and diel movements of white crappies Pomoxis annularis in a South Dakota glacial lake, Sonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 37 adult white crappies (265–327 mm, total length; 315–530 g) at intervals from 10 April through 22 September 1992. From 15 April to 15 October, 1,712 locations were recorded for 34 of these

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis; Jeffrey J. Jackson

1994-01-01

88

Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L.E.

1986-01-01

89

Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change for South Dakota, 2008  

E-print Network

of timberland and forest land by year, South Dakota, 2008. Figure 2. ­ Area of timberland for top five forest pine Sugarberry/hackberry/ elm/green ash Bur oak Rocky Mountain juniper Elm/ash/black locust Forest /year) 20,693.2 18.5 -5.9 Annual harvest removals of growing-stock trees (1,000 ft3 /year) 22,742.4 32

90

Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007 flow of 26,000 cubic feet per second was generated entirely within an intervening drainage area of only 44.4 square miles. An especially large flow of 44,100 cubic feet per second was documented for this location in 1972. The 2007 peak flow of 18,600 cubic feet per second for Battle Creek at Hermosa (station 06406000) was only slightly smaller than the 1972 peak flow of 21,400 cubic feet per second. Peak-flow values from 2007 for three sites with small drainage areas (less than 1.0 square mile) plot close to a regional envelope curve, indicating exceptionally large flow values, relative to drainage area. Physiographic factors that affect flooding in the area were examined. The limestone headwater hydrogeologic setting (within and near the Limestone Plateau area on the western flank of the Black Hills) has distinctively suppressed peak-flow characteristics for small recurrence intervals. Uncertainty is large, however, regarding characteristics for large recurrence intervals (low-probability floods) because of a dearth of information regarding the potential for generation of exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. In contrast, the greatest potential for exceptionally damaging floods is around the flanks of the rest of the Black Hills area because of steep topography and limited potential for attenuation of flood peaks in narrow canyons. Climatological factors that affect area flooding also were examined. Area thunderstorms are largely terrain-driven, especially with respect to their requisite upward motion, which can be initiated by orographic lifting effects, thermally enhanced circulations, and obstacle effects. Several other meteorological processes are influential in the development of especially heavy precipitation for the area, including storm cell training, storm anchoring or regeneration, storm mergers, supercell development, and weak upper-level air flow. A composite of storm total precipitation amounts for 13 recent individual storm events indicates

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

2010-01-01

91

GEOLOGY, TAPHONOMY, AND PALEOECOLOGY OF A UNIQUE UPPER CRETACEOUS BONEBED NEAR THE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY IN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

This research examines a Konzentrat-Lagerstätte, the Bone Butte site, in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota. Field data from a diverse multispecific bonebed in Harding County, South Dakota, including ...

DePalma, Robert Anthony

2010-04-27

92

CHARACTERISTICS OF MOUNTAIN LION MORTALITIES IN THE BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are a state threatened species in South Dakota, and few sightings were documented from the early 1900's until recently. In 1985, the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGF&P) began compiling and verifying sightings of mountain lions in the Black Hills. Since then, sightings have increased but little is known of population characteristics for

DOROTHY M. FECSKE; JONATHAN A. JENKS; FREDRICK G. LINDZEY

93

Yellow Perch in South Dakota: Population Variability and Predicted Effects of Creel Limit Reductions and  

E-print Network

Yellow Perch in South Dakota: Population Variability and Predicted Effects of Creel Limit, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57106, USA Abstract.--We collected annual gill-net samples of yellow perch in daily creel limits for yellow perch (i.e., from 25 fish/angler to 5, 10, or 15 fish/angler) and use

94

South Dakota Arts Council: Long Range Plan. Fiscal Years 2006-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Arts Council submitted this FY 2006 annual report to the Governor and Legislature. It presents the 530 grants that were awarded with funds from the State of South Dakota and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency. Fiscal Year 2006 grant funds of $977,000 generated $12 million in local cash matching funds. These…

South Dakota Arts Council, 2007

2007-01-01

95

South Dakota State University's Library: A History. Hilton M. Briggs Library Occasional Paper Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tracing the history of South Dakota State University's Hilton M. Briggs Library over the past 102 years, this occasional paper describes the development of what is now the largest library (over 1.1 million total pieces) in the South Dakota Library Network from its inception as part of a small land grant college. Administrative eras are reviewed,…

Brown, Philip

96

South Dakota Project to Articulate Continuing Education in Nursing (Project SPACE). Summative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of an evaluation of the South Dakota Project to Articulate Continuing Education in Nursing (Project SPACE), which was the extent to which the three-year project had been a value to South Dakota nurses, were presented. According to the Executive Committee's assessment, the project increased quantity and quality of continuing education…

South Dakota State Univ., Brookings. Coll. of Nursing.

97

Opinions of Rural South Dakota State Superintendents toward a Statewide Report Card System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently South Dakota initiated a statewide report card system, which publicizes school data such as teacher-student ratios and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test. A survey of South Dakota superintendents on their opinions about the new system was returned by 178 superintendents (74 percent of total), of whom 57 administered small…

Wood, Robert W.; And Others

98

Nest Site Characteristics of Ring-necked Pheasants in Eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

Nest Site Characteristics of Ring-necked Pheasants in Eastern South Dakota JON R. PURVIS·, ANDY E. Key words: Nest site characteristics, Phasianus co/chicus, Ring-necked pheasant. South Dakota. Past 1979, Penrod et al. 1986, Riley et al. 1994) of the nesting ecology of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus

99

Distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota: clarifying the epidemiology of bluetongue disease in the northern Great Plains region of the United States.  

PubMed

The presence or absence of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a primary vector of bluetongue viruses (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, BTV) in North America, was assessed on ranches and farms across the Northern Great Plains region of the United States, specifically Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, as part of a 2-yr regional study of BTV exposure among cattle. Blacklight/suction trap samples totaling 280 2-night intervals were taken at 140 aquatic sites (potential larval habitat for C. sonorensis) on 82 livestock operations (ranches and farms) that span a south-to-north gradient of expected decreasing risk for exposure to BTV. In Nebraska, C. sonorensis populations were common and widespread, present at 15 of 18 operations. Of 32 operations sampled in South Dakota, seven of which were sampled in successive years, 18 were positive for C. sonorensis; 13 of 14 operations located west of the Missouri River were positive, whereas 13 of 18 operations east of the river were negative. Of 32 operations sampled in North Dakota, seven of which were sampled both years, 12 were positive for C. sonorensis. Six of eight operations located west and south of the Missouri River in North Dakota were positive, whereas 18 of 24 operations east and north of the river were negative for C. sonorensis. These data illustrate a well-defined pattern of C. sonorensis spatial distribution, with populations consistently present across Nebraska, western South Dakota, and western North Dakota; western South Dakota, and North Dakota encompass the Northwestern Plains Ecoregion where soils are nonglaciated and evaporation exceeds precipitation. In contrast, C. sonorensis populations were largely absent east of the Missouri River in South Dakota and North Dakota; this area comprises the Northwestern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion and Northern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion where surface soils reflect Wisconsinan glaciation and precipitation exceeds evaporation. In defining a well-demarcated pattern of population presence or absence on a regional scale, the data suggest that biogeographic factors regulate the distribution of C. sonorensis and in turn BTV exposure. These factors, ostensibly climate and soil type as they affect the suitability of larval habitat, may explain the absence of C. sonorensis, hence limited risk for exposure to BTV, across the eastern Northern Plains, upper Midwest, and possibly Northeast, regions of the United States. PMID:21661325

Schmidtmann, E T; Herrero, M V; Green, A L; Dargatz, D A; Rodriquez, J M; Walton, T E

2011-05-01

100

South Dakota State University / College of Agriculture & Biological Sciences / USDA Dairy Science  

E-print Network

. 2011 Dairy Science 3 pages Past reports make reference to advantages offered by states or regions when Dakota and neighboring states for dairy production. South Dakota currently ranks 14th nationally in per of operating costs is feed, and it's why most dairy economists have chosen the parameter income over feed costs

101

Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

1981-01-01

102

Insecticide residues in big game mammals of South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis was made of eight insecticide residues in the renal fat tissue of 23 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 13 mule deer (O. hemionus), 9 pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), and 2 elk (Cervus canadensis) collected in South Dakota during the fall of 1964. Identification and quantitative analysis of the insecticide residues were accomplished by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Eighty-five percent of the samples had residues of DDT with an average of 0.13 ppm. DDD residues were found in 11 percent of the samples, DDE in 38 percent, dieldrin in 38 percent, and lindane in 15 percent, with an average of 0.07, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.04 ppm, respectively. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and aldrin were not detected in concentrations above the limits of the experiment set by the investigators.

Greenwood, R. J.; Greichus, Y. A.; Hugghins, E. J.

1967-01-01

103

Estimated Recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota and Wyoming, Water Years 1931-98.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual r...

J. M. Carter, D. G. Driscoll, G. R. Hamade

2000-01-01

104

Estimated recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1931-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual recharge from streamflow losses and infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas is estimated for water years 1931-98. All estimates are for recharge that contributes to regional ground-water flow patterns and that occurs in outcrop areas connected to the regional flow system. Estimates exclude recharge to outcrop areas that are isolated from the regional flow system, which generally results in ground-water discharge to area streams. Streamflow recharge is calculated directly for 11 streams in the Black Hills area that have continuous-record gaging stations located upstream from loss zones, using available records of daily streamflow, against which estimated loss thresholds (from previous investigations) are applied. Daily streamflow records are extrapolated, when necessary, using correlations with long-term gages, to develop annual estimates of streamflow recharge for 1950-98. Streamflow recharge is estimated for a number of smaller basins using loss thresholds for miscellaneous-record sites. Annual recharge estimates are derived from synthetic records of daily streamflow for 1992-98, which are based on drainage-area ratios applied to continuous-record gaging stations. Recharge estimates are further extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins during 1992-98, relative to overall streamflow recharge.Streamflow recharge also is estimated for small drainage areas with undetermined loss thresholds that are situated between larger basins with known thresholds. Estimates for 1992-98 are based on estimates of annual streamflow derived using drainage-area ratios, with assumed losses equal to 90 percent of annual streamflow. Recharge estimates also are extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins.Precipitation recharge for 1931-98 is estimated using relations between precipitation and streamflow (or basin yield) for representative gaging stations. Basin yields are first normalized, relative to drainage area, by expressing in inches per unit of drainage area. Yields are further converted to yield efficiencies, by dividing by precipitation on contributing drainage areas. Relations between yield efficiency and precipitation are identified, which are developed for use in generically estimating annual yield for given areas, based on average yield efficiency and annual precipitation. The resulting annual yield is used as a surrogate for estimating annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Annual yield (or recharge) efficiencies are estimated to range from about 2 percent to in excess of 30 percent, with corresponding average annual recharge estimates ranging from 0.4 inch in the southern Black Hills to about 8.7 inches in the northwestern Black Hills.Estimates of precipitation recharge for 1931-49 are used to estimate streamflow recharge for the same period, based on correlations between the two variables for 1989-98. Combined streamflow and precipitation recharge to both aquifers averaged about 344 ft3/s for 1931-98. Streamflow recharge averaged about 93 ft3/s, or 27 percent of combined recharge, and precipitation recharge averaged about 251 ft3/s, or 73 percent of combined recharge. Combined recharge ranged from 62 ft3/s in 1936 to 847 ft3/s in 1995. The lowest recharge amounts generally occurred during the 1930?s; however, a more prolonged period of low recharge occurred during 1947-61.For 1931-98, average precipitation recharge to the Madison aquifer is about 3.6 inches, compared with 2.6 inches for the Minnelusa aquifer. However, recharge volumes to these aquifers are nearly identical because th

Carter, J. M.; Driscoll, D. G.; Hamade, G. R.

2001-01-01

105

A Study of Certain Aspects of the South Dakota Housing Development Authority Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of the South Dakota Housing Development Authority (SDHDA) in increasing the supply of mortgage money and new housing construction in the state is examined. The report focuses on the Single Family Home Ownership program and its impact on ...

R. J. Brown

1979-01-01

106

HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, reproduction, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Limited information

107

PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCL, VOL. 60 (1981) HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

E-print Network

bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic%). The acanthocephalan Oncicola canis occurred in 1 of 51 (2%) bob- cats. INTRODUCTION The bobcat (Lynx rufus

108

75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specifically govern Federal Hazardous Waste revisions promulgated from July 1...13, 2007. 4. Uniform Hazardous Waste 70 FR 10776-10825 South Dakota...effective September 13, 2007. 6. Universal Waste Rule: 70 FR 45508-45522...

2010-12-27

109

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 85 (2006) 247 RECENT RANGE EXTENSIONS,  

E-print Network

kansae. The sand shiner, Notropis stramineus, is traditionally separated into two subspecies: eastern in South Dakota: silver chub, Macrhybopsis storeriana, Topeka shiner, Notropis topeka, northern redbelly, Notropis percobromus, western blacknose dace, Rhinichthys obtusus, and northern plains killifish, Fundulus

110

78 FR 13401 - Bank 360, Beresford, South Dakota; Approval of Conversion Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...705919] Bank 360, Beresford, South Dakota; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2012...foia-pal.occ.gov/palMain.aspx under Mutual to Stock Conversion Applications. If you have any questions, please call...

2013-02-27

111

South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

Not Available

1981-10-01

112

Geochemical Evolution of Water in the Madison Aquifer in Parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of an investigation to determine the geochemical reactions controlling water chemistry in the Madison aquifer underlying the northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. In the report, the geohydro...

J. F. Busby, L. N. Plummer, R. W. Lee, B. B. Hanshaw

1991-01-01

113

Fall Food Habits of Wild Turkeys South Central South Dakota  

E-print Network

. Grassland comprises about 66% of the area. Woodlands make up about 26 % of Ihe area with bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) being the dominant tree species (McCabe 1984). The remaining 8% includes farmsteads

114

Continuing Development of a Collaborative Plan to Further Engage South Dakota in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ongoing set of research planning activities have occurred in South Dakota as a consequence of the past two years of NASA-EPSCoR Preparation Grants. During this time a group of approximately 60 scientists, engineers, and university administrators in South Dakota have been directly involved as "theme team" members in a series of five all-day meetings to identify the research and technological priorities that are consistent both with NASA-ESE's interests and the State's expertise. Institutions represented within the group's membership include: South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, South Dakota State University, Augustana College, University of South Dakota, USGS EROS Data Center, Si ranks College, Santa Gleska University, Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, USGS Water Resources Division, US National Weather Service, and the SD Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Many of these organizations are also members and affiliates of the SD Space Grant Consortium. The evolving plan has been guided by the following desirable actions: 1. To establish new contacts and strengthen existing linkages with NASA Centers, relevant NASA researchers, and key personnel at the USGS EROS Data Center. 2. To promote participation from the State's major research institutions, State agencies, and relevant businesses in South Dakota that are interested in strengthening our scientific and technological enterprises. 3. To develop the State's scientific talent and infrastructure for enhanced competitiveness in research, development, and technology-based economic development. 4. To encourage greater participation by under represented groups, especially Native Americans, in scientific education and research. 5. To build greater public and political support in South Dakota for the overall science, engineering, and technology enterprise. 6. To communicate the benefits of current and future NASA programs to the progress and development of South Dakota, the Northern Great Plains Region, and the Nation.

Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

115

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program - Pilot Site Profile - Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota  

Cancer.gov

The Sanford USD Medical Center is the largest tertiary hospital in South Dakota with nearly 500 beds. It serves as the primary teaching institution for the Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota. The Medical Center serves as a regional institution, with half of its patients coming from outside the immediate Sioux Falls community. The Sanford Cancer Center is the region's largest, treating more than 1,278 new patients in 2005.

116

Avian use of natural versus planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared avian use of naturally occurring and planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA, to evaluate whether planted woodlands support the same avian communities as natural woodlands. A stratified cluster sample was used to randomly select 307 public areas in which to survey planted (n = 425) and natural (n = 99) woodland patches. Eighty-five species of birds were detected in eastern South Dakota woodlands, 36 of which occurred in ??? 5 of 524 patches surveyed. The probability of occurrence for 8 of 13 woodland-obligate species was significantly greater in natural woodland habitats than in planted woodland habitats. Four of these species breed in relatively high numbers in eastern South Dakota. Only one woodland-obligate occurred less frequently in natural woodlands. Probability of occurrence for 6 edge and generalist species, including the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater [Boddaert]), was significantly higher in planted woodlands. The avian community of planted woodlands was dominated by edge and generalist species. The homogeneous vegetation structure typical of planted woodlands does not appear to provide the habitat characteristics needed by woodland-obligate birds. We conclude that planted woodlands do not support significant numbers of woodland-obligate species and may negatively impact grassland-nesting birds by attracting edge and generalist bird species and predators into previously treeless habitats. Planted woodlands cannot be considered equal replacement habitats for natural woodland patches when managing for nongame woodland bird species. However, the preservation and maintenance of natural woodlands is critical for woodland-obligate species diversity in the northern Great Plains.

Bakker, K.K.; Higgins, K.F.

2003-01-01

117

Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.  

PubMed

Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group. PMID:23110098

McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

2012-01-01

118

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 109 ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF SMALL  

E-print Network

the western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis), were significantly greater in the exotic plots than (Reithrodontomys megalotis) responded negatively to the same activity. In eastern South Dakota, habitat alteration

119

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 86 (2007) 191 EVALUATING MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN  

E-print Network

Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) were reintroduced into Wind Cave National Antilocapra americana, home range, movement, pronghorn, South Dakota, Wind Cave National Park Daily

120

Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Edited by Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

2011-01-01

121

Hydrogeology of the vicinity of Homestake mine, South Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former Homestake mine in South Dakota (USA) cuts fractured metamorphic rock over a region several km2 in plan, and plunges to the SE to a depth of 2.4 km. Numerical simulations of the development and dewatering of the mine workings are based on idealizing the mine-workings system as two overlapping continua, one representing the open drifts and the other representing the host rock with hydrologic properties that vary with effective stress. Equating macroscopic hydrologic properties with characteristics of deformable fractures allows the number of parameters to be reduced, and it provides a physically based justification for changes in properties with depth. The simulations explain important observations, including the co-existence of shallow and deep flow systems, the total dewatering flow rate, the spatial distribution of in-flow, and the magnitude of porosity in the mine workings. The analysis indicates that a deep flow system induced by ~125 years of mining is contained within a surface-truncated ellipsoid roughly 8 km by 4 km in plan view and 5.5 km deep with its long-axis aligned to the strike of the workings. Groundwater flow into the southern side of the workings is characterized by short travel times from the ground surface, whereas flow into the northern side and at depth consists of old water removed from storage.

Murdoch, Larry C.; Germanovich, Leonid N.; Wang, Herb; Onstott, T. C.; Elsworth, Derek; Stetler, Larry; Boutt, David

2012-02-01

122

Water movement in till of east-central South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Factors that control the flow of water through till are poorly understood. Hydrographic analyses, field hydraulic conductivity measurements, and major-ion sampling were conducted on weathered and unweathered tills at 22 sites in east-central South Dakota. Water from a buried outwash aquifer was also chemically analyzed and carbon age dated. The upper part of most till has been weathered and exhibits extensive secondary permeability. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/sec; typically 10 to 200 times higher than the hydraulic conductivity of unweathered till. Hydraulic gradients within weathered tills average seven times lower than within unweathered till. Water infiltrating below plant roots is believed to principally recharge and discharge the weathered till. Total dissolved solids were significantly higher in the weathered till than in the unweathered till. Water extracted from unweathered till is, in turn, up to three time higher in major-ion concentrations than water from the underlying outwash aquifer. Carbon-14 age dates from outwash aquifer water exceed 9000 years before present. Results indicate that Tittle to no water passes from the weathered till through the unweathered till into the buried outwash aquifer. Discharge from the weathered till is hypothesized to be primarily local lateral flow to sloughs, streams and ponds, combined with evapotranspiration losses during periods of high water table.

Craven, S.J.; Ruedisili, L.C.; Barari, A.

1985-01-01

123

Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which large quantities of wastes might be injected with minimal danger of contamination of fresh-water aquifers and-oil-producing strata, are available.. The strata and types of reservoirs that deserve primary consideration for waste disposal are the Winnipeg Formation of Middle Ordovician age as a deep salaquifer, the Permian to Jurassic salt beds as moderately deep-units in which solution cavities might be created for storage, the thick Upper Cretaceous shale beds as shallow hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs, and the Newcastle Sandstone of Early Cretaceous age as a shallow shale-enclosed sandstone reservoir.

Sandberg, C.A.

1962-01-01

124

Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

125

SURVIVAL AND HABITAT USE BY RING-NECKED PHEASANTS DURING TWO DISPARATE WINTERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

31tf.-U) SURVIVAL AND HABITAT USE BY RING-NECKED PHEASANTS DURING TWO DISPARATE WINTERS IN SOUTH: habitat lise. lIlortality. l'''/l.~i{l/II/s colchiCIIs. predation. ring-necked pheasant. South Dakota. sur and radiomarked -18 female ring-necked pheasants at the onset of tht' 1996- 97 \\\\inter and monitored suni

126

Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

1979-01-01

127

Math and science technology access and use in South Dakota public schools grades three through five  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of K-12 technology standards, soon to be added to state testing of technology proficiency, and the increasing presence of computers in homes and classrooms reflects the growing importance of technology in current society. This study examined math and science teachers' responses on a survey of technology use in grades three through five in South Dakota. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from a random sample of 100 public schools throughout the South Dakota. Forced choice and open-ended responses were recorded. Most teachers have access to computers, but they lack resources to purchase software for their content areas, especially in science areas. Three-fourths of teachers in this study reported multiple computers in their classrooms and 67% reported access to labs in other areas of the school building. These numbers are lower than the national average of 84% of teachers with computers in their classrooms and 95% with access to computers elsewhere in the building (USDOE, 2000). Almost eight out of 10 teachers noted time as a barrier to learning more about educational software. Additional barriers included lack of school funds (38%), access to relevant training (32%), personal funds (30%), and poor quality of training (7%). Teachers most often use math and science software as supplemental, with practice tutorials cited as another common use. The most common interest for software was math for both boys and girls. The second most common choice for boys was science and for girls, language arts. Teachers reported that there was no preference for either individual or group work on computers for girls or boys. Most teachers do not systematically evaluate software for gender preferences, but review software over subjectively.

Schwietert, Debra L.

128

Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for South Dakota and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in South Dakota. Descriptive statistics are presented for South Dakota and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population…

Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

2014-01-01

129

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 88 (2009) 15 2009: THE YEAR OF SCIENCE  

E-print Network

of science, and public confusion because of religion, political interference, or manufactured doubt. The Year, public, religion, science, Year of Science The Year of Science 2009 was a nationwide effort to engage in South Dakota, and who South Dakota scientists are. A simple definition of science is "a body

130

Lifelong Education Needs for Providing Pastoral Care for Post-Traumatic Stress in South Dakota National Guard Soldiers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout many communities in South Dakota the members of the South Dakota National Guard have been activated to serve in many different parts of the world since 2001. Approximately 20% of these individuals returned to their homes with some degree of PTSD (Hoge, et al., 2004). Pastoral Care has changed since September 11, 2001. The purpose of…

Meirose, William J.

2010-01-01

131

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 76 (1997) 91 A SURVEY OF NATURAL RESOURCE  

E-print Network

as assess attitudes concerning current wa- terfowl management and hunting issues. One hundred and forty PROFESSIONALS PARTICIPATING IN WATERFOWL HUNTING IN SOUTH DAKOTA Jeffrey S. Gleason and Jonathan A. Jenks Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT A 3

132

BLANCHARD'S CRICKET FROG IN NEBRASKA AND SOUTH DAKOTA --Blanchard's cricket frog (Acris crepitans blanchardi) is a small warty anuran  

E-print Network

129 BLANCHARD'S CRICKET FROG IN NEBRASKA AND SOUTH DAKOTA -- Blanchard's cricket frog (Acris or series of splotches arranged along the cranial- caudal dorsal midline. The Blanchard's cricket frog can 1947). Other stripes and lines are not uncommon. In South Dakota the range of Blanchard's cricket frog

McCallum, Malcolm

133

South Dakota: A Statewide Study of Public School Finance and Conditions in the Schools. Report of an Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational needs described in this report are not unique to South Dakota. The inadequacy of the property tax revenue as a chief source of public school support is a fact of educational finance to which increasing attention is being given by school officials in many parts of the nation. A number of States, South Dakota included, continue to…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.

134

Fuel alcohol plant feasibility study for Sodak Resources, Ltd. , Plankinton, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The management of the proposed 20 million gallon per year fuel alcohol plant is addressed. All aspects of the management of the plant from the initial plant design to the plant's daily operation; from the procurement of the raw materials to the disposal of the products are included. The expected production, sales and distribution of the products of the fuel alcohol plant located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota are dealt with. The objective is to determine the feasibility of the proposed project from a marketing prospective, using current mrketing data and also expected future marketing data. The problems that might occur in the area of the project are also discussed. The recommended action that should be taken if these problems occur is also included.

Not Available

1981-04-01

135

Asesssment of mobile gamma-scanning van activities in Edgemont, South Dakota. [UMTRA program  

SciTech Connect

All accessible thoroughfares in an area in Edgemont, South Dakota, comprising approximately 800 properties, were traversed by a mobile gamma-ray scanning van operated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the mobile survey was to identify residual radioactive contamination on properties in the vicinity of the nearby uranium tailings pile. The properties identified by mobile scanning (herein referred to as anomalies) were compared with results from walk-on measurements conducted by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The mobile scan was successful in identifying 48% of the properties previously identified as contaminated by PNL walk-on measurements. Modification of the algorithm used by the mobile scanning van to identify radioactive contamination from the measured gamma radiation resulted in mixed success; the number of successful identifications increased but the number of false identifications increased disproportionately and unacceptably.

Not Available

1986-04-01

136

Estimation of Potential Bridge Scour at Bridges on State Routes in South Dakota, 2003-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flowing water can erode (scour) soils and cause structural failure of a bridge by exposing or undermining bridge foundations (abutments and piers). A rapid scour-estimation technique, known as the level-1.5 method and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, was used to evaluate potential scour at bridges in South Dakota in a study conducted in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This method was used during 2003-07 to estimate scour for the 100-year and 500-year floods at 734 selected bridges managed by the South Dakota Department of Transportation on State routes in South Dakota. Scour depths and other parameters estimated from the level-1.5 analyses are presented in tabular form. Estimates of potential contraction scour at the 734 bridges ranged from 0 to 33.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 35.8 feet for the 500-year flood. Abutment scour ranged from 0 to 36.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 45.9 feet for the 500-year flood. Pier scour ranged from 0 to 30.8 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 30.7 feet for the 500-year flood. The scour depths estimated by using the level-1.5 method can be used by the South Dakota Department of Transportation and others to identify bridges that may be susceptible to scour. Scour at 19 selected bridges also was estimated by using the level-2 method. Estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour calculated by using the level-1.5 and level-2 methods are presented in tabular and graphical formats. Compared to level-2 scour estimates, the level-1.5 method generally overestimated scour as designed, or in a few cases slightly underestimated scour. Results of the level-2 analyses were used to develop regression equations for change in head and average velocity through the bridge opening. These regression equations derived from South Dakota data are compared to similar regression equations derived from Montana and Colorado data. Future level-1.5 scour investigations in South Dakota may benefit from the use of these South Dakota-specific regression equations for estimating change in stream head and average velocity at the bridge.

Thompson, Ryan F.; Fosness, Ryan L.

2008-01-01

137

Analysis of flood-flow frequency, flow duration, and channel-forming flow for the James River in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)

Benson, R.D.

1988-01-01

138

NONTARGET BIRD EXPOSURE TO DRC1339 DURING FALL IN NORTH DAKOTA AND SPRING IN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) was used experimentally on fall-ripening sunflower fields in North Dakota so researchers could evaluate its effectiveness for reducing crop depredations by blackbirds. DRC-1339 was applied to rice and broadcast on the ground in a

THOMAS W. CUSTER; Upper Midwest; CHRISTINE M. CUSTER; PAUL M. DUMMER; GEORGE M. LINZ; LOUIS SILEO; RANDAL S. STAHL; JOHN J. JOHNSTON

139

PERSPECTIVES ON THE DIAGNOSIS, EPIZOOTIOLOGY, AND CONTROL OF THE 1973 DUCK PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN WILD WATERFOWL AT LAKE ANDES, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epizootic of duck plague occurred in early 1973 in a population of 163,500 wild waterfowl, primarily mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering on Lake Andes and the nearby Missouri River in southeastern South Dakota (USA). The diagnosis was based on pathologic lesions and confirmed by virus isolation. Control measures included quarantine, attempts to re- duce virus contamination of the area, dispersal

Gary L. Pearson; Delmar R. Cassidy

140

Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

2013-01-01

141

Video lottery gambling: Effects on pathological gamblers seeking treatment in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight pathological gamblers receiving treatment for addictive illness in two South Dakota hospitals were assessed for types of gambling and grouped into three categories; 15 “video lottery only” (VLO), 36 “video lottery mixed” (VLM), and 7 “not video lottery” (NVL). There were 51 male and 7 female respondents, with a mean age of 38.2. We hypothesized that video lottery would

Timothy Morgan; Lial Kofoed; Jerry Buchkoski; Robert D. Carr

1996-01-01

142

A new fossil mustelid from the Miocene of South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A skull from the Barstovian of South Dakota has typical leptarctine characteristics, including robust zygomatic arches, double sagittal crests, grooves on the lingual side of the lower canines, and bony projections from the tympanic bullae. The robust mandibles and expanded masseteric fossa of this specimen indicate that it had large jaw muscles. Dental morphology and other characters lead us to

Jong-Deock Lim; L. Martin

2002-01-01

143

Putting the Pieces Together: South Dakota Integration Training Model. 4th Ed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a compilation of materials that form the South Dakota Integration Training Model. Section 1 contains materials related to career information, including transparency masters/handouts with information on workplace trends, job skills, growth occupations, earnings, and nontraditional careers. Section 2, on integration basics,…

Kucker, Marsha, Comp.; Bemis, Dodie, Comp.; Smith-Rockhold, Gloria, Comp.; Wiese, Vicki, Comp.

144

An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota, USA Abstract The success and value of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), stocking programmes and translocated stocks. To determine stocking contributions of yellow perch, fingerlings and adults were collected

145

Influence of Gizzard Shad on Fish Community Ecology in Northeastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes  

E-print Network

in South Dakota, while yellow perch Perca flavescens are important both ecologically as prey for walleye and abundance. If sufficient gizzard shad are present they may even buffer yellow perch from predation gizzard shad and yellow perch is unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate survival

146

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for  

E-print Network

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface larval yellow perch were collected in four of six lakes during 2002, suggesting that in some cases

147

Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota  

E-print Network

Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota Fang compositions may reflect Li isotopic fractionation resulting from extensive crystal-melt fractionation. Lithium fractionation in the near­surface environment of > 60 (Tomascak, 2004). Lithium isotopic fractionation has been

Rudnick, Roberta L.

148

Population Characteristics of Black Crappies in South Dakota Waters: A Case for Ecosystem-Specific Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled 22 populations of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus from three ecosystem types (large impoundments, >40 ha; small impoundments, <40 ha; natural lakes) to determine the factors that influence population characteristics (recruitment, growth, size structure, and condition) in South Dakota. Recruitment variability was best correlated with the logio of the shoreline development index (r = 0.63, df = 16) and

CHRISTOPHER S. GUY; DAVID W. WILLIS

1995-01-01

149

Caloric Densities of Three Predatory Fishes and Their Prey in Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined mean seasonal caloric density of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and ten species of prey fish from Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Age 3 and older walleye, chinook salmon, and rainbow trout showed distinct seasonal patterns in mean caloric density during May through September, 1994. Energy content of these fish was lowest during

Scott D. Bryan; Craig A. Soupir; Walter G. Duffy; Chris E. Freiburger

1996-01-01

150

South Dakota Governor Pushes for Underground Lab as Homestake Water Rises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSF officials say approval of a science laboratory in the Homestake mine can come only after a multistep review process that takes ``many months to many years.'' But a determined Republican governor and South Dakota's congressional delegation may bring politics to the science.

Dawson, Jim

2003-08-01

151

Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, May 2, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University (South Dakota) faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are…

Anagnopoulos, Cheryl, Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

152

STATUS OF MARBLED GODWITS IN SOUTH DAKOTA: BASED ON A 2007 LITERATURE SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of the marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) population in South Dakota is of primary concern to natural resource managers because the two main habitats this species needs, native rangelands and wetlands, are being converted to other land uses at a rapid rate. We synthesized over 250 references to generate a comprehensive review on the occurrence and ecology of

Dawn M. Gardner; Kent C. Jensen; Kenneth F. Higgins

2008-01-01

153

Physicochemical and Biological Influences on Black Bullhead Populations in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake and fish survey data (1991–1992) were compiled for 23 eastern South Dakota natural lakes to provide a basis for preliminary investigation of black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) populations. Survey data contained numerous physical and chemical variables describing lake environments and relative abundance and sue structure of the primary fish species present. Analyses indicated that abundance of black bullheads increased with

Michael L. Brown; David W. Willis; Brian G. Blackwell

1999-01-01

154

Black Bullhead Growth in South Dakota Waters: Limnological and Community Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth was determined for 35 black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) populations in eastern South Dakota lakes. Black bullhead growth was highly variable among populations. Average mean lengths at ages 1–6 for all populations were 101, 155, 203, 232, 262, and 289 mm, respectively. Few populations contained fish older than age 6. Growth was negatively associated with black bullhead abundance, and positively

Patrick A. Hanchin; David W. Willis; Matthew J. Hubers

2002-01-01

155

Perceptions of South Dakota Public School Superintendents and Board Presidents Regarding Collaboration Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No single relationship in a school district has a greater impact on successful education than that between the school board and superintendent (Kowalski, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine and compare perceptions of South Dakota public school superintendents and board presidents regarding collaboration practices for communicating…

Plumb, Elizabeth C.

2011-01-01

156

Arsenic and uranium transport in sediments near abandoned uranium mines in Harding County, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples were analyzed as part of ongoing environmental investigations of historical U mining impacts within Custer National Forest in Harding County, South Dakota. Correlations between As and U content, grain size and soil mineralogy were determined to identify contaminant fate and transport mechanisms. Soil samples collected near the mining source zone and up to 61km downgradient of the minesites

Gregory G. Kipp; James J. Stone; Larry D. Stetler

2009-01-01

157

Trace element zoning in pelitic garnet of the Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element (REE, Cr, Ti, Y, Y, and Zr) analysis of garnet from the garnet, staurolite, and lower sillimanite zones of an aluminous schist of the Black Hills, South Dakota, indicates that REE zoning varies as a function of grade. Garnet-zone garnet has high concentrations of REEs, Cr, Ti, Y, Y, and Zr in the cores and low concentrations in

CRAIG S. SCHWANDT; JAMES J. PAPIKE

1996-01-01

158

South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

Soka, John Alex

2011-01-01

159

Early Pleistocene zapodid rodents from the Java Local Fauna of north-central South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zapodid rodents are described from the early Pleistocene Java Local Fauna, Walworth County, South Dakota. The fauna includes a new species of Zapus related to the extinct Z. sandersi. The fossil record of Zapus is briefly reviewed, and the Ms of Z. rinkeri and an undescribed species from the Wendell Fox Pasture Local Fauna are illustrated for the first time.

Robert A. Martin

1989-01-01

160

Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

161

Spatial models for estimating fuel loads in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire suppression has increased fuel loadings and fuel continuity in many forested ecosystems, resulting in forest structures that are vulnerable to catastrophic fire. This paper describes the statistical properties of models developed to describe the spatial variability in forest fuels on the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota. Forest fuel loadings (tonnes\\/ha) are modeled to a 30 m resolution using

Robin M. ReichA; John E. LundquistB; Vanessa A. BravoA

162

Spatial models for estimating fuel loads in the Black Hills South Dakota USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Fire suppression has increased fuel loadings and fuel continuity in many forested ecosystems, resulting in forest structures that are vulnerable to catastrophic fire. This paper describes the statistical properties of models developed to describe the spatial variability in forest fuels on the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota. Forest fuel loadings (tonnes\\/ha) are modeled,to a 30 m resolution using

Robin M. Reich; John E. Lundquist; Vanessa A. Bravo

163

Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 8: Garfield Elementary School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an investigation of the possibilities for reducing energy consumption at Garfield Elementary School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The report summarizes methodology and findings of the building investigations, computer simulations and assessments of energy conservation opportunities. Results indicate that approximately 62% of the present…

American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

164

Optimizing habitat location for black-tailed prairie dogs in southwestern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial optimization model was formulated and used to maximize black-tailed prairie dog populations in the Badlands National Park and the Buffalo Gap National Grassland in South Dakota. The choice variables involved the strategic placement of limited additional protected habitat. Population dynamics were captured in formulations that reflected exponential population growth combined with the recalcitrant dispersal behavior of this social

John Hof; Michael Bevers; Daniel W. Uresk; Gregory L. Schenbeck

2002-01-01

165

Evaluating Diet Composition of Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) was reintroduced into Wind Cave National Park (WCNP), South Dakota, in 1914, and thus, has inhabited the Park for nearly a century. During the 1990's, a decline in the population raised concern for the continued existence of pronghorn inside WCNP; an investigation into the observed decline was initiated. Primary objectives of our study were to evaluate

CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JARET D. SIEVERS

166

Weather Modification and Public Opinion in South Dakota, 1972 and 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public response to South Dakota's operational cloud seeding program (SDWMP) has been traced since before its implementation. Data are presented from interviews conducted at the end of each of the program's first two operational seasons. Variables included are respondent 1) attitudes toward weather modification, 2) beliefs that it is effective in increasing precipitation and suppressing hail, 3) sources of information

Barbara C. Farhar

1975-01-01

167

76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Subpart A. The Project is located between Rapid City and Black Hawk, South Dakota. Legal description is; T.2N., R.7E...meeting was held on November 14, 2006, at 7 p.m. in the Black Hawk Elementary School Gymnasium regarding this project...

2011-06-17

168

South Dakota 1996 KIDS COUNT Factbook: Key Indicators of Child Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the fourth to examine trends in children's and adolescents' well-being in South Dakota using indicators of health, education, social, and economic well-being, along with information on family income, household relationships, population, and AFDC/food stamp usage for each county. The information is organized in…

Kids Count--South Dakota, Vermillion.

169

Geochemical Modeling of the Madison Aquifer in Parts of Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope data for dissolved carbonate, sulfate, and sulfide are combined with water composition data to construct geochemical reaction models along eight flow paths in the Madison aquifer in parts of Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. The sulfur isotope data are treated as an isotope dilution problem, whereas the carbon isotope data are treated as Rayleigh distillations. All reaction models

L. Niel Plummer; John F. Busby; Roger W. Lee; Bruce B. Hanshaw

1990-01-01

170

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 87 (2008) 111 STATUS OF UPLAND SANDPIPERS IN SOUTH DA-  

E-print Network

relative to their life history and habitat needs. INTRODUCTION Upland sandpipers (Bartramia longicauda & Fisheries Sciences, Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT The current status of the upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) popula- tion in South Dakota is of primary concern to natural resource managers be- cause the two

171

Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

Cederstrand, J. R.; Becker, M. F.

1998-01-01

172

Plan of study for the northern Great Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northern Great Plains, an area of about 250,000 square miles in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, is underlain by an accumulation of sediments eroded from the Black Hills and from mountains to the west. Principal aquifers are areally extensive beds of sandstone within these sedimentary rocks, some at great depths. Anticipated future water needs dictate that available ground-water supplies be evaluated for management of this natural resource. The U.S. Geological Survey has started (1978) a 4-year study of the Northern Great Plains aquifer system. The objective of this study is to define availability and quality of ground water and to predict the effects of using this resource. To achieve this objective, the ground-water system will be described in terms of spatial distribution, hydraulics, geology, and geochemistry. Once described, the ground-water system will be simulated by mathematical models that will be used to define responses of the system to various management alternatives and assumed development patterns. This initial report describes the framework for the study. (Woodard-USGS)

Dinwiddie, George A.

1979-01-01

173

Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

Higgins, K.F.

1977-01-01

174

Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

2008-01-01

175

South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the betterment of all people in South Dakota. If people are provided equity and access, there is no limit to what they can accomplish. SDSM&T in the last three years has graduated nineteen American Indians with degrees in engineering, many of those students' tribal college transfers. This is a significant increase, as only forty American Indian had graduated in thirty years. NASA' presence on the SDSM&T campus has provided the necessary focus and encouragement for success to take place. We are building bridges in South Dakota and the builders are from Indian Country.

Bolman, J. R.

2004-12-01

176

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 89 (2010) 181 CULTURE OF ADVAnCED-SIZED  

E-print Network

temperature, growth INTRODUCTION Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) have been stocked into numerous small investigated a combination of culture techniques for producing advance- sized largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) that may yield increased stocking contributions to South Dakota impoundments. During the initial

177

Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

2011-01-01

178

Remote sensing of physiographic soil units of Bennett County, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted in Bennett County, South Dakota, to establish a rangeland test site for evaluating the usefulness of ERTS data for mapping soil resources in rangeland areas. Photographic imagery obtained in October, 1970, was analyzed to determine which type of imagery is best for mapping drainage and land use patterns. Imagery of scales ranging from 1:1,000,000 to 1.20,000 was used to delineate soil-vegetative physiographic units. The photo characteristics used to define physiographic units were texture, drainage pattern, tone pattern, land use pattern and tone. These units will be used as test data for evaluating ERTS data. The physiographic units were categorized into a land classification system. The various categories which were delineated at the different scales of imagery were designed to be useful for different levels of land use planning. The land systems are adequate only for planning of large areas for general uses. The lowest category separated was the facet. The facets have a definite soil composition and represent different soil landscapes. These units are thought to be useful for providing natural resource information needed for local planning.

Frazee, C. J.; Gropper, J. L.; Westin, F. C.

1973-01-01

179

Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

2011-01-01

180

Rules of the South Dakota Commission on Human Rights, Proposed January 3, 1975...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rules 20:13:12 through 20:03:22 are interpretations by the commission of SDCL Chapter 20-13, as it covers education. 11 new Chapters read as follows: 20:03:12--General; 20:03:13--Public Education. Each educational institution shall ensure that members of its community are informed of the South Dakota Human Relations Act of 1972 as amended as it…

South Dakota State Commission on Human Rights, Pierre.

181

Life History of the Emerald Shiner, Notropis atherinoides, in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age, rate of growth, reproduction, feeding habits, and population dynamics of the emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) were studied from 10,375 fish collected in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota. The population in this 28,000-acre reservoir consisted of four age groups dominated by young-of-the-year during the summer and fall and by age-group I during the spring and early summer. Age-group

Everett H. Fuchs

1967-01-01

182

Movement Patterns of Adult Black Crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, in Brant Lake, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement of adult black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) in Brant Lake, South Dakota was studied with ultrasonic telemetry from April through August 1991. Movement ranged from 0 to 584 m\\/h and was significantly different among months (P=0.0001, F=9.34, df=4) and diel periods (P=0.0013, F=5.45, df=3). Activity was greatest during April and July. Diel movement increased from evening to morning, and the

Christopher S. Guy; Robert M. Neumann; David W. Willis

1992-01-01

183

Influence of Angler Exploitation on Black Crappie Population Structure in a Rural South Dakota Impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anglers harvested approximately 122 black crappies (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)\\/ha at 18-ha Murdo Lake, South Dakota, in 1992. Based on a mean length of 26.2 cm for harvested black crappies, anglers likely harvested 36.1 kg\\/ha. The following spring (1993), proportional stock density (PSD) for black crappies collected with trap nets was 10—far lower than for any of the previous four years. Thus,

David W. Willis; Robert M. Neumann; Christopher S. Guy

1994-01-01

184

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature-dependent growth models were developed for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held in a circular culture tank for two months and trained to accept a pelleted diet. Five temperature treatments (16, 19, 22, 25, and 28°C) were randomly assigned in triplicate to 15, 38-L tanks containing 10 fish averaging 84±0.4 mm

Michael L. Brown; Kevin A. Smith

2004-01-01

185

MENINGEAL WORM (PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA: THE PARASITE IN TERRESTRIAL GASTROPODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial gastropods were collected from wetland, grassland, and forest- ed habitats throughout eastern and southcentral South Dakota from May-Au- gust of 1999 and 2000 to assess the role of gastropods in transmission of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations throughout the state. A total of 4,063 gastropods rep- resenting 14 species, five of which were known

Christopher N. Jacques; Jonathan A. Jenks

2003-01-01

186

The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (K-T) Interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip W. Stoffer and USGS colleagues wrote this report (.pdf format) on the marine K-T boundary interval that occurs throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments (supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology) suggest that several asteroid impacts may be preserved in the Badlands. The deposits are thought to represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event.

Chamberlain, John A.; Messina, Paula.; Stoffer, Philip W.; Terry, Dennis O.

2001-01-01

187

N est Site Characteristics of Ring-necked Pheasants in Eastern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation characteristics potentially important to nesting success were measured during 1996 at 42 nests of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus co\\/chicus) in Moody and Lake counties, South Dakota. Successful nests (n = 21) had greater overhead cover (Z = -2.98, P = 0.003), less bare ground (Z = 2.83, P = 0.005), and greater vegetation density (visual obstruction) at 0 - 25

JON R. PURVIS; ANDY E. GABBERT; LESTER D. FLAKE

188

Early tertiary age of pitchstone in the Northern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A block of pitchstone in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, is Paleocene in age, according to potassium-argon dating of biotite and fission-track dating of zircon in the sample. These data invalidate published suggestions that the age is much younger. The pitchstone is not extrusive in its present position but instead is in a volcanic pipe with other fragments that came downward from as much as 1100 meters above the modern surface.

Redden, J.A.; Obradovich, J.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.

1983-01-01

189

Depositional environments of middle Minnelusa Leo (Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian), Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

The informal middle member of the Minnelusa Formation, commonly known as Leo, consists of a spectrum of sediments including sandstone, dolomite, anhydrite, bedded chert, limestone, and radioactive carbonaceous shale. Deposition within the upper Paleozoic alliance basin of the present day tri-state area of South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska occurred in sabkha, tidal flat, and shallow subtidal environments. Major and minor cycles of eustatic sea level changes are manifest by the Leo section. Early Desmoinesian (lowermost Leo) sediments are open marine, upper subtidal limestone interbedded with restricted marine upper subtidal dolomite, anhydrite, and radioactive organic-rich dolomite. During the upper Desmoinesian and lower Missourian, most of the Alliance basin was a restricted carbonate tidal flat. Throughout the remainder of the Pennsylvanian, the prevalent environment was a restricted coastal to inland sabkha with episodic inundations intercalating intertidal dolomite and lagoonal black shale with the sabkha sediments. Prolonged periods of exposure allowed migration of eolian bypass with only isolated patches of dunes being trapped by rare topographic relief. Criteria suggesting windblown deposition of the majority of Leo sandstone include deflationary lag surfaces, low-amplitude ripples, subcritically climbing translatent cross-stratification, and sand-flow toes. Isolated eolian sandstones provide excellent stratigraphic traps for hydrocarbons generated in the organic-rich shales. The current flurry of Leo drilling that began in 1978, has affirmed the inherent potential of this play. Definition of paleodepositional trends and seismic recognition of isolated dunes are the keys to Leo exploration success.

Tromp, P.L.

1983-08-01

190

Technical-assistance report on a geothermal heating utility for Lemmon, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this effort was to review work already done toward establishing a geothermal heating utility in Lemmon, South Dakota; to redefine the goals for such a project; and to recommend how the project might proceeed to completion. The minimum size Phase I suggested would provide heat for up to 62 buildings in a 9-block area. Total cost is estimated at $1,800,000 to 1,950,000. The geothermal source is expected to be 100 to 400 gpm of 160/sup 0/F water pumped from 500 feet deep. Proposed energy savings and energy cost savings are presented. Analysis indicates that the major geothermal development effort in Lemmon should be directed toward the Madison aquifer. The minimum project dictates simple reinjection of the water after primary thermal extraction, although other uses are attractive and may be promoted if this resource is developed. A wide range of funding sources was investigated. Most promising avenues appear to be some form of local bond financing, and loans from the Farmer's Home Administration or the HUD Urban Development action grant program. The report suggests that a municipally-owned geothermal district heating utility be established, and a bond issue approved to pay for the initial well drilling, which is the major risk in the whole venture. A UDAG grant for 25% of the well cost may be obtainable. If the well proves successful, then the rest of the project can go forward.

Not Available

1982-02-01

191

A two-dimensional, finite-difference model of the high plains aquifer in southern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation, industry, municipalities, and domestic use in south-central South Dakota. The aquifer, composed of upper sandstone units of the Arikaree Formation, and the overlying Ogallala and Sand Hills Formations, was simulated using a two-dimensional, finite-difference computer model. The maximum difference between simulated and measured potentiometric heads was less than 60 feet (1- to 4-percent error). Two-thirds of the simulated potentiometric heads were within 26 feet of the measured values (3-percent error). The estimated saturated thickness, computed from simulated potentiometric heads, was within 25-percent error of the known saturated thickness for 95 percent of the study area. (USGS)

Kolm, K.E.; Case, H. L., III

1983-01-01

192

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 80 (2001) 33 SIMULATED EFFECTS OF ANGLER HARVEST  

E-print Network

HARVEST ON AN UNEXPLOITED SOUTH DAKOTA YELLOW PERCH POPULATION George D. Scholten, Daniel A. Isermann perch (Perca flavescens) in recently formed Parks Pond, South Dako- ta. Yellow perch (N = 203) were consisted of male yellow perch (73%). Size structure of female yellow perch [proportional stock density (PSD

193

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 82 (2003) 153 HATCHING DATES AND DAILY GROWTH  

E-print Network

nigromaculatus during 2001 and 2002 in Pickerel Lake, South Dakota. Hatching of black crappies in Pickerel Lake hatch date explained most of the remaining variability (31-37%) INTRODUCTION Black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus populations in many South Dako- ta natural lakes demonstrate erratic recruitment (Guy and Willis

194

Delineating the size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining non-invasive surface geophysical results and geotechnical drill hole data can provide valuable information about the subsurface. Unfortunately, the placement of inclinometers is often limited to areas along roads and other areas accessible by drill rigs, yet many surface geophysical investigations take place in areas where accessibility is difficult or impossible for vehicles. An integrated investigation using surface geophysics and existing borehole data was conducted at the active Cliff Shelf landslide along South Dakota State Route (SR) 240 in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. The purpose of the geophysical investigation was to provide an approximate size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide for the engineering design alternative of the short-and long-term stabilization of the landslide. Additional objectives were to determine the strength/stiffness of the landslide materials, and to locate any heterogeneities of the Cliff Shelf landslide, specifically discontinuities which may imply slide planes within the landslide. Surface geophysical methods used for this investigation included seismic refraction tomography, Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), and electrical resistivity tomography. Inclinometers were previously installed at two locations on SR 240 to determine a depth to the slide plane. Drill log data, specifically SPT N-values (i.e., blow counts), were used to interpret a depth to a stiffness contact. Observations from the inclinometers indicate maximum horizontal displacement at approximate depths of 47-49 feet. Borings near the inclinometers show an increase in N-value at depths of 50-60 feet, indicating a stiffness contact at similar depths. Seismic refraction and MASW surveys were acquired within 18 feet of the inclinometers and borehole locations. At depths where maximum displacement occurred and blow counts increased, the P-wave and S-wave velocities increased from 3200 ft/s to 4300-4700 feet per second (ft/s), and from 550 ft/s to 900 ft/s, respectively. Therefore, these velocities (referred to hereafter as 'stiffness contact') are interpreted to represent a stiffness contact where displacement is likely to occur, and a possible depth to the slide plane. Two locations along the seismic refraction and MASW profiles were identified where there is an abrupt decrease in the depth to the stiffness contact, interpreted to represent the location of the slide plane. Additional seismic refraction and MASW surveys were collected away from the highway (where instruments could not be installed) to delineate the shape and size of the slide plane in the subsurface, specifically the northern and western extents. By determining the extents of the slide plane, an estimation of the size of the landslide was made by engineers and incorporated to designing mitigation solutions. Also, by successfully applying multiple geophysical techniques the interpreted depth and extents of the slide plane allowed design engineers to determine the total size of the landslide. The interpretations of the slide plane extents, vertically and horizontally, correlate well with the limited standard geotechnical data currently being used to monitor landslide movement.

Genco, A. J.

2013-12-01

195

A comparison of media frames in print vs. television news: an examination of the Elijah Page death penalty case in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine the frames used during the South Dakota news media coverage of the Elijah Page death penalty case and detect patterns of frame usage, valence of news coverage and source usage. A content analysis of 163 South Dakota news reports from three years of news media coverage was conducted. The study found that the procedural frame

Heather Rexanne Haley

2010-01-01

196

A new fossil mustelid from the Miocene of South Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A skull from the Barstovian of South Dakota has typical leptarctine characteristics, including robust zygomatic arches, double sagittal crests, grooves on the lingual side of the lower canines, and bony projections from the tympanic bullae. The robust mandibles and expanded masseteric fossa of this specimen indicate that it had large jaw muscles. Dental morphology and other characters lead us to agree with earlier suggestions that Hypsoparia is a valid genus. The morphology of Hypsoparia suggests that leptarctines were more herbivorous than most other Carnivora.

Lim, Jong-Deock; Martin, L. D.

2002-03-01

197

Records of wells and chemical analyses of ground water in Hand and Hyde counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well and chemical groundwater data contained in three tables were collected during a 4-year study started in 1972 to determine the geology and water resources of Hand and Hyde Counties, South Dakota. Physical, hydrologic, and geologic data for 2,729 wells and test holes have been entered into computer storage in the Groundwater Site Inventory File of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System WATSTORE. Water quality data from 300 chemical analyses has been stored in the Water Quality File of WATSTORE and is computer printed int he chemical analyses table by aquifer. (USGS)

Neitzert, K.M.; Koch, N.C.

1987-01-01

198

Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report  

SciTech Connect

St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

Not Available

1984-12-01

199

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

2008-04-01

200

Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and temporal dynamics of phenology and TIN in mixed-grass prairie.

Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

2013-01-01

201

Geochemical modeling of the Madison aquifer in parts of Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Stable isotope data for dissolved carbonate, sulfate, and sulfide are combined with water composition data to construct geochemical reaciton models along eight flow paths in the Madison aquifer in parts of Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. All reaction models reproduce the observed chemical and carbon and sulfur isotopic composition of the final waters and are partially validated by predicting the observed carbon and sulfur isotopic compositions of colomite and anhydrite from the Madison Limestone. The geochemical reaction models indicate that the dominant groundwater reactionin the Madison aquifer is dedolomitization (calcite precipitation and dolomite dissolution driven by anhydrite dissolution). Sulfate reduction, (Ca{sup 2+} + Mg{sup 2+})/Na{sup +} cation exchange, and halite dissolution are locally important, particularly in central Montana. The groundwater system is treated as closed to CO{sub 2} gas from external sources such as the soil zone or cross-formational leakage but open to CO{sub 2} from oxidation of organic matter coupled with sulfate reduction and other redox processes occurring within the aquifer. The computed mineral mass transfers and modeled sulfur isotopic composition of Madison anhydrites are mapped throughout the study area. Carbon 14 groundwater ages, adjusted for the modeled carbon mass transfer, range from modern to about 23,000 years B.P. and indicate flow velocities of 7-87 ft/yr (2.1-26.5 m/yr). Most horizontal hydraulic conductivities calculated from Darcy's Law using the average {sup 14}C flow velocities are within a factor of 5 of those based on digital simulation. The calculated mineral mass transfer and adjusted {sup 14}C groundwater ages permit determination of apparent rates of reaction in the aquifer.

Plummer, L.N.; Hanshaw, B.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Busby, J.F. (Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)); Lee, R.W. (Geological Survey, Nashville, TN (USA))

1990-09-01

202

Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

1982-01-01

203

Geology Fieldnotes: Wind Cave National Park South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wind Cave National Park includes one of the world's longest and most complex caves and 28,295 acres of mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forest, and associated wildlife. The cave is well known for its outstanding display of boxwork, an unusual cave formation composed of thin calcite fins resembling honeycombs. Features include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses geologic history, structural geology, cave formations, and history of exploration of the region. The park maps section includes an area map of Wind Cave National Park and a detailed cave map.

204

Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

Howard, S.M.

1983-09-01

205

JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS  

SciTech Connect

Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-11-01

206

Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota  

PubMed Central

Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002–2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002–2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source. PMID:24173141

Wimberly, Michael C.; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B.

2013-01-01

207

Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity of populations in New Zealand, Oregon, and South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of whole blood selenium (Se) to glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was examined for individuals in New Zealand, Oregon, and South Dakota who represented, respectively, populations with exposure to low, medium, and high amounts of Se. The mean (respective) blood Se levels were 60, 200, and 400 ng/ml. Intergroup differences in blood Se levels were highly significant. GPX assays were performed using two variations of an enzyme-coupled procedure to assess the equivalence of the two methods. Despite a fourfold difference in absolute activities measured by these methods, the GPX activities were highly correlated between procedures. Average blood GPX activity was significantly lower for the New Zealand group compared with the other two groups, but there was no difference in GPX activities between the Oregon and South Dakota groups. Linear regression of GPX vs. Se values within each group indicated a significant correlation of these parameters only in the New Zealand group. Comparison of these parameters for combined data from all three groups also showed a significant positive correlation. A saturation model (ln GPX = k{sub 1} + k{sub 2} (Se){sup {minus}1}) fits the combined data better than does direct comparison of the two parameters. These results suggest that GPX activity is an appropriate indicator of human Se status only in populations with below normal exposure to Se, as activity of this enzyme is saturated at relatively low levels.

Whanger, P.D.; Beilstein, M.A.; Thomson, C.D.; Robinson, M.F.; Howe, M.

1988-11-01

208

Gorge of the Missouri: An Archeological Survey of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a shoreline survey of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. The survey, performed by crews from Wichita State University and the University of Iowa, is the first to provide complete coverage of the shoreline ...

D. J. Blakeslee, J. O'Shea

1983-01-01

209

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule (O. hemionus) deer make up a significant portion of this wildlife Models were developed for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population inhabiting the Black-tailed deer in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Keywords Black Hills, Odocoileus virginianus, population model

210

The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

2014-01-01

211

The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

2014-01-01

212

Research, Issues, and Practices. Annual Curriculum and Instruction Research Symposium Conference Proceedings (1st, Vermillion, South Dakota, April 22, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to promote the professional sharing of current educational issues, to provide a forum for dialogue concerning relevant educational topics, and to share University of South Dakota faculty research interests. The proceedings are comprised of 10 presentations: (1) "Japan Related Education in…

South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

213

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974–79  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974–79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found

Rey C. Stendell; David S. Gilmer; Nancy A. Coon; Douglas M. Swineford

1988-01-01

214

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 81 (2002) 35 RETENTION AND SURVIVAL RATES  

E-print Network

ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF T-BAR ANCHOR TAGS IN MARKING YELLOW PERCH George D. Scholten, Daniel A. Isermann yellow perch (Perca flavescens) with t-bar anchor tags (FD-94 Floy® tags) by conducting 2- to 4-d net-pen trials. Yellow perch were captured from two South Dakota lakes with trap nets during October 2000

215

COUGAR MORTALITY ATTRIBUTED TO ELECTROCUTION FROM POWER LINES IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 10 May 2006, a private landowner  

E-print Network

a source of mortality for the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem (Gunther et191 COUGAR MORTALITY ATTRIBUTED TO ELECTROCUTION FROM POWER LINES IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 10 May 2006 (Latitude: 43.99° N, Longitude: 105.98° W). The carcass lay adjacent to a power line pole and mortality due

216

Influence of a Saugeye (Sauger × Walleye) Introduction Program on the Black Crappie Population in Richmond Lake, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saugeyes, a purposeful hybrid between walleye Stizostedion vitreum and sauger S. canadense, were introduced into 336-ha Richmond Lake, South Dakota, with a management ob- jective of improving the size structure of the population of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the influence of stocking size on the relative survival of saugeyes, (2) changes

Gene F. Galinat; David W. Willis; Brian G. Blackwell; Matthew J. Hubers

2002-01-01

217

Evaluation of a 23-cm Minimum Length Limit for Black and White Crappies in a Small South Dakota Impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks instituted a 23-cm minimum length limit for black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie P. annularis in Lake Alvin on 1 January 1996 because an undesirable size and age structure indicated that these pop- ulations were being overharvested. Crappies were sampled annually using trap (modified fyke) nets from 1992 to 1999.

Timothy J. Bister; David W. Willis; Allen D. Knapp; Todd R. St Sauver

2002-01-01

218

Seasonal Variation in Catch Rate and Body Condition for Four Fish Species in a South Dakota Natural Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in catch rate (catch per unit effort, CPUE) and body condition (relative weight, Wr) for northern pike Esox lucius, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and walleye Stizostedion vitreum sampled with trap (modified fyke) nets was evaluated in Lake Madison, a natural lake in eastern South Dakota, from March through October, 1990. Seasonal variation in CPUE

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis

1991-01-01

219

The Development of a Survey Instrument on South Dakota's School District Leadership Climate as Related to Deming's Fourteen Points.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of an instrument to measure baseline levels of applied Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in South Dakota before the introduction and dissemination of TQM theory to the state's educational leaders is described. Using the interpretation of Deming's 14 points that was developed by J. J. Bonstigl, a 115-item initial item pool was…

Holmes, Lawrence W. O.; And Others

220

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 83 (2004) 47 FOX SQUIRREL WEIGHT AND AGE STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 83 (2004) 47 FOX SQUIRREL WEIGHT AND AGE of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) in mast and non-mast forests in the upper Midwest. Hourly observation and harvest ratios indicated squirrel density was greater in the mast than non-mast forest. No sig- nificant

221

Food Habits of Young-of-the-Year Walleyes in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of young-of-the-year walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were determined in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota from June through September, 1991. Walleyes initially fed on zooplankton but soon became piscivorous. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) were initially the most important prey fish, but rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) became important as walleyes moved from the littoral zone of the bay to

Jeffrey J. Jackson; David W. Willis; David G. Fielder

1992-01-01

222

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

Christopher Shannon Deperno

1998-01-01

223

Biological Characteristics of the Blue Sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28)

Nathan M. Morey; Charles R. Berry Jr

2003-01-01

224

The 30 May 1998 Spencer South Dakota Storm. Part I: The Structural Evolution and Environment of the Supercell Tornadoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT On the evening of 30 May 1998 atmospheric conditions across southeastern South Dakota lead to the development,of organized moist convection including several supercells. One such supercell is tracked by both a WSR-88D radar from Souix Falls, SD (KFSD) and by a Doppler On Wheels (DOW) mobile radar. This supercell remains discrete for an hour and a half before being

Curtisr. Alexander; Joshuaw Urman

225

20 Places to Get Experience for Your Resume by Billie Streufert, Director, Career Development Center, University of South Dakota  

E-print Network

Development Center, University of South Dakota Employers want experience. You don't have to look far to get it · Student newspaper or radio · Student government associations · Resident assistants or community advisors buy a car, you test drive it. If you purchase new clothes, you often try them on before making

Thomas, Andrew

226

Native American Student Perceptions of the Cultural Environment and Factors for Academic Success at the University of South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the high retention rates for Native American students in 2009 and 2008 in the two semesters at the University of South Dakota, there is a need to know the Native student perceptions of factors for their academic success. Native professors and administrators would benefit to know this information to continue to make improvements in…

Grignon, Charles M.

2009-01-01

227

The Planning Process on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota: A Comparative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative analysis of the planning processes on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota is presented in this master's thesis. The planning process is basically the same as is utilized in planning for a city, county, or region, but the problems facing reservation planning bodies are greater due to the greater…

Brown, Richard Ellsworth

228

Career & Life Planning Portfolio Resource Book. Activities To Accompany the South Dakota Career and Life Planning Portfolio, 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book provides several career development activities to accompany the South Dakota "My Career and Life Planning Portfolio," which is appended. The activities are arranged according to the following four folders found within the portfolio jacket: career and education planning; skills employers want; projects/work samples; and…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education, Pierre. Div. of Workforce and Career Preparation.

229

Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.  

PubMed

Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid density on open-cage plants did not differ from that on noncaged plants and those accessible by small predators. In a separate 3-yr experiment, exclusion of ants from soybean plants did not lead to differences in soybean aphid density compared with ant-accessible plants. Overall, these results suggest that the soybean aphid natural enemy guild is unsaturated and could be enhanced to improve biological control of soybean aphid in South Dakota. PMID:24874151

Hesler, Louis S

2014-06-01

230

Estimation of Monthly Evaporation from Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reservoirs on tributaries of the Red River of the North provide water for Fargo and Grand Forks, N. Dak., and other cities along the river. Adequate estimates of evaporative losses from the reservoirs are needed to determine the total water supply in the Basin. Many equations could be used to estimate lake or reservoir evaporation. However, in addition to measurements of air temperature, the equations require measurements of net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. Evaporation and air temperature data from energy budget evaporation sites at Wetland P1 in North Dakota and at Williams Lake in Minnesota are available. Air temperature data collected from climate stations near Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, from Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and from Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota also are available. Therefore, the combined data sets were used to estimate monthly evaporation from Lake Ashtabula, Orwell Lake, and Lake Traverse. Averaged monthly mean air temperatures determined for each reservoir study site were used to calculate monthly evaporation data sets for 1931-2001. Results from the procedure that estimates reservoir evaporation indicate that slight downward trends in annual evaporation occurred from 1931-2001. The trends may have been caused by the selected time period of the study, which began with the drought conditions in the mid 1930's and ended with the more wet conditions in the late 1990's. Average annual evaporation values for each reservoir for 1931-2001 correspond well with published average annual lake evaporation values for 1946-55.

Vining, Kevin C.

2003-01-01

231

Nature and timing of the latest Wisconsin advance of the James River lobe, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciation of the James River lobe area in eastern South Dakota (SD) produced several prominent geomorphic features of the Laurentide ice sheet record. During late Wisconsin time, the James lobe advanced southward in the James River lowland, overlapping the Prairie Coteau upland on the east and the Missouri Coteau on the west. The known southern limit of late Wisconsin till is the modern Missouri River Valley between Yankton and Richland, SD. North of the Missouri River, radiocarbon dates on wood in or beneath till from 12 sites in 10 counties of the southern James River lowland range from 12,050 to 12,880 14C yr B.P. and average 12,430 yr B.P. (~14,500 ka cal), with a mean reported uncertainty of 260 yrs. At most of these sites, including two within 20 km of Yankton, the dated wood is in till at depths as great as 58 m or in underlying sand and gravel. The dates are consistent with paleoecologic studies (e.g. Yansa, 2006) that indicate spruce parkland was in this region at that time prior to the glacial readvance. Outcrops of calcite-cemented glacial gravel cut by veins of banded travertine are present on a marginal escarpment of the James River valley, where it is incised into the 30-60-m-thick surface till of the James River lowland about 15 km north of the Missouri River. Twelve robust 230Th/U dates on calcite laminae ranging from 10.5 to 13.5 ka (mean 2s uncertainty of 0.4 ka) indicate that ground-water discharge from glacial-bed aquifers was closely related to the latest Wisconsin advance of the James lobe. Four dates on younger vug-filling calcite between 8.1 and 5.8 ka, as well as modern spring discharge, show decreasing initial 234U/238U with age. Stable-isotope data on dated travertine and modern spring water provide other means for evaluating environments of carbonate precipitation, including subglacial and/or subaerial settings and mixing of surface and ground water associated with ice-sheet dynamics. The 14C dates span the Bolling-Allerod time interval that ice core records show was markedly warmer than preceding glacial conditions. Thus, the late Wisconsin readvance of the James lobe, and similar readvances of the Des Moines and Lake Michigan lobes, may be complex dynamic responses of the Laurentide ice sheet to warming and increased meltwater.

Lundstrom, S. C.; Paces, J. B.; Iles, D.; Cowman, T.

2009-12-01

232

Geochemical Modeling of the Madison Aquifer in Parts of Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope data for dissolved carbonate, sulfate, and sulfide are combined with water composition data to construct geochemical reaction models along eight flow paths in the Madison aquifer in parts of Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. The sulfur isotope data are treated as an isotope dilution problem, whereas the carbon isotope data are treated as Rayleigh distillations. All reaction models reproduce the observed chemical and carbon and sulfur isotopic composition of the final waters and are partially validated by predicting the observed carbon and sulfur isotopic compositions of dolomite and anhydrite from the Madison Limestone. The geochemical reaction models indicate that the dominant groundwater reaction in the Madison aquifer is dedolomitization (calcite precipitation and dolomite dissolution driven by anhydrite dissolution). Sulfate reduction, [Ca2+ + Mg2+]/Na+ cation exchange, and halite dissolution are locally important, particularly in central Montana. The groundwater system is treated as closed to CO2 gas from external sources such as the soil zone or cross-formational leakage but open to CO2 from oxidation of organic matter coupled with sulfate reduction and other redox processes occurring within the aquifer. The computed mineral mass transfers and modeled sulfur isotopic composition of Madison anhydrites are mapped throughout the study area. Carbon 14 groundwater ages, adjusted for the modeled carbon mass transfer, range from modern to about 23,000 years B.P. and indicate flow velocities of 7-87 ft/yr (2.1-26.5 m/yr). Most horizontal hydraulic conductivities calculated from Darcy's Law using the average 14C flow velocities are within a factor of 5 of those based on digital simulation. The calculated mineral mass transfer and adjusted 14C groundwater ages permit determination of apparent rates of reaction in the aquifer. The apparent rate of organic matter oxidation is typically 0.12 ?mol/L/yr. Sulfate and, to a lesser extent, ferric iron are the predominant electron acceptors. The (kinetic) biochemical fractionation of 34S between sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is approximately -44‰ at 25°C, with a temperature variation of -0.4‰ per °C. The rates of precipitation of calcite and dissolution of dolomite and anhydrite typically are 0.59, 0.24, and 0.95 ?mol/L/yr, respectively.

Plummer, L. Niel; Busby, John F.; Lee, Roger W.; Hanshaw, Bruce B.

1990-09-01

233

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North...National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA...for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS...National Environmental Policy Act assessment for the...Cumulative impacts of water withdrawals on Lake...

2010-08-13

234

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North...National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA...for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS...National Environmental Policy Act assessment for the...Cumulative impacts of water withdrawals on Lake...

2010-08-12

235

LANDSAT's role in HUD 701 programs. [New Jersey and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of states concerning the use of LANDSAT in support of the comprehensive planning assistance program (Title IV, section 701) of the Housing and Community Development Act (1974) which is aimed mostly at small communities and rural counties, shows: (1) state governments used or were aware of the application of LANDSAT for inventorying land use and land cover at the state and local level; (2) use of satellite data was associated with the development of automated geographic information systems and the computer capability of handling and analyzing mapped information and other data tied to geographic coordinates and boundaries; and (3) LANDSAT capabilities in states tend to be institutionalized within state government information services where they can be readily assessed by state agencies. A summary of the state program for New Jersey and South Dakota is presented along with the state development guide plans, the rationale for using the satellite, and potential applications.

1979-01-01

236

Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model

Downey

1986-01-01

237

Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

1987-01-01

238

Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

1986-01-01

239

Ground-water data for selected coal areas in western North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water data are provided for the Sand Creek-Hanks, New England-Mott, Dickenson, and Bowman-Gascoyne coal areas, western North Dakota. The report contains the following: (1) Maps showing the location of wells, springs, and test holes; the location of test holes; where driller ' logs are available; and the location of wells with chemical analysis; and (2) tables showing well, spring, and test hole records; logs; and chemical analyses of water. (USGS)

Wald, James D.; Norbeck, Steven W.

1983-01-01

240

Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.

Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.

2005-12-01

241

Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Hoganson, J. W.; Erickson, J. M.; Holland, Jr. , F. D.

2007-01-01

242

Digital map of specific yield for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of specific yield percentage contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 106 degrees west longitude. The outcrop area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the specific yield percentage contours from a 1:1,000,000 base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, J. R.; Becker, M. F.

1998-01-01

243

ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

Westin, F. C.

1974-01-01

244

Water table in the High Plains aquifer in 1978 in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer includes an area of about 177,000 square miles, with 74 percent of the area in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas, and 26 percent of the area in Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The High Plains aquifer consists of one or more hydraulically connected geologic units of late Tertiary or Quaternary age. The late Tertiary rocks consist of the Brule Formation, Arikaree Group, and Ogallala Formation. The Quaternary rocks consist of alluvial, dune-sand, and valley-fill deposits. The configuration of the water table indicates that the High Plains aquifer is continuous throughout its extent, ground water generally flows west to east, and areas overlain by dune sand are recharge areas. Discharge from the aquifer is primarily to wells and streams. (USGS).

Gutentag, Edwin D.; Weeks, John B.

1980-01-01

245

Contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Missouri River in South Dakota is bordered by bluffs containing marine shale. Analyses of shale from these bluffs revealed that they contained maximum concentrations of 13.6 mg\\/kg dry weight selenium and 9.35 mg\\/kg dry weight cadmium. Wind and water erode the dry shale bluffs, releasing biologically available selenium to the river. Selenium also is present at relatively high concentrations

Ruelle

1991-01-01

246

Stable isotopes and sediments from Pickerel Lake, South Dakota, USA: a 12ky record of environmental changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological parameters and stable O- and C-isotopic composition of marl and ostracode calcite selected from a 17.7-m-long core from the 8-m-deep center of Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, provide one of the longest (ca. 12ky) paleoenvironmental records from the northern Great Plains. The late Glacial to early Holocene climate in the northern Great Plains was characterized by changes from cold

Antje Schwalb; Walter E. Dean

1998-01-01

247

Biology of the flea beetle, Altica carduorum [Col.: Chrysomelidae] on Canada thistle ( Cirsium arvense ) in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory colony of 50 adults ofAltica carduorum\\u000a Guérin-Méneville was established at South Dakota State University. Beetles reared in this colony had an average preoviposition period of 7\\u000a days when exposed to a regular cycle of 16 hr of light (24°C) and 8 hr of darkness (12.7°C). The laboratory reared females,\\u000a whose longevity averaged 100 days, laid an average of

B. D. Schaber; E. U. Balsbaugh; B. H. Kantack

1975-01-01

248

Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T\\/sub DM\\/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T\\/sub DM\\/

R. J. Walker; G. N. Hanson; J. J. Papike; J. R. ONeil

1986-01-01

249

Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, Southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T dm ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T dm

Richard J. Walker; G. N. Hanson; J. J. Papike; J. R. O'Neil

1986-01-01

250

Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and how new deposits might be found  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the recorded production of 34,694,552 troy ounces of gold mined in South Dakota through 1971, about 90 percent has come from Precambrian ore bodies in the Homestake mine at Lead in the northern Black Hills. Most of the rest has come from ore deposited in the Deadwood Formation (Cambrian) by hydrothermal replacement during early Tertiary igneous activity. About 99 percent of the total production has been within a radius of 5 miles (8 km) of Lead. Elsewhere, prospecting has been intense, both in the Precambrian rocks, which are exposed over an area 61 by 26 miles (98 by 42 km), and in nearby Paleozoic rocks. All the known ore bodies have been found either at the surface or in subsurface workings of operating mines. Efforts to find totally new deposits have been modest and sporadic; no comprehensive and systematic program has ever been attempted. Obviously, any exploration program should be aimed at finding a new deposit resembling the Homestake in the Precambrian, but discovery in the Deadwood of a new group of ore bodies containing several hundred thousand ounces of gold would certainly be worthwhile. Evidence has long been available that the Deadwood deposits and the Homestake deposit are somehow related. Current opinion is that (1) the Homestake ore is mainly Precambrian, (2) a trivial amount of Homestake ore is Tertiary, (3)gold in Deadwood basal conglomerate is largely of placer origin, and (4) the gold of replacement deposits in the Deadwood and in other rock units came originally from sources similar to the Homestake deposit or its parent materials. Homestake ore is virtually entirely contained in a unit of iron-formation locally known as the Homestake Formation, which seemingly had more gold in the original sediments than similar rocks exposed elsewhere in the Black Hills. Gold, sulfur, and other constituents were subsequently concentrated in ore shoots in zones of dilation caused by cross folds that deformed earlier major folds. These ore shoots are in metamorphic rocks of a grade just above the garnet isograd, in a zone where the principal iron-magnesium mineral of the iron-formation changes from a carbonate (sideroplesite) to a silicate (cummingtonite). This metamorphic reaction would release carbon dioxide to the fluid that presumably formed the ore bodies. In short, three controls over localization of the ore have been identified: (1) the cross folds; (2) the so-called Homestake Formation, which passes beneath Paleozoic rocks north of Lead and has not been proved to reappear anywhere else in the Black Hills (Other units of iron-formation less enriched in gold might locally become more like the Homestake Formation beneath the cover of Paleozoic rocks.}; (3} proximity to the garnet isograd--nearly all the exposed Precambrian rocks in the Black Hills are at a metamorphic grade higher than this isograd--and occurrence of this isograd zone mostly beneath Paleozoic rocks. In searching for new deposits, one can guess from existing data where Precambrian rocks of suitable nature may be concealed. The usefulness of such guesses can be increased if they are made with information about the distribution of gold in younger rocks. Gold in the Deadwood basal conglomerate would be the simplest indicator of a deposit once exposed on the pre-Deadwood surface. Tertiary replacement deposits in the Deadwood or other rocks, which obtained their gold from Precambrian sources that may be nearby or far away, can also be helpful; they, like anomalies found by geochemical sampling, at least outline the regions of mineralizing activity. A suitable approach to exploration is to make a thorough study of the stratigraphy, the structure, and the metals geochemistry of the Deadwood Formation and associated rocks, chiefly in the northern Black Hills but to a lesser extent elsewhere in localities where the Precambrian geology seems promising and where gold has been found nearby. Such a program, even if it does not yield

Norton, James Jennings

1974-01-01

251

Contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Missouri River in South Dakota is bordered by bluffs containing marine shale. Analyses of shale from these bluffs revealed that they contained maximum concentrations of 13.6 mg/kg dry weight selenium and 9.35 mg/kg dry weight cadmium. Wind and water erode the dry shale bluffs, releasing biologically available selenium to the river. Selenium also is present at relatively high concentrations in Missouri River tributary streams. The waterborne selenium is carried downstream and deposited in slack-water areas near islands and shorelines. Least tern (Sterna antillarum), a federally endangered species, and piping plover (Charadrius melodus), a federally threatened species, nest on Missouri River islands. Addled eggs of both species were collected during the 1988, 1989, and 1990 nesting seasons and were analyzed for selenium and other inorganics. The maximum concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of selenium detected were 13.0 and 11.1 respectively in piping plover and least tern eggs. Selenium concentrations remained elevated and stable in bird eggs during all three years of the study.

Ruelle, R.

1991-05-01

252

Health assessment for Whitewood Creek, Lawrence and Mead Counties, South Dakota, Region 8. CERCLIS No. SD980717136. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Whitewood Creek Site is on the National Priorities List. The site, and 18-mile segment of Whitewood Creek, is located in Lawrence and Mead Counties, South Dakota. An estimated 10 billion kilograms of mill tailings are present on-site. Access to the area is unrestricted. Preliminary on-site sampling have identified arsenic (4-780 ppm in ground water, 8 ppm in surface water), cadmium (10 ppm in ground water, 102 ppm in surface water), chromium (19 ppm in ground water), cyanide (10 to 18 ppm in ground water, 2 ppm in surface water), selenium (79 ppm in ground water), lead (308 ppm in surface water). Preliminary off-site soil-sampling results identified arsenic (42 to 440 ppm), cadmium (9 ppm), and copper (412 ppm). Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances. Direct contact and ingestion of contaminated ground water, surface water, soil and sediment are possible human exposure pathways. In addition, inhalation of contaminants entrained in air and ingestion of contaminants that bioaccumulate in the food chain are other potential sources for human exposure.

Not Available

1989-03-15

253

Appraisal of the water resources of the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, Beadle, Hand, and Spink Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A system of glacial outwash aquifers lie in the central James Valley in east-central South Dakota. Within this system, the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, which has an area of approximately 681 square miles, was simulated by means of a numerical ground-water flow model. The model estimates the yearly average recharge rate for that part of the aquifer lying west of the James River to be approximately 23,000 acre-feet per year. This rate is considerably more than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 9,800 acre-feet per year. It is expected that, since pumping will reduce discharge from the aquifer through evapotranspiration and flow to the James River, this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at recent pumpage rates for an indefinite period. For that part of the aquifer lying east of the river, estimated recharge is 6,800 acre-feet per year; a rate slightly smaller than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 7,200 acre-feet per year. It is estimated that this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at 7,200 acre-feet per year for approximately 50 years, at which time excessive drawdown would begin to cause reduced well yields at several locations. (USGS)

Kuiper, L.K.

1984-01-01

254

Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

1990-01-01

255

Inventory of wetland habitat using remote sensing for the proposed Oahe irrigation unit in eastern South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inventory of wetlands for the area included in the proposed Oahe irrigation project was conducted to provide supplemental data for the wildlife mitigation plan. Interpretation techniques for inventoring small wetlands in the low relief terrain of the Lake Dakota Plain were documented and data summaries included. The data were stored and tabulated in a computerized spatial data analysis system.

Best, R. G.; Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

1977-01-01

256

Failure to identify alveolar echinococcosis in trappers from South Dakota in spite of high prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild canids.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic disease in humans. This tapeworm has been known to be endemic in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) within the northern United States since the 1960s. One purpose of this study was to provide recent data on the prevalence of E. multilocularis in foxes and coyotes from eastern South Dakota. In a survey conducted from 1987 to 1991 and involving 137 foxes and 9 coyotes from this area, 74.5% of the foxes and 4 of the coyotes were infected. To assess the possible prevalence of alveolar echinococcosis in a group at presumptive high risk, we also conducted a serological survey of members of the South Dakota Trappers Association in 1990 and 1991. Serum samples from 115 trappers were evaluated for the presence of E. multilocularis antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests involving a purified antigen called Em2, a crude E. multilocularis antigen, and a recombinant E. multilocularis antigen called II/3-10. None of the trappers showed antibody evidence for the presence of E. multilocularis. Roughly half of the surveyed individuals had trapped more than 50 foxes during their life, and almost one-fourth had trapped more than 1,000 foxes. PMID:10701567

Hildreth, M B; Sriram, S; Gottstein, B; Wilson, M; Schantz, P M

2000-02-01

257

Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

Howard, B.D.

1981-01-01

258

Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges to provide quality-assurance/quality-control measures for the level-1.5 scour estimates. An attempt was made to use the same flows among replicate analyses. Scour estimates do not necessarily have to be in numerical agreement to give the same results. For example, if contraction scour replicate analyses are 18.8 and 30.8 feet, both scour depths can indicate susceptibility to scour for which countermeasures may be needed, even though one number is much greater than the other number. Contraction scour has perhaps the greatest potential for being estimated differently in replicate visits. For contraction scour estimates at the various flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -7.8 to 5.5 feet, with a median difference of 0.4 foot and an average difference of 0.2 foot. Abutment scour appeared to be nearly as reproducible as contraction scour. For abutment scour estimates at the varying flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -17.4 to 11 feet, with a median difference of 1.4 feet and an average difference of 1.7 feet. Estimates of pier scour tended to be the most consistently reproduced in replicate visits, with differences between results ranging from -0.3 to 0.5 foot, with a median difference of 0.0 foot and an average difference of 0.0 foot. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulics Engineering Center River Analysis Systems (HEC-RAS) software package was used to model stream hydraulics at the 41 sites with level-2 analyses. Level-1.5 analyses also were completed at these sites, and the performance of the level-1.5 method was assessed by comparing results to those from the more rigorous level-2 method. The envelope curve approach used in the level-1.5 method is designed to overestimate scour relative to the estimate from the level-2 scour analysis. In cases where the level-1.5 method estimated less scour than the level-2 method, the amount of underestimation generally was less than 3 feet. The level-1.5 method generally overestimated contraction, abutment, and pier scour relative to the level-2 method, as intended. Although the leve

Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

2014-01-01

259

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

260

Techniques for estimating flood peaks, volumes and hydrographs on small streams in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Procedures are defined for estimating magnitude and frequency of future flood peaks and flood volumes and for estimating hydrograph shape of rainfall-induced runoff of small streams in South Dakota where flood flows are not significantly affected by artificial storage or other manmade activities. For 115 gaged sites, the estimates are from frequency curves defined from the gaging records. Estimates are made for ungaged sites using regression relations based on drainage basin size, main channel slope, and a soil-infiltration index. Estimating relations are applicable for flood peaks on watersheds draining 0.05 to 100 square miles and for flood volumes on watersheds draining from 0.05 to 15 square miles. Limitations on use of the regression relations and the reliability of estimates are discussed. A method is indicated for using the estimating procedures and embankment ponding to design smaller highway culverts. The procedures were developed from analysis of flood records of 123 gaged sites. For 66 sites, short-term records were extended using long-term climatic records and a rainfall-runoff model. Flood magnitudes as dependent variables were related by regression analyses to indexes describing the drainage basins as independent variables. A dimensionless hydrograph shape was found appropriate for rainfall-runoff hydrographs. (USGS)

Becker, Lawrence D.

1980-01-01

261

Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

2013-01-01

262

South Dakota Space Grant Consortium: Balancing Indigenous Earth System and Space Science with Western/Contemporary Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth system and space science education, outreach and services to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five Tribal Colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight and reinforce the balance of Indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in Western/Contemporary Science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College and Tribal Community partnerships with the Rosebud Sioux Reservation (Sinte Gleska University), Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Oglala Lakota College), Standing Rock Sioux Reservation (Sitting Bull College) and Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation (Si Tanka) amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include but not limited to: NASA Workforce Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), NSF "Bridges to Success" Summer Research Program, NSF "Fire Ecology" Summer Research Experience, as well as geospatial and space science programs for students and general community members. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi (Black Hills Pow Wow - attendance of 14,000 Natives) to host Native Space Days 2005 (October 2005), NASA research and internship programs, and the NASA Student Fellowship Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the betterment of all people in South Dakota and the nation through developing a worldview and understanding of the integrated nature of all things, especially earth system and space science. If people are provided equity and access, there is no limit to what they can accomplish. SDSM&T in the last three years has graduated nineteen Natives with degrees in engineering, many of those students Tribal College transfers. This is a significant increase, as only forty Natives had graduated from SDSM&T between the years of 1970 and 2000. SDSM&T has seen a number of "historical firsts" in the past five years. We see this as being a direct result of creating for students an educational philosophy and process where Indigenous understanding and connections become the foundation on which to build a STEM degree program. NASA's presence on the SDSM&T campus and in South Dakota has provided the necessary focus and encouragement for success to take place. We are building bridges in South Dakota and the builders are from Indian Country.

Bolman, J.; Nall, J.

2005-05-01

263

Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential evapotranspiration, calculated in soil-water-balance analysis, ranged from 21.8 inches in WY 1983 to 27.0 inches in WY 1985, with a mean of 24.6 inches. Water use from the glacial aquifer system primarily was from the Elm aquifer for irrigation, municipal, and suburban water supplies, and the annual rate ranged from 1.0 to 2.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The MODFLOW-2005 numerical model represented the Elm aquifer, the Middle James aquifer, and the Deep James aquifer with model layers 1-3 respectively separated by confining layers 1-2 respectively. Groundwater flow was simulated with 75 stress periods beginning October 1, 1974, and ending September 30, 2009. Model grid spacing was 200 by 200 ft and boundaries were represented by specified-head boundaries and no-flow boundaries. The model used parameter estimation that focused on minimizing the difference between 954 observed and simulated hydraulic heads for 135 wells. Calibrated mean horizontal hydraulic conductivity values for model layers 1-3 were 94, 41, and 30 ft/d respectively. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values for confining layers 1 and 2 were 0.0002 and 0.0003 ft/d, respectively. Calibrated specific yield for model layer 1was 0.1 and specific storage ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0005 per foot. Calibrated mean recharge rates ranged from 2.5 in/yr where glacial till thickness was less than 10 ft to 0.8 in/yr where glacial till thickness was greater than 30 ft. Calibrated mean annual evapotranspiration rate was 8.8 in/yr. Simulated net streamflow gain from model layer 1 was 3.1 ft3/s.

Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

2012-01-01

264

Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

Scott, David M.

2010-01-01

265

Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

Schaap, Bryan D.

2000-01-01

266

Habitat Use by Beaver Along the Big Sioux River in Eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

Dakota 57007 USA Abstract.-Habitat use by beavers Castor canadensis was investigated during 1985 and 1986 to livestock grazing (Smith and Flake 1983). Grazing can have negative effects on beaver Castor canadensis

267

Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of flood flow frequency were made for 111 continuous-record gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council. The procedure characterizes flood occurrence at a single site as a sequence of annual peak flows. The magnitudes of the annual peak flows are assumed to be independent random variables following a log-Pearson Type III probability distribution, which defines the probability that any single annual peak flow will exceed a specified discharge. By considering only annual peak flows, the flood-frequency analysis becomes the estimation of the log-Pearson annual-probability curve using the record of annual peak flows at the site. The recorded data are divided into two classes: systematic and historic. The systematic record includes all annual peak flows determined in the process of conducting a systematic gaging program at a site. In this program, the annual peak flow is determined for each and every year of the program. The systematic record is intended to constitute an unbiased and representative sample of the population of all possible annual peak flows at the site. In contrast to the systematic record, the historic record consists of annual peak flows that would not have been determined except for evidence indicating their unusual magnitude. Flood information acquired from historical sources almost invariably refers to floods of noteworthy, and hence extraordinary, size. Although historic records form a biased and unrepresentative sample, they can be used to supplement the systematic record. (Author 's abstract)

Benson, R.D.; Hoffman, E.B.; Wipf, V.J.

1985-01-01

268

Management of warm-season grass mixtures for biomass production in South Dakota USA.  

PubMed

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash) are native warm-season grasses commonly used for pasture, hay, and conservation. More recently switchgrass has also been identified as a potential biomass energy crop, but management of mixtures of these species for biomass is not well documented. Therefore, the objectives of our study were to: (1) determine the effects of harvest timing and N rate on yield and biomass characteristics of established warm-season grass stands containing a mixture of switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass, and (2) evaluate the impact of harvest management on species composition. Five N rates (0, 56, 112, and 224 kg ha(-1) applied annually in spring and 224 kg ha(-1) evenly split between spring and fall) and two harvest timings (anthesis and killing frost) were applied to plots at two South Dakota USA locations from 2001 to 2003. Harvesting once a year shortly after a killing frost produced the greatest yields with high concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) along with lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and ash. This harvest timing also allowed for the greatest percentage of desirable species while maintaining low grass weed percentages. While N rates of 56 and 112 kg ha(-1) tended to increase total biomass without promoting severe invasion of grass and broadleaf weed species, N application did not always result in significant increases in biomass production. Based on these results, mixtures of switchgrass and big bluestem were well suited for sustainable biomass energy production. Furthermore, N requirements of these mixtures were relatively low thus reducing production input costs. PMID:17349789

Mulkey, V R; Owens, V N; Lee, D K

2008-02-01

269

Seasonal Daphnia biomass in winterkill and nonwinterkill glacial lakes of South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the seasonal biomass (??g dry weight/L) and body size of Daphnia pulex populations between South Dakota lakes that experienced nearly complete winterkill (n = 2) and those that did not experience fish winterkill the previous winter (n = 2). In spring (March-May), D. pulex biomass was substantially lower in winterkill lakes (0.4-1.9 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (13.8-129.4 ??g/L). In summer months (June-July), D. pulex biomass increased in all lakes but was generally higher in winterkill lakes (332.1-469. 3 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (88.6-204.2 ??g/L). By September, D. pulex biomass was substantially higher in winterkill lakes (243.8 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (1.0 ??g/L). The mean size of D. pulex increased significantly from March to August in winterkill lakes but not in nonwinterkill lakes. The seasonal differences in D. pulex biomass and size may have been related to size-selective predation by planktivorous fishes because the ratio of spine length to body length in D. pulex was significantly lower in winterkill lakes (mean, 0.34) than in nonwinterkill lakes (mean, 0.43). Moreover, seasonal patterns in chlorophyll-a biomass were inversely related to D. pulex biomass. The production and subsequent hatching of resting eggs may be important for recolonization of Daphnia populations after severe winter conditions. The survival and growth of zooplanktivorous fish that are stocked to repopulate winterkill lakes may be increased by delaying stocking until Daphnia populations recover from severe winterkill.

Isermann, D.A.; Chipps, S.R.; Brown, M.L.

2004-01-01

270

`Shelby427', a white-hulled spring oat, was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (SDAES) and released in 2010. Shelby427 was tested as experimental line  

E-print Network

ORIGIN: `Shelby427', a white-hulled spring oat, was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural for feed grain, milling oat, companion crop, for- age, and/or straw production. RECOMMENDED CULTURAL in the 2008­2010 South Dakota Standard Variety Oat PerformanceTrials. Variety 24loc/yrs* Yield bu/a 24loc

271

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79.  

PubMed

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974-79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks. PMID:24248525

Stendell, R C; Gilmer, D S; Coon, N A; Swineford, D M

1988-01-01

272

Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

Norton, James Jennings

1984-01-01

273

HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

Moore, D. G. (principal investigator); Heilman, J. L.

1980-01-01

274

Alteration of sandstone as a guide to uranium deposits and their origin, northern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several uranium deposits are present in the Fall River sandstone of Early Cretaceous age on the northeast flank of the Black Hills, Butte County, South Dakota. The deposits are within a fine-grained, well-sorted, persistent basal sandstone unit that ranges in thickness from 2 to 18 feet and dips about 4° NE. Detailed mapping of about 2 square miles surrounding the deposits have shown that all the uranium occurrences and most of the areas of high radioactivity are where the color changes in the basal sandstone from reddish on the up-dip side of the the occurrences to yellowish-gray or buff down-dip. Radioactivity measurements show that uranium is distributed almost continuously along the sinuous red-buff contact for more than 5 miles. Laboratory work indicates that the red color is caused by the hematite resulting from the alteration of ferrous iron minerals and hydrous ferric oxides. The close association of the red-buff contact and the uranium deposits suggest that the two were formed by the same solutions. The uranium was probably deposited originally from ground water which moved down-dip and gradually changed from an oxidizing solution near the surface to a mildly reducing solution at depth. Concentrations of uranium have resulted from the localization of reducing conditions cause perhaps by structures superimposed on the regional dip, local thinning or decrease in permeability of the sandstone, or concentrations of pyritiferous carbonaceous material. The red alteration is probably the result of pre-Oligocene weathering that has extended downward in the more permeable beds about 200 feet below the ancient erosion surface. Oxidation of the primary uranium during the present weathering cycle has resulted in the formation of carnotite and possibly other secondary uranium minerals.

Vickers, R.C.

1956-01-01

275

Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.  

PubMed

During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

2006-06-01

276

Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

Weeks, John B.

1978-01-01

277

Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

Schaap, Bryan D.

2004-01-01

278

75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION:...

2010-02-19

279

75 FR 33896 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-06-15

280

75 FR 76522 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-12-08

281

76 FR 45005 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-07-27

282

76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-10-13

283

75 FR 62631 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado...  

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2010-10-12

284

75 FR 55404 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-09-10

285

75 FR 25315 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-05-07

286

76 FR 17994 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-03-31

287

76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-02-28

288

75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Arizona, Colorado...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-07-08

289

76 FR 22169 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-04-20

290

76 FR 37197 - Open Meeting of the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Area 6 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury....

2011-06-24

291

Fluid inclusion and carbon isotope studies of quartz-graphite veins, Black Hills, South Dakota, and Ruby Range, Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid inclusions and graphite are intimately associated in quartz veins that cut high grade metamorphic rocks in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and at the Crystal Graphite Mine in the southwestern Ruby Range, Montana. Measured fluid inclusion compositions and volumetric properties were compared with calculated compositions of graphite-saturated fluids and with estimates of metamorphic P-T conditions and carbon isotope ratios of graphite were measured to evaluate possible sources of carbon in veinforming fluids. Fluid inclusions from the two areas contrast markedly in their reliability as recorders of metamorphic fluid compositions and metamorphic conditions. The ?13C of graphite associated with the veins indicates that the source of carbon was also different in the two areas. In the Black Hills veins, fluid inclusions are dominantly H 2O?CO 2 mixtures with 24-96 mol% CO 2 and a maximum of ˜5 mol% N 2 and ˜ 13 mol% CH 4. Isochores for the highest density inclusions pass near estimated peak metamorphic conditions (550°-600°C, 4.5-6.5 kbar) and fluid inclusion compositions are compatible with thermodynamic predictions for fluids in equilibrium with graphite in the stated P- T range at geologically reasonable ƒ O 2.Graphite in a 12-cm wall-rock alteration zone adjacent to one of the veins has uniform ?13C of -20.8 ± 0.2%., indicating that carbon in the vein-forming fluid was derived largely from reduced organic carbon. In the Ruby Range, peak metamorphic conditions were higher - ˜750°-850°C, 5-8 kbar. In contrast to the Black Hills veins, fluid inclusions are almost all CO 2?CH 4 mixtures (with unknown N 2 content). Many contain > 20 equivalent mol% CH 4 and mixed H 2O?CO 2 inclusions were observed in only one sample. Inclusions in one vein have ˜ 84-97 mol% CH 4. Virtually all inclusion compositions are incompatible with computed graphite equilibria and inclusion isochores likewise do not pass through estimated metamorphic conditions. The density and composition of most, if not all, inclusions have been modified subsequent to original trapping, possibly through H 2O loss. The range of ?13C values of vein graphites (-5.8 to -8.6%.) is nearly indistinguishable from values for graphite in dolomitic marble near the veins (-4.8 to -7.1%.). Carbon was probably mobilized through devolatilization reactions in the marble and precipitated as 13C-rich graphite in the veins at fairly constant temperature and from fluid of fairly constant composition.

Duke, Edward F.; Galbreath, Kevin C.; Trusty, Kane J.

1990-03-01

292

Digital map of base of aquifer for High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for base of aquifer contours of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The original data are from the 1:1,000,000-scale mylar source map for Gutentag and others (1984).

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1998-01-01

293

Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Lead, South Dakota - Final Performance Evaluation Report  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Lead, South Dakota. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of SolmeteX?s adsorptive media system in removin...

294

The Impact of Four-Year Participation in Music and/or Athletic Activities in South Dakota Public High Schools on GPA and ACT Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding the key to success for high school students has long been the goal for both school personnel and parents. This study examined the impact of four-year participation in music and/or athletics activities in South Dakota public high schools on student GPA and ACT scores. The data in this study were collected from five Class A high schools…

Jones, Patrick S.

2010-01-01

295

South Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service U.S. Department of Agriculture The crop performance trials are available at http://plantsci.sdstate.edu/varietytrials/vartrial.html  

E-print Network

of certified seed. South Dakota Spring Wheat & Oat Variety recommendations Hard Red Spring Wheat: Recommended Granger PVP Howard PVP Sampson PVP Statewide All except 3 Statewide 5, 6, 7 Spring Oat: Recommended Winter Wheat Variety Recommendations Hard Red Winter Wheat: Recommended Acceptable/Promising Variety CAA

296

Seasonal Variation in Sampling Indices for Shovelnose Sturgeon, River Carpsucker, and Shorthead Redhorse Collected from the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gill nets and electrofishing were utilized in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota to sample river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). Shorthead redhorse, shovelnose sturgeon, and river carpsucker all exhibited significant monthly variation in mean relative weight (Wr) during at least one sample year (P < 0.05). In general, Wr

George R. Jordan; David W. Willis

2001-01-01

297

Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

1989-01-01

298

The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

2014-01-01

299

Pressure-temperature-time path related to the thermotectonic evolution of an Early Proterozoic metamorphic terrane, Black Hills, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pressure-temperature-time path determined from zoned garnet and associated minerals in a metapelite from a dome in the western part of the Black Hills, South Dakota, Precambrian core shows two clockwise loops that link the previously postulated thermal and tectonic events affecting Early Proterozoic age rocks between ca. 1.850 and 1.715 Ga. The shape of the loops indicates that two distinctly different styles of tectonic processes occurred during this time period. The first loop established from the garnet core is correlated with crustal thickening by thrusting and nappe development followed by a period of erosional uplift. The second loop, from the garnet rim, resulted from homogeneous thickening represented by north-northwest-trending isoclinal folds. The peak conditions of this event are interpreted to be associated with anatexis, doming, and intrusion of Harney Peak S-type granite (1.715 Ga).

Terry, Michael P.; Friberg, La Verne M.

1990-08-01

300

IN SITU AND LABORATORY GEOTECHNICAL TESTS OF THE PIERRE SHALE NEAR HAYES, SOUTH DAKOTA - A CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERING BEHAVIOR.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geotechnical investigation of the Pierre Shale near Hayes, South Dakota, was conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey as a basis for evaluating problems in deep excavations into that formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the shale were determined through use of core holes drilled to a maximum depth of 184 m. In situ borehole determinations included a gravimeter survey, pressuremeter testing, thermal profile measurements, and borehole velocity measurements. Onsite and offsite laboratory measurements included rebound measurements, sonic velocity measurements of shear and primary waves, X-ray mineralogy and major element determinations, size analyses, fracture analyses, fabric analyses, and determination of thermal properties. The properties of the clay shale indicate problems that may be encountered in excavation and use of deep underground facilities.

Nichols, Jr. , Thomas, C.; Collins, Donley, S.; Davidson, Richard, R.

1986-01-01

301

Remote sensing for evaluating post-disaster damage conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota tornado, 23 July 1973  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation. The immediate advantages of the data are identified as a 'quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.

Rusche, A. E.; Myers, V. I.

1974-01-01

302

2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean supercontinent at ???2480 Ma. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

2006-01-01

303

Attitudes and gender differences of high school seniors within one-to-one computing environments in South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.

Nelson, Mathew

304

Dr. T. F. Riggs and the Johns Hopkins connection: an early graduate medical experience in South Dakota.  

PubMed

Theodore F. Riggs, MD was born to missionary parents in Dakota Territory in 1874. His early education was a mixture of a mission school with Indian children and more conventional elementary schools in eastern communities. He graduated from Beloit College, and in 1903 received his medical degree at Johns Hopkins. After training in surgery, he began his practice in Pierre, South Dakota in 1909. In 1919 he contacted friends in Baltimore, seeking assistance with the burgeoning practice. Help came in the form of a third year medical student, Richard TeLinde (who later became head of Gynecological Surgery at Hopkins). TeLinde was so impressed by his Pierre encounter that subsequently each year he would select a recent Hopkins graduate to go to Pierre and work with Dr Riggs at St. Mary's Hospital. The Pierre rotation became a regular option in the residency program of the Brady Urological Institute. The program continued through World War II, ending after the death of Dr Hugh Young and the retirement of Dr Riggs in the early 1950's. Forty-five residents or medical students had a part of their training with T. F. Riggs at St. Mary's Hospital. Twenty-seven were from Johns Hopkins, while others were local South Dakotans or individuals known to Dr. Riggs. Of the total group, seventeen became urologists, five surgeons, five internist, two otolaryngologists, two psychiatrists and one gynecologist (Richard TeLinde). Dr Riggs died in 1962. He said his greatest joy in life was the experience he had with those men who had been at St. Mary's Hospital over the years and the friendships that were formed. PMID:8966542

Gutch, C F

1996-03-01

305

Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

1980-05-31

306

1Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, South Dakota State University, SNP 138, Brookings, SD 57007. 2Present address: Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Box 850, Pinedale, WY 82941. E-mail: luke.schultz@wyo.gov  

E-print Network

Catostomus platyrhynchus, a species of greatest conservation need in the state of South Dakota. Adult fish superior del lechón de montaña Catostomus platyrhynchus, una especie con la máxima necesidad de

307

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

Deperno, Christopher Shannon

308

Small-area snow surveys on the northern plains of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The variation in snow cover over small areas is the focus of this study of the feasibility of using aerial surveys to obtain information on the snow water equivalent of the snow cover in order to minimize the necessity of labor intensive ground snow surveys. A low-flying aircraft was used to measure attenuations of natural terrestrial gamma radiation by snow cover. Aerial and ground snow surveys of eight 1-mile snow courses and one 4-mile snow course in North Dakota were used in the evaluation, with ground snow surveys used as the base to evaluate aerial data. Each of the 1-mile snow courses consisted of a single land use and all had the same terrain type (plane). The 4-mile snow course consists of a variety of land uses and the same terrain type (plane). Using the aerial snow-survey technique, the snow water equivalent of the 1-mile snow courses was measured with three passes of the aircraft. Use of more than one pass did not improve the results. The mean absolute difference between the aerial- and ground-measured snow water equivalents for the 1-mile snow courses was 26 percent (0.77 inches). The aerial snow water equivalents determined for the 1-mile snow courses were used to estimate the variations in the snow water equivalents over the 4-mile snow course. The weighted mean absolute difference for the 4-mile snow course was 27 percent (0.8 inches). Variations in snow water equivalents could not be verified adequately by segmenting the aerial snow-survey data because of the uniformity found in the snow cover. On the 4-mile snow course, about two-thirds of the aerial snow-survey data agreed with the ground snow-survey data within the accuracy of the aerial technique (+or-0.5 inch of the mean snow water equivalent). (USGS)

Emerson, D. G.; Carroll, T. R.; Steppuhn, Harold

1985-01-01

309

Data Collected to Support Monitoring of Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat on the Missouri River Downstream from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has constructed emergent sandbar habitat on sections of the Missouri River bordering South Dakota and Nebraska downstream from Gavins Point Dam to create and enhance habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. Two areas near river miles 761.3 and 769.8 were selected for construction of emergent sandbar habitat. Pre- and postconstruction data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, to evaluate the success of the habitat management techniques. Data collected include pre- and postconstruction channel-geometry data (bathymetric and topographic) for areas upstream from, downstream from, and within each construction site. Water-velocity data were collected for selected parts of the site near river mile 769.8. Instruments and methods used in data collection, as well as quality-assurance and quality-control measures, are described. Geospatial channel-geometry data are presented for transects of the river channel as cross sections and as geographical information system shapefiles. Geospatial land-surface elevation data are provided for part of each site in the form of a color-shaded relief map. Geospatial water-velocity data also are provided as color-shaded maps and geographical information system shapefiles.

Thompson, Ryan F.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Andersen, Michael J.

2007-01-01

310

Hydrologic Characterization for Spring Creek and Hydrologic Budget and Model Scenarios for Sheridan Lake, South Dakota, 1962-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks to characterize hydrologic information relevant to management of water resources associated with Sheridan Lake, which is formed by a dam on Spring Creek. This effort consisted primarily of characterization of hydrologic data for a base period of 1962 through 2006, development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake for this timeframe, and development of an associated model for simulation of storage deficits and drawdown in Sheridan Lake for hypothetical release scenarios from the lake. Historically, the dam has been operated primarily as a 'pass-through' system, in which unregulated outflows pass over the spillway; however, the dam recently was retrofitted with an improved control valve system that would allow controlled releases of about 7 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or less from a fixed depth of about 60 feet (ft). Development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake involved compilation, estimation, and characterization of data sets for streamflow, precipitation, and evaporation. The most critical data need was for extrapolation of available short-term streamflow records for Spring Creek to be used as the long-term inflow to Sheridan Lake. Available short-term records for water years (WY) 1991-2004 for a gaging station upstream from Sheridan Lake were extrapolated to WY 1962-2006 on the basis of correlations with streamflow records for a downstream station and for stations located along two adjacent streams. Comparisons of data for the two streamflow-gaging stations along Spring Creek indicated that tributary inflow is approximately proportional to the intervening drainage area, which was used as a means of estimating tributary inflow for the hydrologic budget. Analysis of evaporation data shows that sustained daily rates may exceed maximum monthly rates by a factor of about two. A long-term (1962-2006) hydrologic budget was developed for computation of reservoir outflow from Sheridan Lake for the historical pass-through operating system. Two inflow components (stream inflow and precipitation) and one outflow component (evaporation) were considered. The hydrologic budget uses monthly time steps within a computational year that includes two 6-month periods - May through October, for which evaporation is accounted for, and November through April, when evaporation is considered negligible. Results indicate that monthly evaporation rates can substantially exceed inflow during low-flow periods, and potential exists for outflows to begin approaching zero-flow conditions substantially prior to the onset of zero-inflow conditions, especially when daily inflow and evaporation are considered. Results also indicate that September may be the month for greatest potential benefit for enhancing fish habitat and other ecosystem values in downstream reaches of Spring Creek with managed releases of cool water. Computed monthly outflows from Sheridan Lake for September are less than 1.0 ft3/s for 8 of the 44 years (18 percent) and are less than 2.0 ft3/s for 14 of the 44 years (32 percent). Conversely, none of the computed outflows for May are less than 2.0 ft3/s. A short-term (July through September 2007) data set was used to calculate daily evaporation from Sheridan Lake and to evaluate the applicability of published pan coefficients. Computed values of pan coefficients of approximately 1.0 and 1.1 for two low-flow periods are larger than the mean annual pan coefficient of 0.74 for the area that is reported in the literature; however, the computed values are consistent with pan coefficients reported elsewhere for similar late summer and early fall periods. Thus, these results supported the use of variable monthly pan coefficients for the long-term hydrologic budget. A hydrologic model was developed using the primary components of the hydrologic budget and was used to simulate monthly storage deficits and drawdown for Sheridan Lake using hypothetical

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Norton, Parker A.

2009-01-01

311

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01

312

Digital map of water levels in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours for 1980 water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the 1980 water-level elevation contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer Systems-Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

313

Digital map of predevelopment water levels for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries of contours for predevelopment water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment water-level elevations from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

314

Digital map of saturated thickness in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for saturated thickness contours of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the saturated thickness contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

315

Digital map of geologic faults for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for faults of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the faults from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

316

Delivery methods of financial information and sources of financial education as indicators of perceived financial well-being in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to identify factors that are related to the perceived financial well-being of adults in South Dakota, specifically delivery methods of financial information and sources of financial education. This quantitative study used the eight-question Personal Financial Wellness Scale (PFW scale, also known as the InCharge Financial Distress\\/Financial Well-Being Scale) to measure perceived financial well-being. A

Kathryn Morrison

2009-01-01

317

A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in Sanborn and parts of Beadle, Miner, Hanson, Davison, and Jerauld counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The drought in South Dakota from 1974-76 and the near drought conditions in 1980-81 have resulted in increased demands on the groundwater resources within many of the irrigated areas of the James River basin in eastern South Dakota. These increases in demand for irrigation water from the glacial aquifer system, and continued requests to the State for additional irrigation well permits, have created a need for a systematic water management program to avoid over-development of this system in the James River basin. An equally spaced grid containing 56 rows and 52 columns used to simulate the glacial aquifer system, was calibrated using water level data collected before significant groundwater development (before 1973). The aquifer was also simulated in 11 annual transient stress periods from 1973 through 1983 and in 12 monthly transient stress periods for 1976. The simulated pre-development potentiometric heads were compared to average water levels from 32 observation wells to check the accuracy of the simulate potentiometric surface. The average arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels was 1.68 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.38 ft. The non-pumping steady-state simulated water budget indicates that recharge from precipitation accounts for 97.1% of the water entering the aquifer and evapotranspiration accounts for 98.2% of the water leaving the aquifer. The sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that the model is most sensitive to reductions in recharge and least to changes in hydraulic conductivity. The maximum annual recharge varied from 0.10 inch in 1976 to 8.14 inches in 1977. The potential annual evapotranspiration varied from 29.9 inches in 1982 to 48.9 inches in 1976. Withdrawals from the glacial aquifer system increased 2.6 times between 1975 and 1976. The average annual arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels ranged from 3.88 ft in 1974 to 2.23 ft in 1982; the average absolute difference ranged from 4.70 ft in 1973 to 11.70 ft in 1982. In the 1976 monthly transient simulation, the maximum annual recharge rate 0.10 inch was distributed over the months of March, April, and September. The potential monthly evapotranspiration rate ranged from 12.50 inches in August to 0.00 inch during the winter when the ground was frozen. (Author 's abstract)

Emmons, P.J.

1988-01-01

318

Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the Ridgway Area, Southwestern Colorado  

E-print Network

(fig 7, 8) is describe in the study area. This bed (up to 25 cm thick) is present in only 4 sections (Billy Creek, Chaffee Creek 1, Pa Co Chu Puk 3 and Dallas Creek), in the upper half of the Dakota sandstone Formation. 11 Table 1... is dominated by dark gray silty shale (locally carbonaceous), sporadically interbedded with 10 to 50 cm thick beds of quartz arenite (fig 9). In one section (Billy Creek), a coal bed up to 10 cm thick tops this facies (fig 10). Facies A ranges in thickness...

Serradji, Hayet

2008-01-30

319

Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

Qi, Sharon

2010-01-01

320

Biological characteristics of the blue sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28) during the summer of 2000. Although five macrohabitats were sampled with electrofishing and hoopnets, most individuals were collected from riffle habitats and downstream of rock dams. Total length-weight relationships were log10W=-6.14+3.37(log10L) (r2 = 0.92) for blue suckers from the James River and log10W = -6.52+3.50(log10L) (r2 = 0.97) for fish from the Big Sioux River. Mean condition factors (K = W(105)/L3) of blue suckers were 0.79 (SE = 0.07) for the James River and 0.73 (SE = 0.07) for the Big Sioux River. Blue suckers between 500 and 700 mm dominated length distributions (range = 374-717 mm) of both samples. Ages ranged from two to nine years, but six-year-old fish were captured most frequently. Blue suckers grew rapidly during juvenile stages (< age 5); however, growth slowed afterward.

Morey, N.M.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

2003-01-01

321

A probable extralimital post-breeding assembly of Bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola breeds predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

Igl, L. D.

2003-01-01

322

A probable extralimital postbreeding assembly of bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south-central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

Igl, L. D.

2003-01-01

323

Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

324

BREEDING BIOLOGY AND DIET OF THE FERRUGINOUS HAWK IN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

throughout the area and is widespread in the western third of the county. Small grain crops compose 9% of the area. pastureland and tame hay 3% and woodland 3%. Elevated table lands are dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) savannah. whereas green ash (Fraxinus penmylvanicus). willow (Salix spp.) and Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) predominate in riparian areas and ravines. Two

CHARLES L. BLAIR; FRANK SCH

325

Quantification of mass loading to Strawberry Creek near the Gilt Edge mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although remedial actions have taken place at the Gilt Edge mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, questions remain about a possible hydrologic connection along shear zones between some of the pit lakes at the mine site and Strawberry Creek. Spatially detailed chemical sampling of stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in June 2003 as part of a mass-loading study by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the possible connection of shear zones to the stream. Stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution; discharge increased by 25.3 liters per second along the study reach, with 9.73 liters per second coming from three tributaries and the remaining increase coming from small springs and dispersed, subsurface inflow. Chemical differences among inflow samples were distinguished by cluster analysis and indicated that inflows ranged from those unaffected by interaction with mine wastes to those that could have been affected by drainage from pit lakes. Mass loading to the stream from several inflows resulted in distinct chemical changes in stream water along the study reach. Mass loading of the mine-related metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, principally occurred from the discharge from the Gilt Edge mine, and those metals were substantially attenuated downstream. Secondary loadings of metals occurred in the vicinity of the Oro Fino shaft and from two more inflows about 200 m downstream from there. These are both locations where shear zones intersect the stream and may indicate loading associatedwith these zones. Loading downstream from the Oro Fino shaft had a unique chemical character, high in base-metal concentrations, that could indicate an association with water in the pit lakes. The loading from these downstream sources, however, is small in comparison to that from the initial mine discharge and does not appear to have a substantial impact on Strawberry Creek.

Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Williamson, Joyce E.

2006-01-01

326

A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in the northern three-fourths of Brown County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in a complex glacial-aquifer system that includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers in South Dakota. The average thickness of the aquifers ranges from 16 to 32 ft and the average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 240 to 300 ft/day. The maximum steady-state recharge to the aquifer system was estimated to be 7.0 in./yr, and the maximum potential steady- state evapotranspiration was estimated to be 35.4 in/yr. Maximum monthly recharge for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 2.5 in in May. The potential monthly evapotranspiration for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 7.0 in in July. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from steady-state conditions (pre-1983) was 0. 78 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.59 ft for aquifer layer 1 (the Elm aquifer) from 22 observation wells and 3.49 ft and 5.10 ft, respectively, for aquifer layer 2 (the Middle James aquifer) from 13 observation wells. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from simulated monthly potentiometric heads for 1985 in aquifer layer 1 ranged from -2.54 ft in July to 0.59 ft in May and in aquifer layer 2 ranged from -1.22 ft in April to 4.98 ft in November. Sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that it is most sensitive to changes in recharge and least sensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity. (USGS)

Emmons, P.J.

1990-01-01

327

Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

1996-02-01

328

Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

Parkhurst, R. S.; Winter, T. C.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Sturrock, A. M.

1998-01-01

329

Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was compiled from a digital coverage that was created for publication of paper maps in McGrath and Dugan (1993, Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer -- predevelopment to 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4088, 53 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

330

Analysis and evaluation of round hay bale breakwaters at Lake Sharpe, South Dakota  

E-print Network

including gravel, sand, clay, and loess. Shoreline erosion along much of the 200 mi shoreline has not significantly decreased through the years, especially in the areas underlain by finer grain-size materials. This erosion is threatening and destroying...

Grundy, Thomas Paxson

2012-06-07

331

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

E-print Network

patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively Virginie (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)), il est important de connai^tre les patrons de de (Odocoi- leus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting Midwest agricultural areas generally include

332

Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

Goddard, K. E.

1989-01-01

333

Perspectives on the diagnosis, epizootiology, and control of the 1973 duck plague epizootic in wild waterfowl at Lake Andes, South Dakota.  

PubMed

An epizootic of duck plague occurred in early 1973 in a population of 163,500 wild waterfowl, primarily mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering on Lake Andes and the nearby Missouri River in southeastern South Dakota (USA). The diagnosis was based on pathologic lesions and confirmed by virus isolation. Control measures included quarantine, attempts to reduce virus contamination of the area, dispersal of waterfowl, and monitoring of wild waterfowl populations for mortality. The epizootic resulted in documented mortality of 18% and estimated mortality of 26% of the waterfowl at risk. Prompt implementation of control measures might have limited mortality to approximately 8%. Losses during the epizootic were equivalent to 0.12% of the annual mortality in the North American 1996 fall population of 80,000,000 wild ducks. The most likely sources of the infection were free-flying wild mallard or American black duck (Anas rubripes) carriers from the upper midwestern or northeastern United States. Duck plague serum neutralization antibodies were demonstrated in 31% of 395 apparently healthy mallards sampled prior to dispersal of the flock at Lake Andes, suggesting that tens of thousands of potential duck plague carriers entered the wild waterfowl populations of all four major flyways. Consequently, the absence of major epizootics of duck plague in wild waterfowl in the subsequent two decades is evidence that substantial numbers of duck plague carriers can occur in wild waterfowl populations without resulting in epizootic mortalities. The failure to isolate duck plague virus from apparently healthy mallards sampled during the epizootic raises questions concerning the validity of conclusions regarding the status of duck plague in wild waterfowl based upon negative results of random surveys conducted in the absence of epizootics. PMID:9391953

Pearson, G L; Cassidy, D R

1997-10-01

334

77 FR 24980 - Final General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for the South Unit of Badlands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...South Unit of Badlands National Park, South Dakota AGENCY: National Park...South Unit of Badlands National Park, South Dakota. DATES: The Final GMP...Superintendent, Badlands National Park, Interior, South Dakota 57750, telephone...

2012-04-26

335

Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

2014-01-01

336

75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5-kilovolt (kV) to 230-kV collector substation and microwave tower; 11-mile-long overhead 230-kV transmission line; temporary equipment/material storage or lay-down areas; temporary crane walks; and 81 miles of new and/or upgraded service...

2010-10-05

337

77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by mountain pine beetles on approximately 250,000 acres of the Black Hills National...area acreage has changed from 325,000 to 250,000, and because an additional alternative...burned by wildfires. In that period over 250,000 acres have burned, consuming...

2012-02-23

338

The Nation's Report Card Science 2011 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 8, Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A representative sample of 122,000 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science assessment, which is designed to measure students' knowledge and abilities in the areas of physical science, life science, and Earth and space sciences. This report covers the overall results, achievement level…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

2012-01-01

339

Arsenic loads in Spearfish Creek, western South Dakota, water years 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous small tributaries on the eastern flank of Spearfish Creek originate within a mineralized area with a long history of gold-mining activity. Some streams draining this area are known to have elevated concentrations of arsenic. One such tributary is Annie Creek, where arsenic concentrations regularly approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 mg/L (micrograms per liter) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A site on Annie Creek was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1991. This report presents information about arsenic loads and concentrations in Spearfish Creek and its tributaries, including Annie Creek. Stream types were classified according to geologic characteris- tics and in-stream arsenic concentrations. The first type includes streams that lack significant arsenic sources and have low in-stream arsenic concentra- tions. The second type has abundant arsenic sources and high in-stream concentrations. The third type has abundant arsenic sources but only moderate in-stream concentrations. The fourth type is a mixture of the first three types. Annual loads of dissolved arsenic were calculated for two reaches of Spearfish Creek to quantify arsenic loads at selected gaging stations during water years 1989-91. Mass-balance calculations also were performed to estimate arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows to Spearfish Creek. The drainage area of the upstream reach includes significant mineralized areas, whereas the drainage area of the downstream reach generally is without known arsenic sources. The average load of dissolved arsenic transported from the upstream reach of Spearfish Creek, which is representative of a type 4 stream, was 158 kilograms per year, calculated for station 06430900, Spearfish Creek above Spearfish. Gaged headwater tributaries draining unmineralized areas (type 1) contributed only 16 percent of the arsenic load in 63 percent of the discharge. Annie Creek (type 2), which has the highest measured arsenic concentra- tions in the Spearfish Creek drainage, contributed about 15 percent of the arsenic load in about 2 percent of the discharge of the upstream reach. Squaw Creek, which drains another mineralized area, but has only moderate in-stream concentrations (type 3), contributed 4 percent of the arsenic load in 5 percent of the discharge. Ungaged inflows to the reach contributed the remaining 65 percent of the arsenic load in 30 percent of the discharge. The calculated loads from ungaged inflows include all arsenic contributed by surface- and ground-water sources, as well as any additions of arsenic from dissolution of arsenic-bearing solid phases, or from desorption of arsenic from solid surfaces, within the streambed of the upstream reach. Mass-balance calculations indicate that dissolved arsenic concentrations of the ungaged inflows in the upstream reach averaged about 9 mg/L. In-stream arsenic concentrations of ungaged inflows from the unmineralized western flank of Spearfish Creek probably are generally low (type 1). Thus, in-stream arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows draining the mineralized eastern flank of Spearfish probably average almost twice that level, or about 18 mg/L. Some ungaged, eastern-flank inflows probably are derived from type 3 drainages, with only moderate arsenic concentrations. If so, other ungaged, eastern-flank inflows could have in-stream arsenic concentrations similar to those of Annie Creek. No significant arsenic sources were apparent in the downstream reach of Spearfish Creek. Over the course of the downstream reach, arsenic concentrations decreased somewhat, probably resulting from dilution, as well as from possible chemical adsorption to sediment surfaces or arsenic-phase precipitation. A decrease in arsenic loads resulted from various diversions from the creek and from the potential chemical removal processes. Because of a large margin of error associated with calculation o

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hayes, Timothy S.

1995-01-01

340

Evaluation of trawls for monitoring and harvesting fish populations in Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trawls of various designs and sizes were compared to evaluate their use for monitoring and harvesting fish populations in Lake Oahe. Catches of a 10.7-m semiballoon trawl, selected to monitor changes in the fish populations from 1965 to 1970, showed a downward trend in the abundance of all species, except walleye; the decline was largest in the lower area of the reservoir with a slight increase in the upper area. Of two trawl designs tested, semiballoon trawls captured more fish per hour than high-rise trawls, and a 15.9-m semiballoon trawl with a 3.8-cm mesh cod end captured fish at the highest and most consistent rate. The size and species composition of fish caught in small-mesh trawls differed from those caught in trap nets. Trawl catches were too small to recommend or warrant their use as a commercial fishing gear, but the use of both small mesh trawls and trap nets should improve accuracy in monitoring fish populations in this reservoir.

Nelson, William R.; Boussu, Marvin S.

1974-01-01

341

Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2 (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*+Na2O)-K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson), or 0.4 to 2.4 cm (for the estimated transient cavity radius). The trend agrees with the observed thicknesses of the basal unit of the Crow Creek Member, but the actually observed thicknesses are larger than the calculated ones, indicating that not all of the basal unit comprises impact ejecta.

Katongo, Crispin; Koeberl, Christian; Witzke, Brian J.; Hammond, Richard H.; Anderson, Raymond R.

2004-01-01

342

Soot and palynologic analysis of Manson impact-related strata (Upper Cretaceous) of Iowa and South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Campanian Manson impact structure of Iowa represents the best-preserved, large-diameter complex crater within the continental U.S. To assess the timing and potential mode of crater infilling and the possible presence of an impact event horizon, we analyzed samples from both within and distal to the impact structure for their elemental carbon, soot and palynomorphs. Within the impact structure, identifiable soot occurred in fragmented impact breccia and suevite but not in lower impact-melt breccia. Although most of this soot likely represents reworking of material from older Cretaceous marine shales, one high soot concentration occurs with melt material in a Keweenawan Shale-Phanerozoic clast breccia mix. This represents the first association of soot and impact-generated materials within an impact structure and the best sample candidate for Manson impact-generated soot. No palynomorphs occurred in the impact melt breccia. Overlying suevite (Keweenawan Shale clast breccia) of the central peak yielded sparse and thermally altered palynomorphs, indicating deposition prior to full cooling of the crater debris. Presence of easily degraded soot also argues for rapid backfilling of the crater. Distal samples from South Dakota represent the Sharon Springs and Crow Creek members of the Pierre Shale 230 km northwest of the Manson impact structure. Although containing shocked grains, the Crow Creek preserves no soot. In contrast, the Sharon Springs, generally considered as predating the Manson impact, has significant soot quantities. Palynomorphs differ markedly across the unconformity separating the two members with the Crow Creek containing more terrestrial forms, normapolles, and older reworked palynomorphs, consistent with a terrestrial impact to the east. Origin of the Sharon Springs soot remains unclear. Given soot occurrence within four of the five Cretaceous marine units sampled, the relatively shallow, anoxic bottom conditions of the Western Interior Cretaceous Seaway may have simply favored soot preservation. Until a better understanding of the broader occurrence and preservation of soot is achieved, some soot-impact associations will remain ambiguous. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Varricchio, D.J.; Raven, R.F.; Wolbach, W.S.; Elsik, W.C.; Witzke, B.J.

2009-01-01

343

Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson), or 0.4 to 2.4 cm (for the estimated transient cavity radius). The trend agrees with the observed thicknesses of the basal unit of the Crow Creek Member, but the actually observed thicknesses are larger than the calculated ones, indicating that not all of the basal unit comprises impact ejecta. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

2004-01-01

344

Characterization of stormwater runoff in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1995-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Kenai River in southcentral Alaska is an economically important salmon river generating as much as $78 million annually in direct benefits. Resource-management agencies are concerned that increased sedimentation and loss of streamside cover associated with accelerated erosion rates caused by boat activity may threaten salmon returns to the river. Bank loss and boat activity were characterized during 1996 along 67 miles of the Kenai River, including a segment of the river several miles long where boat activity is restricted to non-motorized uses. Bank loss in the non-motorized segment of the river was about 75 percent less than that observed in the highest boat-use area of the river and 33 per cent less than that observed in the lowest boat-use area of the river. Dates of peak boat activity coincided closely with chinook salmon returns to the Kenai River and with peaks in measured bank erosion. The boat activity period began in late May, peaked on weekend days in mid-July, and declined in early August. Observed boat traffic on the Kenai River included boats from 10 to 26 feet in length that transported 1 to 8 passengers. The most commonly observed boats were between 16 and 20 feet long and carried 4 or 5 passengers. The number of boats operated by commercial fishing guides represented 40 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 55 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and 57 percent of those recorded by observers during this study. The maximum boat activity and the maximum bank loss were measured at the RW's Campground study site about 16 river miles upstream from the mouth of the Kenai River. Between July 12 and September 10, 1996, more than 20,100 boats traveled by this site and the streambank along the inside of the meander bend was undercut to a depth of 45 inches at one measuring point. Boat activity and bank loss were greatest in areas of the river between about river miles 9 and 18 and river miles 39 and 46. These two segments of the river are popular residential and fishing areas and have banks composed of non-cohesive soils. In addition, a meandering, un-armored channel makes the banks along these two segments susceptible to erosion. The Kenai River in southcentral Alaska is an economically important salmon river generating as much as $78 million annually in direct benefits. Resource-management agencies are concerned that increased sedimentation and loss of streamside cover associated with accelerated erosion rates caused by boat activity may threaten salmon returns to the river. Bank loss and boat activity were characterized during 1996 along 67 miles of the Kenai River, including a segment of the river several miles long where boat activity is restricted to non-motorized uses. Bank loss in the non-motorized segment of the river was about 75 percent less than that observed in the highest boat-use area of the river and 33 percent less than that observed in the lowest boat-use area of the river. Dates of peak boat activity coincided closely with chinook salmon returns to the Kenai River and with peaks in measured bank erosion. The boat activity period began in late May, peaked on weekend days in mid-July, and declined in early August. Observed boat traffic on the Kenai River included boats from 10 to 26 feet in length that transported 1 to 8 passengers. The most commonly observed boats were between 16 and 20 feet long and carried 4 or 5 passengers. The number of boats operated by commercial fishing guides represented 40 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 55 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and 57 percent of those recorded by observers during this study. The maximum boat activity and the maximum bank loss were measured at the RW's Campground study site about 16 river miles upstream from the mouth of the Kenai River. Between July 12 and September 10, 1996, more than 20,10

Niehus, C.A.

1997-01-01

345

Digital Map of Saturated Thickness in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1996 to 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of saturated thickness contours for the High Plains aquifer in Central United States, 1996-97. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set was based on 10,085 water-level measurements, 49 stream elevations, (March 1997) and 10,036 water-level elevations from wells (1,370 from 1996 and 8,666 from 1997) and the base of aquifer value for each measurement location. The saturated thickness at each measurement location was determined by subtracting the water-level elevation from the base of aquifer at that location.

Fischer, Brian C.; Kollasch, Keith M.; McGuire, Virginia L.

2000-01-01

346

A digital-computer model of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite-difference digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County. Average water levels and average base flow discharge (4.9 cu ft/s) of the Big Sioux River were based on data from 1970 through 1979. The computer model was calibrated for transient conditions by simulating monthly historic conditions for 1976. During 1976, pumpage was offset mostly by surface-water recharge to the aquifer from January through June and ground-water discharge from storage from July through December. Measured drawdowns during 1976 generally were less than 2 feet except in the Sioux Falls city well field where drawdowns were as much as 15 feet. The model was used to study the effects of increased withdrawals under three hypothetical hydrologic situations. One hypothetical situation consisted of using 1976 pumping rates, recharge, and evapotranspiration but the Big Sioux River dry. The pumping rate after 16 months was decreased by 40 percent from the actual pumping rate for that month in order to complete the monthly simulation without the storage being depleted at a nodal area. The second hypothetical situation consisted of a pumpage rate of 44.4 cubic feet per second from 60 wells spaced throughout the aquifer under historic 1976 hydrologic conditions. The results were that the aquifer could supply the additional withdrawal. The third hypothetical situation used the same hydrologic conditions as the second except that recharge was zero and the Big Sioux River was dry downstream from row 54. After 18 monthly simulations, the pumping rate was decreased by 44 percent to prevent pumping wells from depleting the aquifer, and, at that rate, 63 percent of the water being pumped was being replaced by water from the river. (USGS)

Koch, N.C.

1982-01-01

347

View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area No. 22 in foreground, Building No. 40, No. 42, and No. 43 at left rear, note boulders as a landscape design element. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 45, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, south of Foothill Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

348

Okiciyapo Hechel Lena Oyate Kin Nipi Kte (Help Each Other That These People May Live). Facilitating Academic Attainment in Adolescent Sioux Students in the Public School Systems in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews educational problems affecting American Indian students, particularly problems related to school climate, and describes efforts to improve school climate at Bennett County (South Dakota) High School. This public school serves the county and two reservations. It also accepts transfer students from Bureau of Indian Affairs schools…

Sprenger, Joyce

349

Geochemistry of water in aquifers and confining units of the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry of water in five aquifers and two confining units in the Williston Basin of the Northern Great Plains is similar and is controlled by halite dissolution. In areas outside the Williston Basin ground-water is fresh and controlled by the solution chemistry of carbonate and sulfate minerals.

Busby, J. F.; Kimball, B. A.; Downey, J. S.; Peter, K. D.

1995-01-01

350

Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

Emerson, Douglas G.

2005-01-01

351

Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow contributing to Crow Creek in the northwestern part of the study area indicated that the primary source of water is the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for Old Hatchery and Higgins Gulch springs, located north of Spearfish, indicated a source water originating from the outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation within the study area. Concentrations of three chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were used to characterize ground-water residence times in the study area. For the four wells where dye was detected, CFC-11 apparent ages ranged from 12 to 26 years, indicating that the wells contained months-old water mixed with years- to decades-old water. Logarithmic regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for water from 10 wells and distance to a possible conduit trending north through the area where dye was detected, yielded an r2 value of 0.71. Straight-line regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for the six wells closest to the possible conduit had an r2 value of 0.96. Two wells located relatively close to the outcrop areas had no or very low tritium values indicating relatively long residence times and diffuse ground-water flow. The tritium value of 7.2 TU in water from well COL where dye was detected, indicated that the water probably is a bimodal mixture, with a substantial portion that is older than 50 years. Water from well ELL, where dye was detected, had a tritium value of 19.7 TU and a CFC apparent age of 15 years, indicating that the sample from this well probably is a unimodal mixture with very little water older than 50 years. Comparison of the CFC apparent age for three spring sites (Cox Lake, 26 years; McNenny Pond, 26 years; Mirror Lake, 13 years) also indicated that Mirror Lake spring probably has a component of local recharge from formations that overlie the Minnelusa Formation. In the Madison aquifer, specific conductance ranges from 18 to 945 microsiemens per cen

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

352

Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

353

Preliminary report on the lignite resources of the Niobe area, Burke and Ward counties, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two lignite beds, the Niobe and the Bonus, occur at strippable depths within the Niobe area. The Niobe bed averages 5 feet (1.5 meters) in thickness and the Bonus bed averages 8 feet (2.4 meters) in thickness. These beds lie in the lower part of the Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene). The demonstrated resources of both beds combined is 122 million tons (110 million tonnes), all of which are under less than 120 feet (37 meters) of overburden. The overburden consists of glacial till and shale. The lateral continuity of the coal has been locally interrupted by faulting, glacial outwash channels, and erosion. Folding and/or faulting occurs parallel to the Missouri Coteau escarpment and faulting occurs roughly perpendicular to the escarpment.

Owen, Hal E.

1977-01-01

354

Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

1983-01-01

355

Geologic map of the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Restricted outcrops of Archean (2.5 Ga) rock, primarily granite, are the basement for a thick sequence of early Proterozoic (2.4-1.8 Ga) metasedimentary units (fanglomerate, conglomerate, quartzite, iron-formation, graywacke, and shale) containing minor basaltic metavolcanic rocks and associated gabbroic sills. The map shows the complex lithologic sequence developed in an early Proterozoic rift basin or passive margin. Two major periods of folding have created a complex map pattern of the stratified rocks. Early Proterozoic (1.7 Ga) granite and pegmatite emplacement is the last recognized Precambrian event.

DeWitt, E.; Redden, J.A.; Buscher, D.; Wilson, A.B.

1989-01-01

356

76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of methods to treat MPB infested stands, reduce the overall density of pine trees and create a mosaic of structural stages across...of methods to treat MPB infested stands, reduce the overall density of pine trees and create a mosaic of structural stages...

2011-10-24

357

75 FR 47755 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Pactola Project Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...infested stands, reduce the overall density of pine trees and create a mosaic of structural...thinning will be used to reduce the stand density, and associated fuel hazard conditions...MPB infested stands, reduce the overall density of pine trees and create a mosaic of...

2010-08-09

358

Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The headwaters of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers drain the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, an area that has been affected by mining and ore-milling operations since the discovery of gold in 1875. A tributary to the Belle Fourche River is Whitewood Creek, which drains the area of the Homestake Mine, a gold mine that operated from 1876 to 2001. Tailings discharged into Whitewood Creek contained arsenopyrite, an arsenic-rich variety of pyrite associated with gold ore, and mercury used as an amalgam during the gold-extraction process. Approximately 18 percent of the tailings that were discharged remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along Whitewood Creek, and approximately 25 percent remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along the Belle Fourche River, downstream from Whitewood Creek. In 1983, a 29-kilometer (18-mile) reach of Whitewood Creek and the adjacent flood plain was included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly referred to as a "Superfund site." Listing of this reach of Whitewood Creek was primarily in response to arsenic toxicity of fluvial deposits on the flood plain. Lands along the lower Cheyenne River were transferred to adjoining States and Tribes in response to the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1999. An amendment in 2000 to WRDA required a study of sediment contamination of the Cheyenne River. In response to the WRDA amendment, the U.S. Geological Survey completed field sampling of reference sites (not affected by mine-tailing disposal) along the lower Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers. Reference sites were located on stream terraces that were elevated well above historical stream stages to ensure no contamination from historical mining activity. Sampling of potentially contaminated sites was performed on transects of the active flood plain and adjacent terraces that could potentially be inundated during high-flow events. Sampling began in 2009 and was completed in 2010. A total of 74 geochemical samples were collected from fluvial deposits at reference sites, and 473 samples were collected from potentially contaminated sites. Sediment samples collected were analyzed for 23 metals, including arsenic and mercury. Sequential replicate, split duplicate, and field quality-control samples were analyzed for quality assurance of data-collection methods. The metal concentrations in sediment samples and location information are presented in this report in electronic format (Microsoft Excel), along with non-parametric summary statistics of those data. Cross-sectional topography is graphed with arsenic and mercury concentrations on transects at the potentially contaminated sites. The mean arsenic concentration in reference sediment samples was 8 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), compared to 250, 650, and 76 mg/kg for potentially contaminated sediment samples at the surface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, the subsurface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, and the surface of the lower Cheyenne River site, respectively. The mean mercury concentration in reference sediment samples was 16 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg), compared to 130, 370, and 71 ?g/kg for potentially contaminated sediment samples at the surface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, the subsurface of the middle Belle Fourche River site, and the surface of the lower Cheyenne River site, respectively.

Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

2012-01-01

359

Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

360

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2010-07-01

361

ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

362

Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

2012-01-01

363

National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Denver Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming - USGS Province 39  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Denver Basin Province (USGS Province 39), Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Petroleum is produced in the province from sandstone, shale, and limestone reservoirs that range from Pennsylvanian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define seven total petroleum systems and twelve assessment units. Nine of these assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Gas was not assessed for two coal bed methane assessment units due to lack of information and limited potential; oil resources were not assessed for the Fractured Pierre Shale Assessment Unit due to its mature development status.

Higley, Debra K.

2007-01-01

364

33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY...165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY... All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks....

2013-07-01

365

33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY...165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY... All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks....

2011-07-01

366

33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY...165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY... All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks....

2012-07-01

367

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 76 (1997) 57 FLUCTUATIONS IN DAILY ACTIVITY OF  

E-print Network

(Ondatra zibethicus) activity was assessed in the fall of 1995 adjacent to the Big Sioux River, in south of muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) have been well documented (Errington, 1939; Sather, 1958; Boutin and Birken

368

Fargo, North Dakota, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much broader, topographically distinct pathway of former glaciation that narrows to about 190 km (120 miles) wide. South of Fargo this narrowed pathway splits into two distinct paths (broad dark swaths on the image) that were carved by the southward flowing glaciers. Arcuate glacial moraines (deposits of rocks that were carried by glaciers) can be seen near this split, near what is now the approximate boundary between the Hudson Bay and Gulf of Mexico drainage basins (the latter via the Mississippi River).

This glacial landscape has features that were favorable for the transport of ice but are not now so favorable for the transport of water. As measured in the digital elevation data, the Red River decreases in elevation only 40 meters (130 feet) from Fargo to the Canadian border (top of image) over a straight-line distance of 235 kilometers (145 miles) along the glacial trough. This is a gradient of only 17 centimeters per kilometer (11 inches per mile), and the actual river gradient is much lower as it follows a longer curvilinear path. Areas surrounding the trough (more rugged and bright in the image) have variable but generally much steeper gradients. In simple terms, this is a fundamental cause of flooding in Fargo. The speed of drainage of the rainfall and snowmelt is greatly related to topographic slope. The steeper slopes and merging streams concentrate water runoff into the glacial trough at Fargo, while the lower gradients within the trough allow the water to spread (and flood) but not drain quickly away.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission was a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies, and was managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

Size: 440x380 kilometers; 270x235 miles Location:

2009-01-01

369

Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

2009-01-01

370

Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer in Gregory and Tripp Counties, South Dakota, water years 1985--2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ogallala aquifer is an important water resource for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in Gregory and Tripp Counties in south-central South Dakota and is used for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock water supplies. To better understand groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer, conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow were developed for the aquifer. A conceptual model of the Ogallala aquifer was used to analyze groundwater flow and develop a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in the aquifer. The MODFLOW–NWT model was used to simulate transient groundwater conditions for water years 1985–2009. The model was calibrated using statistical parameter estimation techniques. Potential future scenarios were simulated using the input parameters from the calibrated model for simulations of potential future drought and future increased pumping. Transient simulations were completed with the numerical model. A 200-year transient initialization period was used to establish starting conditions for the subsequent 25-year simulation of water years 1985–2009. The 25-year simulation was discretized into three seasonal stress periods per year and used to simulate transient conditions. A single-layer model was used to simulate flow and mass balance in the Ogallala aquifer with a grid of 133 rows and 282 columns and a uniform spacing of 500 meters (1,640 feet). Regional inflow and outflow were simulated along the western and southern boundaries using specified-head cells. All other boundaries were simulated using no-flow cells. Recharge to the aquifer occurs through precipitation on the outcrop area. Model calibration was accomplished using the Parameter Estimation (PEST) program that adjusted individual model input parameters and assessed the difference between estimated and model-simulated values of hydraulic head and base flow. This program was designed to estimate parameter values that are statistically the most likely set of values to result in the smallest differences between simulated and observed values, within a given set of constraints. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer calculated during the 200-year initialization period established initial conditions for the transient simulation. Water levels for 38 observation wells were used to calibrate the 25-year simulation. Simulated hydraulic heads for the transient simulation were within plus or minus 20 feet of observed values for 95 percent of observation wells, and the mean absolute difference was 5.1 feet. Calibrated hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.9 to 227 feet per day (ft/d). The annual recharge rates for the transient simulation (water years 1985–2009) ranged from 0.60 to 6.96 inches, with a mean of 3.68 inches for the Ogallala aquifer. This represents a mean recharge rate of 280.5 ft3/s for the model area. Discharge from the aquifer occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams through river leakage and flow from springs and seeps, and well withdrawals. Water is withdrawn from wells for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock uses. Simulated mean discharge rates for water years 1985–2009 were about 185 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) for evapotranspiration, 66.7 ft3/s for discharge to streams, and 5.48 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Simulated annual evapotranspiration rates ranged from about 128 to 254 ft3/s, and outflow to streams ranged from 52.2 to 79.9 ft3/s. A sensitivity analysis was used to examine the response of the calibrated model to changes in model parameters for horizontal hydraulic conductivity, recharge, evapotranspiration, and spring and riverbed conductance. The model was most sensitive to recharge and maximum potential evapotranspiration and least sensitive to riverbed and spring conductances. Two potential future scenarios were simulated: a potential drought scenario and a potential increased pumping scenario. To simulate a potential drought scenario, a synthetic drought record was created, the mean of which was equal to 60 percent of the mean estimated recharge rate for the 25-year simulation period. Com

Davis, Kyle W.; Putnam, Larry D.

2013-01-01

371

Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV control panel room (room 139) at far left corner. The stairway leads to the commander's quarters and the senior battle viewing bridge at top right. Control and communication consoles at the right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

372

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

373

9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

374

MerriaM's Turkey PoulT survival in The Black hills, souTh DakoTa  

E-print Network

investigated poult survival from hatching to 4 wks of age for Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) was from northern Colorado, south into Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma if survey or radio telemetry data are not available. Key words: Black Hills, Merriam's turkey, Meleagris

375

View of Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vertical view of the Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film. The Parana River flows from east to west across the picture. This part of the Rio Parana is located between the towns of Posadas, Argentina, and Resitencia, Argentina. The major body of water in the large swamp area is Laguna Ibera. Note the several fires burning in this area. The largest land mass (Argentina) is south of the river. Paraguay is north of the river. Isla Apipe Grande is near the center of the photograph.

1973-01-01

376

An evaluation of the signature extension approach to large area crop inventories utilizing space image data. [Kansas and North Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Two examples of haze correction algorithms were tested: CROP-A and XSTAR. The CROP-A was tested in a unitemporal mode on data collected in 1973-74 over ten sample segments in Kansas. Because of the uniformly low level of haze present in these segments, no conclusion could be reached about CROP-A's ability to compensate for haze. It was noted, however, that in some cases CROP-A made serious errors which actually degraded classification performance. The haze correction algorithm XSTAR was tested in a multitemporal mode on 1975-76 LACIE sample segment data over 23 blind sites in Kansas and 18 sample segments in North Dakota, providing wide range of haze levels and other conditions for algorithm evaluation. It was found that this algorithm substantially improved signature extension classification accuracy when a sum-of-likelihoods classifier was used with an alien rejection threshold.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Stinson, J. L.; Balon, R. J.

1977-01-01

377

Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

2005-01-01

378

An inferred relationship between some uranium deposits and calcium carbonate cement in southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evidence resulting from geologic mapping in the southern Black Hills indicates that the areas marginal to some of the larger carbonate-cemented sandstones constitute favorable geochemical environments for the localization of uranium deposits. To determine whether these favorable environments are predictable a limited experimental core-drilling program was carried out. An extensive deposit was discovered in an area marginal to a sandstone well-cemented with calcium carbonate. The deposit has not yet been developed, but from the available data it appears that there is a significant quantity of mineralized rock present containing as much as 3.0 percent eU3O8.

Gott, Garland B.

1956-01-01

379

Sparrows of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted several new biological resources on the Web. "Sparrows of North Dakota," by Chris Grondahl (North Dakota Game and Fish Department), is intended as a field guide for the nineteen species of native sparrows that occupy grasslands and other important habitats in North Dakota. All resources may be downloaded as .zip files.

Grondahl, Chris.

2000-01-01

380

Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 ..mu..R/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Fritzsche, A.E.

1984-10-01

381

Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.

382

Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, C.; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

2011-01-01

383

29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE HOPPERS IN THE RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH DISCHARGE FLY ASH INTO A VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE OGIVE SHAPED DEVICE BELOW THE HOPPER IS A RELIEF INTAKE VALVE FOR THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE "S" SHAPED CONDUITS TO THE LEFT OF THE HOPPERS CARRY BOILER FEED WATER FROM THE ECONOMIZERS (WATER PREHEATERS) TO THE BOILERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

384

Digital Map of Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1997. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,233 wells measured in both 1980 and 1997. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The contours then were converted to a digital map.

Fischer, Brian C.; Kollasch, Keith M.; McGuire, Virginia L.

2000-01-01

385

Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1995. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,892 wells measured in both 1980 and 1995. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted to a digital map at a scale of 1:1,250,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,250,000.

Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

386

Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,429 wells measured in both 1980 and 1996. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

387

Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital water-level-change contour for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1994. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 6,143 wells measured in both 1980 and 1994. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,250,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,250,000.

Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

1999-01-01

388

Deposition of Crow Creek Member (Pierre Shale, Campanian), southeast South Dakota, and supposed relations to Iowa's Manson Structure  

SciTech Connect

Previous dates from the Manson Impact Structure (MIS) indicated an age near the K-T boundary (65 Ma), but a date of 73.8 Ma was recently reported for a single breccia clast at Manson. The discovery of shock metamorphosed grains in roughly coeval Pierre Shale strata in S. Dak. led Izett et al. to propose that the Crow Creek Mbr contains Manson's distal impact ejecta. They indicated that Manson was covered by a seaway at that time, and postulated effects from an impact-triggered tsunami in the Western Interior. A study of Crow Creek strata from four sites in Yankton Co., S. Dak. was undertaken to evaluate the sedimentary context of the contained impact-derived grains. The sub-Crow Creek unconformity truncates lower Pierre strata eastward across S. Dak. and locally overlies the Niobrara Fm on the sioux Ridge. Probable leaf fossils are seen along this surface at one site. Basal Crow Creek strata reveal evidence of condensed sedimentation coincident with the onset of Bearpaw transgression, particularly occurrences of glauconite, abundant phosphate (pellets, phosphatized matrix, fish bone apatite), and foam-rich lithologies. Basal strata contain detrital grains (15--25% volume) derived from eastern source areas, including quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals and small clasts of siltstone, mudstone, shale, dolomite, limestone, and quartzite. Floating silt and sand-sized detrital grains persist in the overlying Crow Creek marls, indicating continuing detrital influx. Shock metamorphic planar deformation features (PDFs) are seen in many quartz grains (10-30% in basal unit) and some quartzite and siltstone grains; these are definitive for an impact-derived source. Was the MIS the source of these grains, and does the Crow Creek show evidence of a Manson-triggered tsunami Several obstacles remain and are discussed.

Witzke, B.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ludvigson, G.A. (Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources, Iowa City, IA (United States). Geological Survey Bureau); Hammond, R.H. (South Dakota Geological Survey, Vermillion, SD (United States))

1994-04-01

389

Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22–21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12–9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

2013-01-01

390

VoIP Deregulation In South Africa: Implications for Underserviced Areas  

E-print Network

VoIP Deregulation In South Africa: Implications for Underserviced Areas Marshini Chetty a marshiniDept of Computer Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa cPolicy Associate, Bridges.org, South Africa Protocol (VoIP) in South Africa. Previously, VoIP could only be utilised by the incumbent

Blake, Edwin

391

Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake and retention ponds during May and September also contained cyanobacteria. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol concentrations were less than detection limits (0.005 ug/L) in all five of the Rapid Creek samples collected in May. Actinomycetes bacteria were present at the water treatment plant intake in May 2007, at a concentration of 6 colonies per milliliter. During this study, no taste-and-odor problems with the drinking water within the study area were reported. However, the presence of cyanobacterial taxa known to contain taste-and-odor producing strains (such as Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, and Anabaena) indicates the potential for taste-and-odor problems under certain physical and chemical conditions.

Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

392

HYBRIDIZATION IN GROSBEAKS (PHEUCTZCUS) IN NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose-breasted and Black-headed grosbeaks (Pheucticus ludovicianus and P. melanocephalus) are complementary species that breed in eastern and western North America, respectively. Their breeding ranges overlap in the Great Plains where hybridization occurs. West (1962) described the hybrid- ization mainly in Nebraska, and Anderson and Daugherty (1974) in South Dakota. Because very little work had been done in the more northern

ROGER L. KROODSMA

393

South Dakota North Platte R.  

E-print Network

of Environmental Tracers and Isotopes to Evaluate Sources of Water, Nitrate, and Uranium in an Irrigated Alluvial higher nitrate concentrations than older water. Increases in nitrate concentrations in recharging ground of uranium-rich water from local tributaries and seepage of uranium-rich ground water. INTRODUCTION Nitrate

394

South Dakota After 3PM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each afternoon across the U.S., 15 million children--more than a quarter of children--are alone and unsupervised after school. The parents of 18 million would enroll their children in an afterschool program, if one were available. These are some of the key findings from the nation's most in-depth study of how America's children spend their…

Afterschool Alliance, 2009

2009-01-01

395

Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

Armstrong, C. A.

1984-01-01

396

Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

NONE

1996-02-01

397

Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Michel, A. L.; Bengis, R. G.; Keet, D. F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P. C.; Jolles, A. E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I. J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

2006-01-01

398

Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. PMID:16343819

Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Keet, D F; Hofmeyr, M; Klerk, L M de; Cross, P C; Jolles, A E; Cooper, D; Whyte, I J; Buss, P; Godfroid, J

2006-02-25

399

Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

Young, H. W.; Newton, G. D.

1989-01-01

400

76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY...on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy...operating within the waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

2011-02-15

401

75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York...on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. This...on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy locks when...

2010-02-25

402

75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY...on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy...operating within the waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

2010-12-10

403

View of Parking Area No. 21 on South TwentySixth Street. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Parking Area No. 21 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 17, 18, 19, 33, 34, 22, and 20, from left to right. Note boulder placement as designed landscape feature. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

404

View of Parking Area No. 32 from South TwentySixth Street. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Parking Area No. 32 from South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 35, 37, 38, and 39, from left to right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

405

View of South TwentyEighth Street. Note parking area at right. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of South Twenty-Eighth Street. Note parking area at right. Buildings No. 46, 45, and 47 from right to left. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

406

View of Parking Area No. 15 on South TwentySixth Street. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Parking Area No. 15 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 17 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

407

View of parking area on South TwentySixth Street near Foothill ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of parking area on South Twenty-Sixth Street near Foothill Avenue. Walkway at center, Building No. 35 on left, and Building No. 25 on right, looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

408

View of Parking Area No. 25 on South TwentySixth Street. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Parking Area No. 25 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 32 at left and Building No. 41 at rear. Note staircase and drainage channel in foreground. Looking northwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

409

Climatic and lake temperature data for Wetland P1, Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1982-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research on the hydrology of Wetland P1 and the Cottonwood Lake Area includes the study of evaporation. Presented here in a graphical format are those data collected during the open-water seasons of 1982-87 that were needed for energy- budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies. The data include air temperatures, water surface and lake-bottom temperatures, windspeed, radiation, humidity, and precipitation. Data were collected at a raft station and two land stations.

Parkhurst, Renee S.; Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

1995-01-01

410

Teaching of Critical Thinking Skills in the English Content Area in South Dakota Public High Schools and Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality education is imperative in preparing students in the United States to succeed in a competitive and ever-changing global society. Critical thinking, an essential component of a quality educational program, has been identified as a key 21st Century skill. However, research indicates a gap in educational preparedness between high school and…

Thurman, Becky A.

2009-01-01

411

Coefficients of Conservatism for the Vascular Flora of the Dakotas and Adjacent Grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floristic quality assessment can be used to identity natural areas, to facilitate comparisons among different sites, to provide long-term monitoring of natural area quality, and to evaluate habitat management and restoration efforts. To facilitate the use of floristic quality assessment in North Dakota, South Dakota (excluding the Black Hills), and adjacent grasslands, we developed a species list and assigned coefficients of conservatism (C values; range 0 to 10) to each plant species in the region's flora. The C values we assigned represented our collective knowledge of the patterns of occurrence of each plant species in the Dakotas and our confidence that a particular taxon is natural-area dependent. Because state boundaries usually do not follow ecological boundaries, the C values we assigned should be equally valid in nearby areas with the same vegetation types. Of the 1,584 taxa we recognized in this effort, 275 (17%) were determined to be nonnative to the region. We assigned C values of 4 or higher to 77% of our taxa, and the entire native flora had a mean C value (C) of 6.l. A floristic quality index (FQI) can be calculated to rank sites in order of their floristic quality. By applying the coefficients of conservatism supplied here and calculating C and FQI, an effective means of evaluating the quality of plant communities can be obtained. Additionally, by repeating plant surveys and calculations of C and FQI over time, temporal changes in floristic quality can be identified.

2001-01-01

412

Executive Director South Central Wisconsin Area Health Education Center, Inc.  

E-print Network

Nursing School, UW Physician Assistant program, the Allied Health programs at UW, the health careers these partnerships, South Central AHEC supports collaborative projects between communities and academic institutions. Communicate accomplishments and projects of the Center to government officials, key stakeholders

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

413

The artesian water supply of the Dakota sandstone in North Dakota, with special reference to the Edgeley quadrangle: Chapter E in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota sandstone and the overlying dense plastic shales form the most remarkable artesian basin in the United States with respect to its great extent, the long distances through which its water has percolated from the outcrops of the sandstone in the western mountains to the areas of artesian flow, and especially the tremendous pressure under which the water in the sandstone was originally by thick and continuous cover of impermeable shales. In 1882 a well was drilled to the Dakota sandstone at Aberdeen, S. Dak., by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. This well was reported by Nettleton1 to have been "the first bore put down which reached the artesian basin of the Dakotas." In 1896 Darton2 estimated that about 400 artesian wells had been drilled to the Dakota sandstone, presumably in South Dakota and adjacent parts of the artesian basin in North Dakota which he investigated.3 The strongest of these wells had pressures ranging from 100 to more than 200 pounds to the square inch and flows ranging from 1,000 to more than 4,000 gallons a minute. The present brief paper is based chiefly on the data that have been obtained in the successive surveys in regard to about 230 artesian wells in or near the Edgeley quadrangle. A table of these well data is on file in the United States Geological Survey and is to be published in the detailed report on the geology and hydrology of the Edgeley and La Moure quadrangles that has been prepared by Mr. Hard. The well data obtained by Mr. Hard have already been published in a report prepared by him in his capacity as State flood-control engineer.

Meinzer, Oscar E.; Hard, Herbert A.

1925-01-01

414

40Ar/39Ar age of the Manson impact structure, Iowa, and correlative impact ejecta in the Crow Creek member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous), South Dakota and Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A set of 34 laser total-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of sanidine from a melt layer in crater-fill deposits of the Manson impact structure in Iowa has a weighted-mean age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma. This age is about 9.0 m.y. older than 40Ar/39Ar ages of shocked microcline from the Manson impact structure reported previously by others. The 74.1 Ma age of the sanidine, which is a melt product of Precambrian microcline clasts, indicates that the Manson impact structure played no part in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction at 64.5 Ma. Moreover, incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages of the sanidine show that it is essentially free of excess 40Ar and has not been influenced by postcrystallization heating or alteration. An age spectrum of the matrix of the melt layer shows effects of 39Ar recoil, including older ages in the low-temperature increments and younger ages in the high-temperature increments. At 17 places in eastern South Dakota and Nebraska, shocked quartz and feldspar grains are concentrated in the lower part of the Crow Creek Member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous). The grains are largest (3.2 mm) in southeastern South Dakota and decrease in size (0.45 mm) to the northwest, consistent with the idea that the Manson impact structure was their source. The ubiquitous presence of shocked grains concentrated in a thin calcarenite at the base of the Crow Creek Member suggests it is an event bed recording an instant of geologic time. Ammonites below and above the Crow Creek Member limit its age to the zone of Didymoceras nebrascense of earliest late Campanian age. Plagioclase from a bentonite bed in this zone in Colorado has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma commensurate with our sanidine age of 74.1 Ma for the Manson impact structure. 40Ar/39Ar ages of bentonite beds below and above the Crow Creek are consistent with our 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma age for the Manson impact structure and limit its age to the interval ?? 74.5 0.1 to 73.8 ?? 0.1 Ma. Recently, two origins for the Crow Creek have been proposed - eastward transgression of the Late Cretaceous sea and a Manson impact-triggered tsunami. We conclude that most data are in accord with an impact origin for the Crow Creek Member and are at odds with the marine transgression hypothesis.

Izett, G. A.; Cobban, W. A.; Dalrymple, G. B.; Obradovich, J. D.

1998-01-01

415

77 FR 52756 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the South Gillette Area Maysdorf II Coal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the South Gillette Area Maysdorf II Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental...of Decision (ROD) for the Maysdorf II Coal Lease-by- Application (LBA) included in the South Gillette Area Coal Lease Applications Final...

2012-08-30

416

76 FR 12132 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental...Decision (ROD) for the South Hilight Field Coal Lease-by-Application (LBA) included in the Wright Area Coal Lease Applications Environmental...

2011-03-04

417

76 FR 51393 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Porcupine Coal Lease...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Decision for the Wright Area South Porcupine Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental...Decision (ROD) for the South Porcupine Coal Lease-by-Application (LBA) included in the Wright Area Coal Lease Applications Environmental...

2011-08-18

418

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

2013-07-01

419

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

2012-07-01

420

Stroke Research at USC South Carolina's midlands area leads the world in the number of strokes.  

E-print Network

Stroke Research at USC South Carolina's midlands area leads the world in the number of strokes stroke. At the University of South Carolina, a team of investigators is working towards understanding the effect of stroke on everyday life. Much of this research is focused on communication, something which

Almor, Amit

421

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Junior Web Ranger Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet (or "Junior Ranger Handbook") was designed to help children 4 to 12 years of age learn about the National Park Service and the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee). The booklet offers activities and questions about the park; answers may be found by using the Big South Fork Web site (http://www.nps.gov/biso/).…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

422

Western North Dakota High School Senior Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the attitudes of high school seniors in North Dakota toward isolationism and toward lignite coal development, and (2) to determine the future occupational and educational plans of high school seniors in the sampled area. A survey instrument was sent early in 1974 to all high school seniors in a…

Bickel, David; Markell, Clark

423

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This North Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

424

VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

425

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 10. Elements of macro- and microclimate. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

The general or macroclimate of the study sites in western North Dakota is characterized by rapid and sometimes extreme daily and day-to-day temperature fluctuations, rainfall patterns which are erratic in spatial and temporal distribution and intensity, generally low relative humidity, plentiful sunshine, nearly continuous air movement, and a relatively short frost-free period. Of particular relevance to plant growth and productivity is the mosaic of microclimates: these microclimates are affected by landform (convex and concave surfaces); exposure; slope angle, length and aspect; soil color, texture and surface cover (litter), and vegetation cover.

Bares, R.H.

1982-06-01

426

Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Dakota. Preliminary background report  

SciTech Connect

The South Dakota Public Utilities Commission is authorized by statute to regulate gas and electric utilities. The Commission consists of three elected commissioners each of whom serves for a six year term. The Commissioners are elected by district and each must, at the time of election, be a resident of the district from which he has been elected. Each Commissioner must reside in the state capital and devote his entire time to the duties of his office. The Commission is part of the Department of Commerce and Consumer Protection. Municipal power to regulate privately owned electric and gas public utilities was terminated in 1975. A municipally-owned electric utility has the authority to regulate the sale, use, and rates of electric power and energy which it provides. The Commission has no authority to regulate steam, heat, and refrigeration systems; that power resides in cities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

1980-01-01

427

Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

428

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals in Street Dusts from Tshwane Metropolitan Area, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and trace metals in dusts from some petroleum handling facilities (gasoline stations), selected high traffic density roads and residential areas within the Tshwane Metropolitan area in South Africa. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in dust samples were extracted using soxhlet extraction and isolated gravimetrically after column cleanup, while total trace metals in

J. O. OKONKWO; O. R. AWOFOLU; S. J. MOJA; P. C. B. FORBES; Z. N. SENWO

2006-01-01

429

Engineering properties of shallow sediments in West Delta and South Pass Outer Continental Shelf Lease Areas, offshore Louisiana  

E-print Network

). It extends 45 km in a north-south direction and a maximum of 51 km in an east-west direction. The area includes lease blocks 24 through 112 of West Delta OCS Lease Area and lease blocks 41, 58, and 78 of South Pass OCS Lease Area. En- gineering reports...). It extends 45 km in a north-south direction and a maximum of 51 km in an east-west direction. The area includes lease blocks 24 through 112 of West Delta OCS Lease Area and lease blocks 41, 58, and 78 of South Pass OCS Lease Area. En- gineering reports...

Helwick, Sterling J

2012-06-07

430

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.660 Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola,...

2010-07-01

431

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.660 Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola,...

2011-07-01

432

From Dakota Territory to Today: How Much Has Education Changed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a historical study of three issues in education: (1) the teaching of morals; (2) teacher retraining; and (3) practices in language arts. It demonstrates that recent actions by the South Dakota legislature to ensure that children are given moral and character instruction are similar to efforts undertaken in the 1890s in North…

Reetz, Linda J.

433

name to an account. (2) As noted in Birds of South Dakota, Third Edition (2002) a young Eastern Screech-Owl may be misidentified as a Boreal Owl. Nonetheless, the  

E-print Network

Dakota State University · Brookings, SD 57007 The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus), in The Birds of North America, No. 342 (A. Poole and F

434

78 FR 6062 - North Dakota Regulatory Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ND-052-FOR; Docket ID OSM-2012-0021] North Dakota Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office...announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the North Dakota regulatory program (hereinafter, the ``North Dakota program'') under the Surface...

2013-01-29

435

Geology of the South Mason-Llano River area, Texas  

E-print Network

covering water fall over small dam. Fig. Z; Carbonate deposits from a seep in the Point Peak. following page ly V. Fig. 1: Sink in San Saba limestone Fig. 2: "Water Cave" in Ellenburger lime- stone. . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . VI. Small knob... native stone dam is covered by a thickness of more than a foot of calcareous tufa contain- ing twigs and brush as shown in Plate IV, Figure l. Fault planes in this portion of the area may contain calcite, breccias 18 cemented by calcium carbonate...

Duvall, Victor Martin

2012-06-07

436

A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San Francisco Bay salt ponds.

Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

2006-01-01

437

Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra  

SciTech Connect

Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

Mulyadi

1995-01-01

438

North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

439

Workforce: North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 2002 and 2012, the rate of job growth in North Dakota will be modest: under 1 percent annually. However, a large number of positions-close to a quarter of all jobs in the state-will open up for hiring due to retirements and separations. In addition, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

440

Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

Smith, J. T.; Flake, L. D.; Higgins, K. F.; Kobriger, G. D.; Homer, C. G.

2005-01-01

441

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

SciTech Connect

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05

442

Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.  

PubMed

Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. PMID:24084375

Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

2013-11-15

443

33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...danger zone. The waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay...

2010-07-01

444

33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...danger zone. The waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay...

2011-07-01

445

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

446

Blastomycosis in a South Indian patient after visiting an endemic area in USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a case of blastomycosis in a diabetic patient from South India who had visited Milwaukee, Wisconsin, an endemic area for blastomycosis in the USA. After his return to Bangalore, India, the patient developed intermittent fever of moderate to high grade, cough, loss of weight and appetite, and abscesses in the left cubital fossa and thigh regions. Systemic examination

Jayanthi Savio; S. Muralidharan; R. S. MacAden; G. D'Souza; S. Mysore; P. Ramachandran; I. Garg; P. Rout; B. M. Hemashettar; A. A. Padhye

2006-01-01