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1

Riparian Areas of South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has recently added this publicly targeted resource to the NPWRC homepage. Riparian Areas of South Dakota covers the structure and function of riparian areas with an emphasis on management. While content is limited, several good color photographs accompany each resource. This resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

2

77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FF06R06000-FXRS1265066CCP0S2-123] Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and...Service) has established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, the 554th unit of...The Service established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area on September 21,...

2012-02-16

3

HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF WETLAND BIRDS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, surveys were conducted in 168 wetlands to evaluate the influence of habitat area on bird use of wetlands in western South Dakota. Wetland birds were surveyed using 18-m (0.1-ha) fixed radius circular-point counts. An av- erage of five species (SE = 0.30; range 0-17) occupied semipermanent and sea- sonal wetlands. Semipermanent wetlands with intermediate emergent vegeta- tion coverage

David E. Naugle; Kenneth F. Higgins; Kristel K. Bakker

1999-01-01

4

Hydrology of the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. This report summarizes the hydrology of the Black Hills area and the results of this long-term study.The Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming is an important recharge area for several regional, bedrock aquifer systems and various local aquifers; thus, the study focused on describing the hydrologic significance of selected bedrock aquifers. The major aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. The highest priority was placed on the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, which are used extensively and heavily influence the surface-water resources of the area.Within this report, the hydrogeologic framework of the area, including climate, geology, ground water, and surface water, is discussed. Hydrologic processes and characteristics for ground water and surface water are presented. For ground water, water-level trends and comparisons and water-quality characteristics are presented. For surface water, streamflow characteristics, responses to precipitation, annual yields and yield efficiencies, and water-quality characteristics are presented. Hydrologic budgets are presented for ground water, surface water, and the combined ground-water/surface-water system. A summary of study findings regarding the complex flow systems within the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers also is presented.

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet; Williamson, Joyce; Putnam, Larry

2002-01-01

5

76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an...

2011-10-24

6

Results of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) drought analysis (South Dakota drought 1976)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LACIE using techniques developed from the southern Great Plains drought analysis indicated the potential for drought damage in South Dakota. This potential was monitored and as it became apparent that a drought was developing, LACIE implemented some of the procedures used in the southern Great Plains drought. The technical approach used in South Dakota involved the normal use of LACIE sample segments (5 x 6 nm) every 18 days. Full frame color transparencies (100 x 100 nm) were used on 9 day intervals to identify the drought area and to track overtime. The green index number (GIN) developed using the Kauth transformation was computed for all South Dakota segments and selected North Dakota segments. A scheme for classifying segments as drought affected or not affected was devised and tested on all available 1976 South Dakota data. Yield model simulations were run for all CRD's Crop Reporting District) in South Dakota.

Thompson, D. R.

1976-01-01

7

Ladybugs of South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

8

South Dakota North Platte R.  

E-print Network

South Dakota Nebraska Index map North Platte R. South Platte R. Dismal R. Platte R. Study area 0 0 1 KILOMETER 1 MILE Scotts Bluff County Tri-St ate Canal Mitchell Canal North Platte River Enterprise 2002 Prepared in cooperation with the NORTH PLATTE NATURAL RESOURCES DISTRICT SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS

9

40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. South Dakota—Ozone (1-Hour Standard) 2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...State X South Dakota—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

10

40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. South Dakota—Ozone (1-Hour Standard) 2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...State X South Dakota—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2011-07-01

11

40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. South Dakota—Ozone (1-Hour Standard) 2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...otherwise noted. South Dakota—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2012-07-01

12

40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. South Dakota—Ozone (1-Hour Standard) 2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...South Dakota—1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Primary and...

2013-07-01

13

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 129 HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF WETLAND  

E-print Network

consider habitat area requirements in wetland creations and restorations when wetland bird productivity% in northwest Iowa and western Minnesota (Tiner 1984, Dahl 1990). Recent declines in wetland bird numbers OF WETLAND BIRDS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA David E. Naugle College of Natural Resources, University

14

South Dakota geothermal handbook  

SciTech Connect

The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-06-01

15

South Dakota geothermal resources  

SciTech Connect

South Dakota is normally not thought of as a geothermal state. However, geothermal direct use is probably one of the best kept secrets outside the state. At present there are two geothermal district heating systems in place and operating successfully, a resort community using the water in a large swimming pool, a hospital being supplied with part of its heat, numerous geothermal heat pumps, and many individual uses by ranchers, especially in the winter months for heating residences, barns and other outbuildings, and for stock watering.

Lund, J.W.

1997-12-01

16

South Dakota Tourism Leopard Frog  

E-print Network

South Dakota Tourism Leopard Frog . and Myths, Cliches and Reality What we actually know and what we hope to find out about the frogs and toads ofSouth Dakota. by Tate D. Fischer, Kenneth F. Higgins. A common cliche states that you have to kiss a lot of frogs before you find your charming prince: myth

17

Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the burned areas. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between burned and unburned areas were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on annual-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. Annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-burn periods. Many of the post-burn data points are well beyond the range of the pre-burn data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely burned drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for burned drainage areas; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-burn condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

2004-01-01

18

South Dakota Social Studies Content Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the South Dakota Content Standards for K-12 Social Studies. The document outlines the four major areas of social studies: history, geography, civics, and economics. Standards are provided for each major area according to grade level, separately for grades K-8 and collectively for grades 9-12. Grade level standards represent…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

19

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

20

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

21

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

22

Student Interns in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a progress report of the student interns in the South Dakota state government. The report covers program history; evaluation of the legislative intern program; details of the summer intern program, 1972; evaluation of the summer intern program, 1972; Student Intern Coordinating Council; the state plan and state intern conference;…

Kneebone, Ted

23

Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

24

Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty development programs in Minnesota, South Dakota, and North Dakota, which were funded by the Bush Foundation, are described. Activities include advising, curriculum development and course review, department reviews, grants, humanistic studies, internships and interdisciplinary teaching, journals, leave supplements, master teachers,…

Davis, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

25

South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

Not Available

1980-06-01

26

Ecoregions of North Dakota and South Dakota: Interactive Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. This interactive map shows the ecoregions of North and South Dakota in increasing levels of detail (from level III to level IV). Clicking on the legend shows information for each type of ecoregion, including a photo and description, physiography, geology, soils type, climate, natural vegetation types, and land use/land cover. A downloadable version is available.

27

2008 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mark Anderson, Director of the USGS South Dakota Water Science Center, with Dr. John H. Marburger, III, Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. Dr. Marburger was the keynote speaker for the 2008 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, held on April 17...

28

Wetland Resources of Eastern South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has recently posted a resource on South Dakota Wetlands. This report, by R. Johnson and K. Higgins, offers text, tables, and color illustrations of South Dakota's wetlands, including history of wetland drainage and the National Wetlands Inventory. Both reports may be browsed online or downloaded (.zip) from the respective sites.

Higgens, Kenneth F.

29

Summary of precipitation data for the Black Hills area of South Dakota, water years 1931-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term precipitation records are sum-marized for the Black Hills area of South Dakota. Precipitation data are available for numerous gaging locations; however, few gages have continuous, long-term records, and periods of missing record are common. Thus, a geographic information system (GIS) utilizing an inverse-distance weighting method was developed to generate spatial precipitation distributions from point precipitation data for the Black Hills area, based on available monthly records. The spatial distributions were used to estimate periods of missing record for all 94 gages considered. The resulting monthly records of measured and estimated precipitation are tabulated for water years 1931-98. Average values for water years 1961-90, which is the period used for calculation of climatic normals, were used to develop an isohyetal map of normal annual precipitation for the Black Hills area. Temporal trends in precipitation for the Black Hills area also were examined. Sustained periods of deficit precipitation occurred during 1931-40 and 1948-61. Sustained periods of surplus precipitation occurred during 1941-47, 1962-68, and 1991-98, with the late 1990's identified as the wettest period since 1931. The driest 30-year period was 1931-60, when annual precipitation averaged 17.17 inches for the study area. The wettest 30-year period was 1969-98, when annual precipitation averaged 19.61 inches. Normal annual precipitation (1961-90) for the study area is 19.06 inches, compared with the long-term (1931-98) annual average of 18.61 inches. Annual extremes for the study area have ranged from 10.22 inches in water year 1936 to 27.39 inches in water year 1995.

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Kenner, Scott J.

2000-01-01

30

SAGEBRUSH STEPPE HABITATS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED BIRD SPECIES IN SOUTH DAKOTA, NORTH DAKOTA, AND WYOMING  

E-print Network

SAGEBRUSH STEPPE HABITATS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED BIRD SPECIES IN SOUTH DAKOTA, NORTH DAKOTA IN SOUTH DAKOTA, NORTH DAKOTA, AND WYOMING: LIFE ON THE EDGE OF THE SAGEBRUSH ECOSYSTEM This dissertation Dakota State University 2004 , I #12;11 SAGEBRUSH STEPPE HABITATS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED BIRD SPECIES

31

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

32

Geothermal resource assessment, South Dakota: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Seven geothermal aquifers in South Dakota contain an accessible resource base of about 11,207 x 10/sup 18/ J. The potentially productive geothermal aquifers are: Deadwood Formation (Cambrian), Winnipeg Formation + Red River Formation + Englewood Limestone (Ordovician through Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), Minnelusa Formation (Mississippian-Permian), Inyan Kara Group (Cretaceous), and Newcastle Sandstone (Cretaceous). The resource estimate was obtained by first using heat flow, thermal conductivity, temperature gradient, and stratigraphic data to estimate aquifer temperatures. The heat content of each aquifer was determined from the product of the volumetric heat capacity, aquifer volume, and temperature difference between the aquifer and the mean annual temperature for a 14 x 14 grid of 240 km/sup 2/ cells. Geothermal fluid temperatures range from about 120/sup 0/C in the Deadwood Formation in the Williston Basin to about 30/sup 0/C for the Newcastle Sandstone in south-central South Dakota. The area containing the resource lies largely west of the Missouri River. About 10,000 km/sup 2/ of the resource area is characterized by anomalously high heat flow values greater than 100 mW m/sup -2/.

Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

1987-07-01

33

USGS Water Resources of South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of South Dakota site contains hydrologic data, including realtime streamflow, precipitation, and water use data. There are USGS water resources publications and information on projects such as the Black Hills Hydrology Study; the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Volatile Organic Chemicals National Synthesis; the Belle Fourche Watershed Assessment Study; and the Sensitivity of Ground Water to Contamination project in Lawrence County, South Dakota.

34

Ground-Water Resources in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The availability of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area is influenced by many factors including location, local recharge and ground-water flow conditions, and structural features. Thus, the availability of ground water can be extremely variable throughout the Black Hills area, and even when water is available, it may not be suitable for various uses depending on the water quality. The major bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Minor bedrock aquifers occur in other hydrogeologic units, including confining units, due to fracturing and interbedded permeable layers. Various information and maps are presented in this report that describe availability and quality of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area. However, there is no guarantee of obtaining usable water at any location due to the extreme potential variability in conditions that can affect the availability and quality of ground water in the area. Maps presented in this report include the distribution of hydrogeologic units; depth to the top of the five formations that contain major aquifers; thickness of the five formations that contain major aquifers; potentiometric maps for the five major aquifers; saturated thickness of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers; water temperature in the Madison aquifer; specific conductance in the Madison, Minnelusa, and Inyan Kara aquifers; hardness in the Inyan Kara aquifer; sulfate concentrations in the Minnelusa aquifer; and radon concentrations in the Deadwood aquifer. Water quality of the major aquifers generally is very good in and near outcrop areas but deteriorates progressively with distance from the outcrops. In the Minnelusa aquifer, an abrupt increase in concentrations of dissolved sulfate occurs downgradient from outcrop areas, where a zone of active anhydrite dissolution occurs. Most limitations for the use of ground water are related to aesthetic qualities associated with hardness and high concentrations of chloride, sulfate, sodium, manganese, and iron. Very few health-related limitations exist for ground water; most limitations are for radionuclides, such as radon and uranium. In addition, high concentrations of arsenic have been measured in a few samples from the Minnelusa aquifer.

Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Sawyer, J. Foster

2003-01-01

35

Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the Minnelusa aquifer. Three conceptual models, which are simplifications of lumped-parameter models, are considered for evaluation of mixing conditions and general ground-water ages. For a simple slug-flow model, which assumes no mixing, measured tritium concentrations in ground water can be related through a first-order decay equation to estimated concentrations at the time of recharge. Two simplified mixing models that assume equal proportions of annual recharge over a range of years also are considered. An ?immediate-arrival? model is used to conceptually represent conditions in outcrop areas and a ?time-delay? model is used for locations removed from outcrops, where delay times for earliest arrival of ground water generally would be expected. Because of limitations associated with estimating tritium input and gross simplifying assumptions of equal annual recharge and thorough mixing conditions, the conceptual models are used only for general evaluation of mixing conditions and approximation of age ranges. Headwater springs, which are located in or near outcrop areas, have the highest tritium concentrations, which is consistent with the immediate-arrival mixing model. Tritium concentrations for many wells are very low, or nondetectable, indicating general applicability of the timedelay conceptual model for locations beyond outcrop areas, where artesian conditions generally occur. Concentrations for artesian springs generally are higher than for wells, which indicates generally shorter delay times resulting from preferential flowpaths that typically are associated with artesian springs. In the Rapid City area, a distinct division of isotopic values for the Madison aquifer corresponds with distinguishing 18O signatures for nearby streams, where large streamflow recharge occurs. Previous dye testing in this area documented rapid ground-water flow (timeframe of weeks) from a streamflow loss zone to sites located several miles away. These results are used to ill

Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

2001-01-01

36

Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

37

LeasingSouth Dakota Farmland Leasing 2003 South Dakota State University  

E-print Network

Farmland LeasingSouth Dakota Farmland Leasing 2003 South Dakota State University Agricultural agricultural land is operated under a leasing agreement. Presented in this report are recent and longer term trends in land tenure, ownership, and leasing, based on Census of Agriculture data and related materials

38

Geology and pegmatites of part of the Fourmile area, Custer County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fourmile area, Custer County, S. Dak., is underlain by pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks that surround the granitic core of the Black Hills. The main structure in the area is the upright limb of an overturned anticline that plunges about 30 ? S. 10 ? E. Three units of metamorphic rocks are described that have a total thickness of at least 7, 700 feet. The oldest of these units, a quartz-mica schist, is more than 6, 500 feet thick. The overlying unit, about 200 feet thick, is composed of thin beds of amphibolite and hornblende schist, lime-silicate rock, cordierite-biotite schist, microcline-biotite schist, and other types of rocks. The youngest unit, a quartz-mica-feldspar schist, is more than 1,000 feet thick. The presence of kyanite, staurolite, cordierite, and sillimanite in the rocks indicates that they have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism. About 420 pegmatites were mapped in the quartzmica-schist and the quartz-mica-feldspar schist. A few thin pegmatites in the third unit were not mapped. Most of these are concordant with the schistosity and relict (?) bedding of the enclosing metamorphic rocks. They are as much as 250 feet thick and range from 10 to 2, 600 feet in length. Nine peqmatites are zoned and classified as heterogeneous. The remainder are homogeneous and are poorly zoned. The major constituents are plaqioclase, quartz, perthite, and muscovite. The accessory minerals are tourmaline, apatite, garnet, and biotite. Beryl was observed in 15 peqmatites. The heterogeneous pegmatites contain commercial deposits of potash feldspar, mica (sheet and scrap), and beryl.

Lang, Andrew J.; Redden, Jack Allison

1953-01-01

39

Stratabound geothermal resources in North Dakota and South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of all geothermal aquifers in North Dakota and South Dakota indicates an accessible resource base of approximately 21.25 exajoules (10{sup 18} J = 1 exajoule, 10{sup 18} J{approximately}10{sup 15} Btu=1 quad) in North Dakota and approximately 12.25 exajoules in South Dakota. Resource temperatures range from 40{degree}C at depths of about 700 m to 150{degree}C at 4500 m. This resource assessment increases the identified accessible resource base by 31% over the previous assessments. These results imply that the total stratabound geothermal resource in conduction-dominated systems in the United States is two-to-three times greater than some current estimates. The large increase in the identified accessible resource base is primarily due to inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the resource assessment and secondarily due to the expanded data base compiled in this study. These factors were interdependent in that the extensive data base provided the means for inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the analysis. Previous assessments included only well-known aquifer systems and were limited by the amount of available data. 40 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

1991-08-01

40

What is reciprocity?* Students from North Dakota and South Dakota will pay a tuition  

E-print Network

What is reciprocity?* Students from North Dakota and South Dakota will pay a tuition of Minnesota. Please contact the following office if you would like an application sent to you: North Dakota enrolling for Fall 2006 and later, the reciprocity agree- ment with North Dakota will no longer include

Amin, S. Massoud

41

BTOLOGY OF THE PORCUPINE (ERETHIZON DORSATUM) IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

BTOLOGY OF THE PORCUPINE (ERETHIZON DORSATUM) IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA by Judith Johnson in Wildlife and Fisheries Science South Dakota State University 1977 #12;BIOLOGY OF THE PORCUPINE (ERETHIZON DORSATUM) IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis is approved as a.creditable and independent

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South Dakota Board of Regents Fact Book, Fiscal Year 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are demanding, yet exciting, times for public higher education in South Dakota. Challenges are many-how best to deliver educational services in view of demographic shifts in South Dakota's population base, limited state resources, and far-reaching economic changes both nationally and internationally. The South Dakota Board of Regents is…

South Dakota Board of Regents, 2005

2005-01-01

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A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA by Tara L. Wertz A thesis submitted Sciences (Wildlife Option) South Dakota State University 1986 #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 11 Date Date #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

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South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

in surface water and uranium detoxification in ground water using bacteria. These projects were scheduledSouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 1 #12;Introduction South Dakota's Water Resources Research

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SURVEY OF FURBEARERS IN FALL RIVER COUNTY SOUTH DAKOTA WITH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable soil substrates in 2 survey areas of Fall River County, South Dakota containing both public (i.e., Buffalo Gap National Grassland) and private rangeland were searched for evidence of furbearers with emphasis on swift fox (Vulpes velox) between 1 September and 4 November 1999. Surveys of roads, dams, creeks, and cowpaths were conducted by walking selected land quarter sections (64.8

Richard A. Peterson; Jonathan A. Jenks; Eileen Dowd Stukel

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Microgravity Measurement in Black Hills of South Dakota  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Microgravity measurements were collected to determine groundwater-storage changes in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota during 2009-12. This relative-gravity measurement was made in the Doty focus area to the northwest of Rapid City, SD....

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South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

48

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

26-1 OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, all embraced in the drainage basin-8 Environmental Page 24. Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Lowe Brule Sioux Tribe and State of South Dakota Terrestrial

US Army Corps of Engineers

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Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 85 (2006) 171 RARE AND DECLINING FISHES OF SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

) and channel modification (channelization, riparian degradation, etc.) are the most substan- tial, but barriers comprehensive summary of the status of South Dakota fishes. Keywords Fish conservation, South Dakota, human small, isolated habitats though it has not declined in South Dakota. In contrast, the lake chub Couesius

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4-H School Enrichment A Guide for South Dakota Extension Educators  

E-print Network

1 4-H School Enrichment A Guide for South Dakota Extension Educators I. What is 4-H School Enrichment? School Enrichment is a partnership between South Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service (CES) and a school district to provide educational content in various subject areas. CES values

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HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the trapping season of 1977-78 and 1978-79, 51 bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic helminths. Diaphragm, tongue, and masseter muscle samples from 153 bobcats were examined for trichinosis. Nematodes located included Toxascaris leonina in 46 of 51 (90%), Toxocara mystax in 2 of 51 (4%). Physaloptera prae­ putialis in

Elizabeth C. Schitoskey

52

WETLAND RESOURCES of Eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

. and Ron Fowler. was invaluable. South Dakota State University (SDSU) employees Mike Kjellsen. Mike Estey. Todd Hoernemann. Dennis Hansen. Kevin Hop. Eugene Beckwith. Mike Broschart. Pete Bergmann. Mark Dorhout. Lewis Cowardin. Ron Reynolds. and Dan Cohan. as well as Linda Shaffer and Herman Rohinson

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Indian Place Names in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

Gasque, Thomas J.

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Provisional Checklist of Mammals of South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution al patterns of mammals in South Dakota are among th e most poorly known for an y region of similar size in temperate N orth America . The only state-wide treatment of th e group was the mimeograph ed compilation by Over and Churchill (1945), which consisted mostly of nontechnical anecdotes . Consequently , much of what is known

Jerry R. Choate; J. Knox Jones

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Growth of Crappies in South Dakota Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained age-and-growth data from 34 black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) samples from 25 water bodies and nine white crappie (P. annularis) samples from four water bodies in South Dakota from 1990 through 1993. Mean back-calculated length for black crappie was significantly different among water body type [i.e., small impoundments (< 40 ha), reservoirs (? 40 ha) and natural lakes] for

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis

1995-01-01

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Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

2000-01-01

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Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and cause-specific mortality of pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) have been well-documented in several western states and Canadian provinces. However, no information has been collected in western South Dakota, USA, where mixed-grass prairie habitats characterize rangelands. The objectives of our study were to determine survival and cause-specific mortality of adult (.18 months) and yearling (6-18 months) pronghorns and to determine monthly

CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JONATHAN A. JENKS; JARET D. SIEVERS; DANIEL E. RODDY; FREDERICK G. LINDZEY

2007-01-01

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South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)  

DOE Data Explorer

WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and transmission system expansion. [Copied from http://sdwind.com/about/

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South Dakota Aquatic Nuisance Species Risk Prepared by  

E-print Network

for their insight and commitment to protect South Dakota's valuable natural resources. This risk assessment would Couesius plumbeus, mountain sucker Catostomus platyrhynchus, false map turtle Graptemys pseudogeographica

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South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

Wegman, S.

1985-01-01

61

Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Konikow, L.F.

1976-01-01

62

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

63

South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

South Dakota. The aquifer has large storage capacity and very rapid recharge characteristics (1). Until carbon (DOC) concentrations in the Big Sioux Aquifer was also conducted in FY02. The Big Sioux Aquifer South Dakota. DOC concentrations in wetlands, lakes and rivers hydrologically connected to the aquifer

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Systematic Spacing of Townsites along Eastern South Dakota's Rail Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates townsite distribution in South Dakota's land settlement pattern. Reviews past theories explaining eastern South Dakota's systematic spacing of towns along rail lines. Indicates a correlation between railroad functions and town development, advancing the theory that nineteenth-century railroad technology, involving traffic control and…

Lockwood, Catherine M.

1990-01-01

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75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-13

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75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-12

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78 FR 22901 - United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota Proposed Final Judgment and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Antitrust Division United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota...Dakota in United States of America v. Chiropractic Associates Ltd, of South Dakota...from establishing prices or terms for chiropractic services. Copies of the...

2013-04-17

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South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota solar-energy-system performanceevaluation, June 1980April 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Dakota School of Mines site is the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Visitor's Center in Keystone, South Dakota. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 45% of the heating load and 53% of the observation room cooling load. The system is equipped with 2000 square feet of flat-plate collector panels double-glazed with a black chrome

Eck

1981-01-01

69

Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

Carter, J.M.

1999-01-01

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Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

1980-01-01

71

US hydropower resource assessment for South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

A total of 33 sites have been identified and assessed for their hydropower potential. Information as to the potential megawatts of capacity for 4 of the sites was not available; however, these sites have been identified as having hydropower potential and are included in the group of 33. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results for site capacities range from 35 kilowatts to 234 megawatts. Most of the sites have potential capacities of under 1 megawatts. The unadjusted hydropower potential for South Dakota was identified as being 1,124 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results lower this estimate 38% to 695 megawatts. The greatest reduction in undeveloped potential occurs at developed sites with current power production. These sites have a Hydropower Evaluation Software estimated capacity of 285 megawatts, a 50% reduction in capacity. The number of sites does not change, only the identified capacity is reassessed.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

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Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

1975-01-01

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Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

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Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota  

Cancer.gov

Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota Sanford Cancer Center 1305 W. 18th Street Sioux Falls, SD 57105 www.sanfordhealth.org • Pat O’Brien, MD, President, Sanford USD Medical Center • Dan Blue, MD, President, Sanford Clinic •

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Isopach and structure contour mapping of thin bentonite and shale beds in an area of mapped lineaments, central South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The N aquifer is an important source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona. The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to monitor long-term effects on the groundwater resources of the mesa as part of withdrawals from the aquifer by the strip-mining operation of Peabody Coal Co. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by the mine increased from 95 acre-feet in 1968 to more than 4,000 acre-feet in 1984. In 1985, withdrawals from the mine wells were temporarily reduced to about 2,500 acre-feet. Water levels in the confined area of the aquifer declined as much as 87 feet from 1965 to 1985 in some municipal and observation wells within about a 15-mile radius of the mine well field. In 1986, measurements indicated some recovery in water levels in most of these wells because of an approximate 90-percent reduction in pumpage from Peabody Coal Co. wells during the last half of 1985. Part of the drawdown in municipal wells is due to local pumpage. Water levels have not declined in wells tapping the unconfined area of the aquifer. Chemical analyses indicate no significant changes in the quality of water from wells that tap the N aquifer or from springs that discharge from several stratigraphic units, including the N aquifer, since pumping began at the mine. (USGS)

Chleborad, A.F.

1986-01-01

76

South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota: solar energy system performance evaluation, December 1979May 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of the South Dakota School of Mines solar energy system from December 1979 to May 1980 is described. The system is installed in the Mt. Rushmore National Memorial Visitors' Center near Keystone, South Dakota. The site is located at 44°N latitude and 1600 m elevation. The building has 540 m² of conditioned space and a design overall thermal transfer

Klotz

1980-01-01

77

Transition year labeling error characterization study. [Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling errors made in the large area crop inventory experiment transition year estimates by Earth Observation Division image analysts are identified and quantified. The analysis was made from a subset of blind sites in six U.S. Great Plains states (Oklahoma, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, North and South Dakota). The image interpretation basically was well done, resulting in a total omission error rate of 24 percent and a commission error rate of 4 percent. The largest amount of error was caused by factors beyond the control of the analysts who were following the interpretation procedures. The odd signatures, the largest error cause group, occurred mostly in areas of moisture abnormality. Multicrop labeling was tabulated showing the distribution of labeling for all crops.

Clinton, N. J. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

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Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major land forms of southwestern North Dakota are: (1) high buttes that stand above (2) a gravel-capped planation surface and (3) a gently-rolling upland; below the upland surface are (4) remnants of a broad valley stage of erosion into which (5) modern valleys have been cut. The broad valley profiles of many streams continue east across the Missouri River trench and are part of a former drainage system that flowed into Hudson Bay. Crossing the divides are (6) large trenches, formed when the former northeast-flowing streams were dammed by the glacier and diverted to the southeast. The largest diversion valley is occupied by the Missouri River; another diversion system, now largely abandoned, extends from the Killdeer Mountains southwest to the mouth of Porcupine Creek in Sioux County. By analogy with South Dakota, most of the large diversion valleys are thought to have been cut in Illinoian time. Numerous diversion valleys of Illinoian to late Wisconsin age cut across the divides. Other Pleistocene land forms include ground and moraines, kames, and terraces. Land forms of Recent age include dunes, alluvial terraces, floodplains, and several types of landslide blocks. One type of landslide, called rockslide slump, has not previously been described. Drainage is well adjusted to the structure, most of the streams flowing down the axes of small synclines. The bedrock formations have been gently folded into small domes and synclines that interrupt a gentle northward regional dip into the Williston Basin. Three episodes of deformation affected southwestern North Dakota in Tertiary time: (1) intra-Paleocene, involving warping and minor faulting; (2) post-Eocene, involving uplift and tilting; (2) Oligocene, involving uplift and gentle folding. Mineral resources include ceramic clay, sand and gravel and lignite coal. The Knife River area is the largest lignite-producing district in the United States.

Benson, William Edward

1953-01-01

79

Exploring Interactions between Walleye and Smallmouth Bass in South Dakota Waters  

E-print Network

Walleye and Smallmouth Bass in South Dakota Waters Melissa R. Wuellner December 12, 2009 Walleye Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu

80

Gizzard Shad Recruitment Patterns in a Western South Dakota Irrigation Reservoir  

E-print Network

Brookings, South Dakota 57007 USA and Gene F. Galinat South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks 3305 vials. Individual otoliths were cracked and lightly wet-polished using 1,000-grit sandpaper before being

81

Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

Hamilton, L.J.

1985-01-01

82

SURVIVAL OF MALE MERRIAM'S WILD TURKEYS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

SURVIVAL OF MALE MERRIAM'S WILD TURKEYS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA By Thomas C MERRIAM'S WILD TURKEYS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis is approved as a creditable support from the following organizations and agencies: The National Wild Turkey Federation, South Dakota

83

MODELING WETLAND USE BY SPRING-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

MODELING WETLAND USE BY SPRING-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA WETLAND USE BY SPRING-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA This dissertation-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA Sharon N. Kahara 2007 The continental population

84

Diet and Body Composition of Migrating Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

Diet and Body Composition of Migrating Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Eastern South Dakota Composition of Migrating Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Eastern South Dakota This thesis is approved of Migrating Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Eastern South Dakota Kimberly A. Strand 10 June 2005 The decline

85

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca  

E-print Network

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held. Yellow perch production, temperature, growth, South Dakota, Perca flavescens INTRODUCTION The yellow

86

South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System. A Case History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Core Curriculum Project involving the career ladder approach to health manpower training, which began in 1970, had seven objectives including the following: (1) To organize a Health Manpower Council for the entire State; (2) to define the areas of basic commonality among the various training programs; and (3) to develop a core…

Brekke, Donald G.; Gildseth, Wayne M.

87

VARIATION IN SMALL MAMMAL RICHNESS AMONG ECOTYPES IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammal diversity and distribution was assessed for three ecotypes at Oakwood Lakes Game Production Area in eastern South Dakota. Ecotypes were an eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) stand, native grassland con- sisting mainly of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Indian grass (Sorghas- trum nutans), and switchgrass (Panicium virgatum), and a cultivated corn (Zea mays) food plot. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

David F. Terrall; Nick G. Cochran; Jonathan A. Jenks

88

Lightning fires in North Dakota grasslands and in pine-savanna lands of South Dakota and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lightning strike fires which occurred between 1940 and 1981 were studied in mixed-grass prairie grasslands and in pine-savanna lands in the Northern Great Plains region. A majority (73%) of ignitions occurred during July and August, while a lesser number was recorded in April, May, June, and September. The April-September period is also the average time of the freeze-free period and approximates the average distribution period for thunderstorm activity in this region. The area burned by each of 293 lightning fires (most of which were suppressed) ranged from 0.004-1158.3 ha (mean = 10.8 ha). The frequency of lightning fires in mixed-grass prairie grasslands averaged 6.0/yr per 10,000 km2 in eastern North Dakota, 22.4/yr per 10,000 km2 in southcentral North Dakota, 24.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in western North Dakota, and 91.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in pine-savanna lands in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. The ecological role of lightning-set fires is discussed relative to the development of resource research and management plans and to the interpretation of historical records of natural fire occurrence in the Northern Great Plains region.

Higgins, K.F.

1984-01-01

89

30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.  

...D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-2. (8) Solid waste disposal, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-6. (9) Groundwater, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 46-6. (f) The following are South Dakota laws that interfere with the...

2014-07-01

90

30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-2. (8) Solid waste disposal, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-6. (9) Groundwater, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 46-6. (f) The following are South Dakota laws that interfere with the...

2010-07-01

91

South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists contact information for educational programs, human services, and other resources for children, youth, and families in South Dakota. Sections cover adult basic education programs, alcohol and drug treatment facilities, career learning centers, clothing, community health nurses, community mental health centers, consumer credit…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

92

Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of South Dakota's Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Dakota is in the process of transitioning to new English language arts and mathematics standards that will better prepare students to be successful in college and their careers. Time, effort, and resources must be dedicated to effective implementation in order to realize the promise of these new common core state standards. This paper…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

2011-01-01

93

BURROWING OWL FOODS IN CONATA BASIN, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) were studied in a prairie dog town of southwestern South Dakota. Pellets regurgitated by Burrowing Owls contained a wide variety of prey remains. Insects, spiders, small mammals, and vegetation were the most frequent items identified in the pellets. Mammals were consumed most frequently during spring and early summer. Insects were consumed in large numbers during the

Daniel W. Uresk; James G. Maccracken; Richard M. Hansen

94

Soil-moisture ground truth, Hand County, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil types were determined from the Soil Survey of Hand County, South Dakota. The soil types encountered on the soil moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil moisture data are presented. The data have been divided by range, township and section. The soil moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.

Jones, E. B.

1976-01-01

95

South Dakota Board of Regents Fact Book: Fiscal Year 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public-sector higher education plays a critical role within the larger environment of higher education opportunity. Public universities are not the sole players in meeting necessary state outcomes, but they are by far the largest producers of higher education outcomes in South Dakota. This Fact Book, for Fiscal Year 2007, is the single best source…

South Dakota Board of Regents, 2007

2007-01-01

96

Dispersal of Yearling Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We captured and radiocollared 57 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns in western South Dakota, USA, during May 2002-2003 and radiotracked them through 15 months of age, by which time all surviving individuals had established a permanent home range. We classified 56% (n ¼ 19) of fawns as dispersers and 44% (n ¼ 15) as residents. Eighty-four percent (n ¼ 16) of

CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JONATHAN A. JENKS

2007-01-01

97

Research Article Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota  

E-print Network

. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 71(3):737­743; 2007) DOI: 10.2193/2005-685 KEY WORDS Antilocapra americana. Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations are distrib- uted throughout western South Dakota, USA, where of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA ABSTRACT Survival and cause-specific mortality of pronghorns (Antilocapra

98

South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

to determine the fate of disinfectants and disinfection by-products in water distribution systems was funded. South Dakota water systems use chloramine, free chlorine and chlorine dioxide as chemical disinfectants branched (rural water) networks, containing storage tanks and booster disinfection systems. These system

99

South Dakota Department of Education 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Dakota has many things to be proud of: Its students consistently outperform their peers on national assessments. The state has a high graduation rate, and it ranks among the top states in the nation for students going on to postsecondary. Credit for these achievements goes to the state's local school districts. This annual report covers key…

South Dakota Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

100

South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

quality, drinking water quality, bio treatment for the removal of uranium from water, vegetative treatment in South Dakota and wise use of irrigation water is important if other water needs like ethanol production with mining, extraction, and processing of uranium (U) for nuclear fuel and weapons have generated substantial

101

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

102

Water-Quality Effects and Characterization of Indicators of Onsite Wastewater Disposal Systems in the East-Central Black Hills Area, South Dakota, 2006-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian. Mean downgradient dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations in ground water for the alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian settings were 0.734, 7.90, 8.62, and 2.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved chloride concentrations in ground water for these settings were 324, 89.6, 498, and 33.2 mg/L, respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved boron concentrations in ground water for these settings were 736, 53, 64, and 43 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively. Mean dissolved surface-water concentrations for NO2+NO3, chloride, and boron for downstream sites were 0.222 mg/L, 32.1 mg/L, and 28 ug/L, respectively. Mean values of delta-15N and delta-18O (isotope ratios of 14N to 15N and 18O to 16O relative to standard ratios) for nitrate in ground-water samples were 10.4 and -2.0 per mil (0/100), respectively, indicating a relatively small contribution from synthetic fertilizer and probably a substantial contribution from OWDS. The surface-water sample with the highest dissolved NO2+NO3 concentration of 1.6 mg/L had a delta-15N value of 12.36 0/100, which indicates warm-blooded animals (including humans) as the nitrate source. Fecal coliforms were detected in downgradient ground water most frequently in the Spearfish (19 percent) and Minnekahta (9.7 percent) settings. E. coli was detected most frequently in the Minnekahta (29 percent) and Spearfish (13 percent) settings. Enterococci were detected more frequently than other microbiological indicators in all four settings. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were detected in 73 percent and 95 percent of all surface-water samples, respectively. Enterococci, coliphages (somatic), and C. perfringens were detected in 50, 70, and 50 percent of surface-water samples, respectively. Of the 62 OWC analytes, 12 were detected only in environmental samples, 10 were detected in at least one environmental and one blank sample (not necessarily companion pairs), 2 were detected only in blank samples, and 38 were not detected in any blank, environmental, or replicate sample from either ground or surface water. Eleven different organic compounds were detected in ground-water samples at eight different sites. The most frequently occurring compound was DEET, which was found in 32 percent of the environmental samples, followed by tetrachloroethene, which was detected in 20 percent of the samples. For surface-water samples, 16 organic compounds were detected in 9 of the 10 total samples. The compound with the highest occurrence in surface-water samples was camphor, which was detected in 50 percent of samples. The alluvial setting was characterized by relatively low dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations, detection of ammonia nitrogen, and relatively high concentr

Putnam, Larry D.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Sawyer, J. Foster

2008-01-01

103

2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second exceeded the previous peak of record set in 1997 by 1,500 cubic feet per second. For the cities of Fargo, and Moorhead, Minn., and the surrounding area, the stage of the Red River remained above flood stage for nearly 2 months. In addition to high stage and flow on the main-stem Missouri and Red Rivers, peak of record stage and discharge were recorded at many U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the Missouri River and Red River Basins. Several reservoirs and lakes in the region also experienced record stage elevations from the high flows during the 2009 spring snowmelt floods.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

2011-01-01

104

Compilation of selected hydrologic data, through water year 1992, Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents water-level, water-quailty, and springflow data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1992, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). Water-level data are presented for 32 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tabular data. Water- quality data are presented for 12 surface-water sites and 5 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, cyanide, phenols, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Spring data are presented for 83 springs and 21 stream reaches with significant springflow components. Data presented include site information, discharge, and field water-quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH.

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell

1994-01-01

105

78 FR 48904 - United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota; Public Comment and Response on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Antitrust Division United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota...Final Judgment in United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota...STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff, v. CHIROPRACTIC ASSOCIATES, LTD. OF SOUTH...

2013-08-12

106

The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs contains thousands of fossilized mammoths, and was discovered by chance in 1974 while excavating for a housing development in South Dakota. Their website offers visitors a 360-degree virtual tour of the unique museum that was built over the site of the now dry sinkhole, along with views of excavations that are still in progress. The "Paleontology" tab informs visitors not only about the woolly and Columbian mammoths that drowned in the sinkhole, but other animals as well. The "Mammoth Site Vertebrate List" link shows a slew of other animals, such as camels, shrub oxen, and the giant short-faced bear that lived throughout the Great Plains of South Dakota. A PDF of the 85 species of flora and fauna recovered at The Mammoth Site, as of January 2008, is also available in the same link. Visitors should also check out the "Research" tab to learn about current and ongoing research at the site.

107

Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

Shearer, J.S.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

2003-01-01

108

Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

2006-01-01

109

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 1 ROLLIN D. SPARROWE, South Research Unit, Brookings3 -,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus on counties. The history of white-tailed deer popula- tions in eastern South Dakota parallels that of deer

110

Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L.E.

1986-01-01

111

76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

2011-06-17

112

Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007 flow of 26,000 cubic feet per second was generated entirely within an intervening drainage area of only 44.4 square miles. An especially large flow of 44,100 cubic feet per second was documented for this location in 1972. The 2007 peak flow of 18,600 cubic feet per second for Battle Creek at Hermosa (station 06406000) was only slightly smaller than the 1972 peak flow of 21,400 cubic feet per second. Peak-flow values from 2007 for three sites with small drainage areas (less than 1.0 square mile) plot close to a regional envelope curve, indicating exceptionally large flow values, relative to drainage area. Physiographic factors that affect flooding in the area were examined. The limestone headwater hydrogeologic setting (within and near the Limestone Plateau area on the western flank of the Black Hills) has distinctively suppressed peak-flow characteristics for small recurrence intervals. Uncertainty is large, however, regarding characteristics for large recurrence intervals (low-probability floods) because of a dearth of information regarding the potential for generation of exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. In contrast, the greatest potential for exceptionally damaging floods is around the flanks of the rest of the Black Hills area because of steep topography and limited potential for attenuation of flood peaks in narrow canyons. Climatological factors that affect area flooding also were examined. Area thunderstorms are largely terrain-driven, especially with respect to their requisite upward motion, which can be initiated by orographic lifting effects, thermally enhanced circulations, and obstacle effects. Several other meteorological processes are influential in the development of especially heavy precipitation for the area, including storm cell training, storm anchoring or regeneration, storm mergers, supercell development, and weak upper-level air flow. A composite of storm total precipitation amounts for 13 recent individual storm events indicates

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

2010-01-01

113

Summary of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) activities in South Dakota, 2000-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated data-collection activities for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) in South Dakota during 2000. The objectives of the study were to develop the monitoring tools necessary to produce unbiased estimates of the ecological condition of surface waters across a large geographic area of the western United States, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of those tools in a large-scale assessment. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (GF&P) established a cooperative agreement and assumed responsibility for completing the remaining assessments for the perennial, wadable streams of the EMAP-West in the State. Stream assessment sites were divided into two broad categories-the first category of sites was randomly selected and assigned by the USEPA for South Dakota. The second category consisted of sites that were specifically selected because they appeared to have reasonable potential for representing the best available physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the State. These sites comprise the second category of assessment sites and were called 'reference' sites and were selected following a detailed evaluation process. Candidate reference site data will serve as a standard or benchmark for assessing the overall ecological condition of the randomly selected sites. During 2000, the USEPA completed 22 statewide stream assessments in South Dakota. During 2001-2003, the USGS and GF&P completed another 42 stream assessments bringing the total of randomly selected stream assessments within South Dakota to 64. In addition, 18 repeat assessments designed to meet established quality-assurance/quality-control requirements were completed at 12 of these 64 sites. During 2002-2004, the USGS in cooperation with GF&P completed stream assessments at 45 candidate reference sites. Thus, 109 sites had stream assessments completed in South Dakota for EMAP-West (2000-2004). Relatively early in the EMAP-West stream-assessment process, it became apparent that for some streams in south-central South Dakota, in-stream conditions varied considerably over relatively short distances of only a few miles. These changes appeared to be a result of geomorphic changes associated with changes in the underlying geology. For these streams, moving stream assessment sites short distances upstream or downstream had the potential to provide substantially different bioassessment data. In order to obtain a better understanding of how geology influences stream conditions, two streams located in south-central South Dakota were chosen for multiple stream sampling at sites located along their longitudinal profile at points where notable changes in geomorphology were observed. Subsequently, three sites on Bear-in-the-Lodge Creek and three sites on Black Pipe Creek were selected for multiple stream sampling using EMAP-West protocols so that more could be learned about geologic influences on stream conditions. Values for dissolved oxygen and specific conductance generally increased from upstream to downstream locations on Bear-in-the-Lodge Creek. Values for pH and water temperature generally decreased from upstream to downstream locations. Decreasing water temperature could be indicative of ground-water inflows. Values for dissolved oxygen, pH, and water temperature generally increased from upstream to downstream locations on Black Pipe Creek. The increase in temperature at the lower sites is a result of less dense riparian cover, and the warmer water also could account for the lower concentrations of dissolved oxygen found in the lower reaches of Black Pipe Creek. Values for specific conductance were more than three times greater at the lower site (1,342 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm)) than at the upper site (434 ?S/cm). The increase probably occurs when the stream transitions from contacting the underlying Ar

Heakin, Allen J.; Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Shearer, Jeffrey S.

2006-01-01

114

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 76 (1997) 65 OCCURRENCE OF SMALL, NONGAME  

E-print Network

MAMMALS IN SOUTH DAKOTA'S EASTERN BORDER COUNTIES, 1994-1995 Kenneth F. Higgins South Dakota Cooperative, and bacon grease. Of nearly 2,000 specimens collected, approximately 200 were archived in the Natural

115

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota  

E-print Network

Unusual Migration by a White-Tailed Deer Fawn in South Dakota CHRISTOPHER s. DEPERNO, STEVEN L, fawn, migration, OeJocoi/eus virgin/anus dacotensis, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. Migration between winter and summer ranges by white-tailed deer (Odocoi/eus virginianus) is most pronounced in northern

116

PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCL, VOL. 60 (1981) HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

E-print Network

PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCL, VOL. 60 (1981) HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1 Elizabeth C. Schitoskey bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic helminths. Diaphragm, tongue, and masseter muscle samples from 153 bobcats were examined for trichinosis

117

ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION BY LOWELL E 2006 #12;ECOLOGY OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA: GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND WINTER NUTRITION to count. From the bottom of my heart I say thank you and I love you! I would like to thank the landowners

118

South Dakota Department of Education and Cultural Affairs: 1998-99 Educational Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory of the South Dakota Department of Education and Cultural Affairs was current as of April 5, 1999. The first section lists personnel and contact information for boards and councils affiliated with the Department, divisions and offices of the Department, and education organizations in South Dakota. The chairpersons of education…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

119

CHARACTERISTICS OF MOUNTAIN LION MORTALITIES IN THE BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are a state threatened species in South Dakota, and few sightings were documented from the early 1900's until recently. In 1985, the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGF&P) began compiling and verifying sightings of mountain lions in the Black Hills. Since then, sightings have increased but little is known of population characteristics for

DOROTHY M. FECSKE; JONATHAN A. JENKS; FREDRICK G. LINDZEY

120

FEEDING ECOLOGY OF FISHES IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR  

E-print Network

FEEDING ECOLOGY OF FISHES IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR BY ROBERT J. KRSKA, JR OF FISHES IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR This thesis is approved as a creditable., for providing access and facilities at the cooling reservoir: S. C. Johnson, J. R. Wahl, D. T. Henley, G. B

121

Population Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes Quinton E. Phelps  

E-print Network

precision among four alternative structures compared to otoliths for 139 common carp collected from fivePopulation Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes By Quinton E. Phelps and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2006 #12;11 Population Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern

122

BURROWING OWL DISTRIBUTION AND NEST SITE SELECTION IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

BURROWING OWL DISTRIBUTION AND NEST SITE SELECTION IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA By Jason Thiele A thesis of burrowing owls in South Dakota, and I feel awfully lucky that I got the opportunity to be a part was needed from land management agencies and private landowners to get access to burrowing owl nesting sites

123

ECOLOGY OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA BY CHAD P. LEHMAN in Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2005 #12;ECOLOGY OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS with this project while pursuing his Masters Degree. As a fellow turkey chaser, he provided valuable assistance

124

Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota  

E-print Network

Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota Fang during granite differentiation and late- stage pegmatite evolution, Li isotopic compositions pegmatite and possible metasedimentary source rocks in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. The Harney Peak

Rudnick, Roberta L.

125

FACTORS INFLUENCING A DECLINING PRONGHORN POPULATION IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

FACTORS INFLUENCING A DECLINING PRONGHORN POPULATION IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA Wildlife Science South Dakota State University 2004 #12;FACTORS INFLUENCING A DECLINING PRONGHORN aspects of this study. I thank all of those who volunteered their time during pronghorn capture. A special

126

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...allow the hunting of ring-necked pheasant and sharp-tailed grouse on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations...Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant, sharp-tailed grouse, and partridge on designated portions of the refuge in...

2013-10-01

127

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

...allow the hunting of ring-necked pheasant and sharp-tailed grouse on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations...Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant, sharp-tailed grouse, and partridge on designated portions of the refuge in...

2014-10-01

128

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...We allow hunting of cock ring-necked pheasant and sharptail grouse on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations...Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant, sharp-tailed grouse, and partridge on designated portions of the refuge in...

2010-10-01

129

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...allow the hunting of ring-necked pheasant and sharp-tailed grouse on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations...Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant, sharp-tailed grouse, and partridge on designated portions of the refuge in...

2012-10-01

130

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...We allow hunting of cock ring-necked pheasant and sharptail grouse on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations...Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant, sharp-tailed grouse, and partridge on designated portions of the refuge in...

2011-10-01

131

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED DEER  

E-print Network

Models were developed for the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population inhabiting the Black, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. 559-W #12;120 Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of ScienceProceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 84 (2005) 119 POPULATION MODELS FOR WHITE-TAILED

132

Hepatitis transmission among the Sioux Indians of South Dakota.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis A continues to occur in cyclical community-wide epidemics on the Indian reservations of South Dakota. In June 1985 a population-based serosurvey for viral hepatitis involving 120 households was conducted at the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota. The serosurvey was performed shortly after a large hepatitis A epidemic on the Pine Ridge reservation in 1983-84, and immediately before a large hepatitis A epidemic on the Rosebud reservation in 1985-86. The overall seroprevalence for antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was 76.2 percent (Pine Ridge reservation 80.5 percent, Rosebud reservation 72.0 percent, relative risk = 1.12, 95 percent confidence interval = 1.01, 1.24). For age groups 0 to 4 years, 54.2 percent and 36.1 percent of children were seropositive at Pine Ridge and Rosebud, respectively. Seropositivity rose rapidly with age; by age 40, more than 90 percent of persons at both Pine Ridge and Rosebud were anti-HAV positive. Only 1.1 percent of persons tested were positive for hepatitis B markers. Anti-HAV seroprevalence rates in both communities are similar to rates observed in developing countries. The surprisingly high anti-HAV seroprevalence among young children at Rosebud, where clinical hepatitis A had been virtually absent in the previous seven years, indicates that high-grade silent transmission was taking place during the interepidemic period. PMID:2166446

Shaw, F E; Shapiro, C N; Welty, T K; Dill, W; Reddington, J; Hadler, S C

1990-01-01

133

The Development of Research Capability at Private Colleges in North and South Dakota. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a 3-year cooperative project (Dakota ACCORD) designed to stimulate and support educational research in three private liberal arts colleges located in North and South Dakota. Specific project objectives were: (1) to develop an awareness of research opportunities and skills among the…

Adkins, E. Robert

134

An occurrence of autunite, Lawrence County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July 1952 an occurrence of autunite was found in the northern part of the Black Hills, South Dakota, during a reconnaissance for radioactive deposits. The autunite occurs as fracture coatings and disseminations in siltstone of the Deadwood formation of Cambrian age and is concentrated mainly in the lower 2 feet of the siltstone at the contact with an intrusive rhyolite porphyry; the radioactive zone is exposed in two old workings, which are 90 feet apart. An 18-inch vertical channel sample of the autanite-bearing siltstene contained 0. 048 percent uranium. The gangue minerals are fluorite and limonite. The uranium is believed to have been introduced into the siltstone by solutions of magmatic origin that migrated along the lower contact of the siltstone after or during emplacement of the porphyry'

Vickers, Rollin C.

1953-01-01

135

Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide  

SciTech Connect

Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

Not Available

2007-04-01

136

Estimated recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1931-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual recharge from streamflow losses and infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas is estimated for water years 1931-98. All estimates are for recharge that contributes to regional ground-water flow patterns and that occurs in outcrop areas connected to the regional flow system. Estimates exclude recharge to outcrop areas that are isolated from the regional flow system, which generally results in ground-water discharge to area streams. Streamflow recharge is calculated directly for 11 streams in the Black Hills area that have continuous-record gaging stations located upstream from loss zones, using available records of daily streamflow, against which estimated loss thresholds (from previous investigations) are applied. Daily streamflow records are extrapolated, when necessary, using correlations with long-term gages, to develop annual estimates of streamflow recharge for 1950-98. Streamflow recharge is estimated for a number of smaller basins using loss thresholds for miscellaneous-record sites. Annual recharge estimates are derived from synthetic records of daily streamflow for 1992-98, which are based on drainage-area ratios applied to continuous-record gaging stations. Recharge estimates are further extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins during 1992-98, relative to overall streamflow recharge.Streamflow recharge also is estimated for small drainage areas with undetermined loss thresholds that are situated between larger basins with known thresholds. Estimates for 1992-98 are based on estimates of annual streamflow derived using drainage-area ratios, with assumed losses equal to 90 percent of annual streamflow. Recharge estimates also are extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins.Precipitation recharge for 1931-98 is estimated using relations between precipitation and streamflow (or basin yield) for representative gaging stations. Basin yields are first normalized, relative to drainage area, by expressing in inches per unit of drainage area. Yields are further converted to yield efficiencies, by dividing by precipitation on contributing drainage areas. Relations between yield efficiency and precipitation are identified, which are developed for use in generically estimating annual yield for given areas, based on average yield efficiency and annual precipitation. The resulting annual yield is used as a surrogate for estimating annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Annual yield (or recharge) efficiencies are estimated to range from about 2 percent to in excess of 30 percent, with corresponding average annual recharge estimates ranging from 0.4 inch in the southern Black Hills to about 8.7 inches in the northwestern Black Hills.Estimates of precipitation recharge for 1931-49 are used to estimate streamflow recharge for the same period, based on correlations between the two variables for 1989-98. Combined streamflow and precipitation recharge to both aquifers averaged about 344 ft3/s for 1931-98. Streamflow recharge averaged about 93 ft3/s, or 27 percent of combined recharge, and precipitation recharge averaged about 251 ft3/s, or 73 percent of combined recharge. Combined recharge ranged from 62 ft3/s in 1936 to 847 ft3/s in 1995. The lowest recharge amounts generally occurred during the 1930?s; however, a more prolonged period of low recharge occurred during 1947-61.For 1931-98, average precipitation recharge to the Madison aquifer is about 3.6 inches, compared with 2.6 inches for the Minnelusa aquifer. However, recharge volumes to these aquifers are nearly identical because th

Carter, J.M.; Driscoll, D.G.; Hamade, G.R.

2001-01-01

137

Comparison of Normalized Burn Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Enhanced Vegetation Index in Areas Burned by the Jasper Wildfire of Black Hills South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jasper wildfire of August and September 2000 was the largest fire to occur in the Black Hills in at least a century. The disturbance on ecosystem characteristics will be widespread and long-term. Monitoring postfire vegetation changes using remote sensing data can provide unique and timely information about ecosystem dynamics. In this study, the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data were derived from Landsat imagery and compared before and after the Jasper fire. Landsat 5 images acquired on June 2, 2000 (preburn), and June 5, 2001 (10 months postburn), were analyzed. In addition, a Landsat 7 image acquired on May 31, 2002 (22 months postburn), was used in the study. Landsat data were converted to at-sensor reflectance, and NBR, NDVI, and EVI values were calculated for low, moderate, and high burn severity areas defined by using the difference of NBR between 2001 and 2000. NBR values in areas characterized as low burn severity changed very little between 2001 and 2002. Meanwhile, areas characterized as moderate or high severity showed substantial increases in NBR values between 2001 and 2002, implying some ecosystem recovery occurring for these areas over a relatively short time. EVI and NDVI show similar patterns of change, but it was found that EVI and NBR indices are more sensitive than is NDVI for capturing vegetation cover changes during the early postfire years. Further research is planned to use Landsat and MODIS imagery to assess spectral trends as a function of time in areas affected by fire.

Chen, X.; Zhu, Z.

2007-12-01

138

ALUMNI FROM SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES AND TECHNOLOGY WORKING AT LEWIS FLIGHT PROPULSION LABORATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ALUMNI FROM SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES AND TECHNOLOGY WORKING AT LEWIS FLIGHT PROPULSION LABORATORY LFPL - LEFT TO RIGHT - CHARLES GRESSLIN - LESTER CORRINGTON - BERTRAM A MULCAHY - FRANZ L LAGERWELL

1956-01-01

139

77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Attorney General regarding Indian country language. No further opportunity for comment...the EPA's definition of Indian country, where the state is not authorized...land'' in South Dakota is Indian country. With this Final Rule the...

2012-08-08

140

76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...impacts that a smoke management plan for wild fires and prescribed burns will have on...has observed there is evidence that fires contributed to the 20% most impaired...South Dakota Division of Wildland Fire Suppression regarding their...

2011-12-08

141

An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota, USA Abstract The success and value of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), stocking programmes, oxytetracycline, stocking, yellow perch. Introduction Panfish [yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), crappies

142

Yellow Perch in South Dakota: Population Variability and Predicted Effects of Creel Limit Reductions and  

E-print Network

Perca flavescens in six South Dakota lakes over 4­5 years. We also simulated the effects of reductions Lepomis macrochirus, crappies Pomoxis spp., and yellow perch Perca flavescens) have primarily focused

143

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for  

E-print Network

Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface, otoliths, Perca flavescens, yellow perch. Introduction Yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), support

144

Continuing Development of a Collaborative Plan to Further Engage South Dakota in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ongoing set of research planning activities have occurred in South Dakota as a consequence of the past two years of NASA-EPSCoR Preparation Grants. During this time a group of approximately 60 scientists, engineers, and university administrators in South Dakota have been directly involved as "theme team" members in a series of five all-day meetings to identify the research and technological priorities that are consistent both with NASA-ESE's interests and the State's expertise. Institutions represented within the group's membership include: South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, South Dakota State University, Augustana College, University of South Dakota, USGS EROS Data Center, Si ranks College, Santa Gleska University, Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, USGS Water Resources Division, US National Weather Service, and the SD Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Many of these organizations are also members and affiliates of the SD Space Grant Consortium. The evolving plan has been guided by the following desirable actions: 1. To establish new contacts and strengthen existing linkages with NASA Centers, relevant NASA researchers, and key personnel at the USGS EROS Data Center. 2. To promote participation from the State's major research institutions, State agencies, and relevant businesses in South Dakota that are interested in strengthening our scientific and technological enterprises. 3. To develop the State's scientific talent and infrastructure for enhanced competitiveness in research, development, and technology-based economic development. 4. To encourage greater participation by under represented groups, especially Native Americans, in scientific education and research. 5. To build greater public and political support in South Dakota for the overall science, engineering, and technology enterprise. 6. To communicate the benefits of current and future NASA programs to the progress and development of South Dakota, the Northern Great Plains Region, and the Nation.

Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

145

Comparing geotechnical to geologic estimates for past overburden in the Pierre-Hayes, South Dakota area: an argument for in-situ pressuremeter determination ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A knowledge of past overburden thickness is useful for designing underground structures such as waste repositories. This study attempts to determine if a correlation can be made between a geologic estimate and two types of geotechnical calculations of past overburden thickness. In the Pierre-Hayes area, Late Cretaceous Pierre Shales is the only bedrock present, but clasts of the Miocene Ogallala Formation were found in the Pleistocene deposits, suggesting that rocks of the Ogallala Formation once covered this area. Based on the geologic estimate, the Ogallala surface was 1100 ft higher than the present surface. Of the two types of geotechnical data acquired for the Hayes site, the laboratory overconsolidation ratios indicate a past overburden thickness value of 2300 ft, whereas the in situ pressuremeter overconsolidation ratios indicate 1318 ft. We, therefore, believe that in situ determination is a better indicator of past overburden that the laboratory results. However, why the two test results differ to this degree is unknown at present.-from Authors

Collins, D.S.; Nichols, T.C., Jr.

1987-01-01

146

Geology of the Early Arikareean Sharps Formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Surrounding Areas of South Dakota and Nebraska  

PubMed Central

Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8–20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group. PMID:23110098

McConnell, Thomas H.; DiBenedetto, Joseph N.

2012-01-01

147

Geoneutrino production of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, United States of America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current neutrino observatories operate underground to isolate the detector from cosmic rays and background radiation. However, background radiation from local sources has yet to be accounted for. Current models for neutrino contributions from terrestrial rocks are formulated from bulk compositional estimates of the whole Earth. To better understand local background radiation from geologic sources surfaces rocks were collected throughout the area surrounding the Homestake Mine, South Dakota, home of the Sanford Underground Research Laboratory. The surface rocks were analyzed for radioactivity and neutrino luminosity, producing heat maps indicating the levels of neutrino production throughout the area. The area around the Homestake Mine was found to be more luminous then upper crustal averages generated from current bulk silicate Earth models.

Zimny, Eric Gerald

148

Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Sandercock, Brett K., (Edited By); Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

2011-01-01

149

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 86 (2007) 191 EVALUATING MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN  

E-print Network

Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) were reintroduced into Wind Cave National Antilocapra americana, home range, movement, pronghorn, South Dakota, Wind Cave National Park Daily

150

Hydrogeology of the vicinity of Homestake mine, South Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former Homestake mine in South Dakota (USA) cuts fractured metamorphic rock over a region several km2 in plan, and plunges to the SE to a depth of 2.4 km. Numerical simulations of the development and dewatering of the mine workings are based on idealizing the mine-workings system as two overlapping continua, one representing the open drifts and the other representing the host rock with hydrologic properties that vary with effective stress. Equating macroscopic hydrologic properties with characteristics of deformable fractures allows the number of parameters to be reduced, and it provides a physically based justification for changes in properties with depth. The simulations explain important observations, including the co-existence of shallow and deep flow systems, the total dewatering flow rate, the spatial distribution of in-flow, and the magnitude of porosity in the mine workings. The analysis indicates that a deep flow system induced by ~125 years of mining is contained within a surface-truncated ellipsoid roughly 8 km by 4 km in plan view and 5.5 km deep with its long-axis aligned to the strike of the workings. Groundwater flow into the southern side of the workings is characterized by short travel times from the ground surface, whereas flow into the northern side and at depth consists of old water removed from storage.

Murdoch, Larry C.; Germanovich, Leonid N.; Wang, Herb; Onstott, T. C.; Elsworth, Derek; Stetler, Larry; Boutt, David

2012-02-01

151

Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which large quantities of wastes might be injected with minimal danger of contamination of fresh-water aquifers and-oil-producing strata, are available.. The strata and types of reservoirs that deserve primary consideration for waste disposal are the Winnipeg Formation of Middle Ordovician age as a deep salaquifer, the Permian to Jurassic salt beds as moderately deep-units in which solution cavities might be created for storage, the thick Upper Cretaceous shale beds as shallow hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs, and the Newcastle Sandstone of Early Cretaceous age as a shallow shale-enclosed sandstone reservoir.

Sandberg, C.A.

1962-01-01

152

Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

153

212 RANGELANDS 18(6), December 1996 South Dakota Rangelands: More than a Sea of Grass  

E-print Network

of grass." Yet, this "sea" was quite varied, and included a wealth of less obvious forested communities the drainage basin of the James River (approximately the 99th Meridian) eastward. South Dakota's climate city, Pierre, is near the center of the state on the Fig. 1. Major physiographic divisions of South

154

EVALUATION OF AERIAL TRANSECT SURVEYS, SURVIVAL, AND MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF AERIAL TRANSECT SURVEYS, SURVIVAL, AND MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN WESTERN SOUTH;EVALUATION OF AERIAL TRANSECT SURVEYS, SURVIVAL, AND MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, and numerous other volunteers for their assistance during pronghorn captures. So many people contributed

155

Thursday, April 4, 2013 Neuharth Media Center, University of South Dakota  

E-print Network

Svendsen (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) Geomorphic Impacts of the 2011 Flood Below Gavins Point 1:20 Bekah River Basin 9:30 Mark Sweeney (University of South Dakota) Historical and Future Visualization in the Missouri, James, and Vermillion Rivers 10:10 BREAK & POSTER SESSION 10:30 Karen Herrig (University of South

Sweeney, Mark R.

156

Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

1979-01-01

157

Math and science technology access and use in South Dakota public schools grades three through five  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of K-12 technology standards, soon to be added to state testing of technology proficiency, and the increasing presence of computers in homes and classrooms reflects the growing importance of technology in current society. This study examined math and science teachers' responses on a survey of technology use in grades three through five in South Dakota. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from a random sample of 100 public schools throughout the South Dakota. Forced choice and open-ended responses were recorded. Most teachers have access to computers, but they lack resources to purchase software for their content areas, especially in science areas. Three-fourths of teachers in this study reported multiple computers in their classrooms and 67% reported access to labs in other areas of the school building. These numbers are lower than the national average of 84% of teachers with computers in their classrooms and 95% with access to computers elsewhere in the building (USDOE, 2000). Almost eight out of 10 teachers noted time as a barrier to learning more about educational software. Additional barriers included lack of school funds (38%), access to relevant training (32%), personal funds (30%), and poor quality of training (7%). Teachers most often use math and science software as supplemental, with practice tutorials cited as another common use. The most common interest for software was math for both boys and girls. The second most common choice for boys was science and for girls, language arts. Teachers reported that there was no preference for either individual or group work on computers for girls or boys. Most teachers do not systematically evaluate software for gender preferences, but review software over subjectively.

Schwietert, Debra L.

158

MULTISCALE RESOURCE SELECTION OF RUFFED GROUSE IN THE BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FOREST OF SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING  

E-print Network

MULTISCALE RESOURCE SELECTION OF RUFFED GROUSE IN THE BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FOREST OF SOUTH DAKOTA things in life. #12;v ABSTRACT MULTISCALE HABITAT SELECTION OF RUFFED GROUSE IN THE BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FOREST OF SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING Cassandra L. Mehls June 2011 Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus

159

Lifelong Education Needs for Providing Pastoral Care for Post-Traumatic Stress in South Dakota National Guard Soldiers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout many communities in South Dakota the members of the South Dakota National Guard have been activated to serve in many different parts of the world since 2001. Approximately 20% of these individuals returned to their homes with some degree of PTSD (Hoge, et al., 2004). Pastoral Care has changed since September 11, 2001. The purpose of…

Meirose, William J.

2010-01-01

160

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 79 SEASONAL FOOD HABITS OF BLUEGILLS  

E-print Network

the bluegill Lepomis macrochirus is a popular panfish species in South Dakota, little information has been- ly. No larger bluegills were collected in October. Keywords bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, food habits, South Dakota INTRODUCTION The bluegill Lepomis macrochirus is a popular panfish often sought

161

75 FR 70021 - South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...60138-1265-6CCP-S3] South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind Energy Development; Record of Decision...statement (FEIS) on the South Dakota Prairie Winds Project issued by the Department of...

2010-11-16

162

THE INVESTIGATION OF THE USE OF COAL MINE REFUSE FOR SUBBASE MATERIAL AND EMBANKMENT FILL IN SOUTH DAKOTA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regions of the United States are experiencing a lack in quantity of conventional aggregates such as sand, gravel, and crushed rock. Central and western South Dakota are specific regions experiencing such a shortage. Past coal mining is prevalent throughout western South Dakota; these operations produced waste material consisting of refuse piles commonly referred to as \\

Allen L. Jones; Richard S. Uckert

163

Identification of soil associations in western South Dakota on ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units having characteristic soil depths and textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, pH characteristics, plasticity indices, liquid limits, and the like, from which broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited as a source for top soil, and as a source for sand and gravel, and how corrosive the soil is for steel and concrete, and what crop and grass yields can be expected. Film color composites of bands 4, 5 and 7 viewed over a light table with magnification show the soil associations of western South Dakota that are now recognized, and, in addition, several new soil association areas have been brought to light.

Westin, F. C.; Myers, V. I.

1973-01-01

164

Asesssment of mobile gamma-scanning van activities in Edgemont, South Dakota. [UMTRA program  

SciTech Connect

All accessible thoroughfares in an area in Edgemont, South Dakota, comprising approximately 800 properties, were traversed by a mobile gamma-ray scanning van operated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the mobile survey was to identify residual radioactive contamination on properties in the vicinity of the nearby uranium tailings pile. The properties identified by mobile scanning (herein referred to as anomalies) were compared with results from walk-on measurements conducted by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The mobile scan was successful in identifying 48% of the properties previously identified as contaminated by PNL walk-on measurements. Modification of the algorithm used by the mobile scanning van to identify radioactive contamination from the measured gamma radiation resulted in mixed success; the number of successful identifications increased but the number of false identifications increased disproportionately and unacceptably.

Not Available

1986-04-01

165

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF AMERICAN MARTENS AND COUGARS IN THE BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING  

E-print Network

for your patience and guidance in helping me to ascend a rung or two on Piaget's ladder. Thanks for all 7594) administered through the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGF&P) and the South

166

Generalized Potentiometric Surface of the Arikaree Aquifer, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County are located in southwest South Dakota. The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation includes all of Shannon County and the part of Jackson County south of the White River. Extensive Indian trust lands are in Bennett County. For purposes of this map, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and all of Bennett County are included in the study area (sheet 1). Ground water from wells and springs is the predominant source of public and domestic supply within the study area. The Arikaree aquifer is the largest source of ground water throughout this area. The Oglala Sioux Tribe is developing a ground-water management plan designed to ?preserve, protect and maintain the quality of ground water for living and future members and non-members of the Oglala Sioux Indian Tribe within the internal and external boundaries of the Pine Ridge Reservation? (Michael Catches Enemy, Oglala Sioux Tribe Natural Resources Regulatory Agency, oral commun., 2007). Hydrologic information about the Arikaree aquifer is important to managing this resource. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began working in cooperation with the Oglala Sioux Tribe to develop a potentiometric map of the Arikaree aquifer in Jackson and Shannon Counties, with a primary component of that effort being a well inventory in those counties. In 2003, the study area was expanded to include Bennett County.

Carter, Janet M.; Heakin, Allen J.

2007-01-01

167

Analysis of flood-flow frequency, flow duration, and channel-forming flow for the James River in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)

Benson, R.D.

1988-01-01

168

South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Dakota. The aquifer has large storage capacity and very rapid recharge characteristics (1). Until Descriptors: organic geochemistry, lipids, dissolved organic carbon, Big Sioux aquifer,Groundwater Principal Investigators: James A. Rice Publication #12;Problem and Research Objectives The Big Sioux aquifer is a shallow

169

STATUS OF MARBLED GODWITS IN SOUTH DAKOTA: BASED ON A 2007 LITERATURE SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of the marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) population in South Dakota is of primary concern to natural resource managers because the two main habitats this species needs, native rangelands and wetlands, are being converted to other land uses at a rapid rate. We synthesized over 250 references to generate a comprehensive review on the occurrence and ecology of

Dawn M. Gardner; Kent C. Jensen; Kenneth F. Higgins

2008-01-01

170

Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8

1981-01-01

171

Population Characteristics of Black Crappies in South Dakota Waters: A Case for Ecosystem-Specific Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled 22 populations of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus from three ecosystem types (large impoundments, >40 ha; small impoundments, <40 ha; natural lakes) to determine the factors that influence population characteristics (recruitment, growth, size structure, and condition) in South Dakota. Recruitment variability was best correlated with the logio of the shoreline development index (r = 0.63, df = 16) and

CHRISTOPHER S. GUY; DAVID W. WILLIS

1995-01-01

172

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota  

E-print Network

Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota T patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively. Little information exists regarding daily and seasonal movements of white-tailed deer in north

173

Analysis and evaluation of round hay bale breakwaters at Lake Sharpe, South Dakota  

E-print Network

Lake Sharpe in central South Dakota is one of three reservoirs constructed along the Missouri River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 50's and 60's. The Lake is underlain by Cretaceous Pierre shale and various Quaternary glacial deposits...

Grundy, Thomas Paxson

2012-06-07

174

A Distance Education Approach to Continuing Legal Education in South Dakota Using Public Television Overnight Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Public Television Overnight Service was created to utilize the late night and early morning hours for the distribution of instructional, informational, cultural, and educational television programming throughout the state, including continuing legal education. Intended to provide a means for members of the legal profession in…

Hodgen, Doris

175

HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA  

E-print Network

HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA BY CORY E Crownover; your knowledge of bobcat habits and local expertise in the field was a major aspect bobcat stomach contents for what felt like a better part of a lifetime! Thank you for the great help

176

Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, May 2, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University (South Dakota) faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are…

Anagnopoulos, Cheryl, Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

177

Reading, Writing, 'Rithmetic and Recitation in Western South Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As revealed in personal interviews, periodicals, published and unpublished manuscripts, and school records, the teachers were the key factor in bringing education and culture to the frontier that was western South Dakota. Many teachers were girls of 16 or 17, inexperienced, hired from states to the east (Minnesota and Iowa), sight unseen.…

Hatton, Caroline

178

Geochemical modeling of the Madison aquifer in parts of Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope data for dissolved carbonate, sulfate, and sulfide are combined with water composition data to construct geochemical reaciton models along eight flow paths in the Madison aquifer in parts of Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. All reaction models reproduce the observed chemical and carbon and sulfur isotopic composition of the final waters and are partially validated by predicting the

L. Niel Plummer; B. B. Hanshaw; J. F. Busby; R. W. Lee

1990-01-01

179

Physicochemical and Biological Influences on Black Bullhead Populations in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake and fish survey data (1991–1992) were compiled for 23 eastern South Dakota natural lakes to provide a basis for preliminary investigation of black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) populations. Survey data contained numerous physical and chemical variables describing lake environments and relative abundance and sue structure of the primary fish species present. Analyses indicated that abundance of black bullheads increased with

Michael L. Brown; David W. Willis; Brian G. Blackwell

1999-01-01

180

Status of Paddlefish in Lake Francis Case, South Dakota Landon Lee Pierce  

E-print Network

Status of Paddlefish in Lake Francis Case, South Dakota By Landon Lee Pierce A thesis submitted like to thank my father, Paul Pierce, for the sacrifices he made for me and my siblings would especially like to thank Dennis and Lori Pierce and Dave and Carol Brozek for treating me as a son

181

FORAGE FISH POPULATIONS AND GROWTH OF MUSKELLUNGE IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR  

E-print Network

FORAGE FISH POPULATIONS AND GROWTH OF MUSKELLUNGE IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR and facilities at the cooling reservoir; D. T. Henley, T. L. Margenau, R. J. Krska, S. C. Johnson, and G. B POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR This thesis is approved as a creditable and independent investigation

182

Southeastern South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the rural school in southeastern South Dakota from the early days of the frontier to 1981 is examined in this portion of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools. Three hundred and eleven country schools in 21 southeastern counties are still standing, have been photographed, and are…

Blakely, Herbert

183

South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

Soka, John Alex

2011-01-01

184

Early Pleistocene zapodid rodents from the Java Local Fauna of north-central South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zapodid rodents are described from the early Pleistocene Java Local Fauna, Walworth County, South Dakota. The fauna includes a new species of Zapus related to the extinct Z. sandersi. The fossil record of Zapus is briefly reviewed, and the Ms of Z. rinkeri and an undescribed species from the Wendell Fox Pasture Local Fauna are illustrated for the first time.

Robert A. Martin

1989-01-01

185

A STUDY OF ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS IN SELECTED SCHOOL DISTRICTS OF IOWA, MISSOURI, AND SOUTH DAKOTA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE AND ANALYZE THE COSTS OF CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, IOWA, AND MISSOURI FOR THE SCHOOL YEAR 1965-66. THIRTY SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN EACH OF THE 3 STATES (10 LARGEST, 10 MEDIAN, 10 SMALLEST) WERE INCLUDED AS THE SAMPLE POPULATION. THE PER PUPIL COSTS FOUND IN THIS STUDY SUPPORT THE…

MANATT, RICHARD P.; NETUSIL, ANTON J.

186

A Study of Administrative Costs in Selected School Districts of Iowa, Missouri, and South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation reported on in this paper aimed at determining and analyzing the costs of public school district central administration in South Dakota, Iowa, and Missouri. Financial reports to the State education agency for the school year 1965-66 were examined from 30 school districts in each State. Districts selected were the ten largest, ten…

Manatt, Richard P.; Netusil, Anton J.

187

Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

1990-01-01

188

USGS Outreach at South Dakota School of Mines Field Affair Class  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Technician, Louis Leader Charge, demonstrates collection of stream discharge data to the Field Affair class from the South Dakota School of Mines on June 19, 2012. The demonstration is at Rapid Creek in Rapid City, SD (streamgage 06414000)....

189

USGS Outreach at South Dakota School of Mines Field Affair Class  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologist, Janet Carter, demonstrates an interactive groundwater-flow model to the Field Affair class at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology on June 19, 2012, in Rapid City, SD. The model can be used to show how a contaminant can travel through an aquifer to a pu...

190

Caloric Densities of Three Predatory Fishes and Their Prey in Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined mean seasonal caloric density of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and ten species of prey fish from Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Age 3 and older walleye, chinook salmon, and rainbow trout showed distinct seasonal patterns in mean caloric density during May through September, 1994. Energy content of these fish was lowest during

Scott D. Bryan; Craig A. Soupir; Walter G. Duffy; Chris E. Freiburger

1996-01-01

191

Evaluating Diet Composition of Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) was reintroduced into Wind Cave National Park (WCNP), South Dakota, in 1914, and thus, has inhabited the Park for nearly a century. During the 1990's, a decline in the population raised concern for the continued existence of pronghorn inside WCNP; an investigation into the observed decline was initiated. Primary objectives of our study were to evaluate

CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JARET D. SIEVERS

192

Field Performance of Triploid and Diploid Rainbow Trout in South Dakota Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid fish theoretically diven energy from sexual development and reproductive behavior into somatic growth. We found lengths. weights. and relative weights oftriploid rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mrkiss to be significantly (P ~ 0.05) less than those of diploid fish at the age of 45 months in three South Dakota ponds. Gonadal development in triploid females was negligible in 1989 and 1990

DAVID C. SIMONI; CHARLES G. SCALET; JEFF C. DILLON

1993-01-01

193

An Evaluation of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens Mortality in South Dakota Casey Walter Schoenebeck  

E-print Network

An Evaluation of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens Mortality in South Dakota By Casey Walter Aid Project F-15-R, Study 1504). #12;iv Abstract An Evaluation of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens, and mortality) of common yellow perch Perca flavescens population types have been previously investigated

194

Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for South Dakota related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

2013-01-01

195

EFFECTS OF PRAIRIE DOG RODENTICIDES ON DEER MICE IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 A BSTRACT .-Mortality of nontarget small mammals was determined after application of three black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys Zudovicianus) rodenticide treatments (prebaited zinc phosphide, prebaited strychnine, and strychnine alone) in western South Dakota. Immediate (September 1983) and long-term (September 1983 through August 1984) impacts on deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) relative densities were evaluated, and the three rodenticide treatments were compared

Michele S. Deisch; Daniel W. Uresk; Raymond L. Linder

1990-01-01

196

Optimizing habitat location for black-tailed prairie dogs in southwestern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial optimization model was formulated and used to maximize black-tailed prairie dog populations in the Badlands National Park and the Buffalo Gap National Grassland in South Dakota. The choice variables involved the strategic placement of limited additional protected habitat. Population dynamics were captured in formulations that reflected exponential population growth combined with the recalcitrant dispersal behavior of this social

John Hof; Michael Bevers; Daniel W. Uresk; Gregory L. Schenbeck

2002-01-01

197

Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

1998-01-01

198

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 87 (2008) 111 STATUS OF UPLAND SANDPIPERS IN SOUTH DA-  

E-print Network

relative to their life history and habitat needs. INTRODUCTION Upland sandpipers (Bartramia longicauda & Fisheries Sciences, Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT The current status of the upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) popula- tion in South Dakota is of primary concern to natural resource managers be- cause the two

199

Expanding the Circle: South Dakota Deaf-Blind Project. Final Report, 10-1-98 through 9-30-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the South Dakota Deaf-Blind Project, a 4-year federally funded project designed to raise awareness of the need for early identification of children who are deaf-blind and reside on Native American reservation lands. To this end, the states of Montana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Nebraska,…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

200

Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

Higgins, K.F.

1977-01-01

201

Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

2008-01-01

202

Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

2011-01-01

203

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 177 OVER-WINTER CONDITION CHANGES  

E-print Network

with greater lipid stores and body mass were more resistant to stress (Kabat et al. 1956). Lipid stores can could improve overwintering condition. Female ring-necked pheasants in South Dakota uti- lizing wild

204

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 89 (2010) 181 CULTURE OF ADVAnCED-SIZED  

E-print Network

temperature, growth INTRODUCTION Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) have been stocked into numerous small investigated a combination of culture techniques for producing advance- sized largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) that may yield increased stocking contributions to South Dakota impoundments. During the initial

205

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 85 (2006) 113 EFFECTS OF GRAZING ON SMALL MAMMAL  

E-print Network

, prairie voles, small mammal abundance, South Dakota. INTRODUCTION In the Midwest, cattle production pressure, and the small mammal community itself. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects

206

75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY...undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These...administered public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota....

2010-06-02

207

Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

2011-01-01

208

Movement Patterns of Adult Black Crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, in Brant Lake, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement of adult black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) in Brant Lake, South Dakota was studied with ultrasonic telemetry from April through August 1991. Movement ranged from 0 to 584 m\\/h and was significantly different among months (P=0.0001, F=9.34, df=4) and diel periods (P=0.0013, F=5.45, df=3). Activity was greatest during April and July. Diel movement increased from evening to morning, and the

Christopher S. Guy; Robert M. Neumann; David W. Willis

1992-01-01

209

Influence of Angler Exploitation on Black Crappie Population Structure in a Rural South Dakota Impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anglers harvested approximately 122 black crappies (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)\\/ha at 18-ha Murdo Lake, South Dakota, in 1992. Based on a mean length of 26.2 cm for harvested black crappies, anglers likely harvested 36.1 kg\\/ha. The following spring (1993), proportional stock density (PSD) for black crappies collected with trap nets was 10—far lower than for any of the previous four years. Thus,

David W. Willis; Robert M. Neumann; Christopher S. Guy

1994-01-01

210

ANGLER OPINIONS REGARDING FISHING SUCCESS AND CRAPPIE REGULATIONS IN A SMALL SOUTH DAKOTA IMPOUNDMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anglers at Lake Alvin, South Dakota were interviewed during random-strat- ified creel surveys as part of a study designed to asses the effects of a 23-cm minimum length limit for black Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white P. annu- laris crappies. Anglers were asked what type of fish they were seeking, to rate their fishing success for that day (i.e., terrible, poor,

Timothy J. Bister; Bradley M. Baker; David W. Willis

2000-01-01

211

MENINGEAL WORM (PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA: THE PARASITE IN TERRESTRIAL GASTROPODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial gastropods were collected from wetland, grassland, and forest- ed habitats throughout eastern and southcentral South Dakota from May-Au- gust of 1999 and 2000 to assess the role of gastropods in transmission of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations throughout the state. A total of 4,063 gastropods rep- resenting 14 species, five of which were known

Christopher N. Jacques; Jonathan A. Jenks

2003-01-01

212

The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (K-T) Interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip W. Stoffer and USGS colleagues wrote this report (.pdf format) on the marine K-T boundary interval that occurs throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments (supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology) suggest that several asteroid impacts may be preserved in the Badlands. The deposits are thought to represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event.

Chamberlain, John A.; Messina, Paula.; Stoffer, Philip W.; Terry, Dennis O.

2001-01-01

213

Food Selectivity of Bigmouth Buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, in Lake Poinsett, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits and food selectivity of bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, in Lake Poinsett, South Dakota were studied from January through November 1968. Food of bigmouth buffalo fry ranging from 12.5 to 21.0 mm total length was primarily benthic organisms. Food of sub-adult and adult bigmouth buffalo ranging from 236 to 833 mm total length was primarily zooplankton. Most planktonic organisms

Victor J. Starostka; Richard L. Applegate

1970-01-01

214

Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota through September 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of flood-flow frequency were made for 80 active continuous-record gaging stations and 105 discontinued crest-stage partial-record stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1981.) (USGS)

Hoffman, E.B.; Freese, M.E.; Winter, D.R.

1986-01-01

215

Life History of the Emerald Shiner, Notropis atherinoides, in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age, rate of growth, reproduction, feeding habits, and population dynamics of the emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) were studied from 10,375 fish collected in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota. The population in this 28,000-acre reservoir consisted of four age groups dominated by young-of-the-year during the summer and fall and by age-group I during the spring and early summer. Age-group

Everett H. Fuchs

1967-01-01

216

"So long as I can read": farm women's reading experiences in Depression-era South Dakota.  

PubMed

During the Great Depression, with conditions grim, entertainment scarce, and educational opportunities limited, many South Dakota farm women relied on reading to fill emotional, social, and informational needs. To read to any degree, these rural women had to overcome multiple obstacles. Extensive reading (whether books, farm journals, or newspapers) was limited to those who had access to publications and could make time to read. The South Dakota Free Library Commission was valuable in circulating reading materials to the state's rural population. In the 1930s the commission collaborated with the USDA's Extension Service in a popular reading project geared toward South Dakota farm women. This "Reading in the Home" program greatly increased reading opportunities and motivations. Of particular interest to rural women were tales of pioneer life featuring strong protagonists. Through these stories, farm women found validation and encouragement to persevere. Reading also broadened horizons and challenged assumptions. For the depression-era farm woman, reading books and other materials provided recreation, instruction, and inspiration in a discouraging time. PMID:19860030

Lindell, Lisa R

2009-01-01

217

Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

1974-01-01

218

A two-dimensional, finite-difference model of the high plains aquifer in southern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation, industry, municipalities, and domestic use in south-central South Dakota. The aquifer, composed of upper sandstone units of the Arikaree Formation, and the overlying Ogallala and Sand Hills Formations, was simulated using a two-dimensional, finite-difference computer model. The maximum difference between simulated and measured potentiometric heads was less than 60 feet (1- to 4-percent error). Two-thirds of the simulated potentiometric heads were within 26 feet of the measured values (3-percent error). The estimated saturated thickness, computed from simulated potentiometric heads, was within 25-percent error of the known saturated thickness for 95 percent of the study area. (USGS)

Kolm, K.E.; Case, H. L., III

1983-01-01

219

LEVEL III AND IV ECOREGIONS OF NORTH DAKOTA AND SOUTH DAKOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. Ecore...

220

Delineating the size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining non-invasive surface geophysical results and geotechnical drill hole data can provide valuable information about the subsurface. Unfortunately, the placement of inclinometers is often limited to areas along roads and other areas accessible by drill rigs, yet many surface geophysical investigations take place in areas where accessibility is difficult or impossible for vehicles. An integrated investigation using surface geophysics and existing borehole data was conducted at the active Cliff Shelf landslide along South Dakota State Route (SR) 240 in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. The purpose of the geophysical investigation was to provide an approximate size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide for the engineering design alternative of the short-and long-term stabilization of the landslide. Additional objectives were to determine the strength/stiffness of the landslide materials, and to locate any heterogeneities of the Cliff Shelf landslide, specifically discontinuities which may imply slide planes within the landslide. Surface geophysical methods used for this investigation included seismic refraction tomography, Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), and electrical resistivity tomography. Inclinometers were previously installed at two locations on SR 240 to determine a depth to the slide plane. Drill log data, specifically SPT N-values (i.e., blow counts), were used to interpret a depth to a stiffness contact. Observations from the inclinometers indicate maximum horizontal displacement at approximate depths of 47-49 feet. Borings near the inclinometers show an increase in N-value at depths of 50-60 feet, indicating a stiffness contact at similar depths. Seismic refraction and MASW surveys were acquired within 18 feet of the inclinometers and borehole locations. At depths where maximum displacement occurred and blow counts increased, the P-wave and S-wave velocities increased from 3200 ft/s to 4300-4700 feet per second (ft/s), and from 550 ft/s to 900 ft/s, respectively. Therefore, these velocities (referred to hereafter as 'stiffness contact') are interpreted to represent a stiffness contact where displacement is likely to occur, and a possible depth to the slide plane. Two locations along the seismic refraction and MASW profiles were identified where there is an abrupt decrease in the depth to the stiffness contact, interpreted to represent the location of the slide plane. Additional seismic refraction and MASW surveys were collected away from the highway (where instruments could not be installed) to delineate the shape and size of the slide plane in the subsurface, specifically the northern and western extents. By determining the extents of the slide plane, an estimation of the size of the landslide was made by engineers and incorporated to designing mitigation solutions. Also, by successfully applying multiple geophysical techniques the interpreted depth and extents of the slide plane allowed design engineers to determine the total size of the landslide. The interpretations of the slide plane extents, vertically and horizontally, correlate well with the limited standard geotechnical data currently being used to monitor landslide movement.

Genco, A. J.

2013-12-01

221

HABITAT RESOURCE SELECTION BY GREATER SAGE GROUSE WITHIN OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN NORTH DAKOTA AND MONTANA  

E-print Network

was provided by U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, North Dakota Game and Fish Department AREAS IN NORTH DAKOTA AND MONTANA Kristin A. Fritz July 2011 Populations of greater sageHABITAT RESOURCE SELECTION BY GREATER SAGE GROUSE WITHIN OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN NORTH

222

Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

1982-01-01

223

Geology Fieldnotes: Wind Cave National Park South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wind Cave National Park includes one of the world's longest and most complex caves and 28,295 acres of mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forest, and associated wildlife. The cave is well known for its outstanding display of boxwork, an unusual cave formation composed of thin calcite fins resembling honeycombs. Features include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses geologic history, structural geology, cave formations, and history of exploration of the region. The park maps section includes an area map of Wind Cave National Park and a detailed cave map.

224

Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Change in the vegetative structure was taking place in the Black Hills. Temporal analysis of the areal extent of open meadows was accomplished using black and white and color infrared aerial photography. A reduction of nearly 1100 hectares of open meadows was determined using photointerpretation. Techniques were developed for the management of meandering lakes, including use of LANDSAT imagery for continuous monitoring, classification of hydrophytes on low altitude CIR imagery, and planning and evaluation of improvements and multiple uses on aerial photography and photo mosaics. LANDSAT data were analyzed statistically from small and entire study scene areas to determine the effect of soils stratifications of corn signatures. Band 5 early season and band 7 later season recorded the strongest evidence of the influence of soils on corn signatures. Significant strata were determined by a multiple range test.

Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Schmer, F. A.; Streckfuss, J. T.; Wehde, M. E.

1978-01-01

225

First Name Last Name Address City State Zip Code Agency Email Geno Adams 20641 SD Hwy 1806 Ft. Pierre South Dakota 57532 SDGFP geno.adams@state.sd.us  

E-print Network

Anderson 306 5th St NW Valley City North Dakota 58072 Valley City State University bob Kersten St. Aprt #2 Bottineau North Dakota 58318 MSU-Bottineau Bigben3034@hotmail.com Mike Barnes 19619 South Dakota 57274 SDGFP ryan.braun@state.sd.us Larry Brooks PO Box 315 Bottineau North Dakota 58318 MSU

226

Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota  

PubMed Central

Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002–2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002–2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source. PMID:24173141

Wimberly, Michael C.; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B.

2013-01-01

227

Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

Howard, S.M.

1983-09-01

228

Efficacy of Frequent Monitoring With Swift, Certain, and Modest Sanctions for Violations: Insights From South Dakota’s 24/7 Sobriety Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the public health impact of South Dakota’s 24/7 Sobriety Project, an innovative program requiring individuals arrested for or convicted of alcohol-involved offenses to submit to breathalyzer tests twice per day or wear a continuous alcohol monitoring bracelet. Those testing positive are subject to swift, certain, and modest sanctions. Methods. We conducted differences-in-differences analyses comparing changes in arrests for driving while under the influence of alcohol (DUI), arrests for domestic violence, and traffic crashes in counties to the program with counties without the program. Results. Between 2005 and 2010, more than 17?000 residents of South Dakota—including more than 10% of men aged 18 to 40 years in some counties—had participated in the 24/7 program. At the county level, we documented a 12% reduction in repeat DUI arrests (P?=?.023) and a 9% reduction in domestic violence arrests (P?=?.035) following adoption of the program. Evidence for traffic crashes was mixed. Conclusions. In community supervision settings, frequent alcohol testing with swift, certain, and modest sanctions for violations can reduce problem drinking and improve public health outcomes. PMID:23153129

Nicosia, Nancy; Heaton, Paul; Midgette, Greg

2013-01-01

229

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

Christopher Shannon Deperno

1998-01-01

230

Native American Student Perceptions of the Cultural Environment and Factors for Academic Success at the University of South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the high retention rates for Native American students in 2009 and 2008 in the two semesters at the University of South Dakota, there is a need to know the Native student perceptions of factors for their academic success. Native professors and administrators would benefit to know this information to continue to make improvements in…

Grignon, Charles M.

2009-01-01

231

Evaluation of a 23-cm Minimum Length Limit for Black and White Crappies in a Small South Dakota Impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks instituted a 23-cm minimum length limit for black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie P. annularis in Lake Alvin on 1 January 1996 because an undesirable size and age structure indicated that these pop- ulations were being overharvested. Crappies were sampled annually using trap (modified fyke) nets from 1992 to 1999.

Timothy J. Bister; David W. Willis; Allen D. Knapp; Todd R. St Sauver

2002-01-01

232

Influence of a Saugeye (Sauger × Walleye) Introduction Program on the Black Crappie Population in Richmond Lake, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saugeyes, a purposeful hybrid between walleye Stizostedion vitreum and sauger S. canadense, were introduced into 336-ha Richmond Lake, South Dakota, with a management ob- jective of improving the size structure of the population of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the influence of stocking size on the relative survival of saugeyes, (2) changes

Gene F. Galinat; David W. Willis; Brian G. Blackwell; Matthew J. Hubers

2002-01-01

233

Seasonal Variation in Catch Rate and Body Condition for Four Fish Species in a South Dakota Natural Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in catch rate (catch per unit effort, CPUE) and body condition (relative weight, Wr) for northern pike Esox lucius, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and walleye Stizostedion vitreum sampled with trap (modified fyke) nets was evaluated in Lake Madison, a natural lake in eastern South Dakota, from March through October, 1990. Seasonal variation in CPUE

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis

1991-01-01

234

Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of South Dakota: New State Record for Anatis lecontei Casey and Erratum to Delete Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper, we provide collection information to add Anatis lecontei Casey to the list of South Dakota Coccinellidae based on its collection for the first time in the state. We also include an erratum to delete Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer from the list based on its mistaken inclusion in an...

235

Food Habits of Young-of-the-Year Walleyes in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of young-of-the-year walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were determined in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota from June through September, 1991. Walleyes initially fed on zooplankton but soon became piscivorous. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) were initially the most important prey fish, but rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) became important as walleyes moved from the littoral zone of the bay to

Jeffrey J. Jackson; David W. Willis; David G. Fielder

1992-01-01

236

Research, Issues, and Practices. Annual Curriculum and Instruction Research Symposium Conference Proceedings (1st, Vermillion, South Dakota, April 22, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to promote the professional sharing of current educational issues, to provide a forum for dialogue concerning relevant educational topics, and to share University of South Dakota faculty research interests. The proceedings are comprised of 10 presentations: (1) "Japan Related Education in…

South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

237

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRONGHORN BED SITES IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA --Much of the previous  

E-print Network

49 NOTES VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRONGHORN BED SITES IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA -- Much of the previous literature on pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns has focused on fawn and Fichter 1975, Bromley 1977). Selection of bed sites by pronghorn fawns is a major factor affecting fawn

238

Biological Characteristics of the Blue Sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28)

Nathan M. Morey; Charles R. Berry Jr

2003-01-01

239

Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulase...

240

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974–79  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974–79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found

Rey C. Stendell; David S. Gilmer; Nancy A. Coon; Douglas M. Swineford

1988-01-01

241

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 163 FACTORS INFLUENCING AGE RATIOS  

E-print Network

at a smaller spatial scale. INTRODUCTION Duck harvest regulations were historically driven by mallard population size, age and breeding experience, body condition, nesting cover, wetland con- ditions, local of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) annually from duck wings sent in by a random sample

242

Geochemical data from groundwater at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, Edgemont, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.

Johnson, Raymond H.

2012-01-01

243

The Development of a Survey Instrument on South Dakota's School District Leadership Climate as Related to Deming's Fourteen Points.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of an instrument to measure baseline levels of applied Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in South Dakota before the introduction and dissemination of TQM theory to the state's educational leaders is described. Using the interpretation of Deming's 14 points that was developed by J. J. Bonstigl, a 115-item initial item pool was…

Holmes, Lawrence W. O.; And Others

244

Plantings: A Newsletter of the Bush Foundation-Funded Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two issues of "Plantings," are presented. The 1986 issue is a panel discussion that considers the results and future plans of faculty development programs in three Minnesota institutions. In addition to the moderator, Robert Young, of the University of North Dakota, the panel consisted of Norman Noonan (Augsburg College), Chandra Mehrotra (College…

Jorde, Karen L., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

1987-01-01

245

Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.  

PubMed

Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid density on open-cage plants did not differ from that on noncaged plants and those accessible by small predators. In a separate 3-yr experiment, exclusion of ants from soybean plants did not lead to differences in soybean aphid density compared with ant-accessible plants. Overall, these results suggest that the soybean aphid natural enemy guild is unsaturated and could be enhanced to improve biological control of soybean aphid in South Dakota. PMID:24874151

Hesler, Louis S

2014-06-01

246

Estimation of Monthly Evaporation from Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reservoirs on tributaries of the Red River of the North provide water for Fargo and Grand Forks, N. Dak., and other cities along the river. Adequate estimates of evaporative losses from the reservoirs are needed to determine the total water supply in the Basin. Many equations could be used to estimate lake or reservoir evaporation. However, in addition to measurements of air temperature, the equations require measurements of net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. Evaporation and air temperature data from energy budget evaporation sites at Wetland P1 in North Dakota and at Williams Lake in Minnesota are available. Air temperature data collected from climate stations near Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, from Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and from Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota also are available. Therefore, the combined data sets were used to estimate monthly evaporation from Lake Ashtabula, Orwell Lake, and Lake Traverse. Averaged monthly mean air temperatures determined for each reservoir study site were used to calculate monthly evaporation data sets for 1931-2001. Results from the procedure that estimates reservoir evaporation indicate that slight downward trends in annual evaporation occurred from 1931-2001. The trends may have been caused by the selected time period of the study, which began with the drought conditions in the mid 1930's and ended with the more wet conditions in the late 1990's. Average annual evaporation values for each reservoir for 1931-2001 correspond well with published average annual lake evaporation values for 1946-55.

Vining, Kevin C.

2003-01-01

247

Evaluation of recharge to the Skunk Creek Aquifer from a constructed wetland near Lyons, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A wetland was constructed in the Skunk Creek flood plain near Lyons in southeast South Dakota to mitigate for wetland areas that were filled during construction of a municipal golf course for the city of Sioux Falls. A water-rights permit was obtained to allow the city to pump water from Skunk Creek into the wetland during times when the wetland would be dry. The amount of water seeping through the wetland and recharging the underlying Skunk Creek aquifer was not known. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls, conducted a study during 1997-2000 to evaluate recharge to the Skunk Creek aquifer from the constructed wetland. Three methods were used to estimate recharge from the wetland to the aquifer: (1) analysis of the rate of water-level decline during periods of no inflow; (2) flow-net analysis; and (3) analysis of the hydrologic budget. The hydrologic budget also was used to evaluate the efficiency of recharge from the wetland to the aquifer. Recharge rates estimated by analysis of shut-off events ranged from 0.21 to 0.82 foot per day, but these estimates may be influenced by possible errors in volume calculations. Recharge rates determined by flow-net analysis were calculated using selected values of hydraulic conductivity and ranged from 566,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 0.5 foot per day to 1,684,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 foot per day. Recharge rates from the hydrologic budget varied from 0.74 to 0.85 foot per day, and averaged 0.79 foot per day. The amount of water lost to evapotranspiration at the study wetland is very small compared to the amount of water seeping from the wetland into the aquifer. Based on the hydrologic budget, the average recharge efficiency was estimated as 97.9 percent, which indicates that recharging the Skunk Creek aquifer by pumping water into the study wetland is highly efficient. Because the Skunk Creek aquifer is composed of sand and gravel, the 'recharge mound' is less distinct than might be found in an aquifer composed of finer materials. However, water levels recorded from piezometers in and around the wetland do show a higher water table than periods when the wetland was dry. The largest increases in water level occur between the wetland channel and Skunk Creek. The results of this study demonstrate that artificially recharged wetlands can be useful in recharging underlying aquifers and increasing water levels in these aquifers.

Thompson, Ryan F.

2002-01-01

248

The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A marine K-T boundary interval has been identified throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments suggest that deposits from two asteroid impacts (one close, one far away) may be preserved in the Badlands. These impact-generated deposits may represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event. Interpretation is supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology. This research is founded on nearly a decade of NPS approved field work in Badlands National Park and a foundation of previously published data and interpretations. The K-T boundary occurs within or near the base of a stratigraphic interval referred to as the "Interior Zone." We interpret the stratigraphy of the Interior Zone as a series of distinct, recognizable lithologic members and units from oldest to youngest, an upper weathered interval of the Elk Butte Member of the Pierre Shale (early late Maestrichtian), a complete (albeit condensed) interval of Fox Hill Formation, a pedogenically altered K-T Boundary "Disturbed Zone," and a generally unresolved sequence of marine to marginal marine units ranging in age from possibly latest Maestrichtian to late Paleocene (the "Yellow Mounds"), that underlie a basal red clay unit (the late Eocene overbank channel facies of the Chamberlain Pass Formation at the base of the White River Group). Within this sequence is a series of unconformities that all display some degree of subaerial weathering and erosion. The dating of marine fossils above and below these unconformities are in line with generally accepted global sea-level changes recognized for the late Campanian through early Eocene. Within the greater framework of regional geology, these findings support that the Western Interior Seaway and subsequent Cannonball Seaway were dependently linked to the changing base-level controlled by sea-level of the global ocean through the Gulf of Mexico and possibly the Arctic Ocean. The variation of facies preserved in Late Cretaceous strata in the Badlands National Park area were in part controlled by local or regional tectonic blocks that were either rising or sinking contemporaneous with deposition.

Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula; Chamberlain, John A., Jr.; Terry, Dennis O., Jr.

2001-01-01

249

Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive land use planning process model is being developed in Meade County, South Dakota, using remote sensing technology. The proper role of remote sensing in the land use planning process is being determined by interaction of remote sensing specialists with local land use planners. The data that were collected by remote sensing techniques are as follows: (1) level I land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies; (2) detailed land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:24,000 from enlargement color prints of high altitude RB-57 photography; and (3) general soils map interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies. In addition to use of imagery as an interpretation aid, the utility of using photographs as base maps was demonstrated.

1974-01-01

250

Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

Howe, Jenika

251

Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

1974-01-01

252

Distribution of boron in the Tip Top pegmatite, Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Experimental evidence has shown the importance of boron on the crystallization behavior of granitic systems; however, the intercrystalline and intracrystalline distribution of boron in mineral phases crystallizing from granitic systems is not well documented. The distribution of boron between coexisting phases in the Tip Top pegmatite, South Dakota, is as follows: beryl ca = quartz ca = triphylite ca = montebrasite ca = potassium feldspar < biotite < albite < muscovite < spodumene << tourmaline. The bulk boron content of the Tip Top pegmatite decreases significantly with the termination of tourmaline crystallization. The significant decrease in boron in the inner zones of the pegmatite is consistent with the depletion of boron in the granite melt by either the crystallization of tourmaline from the granitic melt or the partitioning of boron into an exsolved aqueous solutions. 35 references.

Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.

1986-02-01

253

Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

1993-04-01

254

A Resource Inventory of Selected Outcrops Along the White Clay Fault in Southwestern South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The White Clay Fault, located in southwestern South Dakota, formed after the Laramide orogeny (65mya) that resulted in the uplift of the Black Hills in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming. Many of the outcrops along the White Clay Fault are part of the Eocene-Oligocene White River Group (37-26.9 mya), an accumulation of nonmarine sediments composed primarily of tuffaceous mudstones and silty claytones with lesser amounts of kaolinitic sandstones, lacustrine limestones and gypsum. (LaGarry, 1998; LaGarry and LaGarry, 1997). White River Group sediments also consist of volcanic ash from eruptions in the southwestern United States (Larson and Evanoff, 1998). The White Clay Fault lies at the outer boundary of the Black Hills uplift. After the fault formed, the eventual erosion of overlying White River Group materials exposed outcrops of Late Cretaceous Niobrara chalk that formed between 145.5-65.5 mya, at a time when this region was covered by the Western Interior Seaway. The Niobrara Formation consists of chalk and limestone interbedded with marls and shale (Locklear and Sageman, 2008). This poster records a geological and paleontological resource inventory for two selected outcrops that are within a short walking distance of each other along the White Clay Fault. Outcrops on the downside of the fault belongs to the Peanut Peak member of the White River Group, while the outcrops on the upside of the fault belong to the Niobrara Formation; a difference of 60 million years. The selected outcrops are on sensitive land on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation that has never been inventories before due to sovereignty issues. As such, this resource inventory represents one of many initial steps being taken by students and faculty at Oglala Lakota College to determine the geological resources of the Reservation.

Sanovia, L.

2012-12-01

255

Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.; Holland, F.D., Jr.

2007-01-01

256

ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

Westin, F. C.

1974-01-01

257

15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative is thin but printable) - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

258

The generation and crystallization conditions of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Leucogranite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Petrologic and geochemical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, were examined in view of experimentally determined phase equilibria applicable to granitic systems in order to place constraints on the progenesis of peraluminous leucogranites and commonly associated rare-element pegmatites. The granite was emplaced at 3–4 kbar as multiple sills and dikes into quartz-mica schists at

P. I. Nabelek; C. Russ-Nabelek; J. R. Denison

1992-01-01

259

Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

1987-01-01

260

Digital data sets for map products produced as part of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This compact disk contains digital data produced as part of the 1:100,000-scale map products for the Black Hills Hydrology Study conducted in western South Dakota. The digital data include 28 individual Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets: data sets for the hydrogeologic unit map including all mapped hydrogeologic units within the study area (1 data set) and major geologic structure including anticlines and synclines (1 data set); data sets for potentiometric maps including the potentiometric contours for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers (5 data sets), wells used as control points for each aquifer (5 data sets), and springs used as control points for the potentiometric contours (1 data set); and data sets for the structure-contour maps including the structure contours for the top of each formation that contains major aquifers (5 data sets), wells and tests holes used as control points for each formation (5 data sets), and surficial deposits (alluvium and terrace deposits) that directly overlie each of the major aquifer outcrops (5 data sets). These data sets were used to produce the maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Williamson, Joyce E.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Clawges, Rick M.; Galloway, Joel M.; Carter, Janet M.

2000-01-01

261

Appraisal of the water resources of the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, Beadle, Hand, and Spink Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A system of glacial outwash aquifers lie in the central James Valley in east-central South Dakota. Within this system, the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, which has an area of approximately 681 square miles, was simulated by means of a numerical ground-water flow model. The model estimates the yearly average recharge rate for that part of the aquifer lying west of the James River to be approximately 23,000 acre-feet per year. This rate is considerably more than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 9,800 acre-feet per year. It is expected that, since pumping will reduce discharge from the aquifer through evapotranspiration and flow to the James River, this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at recent pumpage rates for an indefinite period. For that part of the aquifer lying east of the river, estimated recharge is 6,800 acre-feet per year; a rate slightly smaller than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 7,200 acre-feet per year. It is estimated that this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at 7,200 acre-feet per year for approximately 50 years, at which time excessive drawdown would begin to cause reduced well yields at several locations. (USGS)

Kuiper, L.K.

1984-01-01

262

Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

1990-01-01

263

Inventory of wetland habitat using remote sensing for the proposed Oahe irrigation unit in eastern South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inventory of wetlands for the area included in the proposed Oahe irrigation project was conducted to provide supplemental data for the wildlife mitigation plan. Interpretation techniques for inventoring small wetlands in the low relief terrain of the Lake Dakota Plain were documented and data summaries included. The data were stored and tabulated in a computerized spatial data analysis system.

Best, R. G.; Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

1977-01-01

264

Government Draw Bentonite Beds: a newly identified stratigraphic marker in the Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale, central South Dakota ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A grouping of four bentonite beds, herein named the Government Draw Bentonite Beds, is identified as a stratigraphic marker within the Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale. The beds are found west of Pierre, South Dakota, over an area of at least 130 mi2 (210 km2) where no other markers within the Virgin Creek Member have been identified. In this area, the Government Draw is a potential tool needed to determine the stratigraphic and structural relationships within the upper part of the Pierre Shale, heretofore little known. A better understanding of structural elements found in the Pierre Shale is needed to unravel the Late Cretaceous and younger geologic history of the area. -Authors

Nichols, T.C., Jr.; Chleborad, A.F.; Collins, D.S.

1987-01-01

265

Failure to identify alveolar echinococcosis in trappers from South Dakota in spite of high prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild canids.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic disease in humans. This tapeworm has been known to be endemic in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) within the northern United States since the 1960s. One purpose of this study was to provide recent data on the prevalence of E. multilocularis in foxes and coyotes from eastern South Dakota. In a survey conducted from 1987 to 1991 and involving 137 foxes and 9 coyotes from this area, 74.5% of the foxes and 4 of the coyotes were infected. To assess the possible prevalence of alveolar echinococcosis in a group at presumptive high risk, we also conducted a serological survey of members of the South Dakota Trappers Association in 1990 and 1991. Serum samples from 115 trappers were evaluated for the presence of E. multilocularis antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests involving a purified antigen called Em2, a crude E. multilocularis antigen, and a recombinant E. multilocularis antigen called II/3-10. None of the trappers showed antibody evidence for the presence of E. multilocularis. Roughly half of the surveyed individuals had trapped more than 50 foxes during their life, and almost one-fourth had trapped more than 1,000 foxes. PMID:10701567

Hildreth, M B; Sriram, S; Gottstein, B; Wilson, M; Schantz, P M

2000-02-01

266

Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

2007-01-01

267

Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges to provide quality-assurance/quality-control measures for the level-1.5 scour estimates. An attempt was made to use the same flows among replicate analyses. Scour estimates do not necessarily have to be in numerical agreement to give the same results. For example, if contraction scour replicate analyses are 18.8 and 30.8 feet, both scour depths can indicate susceptibility to scour for which countermeasures may be needed, even though one number is much greater than the other number. Contraction scour has perhaps the greatest potential for being estimated differently in replicate visits. For contraction scour estimates at the various flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -7.8 to 5.5 feet, with a median difference of 0.4 foot and an average difference of 0.2 foot. Abutment scour appeared to be nearly as reproducible as contraction scour. For abutment scour estimates at the varying flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -17.4 to 11 feet, with a median difference of 1.4 feet and an average difference of 1.7 feet. Estimates of pier scour tended to be the most consistently reproduced in replicate visits, with differences between results ranging from -0.3 to 0.5 foot, with a median difference of 0.0 foot and an average difference of 0.0 foot. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulics Engineering Center River Analysis Systems (HEC-RAS) software package was used to model stream hydraulics at the 41 sites with level-2 analyses. Level-1.5 analyses also were completed at these sites, and the performance of the level-1.5 method was assessed by comparing results to those from the more rigorous level-2 method. The envelope curve approach used in the level-1.5 method is designed to overestimate scour relative to the estimate from the level-2 scour analysis. In cases where the level-1.5 method estimated less scour than the level-2 method, the amount of underestimation generally was less than 3 feet. The level-1.5 method generally overestimated contraction, abutment, and pier scour relative to the level-2 method, as intended. Although the leve

Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

2014-01-01

268

Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

2013-01-01

269

Mordenite and montmorillonite alteration of glass structures in a rhyolite pipe, northern Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Green structures, 0.5 to 1.5 in. across, occur in a Tertiary rhyolite pipe in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. The structures are of two types: angular to ellipsoidal masses and stretched or smeared structures. Thin section analysis revealed that those of the first type are massive, with no internal structure, and those of the second type are cellular and have classic flame structure characteristics. XRD indicated the composition to be a mixture of secondary mordenite (a zeolite) and montmorillonite. The first type is interpreted to be deuterically altered vitrophyre clasts and the second type to be altered vesicular structures produced by degassing of the magma in the pipe. Chemical analysis of the alteration material indicates a loss of alkalies and silica, with an increase in water, CaO, MgO and ferric iron when compared to the composition of fresh vitrophyre from the same pipe. The changes are in agreement with experimental work on the alteration of rhyolitic glass by a number of researchers. This is the first occurrence of mordenite reported for the Black Hills.

Kirchner, J.G. (Illinois State Univ., Normal (United States))

1991-10-01

270

Geohydrology and water quality of the Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers are the principal sources of ground water in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming. The aquifers are exposed in the Bear Lodge Mountains and the Black Hills and are about 3,000 to 5,000 ft below the land surface in the northeast corner of the study area. The direction of groundwater movement is from the outcrop area toward central South Dakota. Recharge is by infiltration of precipitation and streamflow is by springs and well withdrawals. All three aquifers yield water to flowing wells in some part of the area. Measured and reported well yields in each of the three aquifers exceed 100 gal/min (gpm). A well open to the Minnelusa Formation and the upper part of the Madison Limestone yielded more than 2 ,000 gpm. Water from the Inyan Kara aquifer may require treatment for gross alpha radiation, iron, manganese, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment for sulfate and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Madison aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment of fluoride, gross alpha radiation, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers in the southern one-half of the study area, though very hard (more than 180 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate), is suitable for public water systems and irrigation. Flow between the Minnelusa and the Inyan Kara aquifers appears to be insignificant, based on the results of a digital model results. The model indicated there may be significant recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers by leakage between these two aquifers and perhaps deeper aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

Kyllonen, D.P.; Peter, K.D.

1987-01-01

271

Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

Schaap, Bryan D.

2000-01-01

272

Fluvial baselevel changes in the lower part of the White River Group, Eocene-Oligocene, Badlands of South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Chamberlain Pass Formation (CPF) is a Middle( ) to Late Eocene fluvial unit that represents the lower part of the White River Group in western South Dakota. The CPF consists of multistory channel sandstone and overbank mudstone, both overprinted by a distinctive paleosol unit, the Interior Paleosol Series. The CPF thickens from west to east, to a maximum channel-belt thickness [ge] 11 m. Paleoflow data indicates that deposition of the CPF was restricted to an asymmetric basin controlled by faults trending Se, away from the Black Hills uplift. Sandstones in the CPF contain a suite of resistant minerals derived from a recycled sedimentary rock source area. In contrast, the overlying Chadron Formation contains a suite of minerals and rock fragments consistent with a source area from the igneous and metamorphic core rocks of the Black Hills uplift. The deposition of the CPF brackets four significant changes in relative baselevel that occurred in this region during the Paleogene: (1) Late Cretaceous to Middle( ) Eocene baselevel fall, weathering and erosion of the Cretaceous Pierre Shale to form the Yellow Mounds Paleosol, and fluvial incision; (2) Middle( ) to Late Eocene baselevel rise and deposition of the CPF; (3) Late Eocene baselevel fall, weathering and erosion of the CPF to form the Interior Paleosol, and fluvial incision; and (4) late Eocene to Oligocene baselevel rise and deposition of the Chadron formation. The first event was eustatic, the second was controlled primarily by subsidence in a fault-controlled basin, the third records tectonic uplift and unroofing of the Black Hills, and the fourth was controlled by a combination of eustatic, tectonic, and paleoclimatic factors.

Evans, J.E. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology); Terry, D.O. Jr. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

273

Patterns and mechanisms of heat transport in the northern Denver Basin: Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite difference simulations of the hydrothermal system of the northern Denver Basin are suggestive of a correlation between anomalous heat flux and the presence of faults and structural lineaments mapped in the region. Geothermal, hydrogeological, lithological, and structural data available for the northern Denver Basin were compiled and analyzed in an effort to determine the hydrothermal mechanisms responsible for observed heat flow anomalies in the study area. Measurement of thermal conductivity was conducted for 82 solid core samples and 60 unconsolidated samples from drill cuttings, yielding a harmonic mean thermal conductivity value of 1.52 +/- 0.91W m-1 K -1 for the stratigraphic column of the study area. A total of 929 thermal gradient values compiled from several databases were incorporated with thermal conductivity data to produce a heat flow map of the study area, delineating prominent areas of anomalous heat flux. Data was processed using finite difference simulation software (Hydrotherm Interactive) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the purposes of modeling and predicting heat and fluid transport in porous media. Two-dimensional cross-sectional models were calibrated using heat flow profiles and available potentiometric surface data for the Madison and Dakota aquifers in the region. Although calibrated models resulted in accurate simulations of non-anomalous heat flow profiles, anomalous heat flow highs were not reproduced. Acknowledging the existence of several major faults and numerous structural lineaments documented in the study area, vertical pathways of fluid flow were added to simulations to recreate the effect of such structural features. Models which incorporated a hypothetical linear fracture sufficiently accounted for previous discrepancies, and indicate probable upward advective flow through existing vertical fractures.

Ochsner, Aaron Thomas

274

Habitat Use by Beaver Along the Big Sioux River in Eastern South Dakota  

E-print Network

Dakota 57007 USA Abstract.-Habitat use by beavers Castor canadensis was investigated during 1985 and 1986 to livestock grazing (Smith and Flake 1983). Grazing can have negative effects on beaver Castor canadensis

275

Resolving lithospheric and athenospheric anisotropy beneath broadband station RSSD in NW South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleseismic shear waves from data-rich broadband station RSSD in the Black Hills of South Dakota are analyzed for the effects of shear wave splitting. Silver and Chan reported a small delay time of 0.6 seconds, which they attribute to an incoherent structural fabric due to multiple deformational episodes since the Achaean. This interpretation requires that shear due to plate motion is either not present or is accommodated at a depth below where the mantle deforms in the dislocation creep regime. A third possibility is that anisotropic fabric due to plate motion is present but cannot be resolved by the Silver and Chan method which assumes one flat layer of anisotropy. To test this third hypothesis, we present a new technique that shows promise in extracting multiple-layered anisotropy structure, such as that due to lithospheric and asthenospheric strain. We model anisotropy at RSSD by testing and statistically ranking possible models of multiple layer structure by comparing observed SKS to predicted SKS using the cross-convolution method of Menke and Levin, and a directed Monte-Carlo search method (the Neighborhood Algorithm) is used to guide the search through parameter space and produce maximum likelihood models. We then use the F test to rank the significance of the relative error reductions between the different model parameterizations. This combination of methods provides for statistical examinations of the fit of various complex models, and proves more effective than fitting back-azimuthal variations of splitting times. Furthermore, we test the power of this method to resolve various multi layer geometries at RSSD by generating and testing synthetic waveforms. Our one-layer model result agrees with that of Silver and Chan in that it indicates very little anisotropy. However, our results for more complex models indicate that larger degrees of anisotropy are in fact present. We present these results in terms of their statistical likelihood, and examine their implications for our ability to resolve lithospheric anisotropy.

Solomon, M. A.; Schutt, D.

2011-12-01

276

Appraisal of the water resources of the Skunk Creek Aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Skunk Creek aquifer, a major glacial outwash deposit in the Skunk Creek drainage basin, consists of a 30-sq-mi shallow stream connected sand and gravel aquifer in southeastern South Dakota. The aquifer thickness ranges from 1 to 74 ft. Average annual fluctuation of the water table is 2.5 ft. The water has an average dissolved-solids content of 620 mg/L and is very hard , averaging 403 mg/L calcium carbonate hardness. A numerical model was developed and calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. The model contained 484 active nodes each representing 0.0625 sq mi. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer used in the model range from 10 to 400 ft/d, and average specific yield is 20%. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated to be 6 inches/yr or 24% of average annual precipitation. Maximum evapotranspiration rate was 32 inches/yr and the evapotranspiration extinction depth for the model was 5 ft. The steady-state hydrologic budget was about 11 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Recharge by precipitation was about 9,500 acre-ft and recharge from streams was about 1,100 acre-ft. Discharge by evapotranspiration was about 5,000 acre-ft and discharge to streams was about 5,700 acre-ft. A hypothetical simulation to determine maximum withdrawal under steady-state conditions resulted in a groundwater withdrawal of about 15,700 acre-ft/yr from 19 hypothetical wells pumping at a rate of 500 gal/min and 13 existing wells pumping at a combined average rate of 24 gal/min. (USGS)

Ohland, G.L.

1990-01-01

277

Microgravity methods for characterization of groundwater-storage changes and aquifer properties in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, 2009-12  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of groundwater storage in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota using microgravity methods was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with West Dakota Water Development District, South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and Lawrence County. Microgravity measurements from 2009 to 2012 were used to investigate groundwater-storage changes and effective porosity in unconfined areas of the Madison aquifer. Time-lapse microgravity surveys that use portable high-sensitivity absolute and relative gravimeters indicated temporal-gravity changes as a result of changing groundwater mass. These extremely precise measurements of gravity required characterization and removal of internal instrumental and external environmental effects on gravity from the raw data. The corrected data allowed groundwater-storage volume to be quantified with an accuracy of about plus or minus 0.5 foot of water per unit area of aquifer. Quantification of groundwater-storage change, coupled with water-level data from observation wells located near the focus areas, also was used to calculate the effective porosity at specific altitudes directly beneath gravity stations. Gravity stations were established on bedrock outcrops in three separate focus areas for this study. The first area, the Spring Canyon focus area, is located to the south of Rapid City with one gravity station on the rim of Spring Canyon near the area where Spring Creek sinks into the Madison aquifer. The second area, the Doty focus area, is located on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation to the northwest of Rapid City, and consists of nine gravity stations. The third area, the Limestone Plateau focus area, consists of a single gravity station in the northwestern Black Hills located on an outcrop of the Madison Limestone. An absolute-gravity station, used to tie relative-gravity survey data together, was established on a relatively impermeable bedrock outcrop to minimize groundwater-storage change at the reference location. Data from the three focus areas allow for interpretation of groundwater-storage characteristics using microgravity measurements. Gravity measurements, together with water-level data from an observation well located 2 miles from the Spring Canyon focus area and measured streamflow in Spring Creek, provided evidence that rapid groundwater-storage change, responding to changes in sinking streamflow over the recharge area of the aquifer, occurred in the Madison aquifer directly beneath the gravity station at Spring Canyon. This phenomenon likely was a result of groundwater movement through caverns, conduits, and fractures, which are common in karst aquifers. Spatially and temporally separated microgravity data for the Doty focus area indicated horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of effective porosity for the Madison aquifer. One such example of this was indicated by water-level measurements at an observation well and gravity measurements at four gravity stations in the southeastern part of the Doty area, which were used to estimate effective porosity values ranging from greater than 0 to 0.18. A decrease in groundwater storage determined by microgravity measurements during the spring recharge period for five upgradient stations in the Doty focus area indicated the possibility of rapid release and downgradient cascading of perched groundwater. Evidence for similar phenomena was documented for Wind Cave and Brooks Cave in the Black Hills. Absolute-gravity measurements at the Limestone Plateau focus area confirmed the relation between water levels in an observation well and changes in groundwater storage. Comparison of these gravity measurements with water levels in a nearby observation well resulted in an effective porosity estimate of 0.02 for the Madison aquifer beneath the gravity station.

Koth, Karl R.; Long, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

278

Seasonal movements and Home-range use by female pronghorns in sagebrush-steppe communities of western south dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge of seasonal movements by pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) within the easternmost extension of sagebrush-steppe communities is limited. Current hypotheses regarding movement patterns suggest that pronghorns initiate seasonal movements in response to severe winter weather, snowfall patterns, spatial and temporal variation in forage abundance, and availability of water. From January 2002 to August 2005, we monitored movements of 76 adult (???1.5 years) female pronghorns on 2 study areas (Harding and Fall River counties) in western South Dakota. We collected 8,750 visual locations, calculated 204 home ranges, and documented 17 seasonal movements. Eighty-four percent (n = 55) of pronghorns were nonmigratory and 10% (n = 6) were conditional migrators. Mean distance between summer and winter range was 23.1 km (SE = 2.8 km, n = 13). Five adult pronghorns (8%) dispersed a mean distance of 37.6 km (SE = 12.4 km); of which 1 female moved a straight-line distance of 75.0 km. Winter and summer home-range size varied (P < 0.0001) between study sites. Mean 95% adaptive kernel winter and summer home-range size of pronghorns was 55.5 and 19.7 km 2, respectively, in Harding County and 127.2 and 65.9 km2, respectively, in Fall River County. Nonmigratory behavior exhibited by pronghorns was likely associated with minimal snow cover and moderate temperatures during winter 2002-2004. Variation in size of adult seasonal home ranges between sites was likely associated with differences in forage distribution and availability between regions. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Jacques, C.N.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

2009-01-01

279

Alteration of sandstone as a guide to uranium deposits and their origin, northern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several uranium deposits are present in the Fall River sandstone of Early Cretaceous age on the northeast flank of the Black Hills, Butte County, South Dakota. The deposits are within a fine-grained, well-sorted, persistent basal sandstone unit that ranges in thickness from 2 to 18 feet and dips about 4° NE. Detailed mapping of about 2 square miles surrounding the deposits have shown that all the uranium occurrences and most of the areas of high radioactivity are where the color changes in the basal sandstone from reddish on the up-dip side of the the occurrences to yellowish-gray or buff down-dip. Radioactivity measurements show that uranium is distributed almost continuously along the sinuous red-buff contact for more than 5 miles. Laboratory work indicates that the red color is caused by the hematite resulting from the alteration of ferrous iron minerals and hydrous ferric oxides. The close association of the red-buff contact and the uranium deposits suggest that the two were formed by the same solutions. The uranium was probably deposited originally from ground water which moved down-dip and gradually changed from an oxidizing solution near the surface to a mildly reducing solution at depth. Concentrations of uranium have resulted from the localization of reducing conditions cause perhaps by structures superimposed on the regional dip, local thinning or decrease in permeability of the sandstone, or concentrations of pyritiferous carbonaceous material. The red alteration is probably the result of pre-Oligocene weathering that has extended downward in the more permeable beds about 200 feet below the ancient erosion surface. Oxidation of the primary uranium during the present weathering cycle has resulted in the formation of carnotite and possibly other secondary uranium minerals.

Vickers, R.C.

1956-01-01

280

HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

Moore, D. G. (principal investigator); Heilman, J. L.

1980-01-01

281

Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between pegmatite/country rocks: natural analogs for radionuclides migration. [Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of trace element signatures of country rocks as a function of distance from the contact with two pegmatites, Tin Mountain and Etta, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, suggests that some elements such as K, Li, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, Zn and Pb, have migrated to distances of 4 to 40 meters during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. On the other hand, there is virtually no migration of rare earth elements (REE), Al, Sc, Cr, Hf, U, and Th. Biotite and muscovite are effective trace element traps for Li, Rb and Cs. Biotite has a greater affinity for Rb, Cs and Li than muscovite.

Laul, J.C.; Walker, R.J.; Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

1983-10-01

282

Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

Norton, James Jennings

1984-01-01

283

Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite  

SciTech Connect

Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Norton, J.J.

1984-01-01

284

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79.  

PubMed

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974-79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks. PMID:24248525

Stendell, R C; Gilmer, D S; Coon, N A; Swineford, D M

1988-01-01

285

`Shelby427', a white-hulled spring oat, was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (SDAES) and released in 2010. Shelby427 was tested as experimental line  

E-print Network

ORIGIN: `Shelby427', a white-hulled spring oat, was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural for feed grain, milling oat, companion crop, for- age, and/or straw production. RECOMMENDED CULTURAL in the 2008­2010 South Dakota Standard Variety Oat PerformanceTrials. Variety 24loc/yrs* Yield bu/a 24loc

286

Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

Weeks, John B.

1978-01-01

287

Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

Schaap, Bryan D.

2004-01-01

288

Normal crop calendars. Volume 2: The spring wheat states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state crop calendars for the principal spring wheat producing states within the United States are presented. These crop calendars are an update of those produced for the large area crop inventory experiment multilabeling task during 1978and are compiled for the foreign commodity production forecasting (FCPF) project of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing program.

West, W. L., III (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

289

Assessment of fish abundance and species composition at selected sites in South Dakota: an overview  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted surveys of streams throughout the State of South Dakota during 2008-09 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) Program. During 2008-09, as part of the stream assessment, the USGS completed surveys of fish populations and species composition at 64 sites. Fish were inventoried at 60 of the 64 sites, but not at four of the sites because water was too low to sustain fish or specific conductivity was too high to electroshock effectively. Four of the sites were surveyed in 2000-04 during the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) project. Two wadeable sites and two boatable sites were revisited for quality-assurance/quality-control requirements. During the study, both wadeable and boatable streams were sampled using electrofishing equipment and methods. Of the 64 sites, 62 were wadeable and 2 were boatable. Procedures for sampling wadeable streams differed slightly from procedures for boatable streams. Backpack electrofishing equipment was used for wadeable streams, whereas boat electrofishing equipment was used for boatable streams. Wadeable streams also were fished in an opposite direction than boatable streams. Several species of fish were collected during the NRSA. Species diversity ranged from 0-11 species in wadeable streams and from 6-26 species in boatable streams. Many common species were sampled during the study. The most frequently sampled fish was the sand shiner (Notropis stramineus), with 609 individuals sampled. In contrast, only one heritage species, the skipjack herring (Alosa chrysochloris), was identified during 2008-09. Common anomalies found in fish caught were parasitic lesions, "black spot disease," and tumors. When comparing the fish sampling results for the four sites visited in both 2000-04 and in 2008-09, more individuals and species were collected during 2008-09 than in 2000-04 at two sites, whereas fewer were collected at the other two sites.

Harwood, Alison

2010-01-01

290

Ectoparasites in black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from the largest reintroduced population of the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA.  

PubMed

The black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes, is an endangered carnivore endemic to the grasslands of North America. We present the first investigation of ectoparasites associated with black-footed ferrets since reintroduction. We sampled more than 200 individuals from one of the largest and most successful reintroduced populations located in the Conata Basin of South Dakota, USA. We compared our findings with ectoparasite assemblages of sympatric carnivores and historic ferret records. We collected more than 1,000 ectoparasites consisting mainly of three flea and tick species, two of which were known historically from South Dakota. Despite our extensive sampling efforts, we did not detect any lice. This is notable because a putative host-specific louse, Neotrichodectes sp., was presumed to have gone extinct when black-footed ferrets were extirpated from the wild. The ectoparasite assemblage on black-footed ferrets comprised only generalist parasites, particularly those found on their prey such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.). Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant ectoparasite, representing 57% of all ectoparasites detected; a flea vector important in the persistence and transmission of plague. Black-footed ferrets like other endangered species undergo repeated parasite removal and vaccination efforts to facilitate population recovery, which may have unintentionally contributed to their depauperate ectoparasite community. PMID:24499333

Harris, Nyeema C; Livieri, Travis M; Dunn, Robert R

2014-04-01

291

Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common subareas are identified for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, and previous components from the overall budget generally are distributed over the subareas. Estimates of net ground-water flow for the two aquifers are computed, with net ground-water outflow exceeding inflow for most subareas. Outflows range from 5.9 ft3/s in the area east of Rapid City to 48.6 ft3/s along the southwestern flanks of the Black Hills. Net groundwater inflow exceeds outflow for two subareas where the discharge of large artesian springs exceeds estimated recharge within the subareas. More detailed subarea budgets also are developed, which include estimates of flow components for the individual aquifers at specific flow zones. The net outflows and inflows from the preliminary subarea budgets are used to estimate transmissivity of flow across specific flow zones based on Darcy?s Law. For estimation purposes, it is assumed that transmissivities of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are equal in any particular flow zone. The resulting transmissivity estimates range from 90 ft2/d to about 7,400 ft2/d, which is similar to values reported by previous investigators. The highest transmissivity estimates are for areas in the northern and southwestern parts of the study area, and the lowest transmissivity estimates are along the eastern study area boundary. Evaluation of subarea budgets provides confidence in budget components developed for the overall budget, especially regarding precipitation recharge, which is particularly difficult to estimate. Recharge estimates are consistently compatible with other budget components, including artesian springflow, which is a dominant component in many subareas. Calculated storage changes for subareas also are consistent with other budget components, specifically artesian springflow and net ground-water flow, and also are consistent with water-level fluctuations for observation wells. Ground-water budgets and flowpaths are especially complex i

Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

2001-01-01

292

Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Lead, South Dakota - Final Performance Evaluation Report  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Lead, South Dakota. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of SolmeteX?s adsorptive media system in removin...

293

SHIFTS IN LANDSCAPE ATTRIBUTES AND INTERACTIONS WITH ADULT WESTERN CORN ROOTWORMS IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT SITE FROM 1997-2001  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Western corn rootworms (CRW) create economic and environmental concerns in the Corn Belt region of the United States. In order to supplement the population control tactics of the areawide program in Brookings, South Dakota, we used GIS to examine the spatial relationships over a five-year period (1...

294

South Dakota State University Cooperative Extension Service U.S. Department of Agriculture The crop performance trials are available at http://plantsci.sdstate.edu/varietytrials/vartrial.html  

E-print Network

://plantsci.sdstate.edu/varietytrials/vartrial.html Spring Wheat · OatS · Winter Wheat Small Grains 2011 Variety Recommendations (2010 Crop Performance depends on genetics and environmental factors like temperature, moisture, plant pests, soil fertility of certified seed. South Dakota Spring Wheat & Oat Variety recommendations Hard Red Spring Wheat: Recommended

295

HABITAT USE AND MOVEMENTS OF ADULT PALLID STURGEON IN THE MISSOURI RIVER DOWNSTREAM OF FORT RANDALL DAM, SOUTH DAKOTA AND NEBRASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic telemetry was used from 2000 to 2002 to identify habitat use and track seasonal and diel movements of six adult pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) released in the Missouri River downstream of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska. Extensive sampling occurred at about two week intervals from spring through fall. Two individual fish were intensively tracked for 4 to

Greg A. Wanner; Robert A. Klumb; Wayne J. Stancill

296

Poststocking Movements and Habitat Use of Hatchery-Reared Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telemetry was used to evaluate seasonal and diel movement patterns, general habitat use, survival, and spatial distributions of hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus stocked in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska. Sampling occurred at about 2-week intervals during spring through fall. Of 22 ultrasonically tagged fish, 13 were intensively followed to assess hourly diel

George R. Jordan; Robert A. Klumb; Greg A. Wanner; Wayne J. Stancill

2006-01-01

297

Macroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska.  

E-print Network

Macroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albusMacroinvertebrate composition and patterns of prey use by juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska. By Kristen Lee Grohs A thesis submitted

298

DRACOREX HOGWARTSIA, N. GEN., N. SP., A SPIKED, FLAT-HEADED PACHYCEPHALOSAURID DINOSAUR FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS HELL CREEK FORMATION OF SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pachycephalosaurid Dracorex hogwartsia, n. gen., n., sp., is a new pachycephalosaurin based on a nearly complete, and excellently preserved, young-adult skull from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Lancian) of South Dakota. D. hogwartsia shows an unexpected mix of truly very primitive and very advanced features: no dome; wide open supratemporal fenestrae; large, spiked nodes on the squamosals; nodes

ROBERT T. BAKKER; ROBERT M. SULLIVAN; VICTOR PORTER; PETER LARSON; STEVEN J. SAULSBURY

299

Patch structure, fire-scar formation, and tree regeneration in a large mixed-severity fire in the South Dakota Black Hills, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared patch structure, fire-scar formation, and seedling regeneration in patches of low, moderate, and high burn severity following the large (~34 000 ha) Jasper fire of 2000 that occurred in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponder- osa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) forests of the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. This fire created a patchy mosaic of effects, where

Leigh B. Lentile; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2005-01-01

300

Compilation of Data to Support Development of a Pesticide Management Plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe, Charles Mix County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working with the Yankton Sioux Tribe to develop a pesticide management plan to reduce potential for contamination of ground water that may result from the use of registered pesticides. The purpose of this study was to compile technical information to support development of a pesticide management plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe for the area within the Yankton Sioux Reservation, Charles Mix County, South Dakota. Five pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) were selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the management plan approach because they had been identified as probable or possible human carcinogens and they often had been associated with ground-water contamination in many areas and at high concentrations. This report provides a compilation of data to support development of a pesticide management plan. Available data sets are summarized in the text of this report, and actual data sets are provided in one Compact Disk?Read-Only Memory that is included with the report. The compact disk contains data sets pertinent to the development of a pesticide management plan. Pesticide use for the study area is described using information from state and national databases. Within South Dakota, pesticides commonly are applied to corn and soybean crops, which are the primary row crops grown in the study area. Water-quality analyses for pesticides are summarized for several surface-water sites. Pesticide concentrations in most samples were found to be below minimum reporting levels. Topographic data are presented in the form of 30-meter digital elevation model grids and delineation of drainage basins. Geohydrologic data are provided for the surficial deposits and the bedrock units. A high-resolution (30-by-30 meters) land-cover and land-use database is provided and summarized in a tabular format. More than 91 percent of the study area is used for row crops, pasture, or hay, and almost 6 percent of the study area is covered by water or wetlands. Average monthly and yearly precipitation data are summarized in a tabular format. Irrigation information associated with permitted and licensed diversion points is provided. A composite of aerial photographs of Charles Mix County is provided. This report also describes and summarizes the data sets and files, and how the data are relevant to development of a pesticide management plan.

Schaap, Bryan D.

2004-01-01

301

Paleomagnetism of Eocene Intrusive Rocks, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming are a large Precambrian-cored Laramide uplift. Intruding the Black Hills are a diverse suite of igneous rocks, which include phonolites, trachytes, latites, garnet-bearing rhyolites, and pyroxenites. These intrusive bodies range in size from several meter outcrop-scale bodies, to several 10s of km wide intrusive complexes. New geochronology (40Ar-39Ar) data indicate many of these intrusive rocks are between 58 and 45 Ma in age (Duke at al, 2002). As part of a larger paleomagnetic study aimed at Jurassic strata surrounding the Black Hills, a collection of 20 sites and 145 samples of the Eocene intrusive rocks was made. A combination of alternating field, thermal, and liquid nitrogen step-wise demagnetization revealed that, with a few exceptions, these rocks have two well-defined magnetization components. The first-removed component is interpreted to be a present (dipole) field magnetization, and is removed by 10 to 30 mT a.f., or 200 C thermal demagnetization steps. The second-removed components have either positive or negative inclinations, and are defined by demagnetization steps between 30 and 200 mT a.f., or 300 to 630 C thermal demagnetization steps. These components are interpreted to be ancient, presumably Eocene, magnetizations. A preliminary mean of the normal-polarity sites is D=352, I=59.3, k=26.7, a95=18.2, N=4, and of the reverse-polarity sites is D=154.9, I=-61.3, k=23.1, a95=18.2, N=4. The combined mean direction is D=344.9, I=60.3, k=28.8, a95=10.5, N=8. Two sites of rhyolites at Mt. Theodore Roosevelt have well-defined magnetization components, but either mixed polarity (Site 99Trr1), or reverse-polarity with what might be a transitional-field direction (D=27.7, I=-37.4, k=18.0, a95=18.6, n=5), and are not included in the calculation of means. The magnetizations recorded by these Eocene rocks are essentially identical to the expected direction for the Black Hills calculated from the Diehl et al., 1983 Eocene reference pole for North America. This result indicates that the Black Hills have experienced no rotation or large-scale tilting since the Eocene, that these intrusive rocks are suitable for additional study of geomagnetic field behavior. In addition, the mean direction reported here is similar to the Jurassic Morrison Formation from the Black Hills (D=349.7, I=61.8, k=87.4, a95=4.5, N=13), supporting an assertion that the Jurassic rocks had been remagnetized during the Eocene.

Housen, B. A.; Fawcett, T. C.; Gregiore, P.

2003-12-01

302

Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the upper Minnelusa Formation, which is caused by upward leakage of relatively fresh water from the Madison aquifer. The anhydrite dissolution and dedolomitization account for the net removal of minerals that would lead to breccia pipe formation by gravitational collapse. Breccia pipes in the lower Minnelusa Formation are uncommon; however, networks of interconnected breccia layers and breccia dikes are common. These networks, along with vertical fractures and faults, are likely pathways for transmitting upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. It is concluded that suspended sediment discharged at Cascade Springs probably results from episodic collapse brecciation that is caused by subsurface dissolution of anhydrite beds and cements of the upper Minnelusa Formation, accompanied by replacement of dolomite by calcite. It is further concluded that many breccia pipes probably are the throats of artesian springs that have been abandoned and exposed by erosion. The locations of artesian spring-discharge points probably have been shifting outwards from the center of the Black Hills uplift, essentially keeping pace with regional erosion over geologic time. Thus, artesian springflow probably is a factor in controlling water levels in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, with hydraulic head declining over geologic time, in response to development of new discharge points. Development of breccia pipes as throats of artesian springs would greatly enhance vertical hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of spring-discharge points. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the Minnelusa Formation also may be enhanced by dissolution processes related to upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. Potential processes could include dissolution resulting from leakage in the vicinity of breccia pipes that are abandoned spring throats, active spring discharge, development of subsurface breccias with no visible surface expression or spring discharge, as well as general areal leakage

Hayes, Timothy Scott

1999-01-01

303

Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Haakon School District, South Dakota. Final report, January 1977-March 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of a project which demonstrates the successful use of geothermal energy for service water and space heating of school, business and commercial buildings in the city of Philip, South Dakota. The project included a new well into the Madison limestone formation, a pipe line to the school and through the central business district to a treatment plant, the treatment plant and settling ponds, conversion of the existing space heating systems of the buildings to equipment suitable for heating with the geothermal energy and monitoring the system to determine operating characteristics and efficiency. The treated water is discharged into the north fork of the Bad River for use by down stream irrigators. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

Hengel, R.J.

1985-03-01

304

Salmonella Thompson associated with improper handling of roast beef at a restaurant in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  

PubMed

In October 1996, we investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson infections associated with Restaurant A in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and conducted two cohort studies among persons who ate at luncheons catered by Restaurant A. Fifty-two Salmonella Thompson infections were identified between 29 September and 14 October 1996. Infections occurred among employees and patrons at Restaurant A and among attendees at three luncheons catered by the restaurant on 7 October. Roast beef cooked at Restaurant A was the only food item significantly associated with illness. Cooking times and storage temperatures for roast beef were inadequate to prevent multiplication of Salmonella, and the chefs were unaware of proper cooking and storage temperatures. We conclude that improper handling of roast beef probably caused this outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infections. Better knowledge of food safety practices by the cooking staff at Restaurant A, through required food safety education, might have prevented the outbreak. PMID:10030628

Shapiro, R; Ackers, M L; Lance, S; Rabbani, M; Schaefer, L; Daugherty, J; Thelen, C; Swerdlow, D

1999-02-01

305

Remote sensing for evaluating post-disaster damage conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota tornado, 23 July 1973  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation. The immediate advantages of the data are identified as a 'quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.

Rusche, A. E.; Myers, V. I.

1974-01-01

306

Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared detection rates of passive and playback breeding bird survey techniques on elusive marsh birds - Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and Sora (Porzana carolina) - during a two-year study at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, in southwestern South Dakota. We conducted 151 passive point counts followed by playback-response surveys at the same points in marsh-bird habitat on the refuge. Playback surveys detected secretive water birds more frequently than our passive surveys, increasing rates for each species by factors of 2.4 to 7.0. The distance a bird was detected from a point varied with the species and the survey technique.

Allen, T.; Finkbeiner, S.L.; Johnson, D.H.

2004-01-01

307

2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean supercontinent at ???2480 Ma. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

2006-01-01

308

Attitudes and gender differences of high school seniors within one-to-one computing environments in South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.

Nelson, Mathew

309

Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

Deperno, Christopher Shannon

310

Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

Schmer, F. A. (principal investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

1977-01-01

311

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01

312

Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.  

PubMed

Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts. PMID:21544497

de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

2012-03-01

313

Evolution of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning and Storm Structure in the Spencer, South Dakota, Tornadic Supercell of 30 May 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 30 May 1998, a tornado devastated the town of Spencer, South Dakota. The Spencer tornado (rated F4 on the Fujita tornado intensity scale) was the third and most intense of five tornadoes produced by a single supercell storm during an approximate 1-h period. The supercell produced over 76% positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a peak positive CG flash rate

Lawrence D. Carey; Walter A. Petersen; Steven A. Rutledge

2003-01-01

314

Influence of topography and forest structure on patterns of mixed severity fire in ponderosa pine forests of the South Dakota Black Hills, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of topography and stand structure on fire effects within the perimeter of the ?34 000 ha Jasper fire of 2000 in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) forests of the South Dakota Black Hills, USA. We used a remotely sensed and field-verified map of post-fire burn severity (accuracy 69%, kappa statistic 0.54), the Digital Elevation Model, and

Leigh B. LentileA; Frederick W. SmithA; Wayne D. ShepperdB

315

Isolation and characterization of cellulose-degrading bacteria from the deep subsurface of the Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (60°C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity\\u000a in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South\\u000a Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy\\u000a metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and

Gurdeep Rastogi; Geetha L. Muppidi; Raghu N. Gurram; Akash Adhikari; Kenneth M. Bischoff; Stephen R. Hughes; William A. Apel; Sookie S. Bang; David J. Dixon; Rajesh K. Sani

2009-01-01

316

AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN

317

Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

Qi, Sharon

2010-01-01

318

Personal health record use by patients as perceived by ambulatory care physicians in Nebraska and South Dakota: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the awareness and engagement that ambulatory care physicians have with patients who use a personal health record (PHR). This is part of a larger study examining health information technology (HIT) and electronic health record (EHR) adoption by ambulatory care physicians in Nebraska and South Dakota. Descriptive results and inferential findings about physician awareness and engagement are presented in relationship to the physician's stage of EHR adoption, practice type and size, gender, specialty, and age. Overall, physicians' awareness of PHRs and their engagement with the technology remains low. Physicians using EHRs were more likely to be aware and engaged with PHRs than physicians who either plan to adopt EHRs or have no intention to adopt EHRs. Practice type, gender, and specialty have an association as well. The implications of the findings are discussed, and a recommendation is made that education of physicians is needed in this area as the nation progresses toward the creation of a national health information network for health information exchange. PMID:18927602

Fuji, Kevin T; Galt, Kimberly A; Serocca, Alexandra B

2008-01-01

319

GREAT BLUE HERON NESTING BIOLOGY AND HABITAT USE ON THE JAMES RIVER IN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

activities, and habitat use of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) nesting in the Glendale heronry, South, Project 7116-029, and McIntire-Stennis funding. #12;INTRODUCTION The great blue heron (Ardea herodias

320

Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer. PMID:18459406

Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R

2008-04-01

321

Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota  

PubMed Central

Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU to a potentially novel phylum that falls sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and grouped most closely to an ammonia–oxidizing, carbon–fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that were often identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community with unique phylotypes identified within each sample. PMID:20662386

Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.

2013-01-01

322

Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

2010-03-13

323

Mineral recorders of pegmatite internal evolution: REE contents of tourmaline from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Trace rare earth elements (REE) have been determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for tourmaline samples from an internally zoned, rare-element, granitic pegmatite, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Total REE concentrations range from 40 ppm-0.2 ppm, and are highest in tourmaline from the exomorphic halo (country rock) and pegmatite border zone. Chondrite-normalized patterns are highly fractionated from light REE to heavy REE; and REE concentrations decrease in tourmaline from the outer wall zone and first intermediate zone, through the inner wall zone and third intermediate zone, to lowest levels in the pegmatite core. The REEs, as recorded by tourmaline, appear to behave compatibly in this pegmatite system due to early crystallization of apatite and other possible REE-sink minerals. The large range of REE concentrations and differences in slopes of chondrite-normalized patterns probably also reflect significant changes in the structural state of the pegmatite melt, caused by changes in pH/sub 2/O and other volatiles (B, F, P) as crystallization progressed. Tourmaline samples that appear to have been fluid-derived are HREE-depleted relative to coexisting silicate-melt-derived tourmaline. Tourmaline does not exhibit any strong preference for specific REEs, rather its REE content appears to reflect the REE content of the medium from which the tourmaline crystallized.

Jolliff, B.L.; Papike, J.J.

1987-08-01

324

Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T/sub DM/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T/sub DM/ ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga, and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 +/- 0.08 and 2.20 +/- 0.20 Ga, respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 +/- 100 Ma.

Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

1986-12-01

325

Biological characteristics of the blue sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28) during the summer of 2000. Although five macrohabitats were sampled with electrofishing and hoopnets, most individuals were collected from riffle habitats and downstream of rock dams. Total length-weight relationships were log10W=-6.14+3.37(log10L) (r2 = 0.92) for blue suckers from the James River and log10W = -6.52+3.50(log10L) (r2 = 0.97) for fish from the Big Sioux River. Mean condition factors (K = W(105)/L3) of blue suckers were 0.79 (SE = 0.07) for the James River and 0.73 (SE = 0.07) for the Big Sioux River. Blue suckers between 500 and 700 mm dominated length distributions (range = 374-717 mm) of both samples. Ages ranged from two to nine years, but six-year-old fish were captured most frequently. Blue suckers grew rapidly during juvenile stages (< age 5); however, growth slowed afterward.

Morey, N.M.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

2003-01-01

326

Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota.  

PubMed

A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulases including ?-xylosidase (0.209 U/mg) and arabinofuranosidase (0.230 U/mg), after the bacterium was grown in xylan for 24 h. Partially purified DC3 endoxylanase exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa according to zymography with an optimal pH of 7 and optimal temperature of 70 °C. The kinetic constants, K m and V max, were 13.8 mg/mL and 77.5 ?mol xylose/min·mg xylan, respectively. The endoxylanase was highly stable and maintained 70 % of its original activity after 16 h incubation at 70 °C. The thermostable properties and presence of three different hemicellulases of Geobacillus sp. DC3 strain support its potential application for industrial hydrolysis of renewable biomass such as lignocelluloses. PMID:24549802

Bergdale, Terran E; Hughes, Stephen R; Bang, Sookie S

2014-04-01

327

Uranium and thorium in the middle Precambrian Estes Conglomerate, Nemo District, Lawrence County, South Dakota: a preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Estes Conglomerate, which is exposed in the Nemo District on the northeastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, is inferred to be of early middle Precambrian age (early Precambrian X or Paleoaphebian) and to be resting on late early Precambrian (late Precambrian W) granitic continental crust. The Estes contains beds of quartzite and quartz-pebble conglomerate (oligomictic conglomerate) with matrices of micaceous quartzite that locally contain 5 to 25 percent dispersed pyrite. Highly oxidized outcrop samples of the oligomictic conglomerate have anomalously high contents of both uranium (10 to 40 ppm) and thorium (20 to 800 ppm). High thorium values in the oligomictic conglomerate favor a placer mechanism for the concentration of radioactive minerals and appear to eliminate the possibility of epigenetic processes, such as reduction of uranium by pyrite. The presence of abundant old prospect pits and of several abandoned mines suggests that these conglomerates may also contain some gold. Early prospectors may have been attracted by the gossan produced by oxidation of pyrite. Uranium in the Estes Conglomerate may be of similar origin to the economically very important uranium deposits in the Matinenda Formation of the Elliot Lake District, Ontario. Because uranium is rapidly dissolved in acidic, oxygenated ground water, such as is present where pyrite is weathering, most of the uranium originally present in the analyzed samples has probably been leached out. Conglomerate located below the zone of weathering and oxidation has good potential for economic uranium deposits.

Hills, F. Allan

1977-01-01

328

78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4118-DR), dated May...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding...

2013-06-18

329

76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding...

2011-06-10

330

78 FR 27412 - North Dakota; Emergency and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Emergency and Related Determinations...of an emergency for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-3364-EM), dated April...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding...

2013-05-10

331

75 FR 25874 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1907-DR), dated April...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding...

2010-05-10

332

76 FR 21773 - North Dakota; Emergency and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Emergency and Related Determinations...of an emergency for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-3318-EM), dated April...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding...

2011-04-18

333

Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

334

Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South Dakota  

E-print Network

Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South and distribution of the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has generally been documented using radio requirements of pallid sturgeon. Introduction The pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is a federally

335

Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 A??, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ?? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 ?? 10-19 m2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 ?? 10-5 m-1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 ?? 10-11 m2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10-21 to 10-20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garavito, A.M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C.E.

2006-01-01

336

Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 Å, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 × 10 -19 m 2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 × 10 -5 m -1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 × 10 -11 m 2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10 -21 to 10 -20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems.

Garavito, A. M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C. E.

2006-03-01

337

Quantification of mass loading to Strawberry Creek near the Gilt Edge mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although remedial actions have taken place at the Gilt Edge mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, questions remain about a possible hydrologic connection along shear zones between some of the pit lakes at the mine site and Strawberry Creek. Spatially detailed chemical sampling of stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in June 2003 as part of a mass-loading study by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the possible connection of shear zones to the stream. Stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution; discharge increased by 25.3 liters per second along the study reach, with 9.73 liters per second coming from three tributaries and the remaining increase coming from small springs and dispersed, subsurface inflow. Chemical differences among inflow samples were distinguished by cluster analysis and indicated that inflows ranged from those unaffected by interaction with mine wastes to those that could have been affected by drainage from pit lakes. Mass loading to the stream from several inflows resulted in distinct chemical changes in stream water along the study reach. Mass loading of the mine-related metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, principally occurred from the discharge from the Gilt Edge mine, and those metals were substantially attenuated downstream. Secondary loadings of metals occurred in the vicinity of the Oro Fino shaft and from two more inflows about 200 m downstream from there. These are both locations where shear zones intersect the stream and may indicate loading associatedwith these zones. Loading downstream from the Oro Fino shaft had a unique chemical character, high in base-metal concentrations, that could indicate an association with water in the pit lakes. The loading from these downstream sources, however, is small in comparison to that from the initial mine discharge and does not appear to have a substantial impact on Strawberry Creek.

Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Williamson, Joyce E.

2006-01-01

338

75 FR 78208 - Black Hills National Forest, Northern Hills Ranger District; South Dakota; Steamboat Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to provide structural diversity in big game winter range, reduce the risk of mountain...structural diversity in an area managed for big game winter range, to reduce the risk of mountain...structural diversity in an area managed as big game winter range through meadow...

2010-12-15

339

125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

340

The significance of incision and fluvial sedimentation in the Basal White River Group (Eocene-Oligocene), Badlands of South Dakota, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly defined lithostratigraphic unit, the Chamberlain Pass Formation (CPF), records the initial episode of incision, fluvial sedimentation, and pedogenesis in SW South Dakota following the retreat of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway. The CPF is Middle(?) to Late Eocene in age, and consists of fluvial sandstone and mudstone. Pedogenic modification of the unit has created a distinctive pedostratigraphic unit, the Interior Paleosol Series. The CPF thickens from west to east, achieving a maximum channel-belt thickness of ? 11 m. Paleoflow data indicate that deposition of the CPF was restricted to a fault-controlled basin southeast of the Black Hills uplift. Sandstones in the CPF were derived from a recycled sedimentary rock source area to the west. In contrast, sandstones in the overlying Chadron Formation (Late Eocene) had a variety of sources including the Precambrian core rocks of the Black Hills uplift. Deposition of the CPF brackets four significant Paleogene changes in baselevel that occurred in this region. These events were: (1) Late Cretaceous to Middle(?) Eocene relative baselevel fall, weathering and erosion of the Cretaceous Pierre Shale to form the Yellow Mounds Paleosol, and fluvial incision; (2) Middle(?) to Late Eocene relative baselevel rise and deposition of the CPF; (3) Late Eocene relative baselevel fall, weathering and erosion of the CPF to form the Interior Paleosol, and fluvial incision; and (4) Late Eocene to Oligocene relative baselevel rise and deposition of the Chadron Formation. The first event was probably eustatic, the second was controlled primarily by local subsidence in a fault-bounded basin, the third records the tectonic uplift and unroofing of the Black Hills, and the fourth event was probably primarily controlled by eustasy, but other factors may have been important.

Evans aui]Dennis O.^Terry, James E.

1994-04-01

341

Evidence for a Widespread Disruption Layer Associated With the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Upper Fox Hills Formation Throughout the Badland National Park Region of South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A widespread zone of disrupted bedding (0.5 to 3.0 m thick) is preserved in the upper Fox Hills Formation throughout the Badlands National Park region. This unit, the Disturbed Zone (DZ), is recognizable in park outcrops extending for twelve miles (east to west) along the crest of the Sage Creek Arch. It also extends at least 20 miles north of the park along the Cheyenne River valley. The DZ features an abundance of soft-sediment liquefaction characteristics including rolled-up sandy beds (now mostly concretions) with an east-to-west axis orientation. The current mapped extent of the DZ covers about 3,000 square kilometers in central South Dakota, but may be much greater. In the park, the DZ unit rest on top of richly fossiliferous marine marls bearing marine mollusks (mostly ammonites and belemnites) of Late Maestrichtian age. After many seasons of searching, the sandstone and shale units overlying the DZ have not yielded any Cretaceous fossils. However, the overlying beds do preserve an abundance of small traces fossils, arthropod and fish remains, and plant material. In the park, this uppermost unit above the DZ ranges up to 16 meters thick, and the upper part preserves a series of paleosols known locally as the Yellow Mounds. The Fox Hills Formation in the park preserves the same biozonation sequence as the Type Fox Hills in the Missouri Valley region. In both regions the thickness of the formation varies, but the measurable maximum thickness is about the same (50 meters). In the Badlands National Park area, structural patterns preserved in the underlying Pierre Shale seem to have influenced sedimentation characteristics (including sand content and fossil distribution) in the overlying Fox Hills Formation. In addition, the thickness of the Fox Hills Formation is controlled by the distribution and pattern of ancient stream valleys preserved beneath the overlying Tertiary White River Group.

Stoffer, P. W.

2002-12-01

342

Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

1998-01-01

343

Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northeastern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map shows the altitude of the top of the Permian--and Pennsylvanian age Minnelusa Formation, the deepest aquifer in the northeastern Black Hills for which there is sufficient data available to construct a structural map. The Minnelusa Formation outcrops in the western part of the map area and is more than 3 ,600 ft below land surface in the northeastern corner of the area. The formation consists of interbedded sandstone, sandy dolomite and limestone, shale, siltstone, gypsum, and anhydrite. The upper beds are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. Small anticlines and synclines parallel the Minnelusa outcrop. Domal structures and peaks in the study area are the result of Tertiary-age intrusions. (USGS)

Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, Kathy R.

1988-01-01

344

Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs.

Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)] [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Nichols, A.D. [Versar, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)] [Versar, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

1996-02-01

345

Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

2014-01-01

346

Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Rapid City NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Rapid City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 417 groundwater and 477 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are in the central portion of the quadrangle in the Pierre Shale. Three main clusters of groundwater samples with high uranium values occur here. Associated with the high uranium concentrations are high values for calcium, potassium, magnesium, strontium, and specific conductance. Stream sediment data indicate high concentrations of uranium are usually found in the Pierre Shale. Scattered samples occur in the Graneros Shale and in the Paleozoic and Precambrian units of the Black Hills. Arsenic, cobalt, and yttrium are associated with the areas of high uranium concentration. No areas are indicated with strong potential for uranium mineralization.

Not Available

1980-06-30

347

Hydrologic conditions and budgets for the Black Hills of South Dakota, through water year 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills are an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains. The surface-water hydrology of the area is highly influenced by interactions with the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, including large springs and streamflow loss zones. Defining responses of ground water and streamflow to a variety of hydrogeologic influences is critical to development of hydrologic budgets for ground- and surface-water systems. Hydrographs for 52 observation wells and 1 cave site are used to show ground-water response to cumulative precipitation departures. Aquifers considered include the Precambrian, Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers, with wells completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer generally showing small response to precipitation patterns. Many wells completed in the other aquifers have large short- and long-term fluctuations in water levels. Madison and Minnelusa wells in the southern Black Hills show a general tendency for smaller water-level fluctuations than in other areas. Streamflow characteristics and relations with precipitation are examined for 33 gaging stations representative of five different hydrogeologic settings that are identified. The ?limestone headwater? setting occurs within outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation along the ?Limestone Plateau,? where direct runoff is uncommon and streamflow consists almost entirely of base flow originating as ground-water discharge from headwater springs. Thus, variability in daily, monthly, and annual flow is small. Annual streamflow correlates poorly with precipitation; however, consideration of ?moving averages? (involving up to 11 years of annual precipitation data for some stations) improves relations substantially. The ?crystalline core? area is encircled by the outcrop band of the Madison and Minnelusa Formations and is dominated by igneous and metamorphic rocks. Base flow ranges from about 41 to 73 percent for representative streams; however, monthly flow records demonstrate shortterm response to precipitation, which probably indicates a relatively large component of interflow. Streamflow generally correlates well with annual precipitation, with r2 values ranging from 0.52 to 0.87. Downgradient from the crystalline core area is the ?loss zone? setting, where streamflow losses occur to outcrops of the Madison and Minnelusa Formations. Relations between streamflow and annual precipitation are defined by a power equation for the only two representative gages in this setting. The loss zone and ?artesian spring? areas are combined because many artesian springs are located along stream channels that are influenced by streamflow losses and several artesian springs are within outcrops of the Minnelusa Formation. Streamflow characteristics for artesian springs generally have small variability and poor correlations with annual precipitation because of large influence from relatively stable ground-water discharge. The ?exterior? setting is located downgradient from the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group, which coincides with the outer extent of the loss zone/artesian spring setting. Large flow variability is characteristic for this setting, and base flow generally is smaller than for other settings. Basin yields are highly variable, with the largest yields occurring in high-altitude areas of the northern Black Hills that receive large annual precipitation. Relations between annual yield efficiency and precipitation were applied by previous investigators in developing a method for estimating annual precipitation recharge, based on annual precipitation. The resulting ?yield-efficiency algorithm? compares spatial distributions for annual precipitation, average annual precipitation, and efficiency of basin yield. This algorithm is applied in estimating precipitation recharge on aquifer outcrops and in estimating streamflow yield from various outcrop areas, for purposes of developing average hydrologic budgets

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

2001-01-01

348

Arsenic loads in Spearfish Creek, western South Dakota, water years 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous small tributaries on the eastern flank of Spearfish Creek originate within a mineralized area with a long history of gold-mining activity. Some streams draining this area are known to have elevated concentrations of arsenic. One such tributary is Annie Creek, where arsenic concentrations regularly approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 mg/L (micrograms per liter) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A site on Annie Creek was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1991. This report presents information about arsenic loads and concentrations in Spearfish Creek and its tributaries, including Annie Creek. Stream types were classified according to geologic characteris- tics and in-stream arsenic concentrations. The first type includes streams that lack significant arsenic sources and have low in-stream arsenic concentra- tions. The second type has abundant arsenic sources and high in-stream concentrations. The third type has abundant arsenic sources but only moderate in-stream concentrations. The fourth type is a mixture of the first three types. Annual loads of dissolved arsenic were calculated for two reaches of Spearfish Creek to quantify arsenic loads at selected gaging stations during water years 1989-91. Mass-balance calculations also were performed to estimate arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows to Spearfish Creek. The drainage area of the upstream reach includes significant mineralized areas, whereas the drainage area of the downstream reach generally is without known arsenic sources. The average load of dissolved arsenic transported from the upstream reach of Spearfish Creek, which is representative of a type 4 stream, was 158 kilograms per year, calculated for station 06430900, Spearfish Creek above Spearfish. Gaged headwater tributaries draining unmineralized areas (type 1) contributed only 16 percent of the arsenic load in 63 percent of the discharge. Annie Creek (type 2), which has the highest measured arsenic concentra- tions in the Spearfish Creek drainage, contributed about 15 percent of the arsenic load in about 2 percent of the discharge of the upstream reach. Squaw Creek, which drains another mineralized area, but has only moderate in-stream concentrations (type 3), contributed 4 percent of the arsenic load in 5 percent of the discharge. Ungaged inflows to the reach contributed the remaining 65 percent of the arsenic load in 30 percent of the discharge. The calculated loads from ungaged inflows include all arsenic contributed by surface- and ground-water sources, as well as any additions of arsenic from dissolution of arsenic-bearing solid phases, or from desorption of arsenic from solid surfaces, within the streambed of the upstream reach. Mass-balance calculations indicate that dissolved arsenic concentrations of the ungaged inflows in the upstream reach averaged about 9 mg/L. In-stream arsenic concentrations of ungaged inflows from the unmineralized western flank of Spearfish Creek probably are generally low (type 1). Thus, in-stream arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows draining the mineralized eastern flank of Spearfish probably average almost twice that level, or about 18 mg/L. Some ungaged, eastern-flank inflows probably are derived from type 3 drainages, with only moderate arsenic concentrations. If so, other ungaged, eastern-flank inflows could have in-stream arsenic concentrations similar to those of Annie Creek. No significant arsenic sources were apparent in the downstream reach of Spearfish Creek. Over the course of the downstream reach, arsenic concentrations decreased somewhat, probably resulting from dilution, as well as from possible chemical adsorption to sediment surfaces or arsenic-phase precipitation. A decrease in arsenic loads resulted from various diversions from the creek and from the potential chemical removal processes. Because of a large margin of error associated with calculation o

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hayes, Timothy S.

1995-01-01

349

Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

350

View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area No. 22 in foreground, Building No. 40, No. 42, and No. 43 at left rear, note boulders as a landscape design element. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 45, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, south of Foothill Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

351

Carnotite-bearing sandstone in Cedar Canyon, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carnotite-bearing sandstone and clay have been found in the Chadron formation of the White River group of Oligocene age in the southern part of the Slim Buttes area, Harding County, S. Dak. Locally the mineralized sandstone contains as much as 0.23 percent uranium. The uranium and vanadium ions are believed to have been derived from the overlying mildly radioactive tuffaceous rocks of the Arikaree formation of Miocene age. Analyses of water from 26 springs issuing from the Chadron and Arikaree formations along the margins of Slim Buttes show uranium contents of as much as 200 parts per billion. Meteoric water percolating through tuffaceous rocks is thought to have brought uranium and other ions into environments in the Chadron formation that were physically and chemically favorable for the deposition of carnotite.

Gill, James R.; Moore, George W.

1954-01-01

352

Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson), or 0.4 to 2.4 cm (for the estimated transient cavity radius). The trend agrees with the observed thicknesses of the basal unit of the Crow Creek Member, but the actually observed thicknesses are larger than the calculated ones, indicating that not all of the basal unit comprises impact ejecta. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

2004-01-01

353

Irrigation drainage studies of the Angostura Reclamation Unit and the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project, western South Dakota : results of 1994 sampling and comparisons with 1988 data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior started the National Irrigation Water Quality Program in 1985 to identify the nature and extent of irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the western U.S. The Angostura Reclamation Unit (ARU) and Belle Fourche Reclamation Project (BFRP) in western South Dakota were included as part of this program. The ARU and BFRP reconnaissance studies were initiated in 1988, during below-normal streamflow conditions in both study areas. Surface water, bottom sediment, and fish were resampled in 1994 at selected sites in both study areas during generally near-normal streamflow conditions to compare with 1988 study results. Concentrations of major ions in water for both the ARU and BFRP study areas are high relative to national baseline levels. Major-ion concentrations for both areas generally are lower for 1994 than for 1988, when low-flow conditions prevailed, but ionic proportions are similar between years. For ARU, dissolved-solids concentrations probably increase slightly downstream from Angostura Reservoir; however, the available data sets are insufficient to confidently discern effects of ARU operations on dissolved-solids loading. For BFRP, dissolved-solids concentrations are slightly higher at sites that are affected by irrigation drainage; again, however, the data are inconclusive to determine whether BFRP operations increase dissolved-solids loading. Most trace-element concentrations in water samples for both study areas are similar between 1988 and 1994, and do not show strong relations with discharge. ARU operations probably are not contributing discernible additional loads of trace elements to the Cheyenne River. For BFRP, concentrations of some trace elements are slightly higher at sites downstream from irrigation operations than at a site upstream from irrigation operations. BFRP operations might contribute to trace-element concentrations in the Belle Fourche River, but available data are insufficient to quantify increases. For both study areas, concentrations of several trace elements occasionally exceed National Irrigation Water Quality Program guidelines. Selenium routinely occurs in concentrations that could be problematic at sites upstream and downstream from both study areas. Elevated selenium concentrations at sites upstream from irrigation operations indicate that naturally occurring selenium concentrations are relatively high in and near the study areas. While ARU operations probably do not contribute discernible additional loads of selenium to the Cheyenne River, BFRP operations might contribute additional selenium loads to the Belle Fourche River. Concentrations of most trace elements in bottom sediment, except arsenic and selenium, are similar to typical concentrations for western U.S. soils for both study areas. Bottom-sediment arsenic and selenium (1988) concentrations in both study areas can reach levels that might be of concern; however, there is insufficient information to determine whether irrigation operations contribute to these elevated concentrations. Concentrations of most trace elements in fish in both study areas are less than values known to adversely affect fish or birds, although there are occasional exceedances of established criteria. However, selenium concentrations in fish samples routinely are within the National Irrigation Water Quality Program level of concern, and also commonly exceed the dietary guideline for avian consumers for both study areas. Selenium concentrations in fish samples generally are higher at sites downstream from irrigation operations. For BFRP, arsenic and mercury concentrations are elevated in fish samples from site B-18, which is influenced by mine tailings.

Sando, Steven K.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Dickerson, Kimberly K.; Wesolowski, Edwin A.

2001-01-01

354

A Study of the Economic Impact of Variation in the Nonresident Tuition Rate at Public Institutions of Higher Education in South Dakota. Bulletin Number One Hundred Thirty-Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the likely response of nonresident enrollments to a lowering of nonresident tuition rates in South Dakota public institutions of higher education; the cost of educating additional nonresident students; and other economic benefits to the state of increased enrollment of nonresident students at state universities. Nonresident…

Brown, Ralph J.; Johnson, Dennis A.

355

South Dakota Indian Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in this American Indian bibliography are 310 books and pamphlets dating from 1894 to 1971. Entries are arranged under the following headings: Art and Music, Bibliography, Culture, Fiction, Government Relations, History, Language, and Religion and Mythology. Also included is a list of publishers and addresses, containing 111 entries. (HBC)

South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

356

Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ? 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ? 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ? 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were associated with understory vegetation, drainages, and rugged terrain. These results identify the adaptability of the species to meet life history requirements in a variety of landscapes, and provide insight to how land use requirements vary within regional and management boundaries.

Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

357

The Manson Impact Structure: 40Ar/39Ar age and its distal impact ejecta in the pierre shale in southeastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 40Ar/39Ar ages of a sanidine clast from a melt-matrix breccia of the Manson, Iowa, impact structure (MIS) indicate that the MIS formed 73.8 ?? 0.3 million years ago (Ma) and is not coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (64.43 ?? 0.05 Ma). The MIS sanidine is 9 million years older than 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of MIS shock-metamorphosed microcline and melt-matrix breccia interpreted earlier to be 64 to 65 Ma. Grains of shock-metamorphosed quartz, feldspar, and zircon were found in the Crow Creek Member (upper Campanian) at a biostratigraphic level constrained by radiometric ages in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota that are consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar age of 73.8 ?? 0.3 Ma for MIS reported herein.

Izett, G.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Obradovich, J.D.; Kunk, M.J.

1993-01-01

358

The Manson Impact Structure: 40Ar/39Ar Age and Its Distal Impact Ejecta in the Pierre Shale in Southeastern South Dakota.  

PubMed

The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages of a sanidine clast from a melt-matrix breccia of the Manson, Iowa, impact structure (MIS) indicate that the MIS formed 73.8 +/- 0.3 million years ago (Ma) and is not coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (64.43 +/- 0.05 Ma). The MIS sanidine is 9 million years older than (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectra of MIS shock-metamorphosed microcline and melt-matrix breccia interpreted earlier to be 64 to 65 Ma. Grains of shock-metamorphosed quartz, feldspar, and zircon were found in the Crow Creek Member (upper Campanian) at a biostratigraphic level constrained by radiometric ages in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota that are consistent with the (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 73.8 +/- 0.3 Ma for MIS reported herein. PMID:17812340

Izett, G A; Cobban, W A; Obradovich, J D; Kunk, M J

1993-10-29

359

Field and laboratory data describing physical and chemical characteristics of metal-contaminated flood-plain deposits downstream from Lead, west-central South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples from metal-contaminated flood-plain sediments at 9 sites downstream from Lead, in west-central South Dakota, were collected during the summers of 1985-87 to characterize aspects of the sedimentology, chemistry, and geometry of a deposit that resulted from the discharge of a large volume of mining wastes into a river system. Field and laboratory data include stratigraphic descriptions, chemical contents and grain-size distributions of samples, and surveyed flood-plain positions of samples. This report describes sampling-site locations, and methods of sample collection and preservation, and subsequent laboratory analysis. Field and laboratory data are presented in 4 figures and 11 tables in the ' Supplemental Data ' section at the back of the report. (USGS)

Marron, D.C.

1988-01-01

360

120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF THE COTTONWOOD CREEK DRAW, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

361

Art & Indian Children of the Dakotas. An Introduction to Art. Series One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first volume in a bicultural educational series designed and produced especially for use in the Aberdeen (South Dakota) area schools has educational import for children and teachers everywhere who have an interest in the art and culture of the Western Sioux Tribe. This visual and verbal approach to art appreciation emphasizes the function of…

Amiotte, Arthur

362

127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

363

Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

364

Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

365

Western Stump Lake, a major canvasback staging area in eastern North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large numbers of waterfowl, especially canvasback (Aythya valisineria), used Western Stump Lake as a staging area during most of October 1985. Selection of the lake as a conditioning site by this species likely is caused by extensive, shallow-water beds of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and lack of human disturbance. A brief limnological and historical account of the lake is provided.

Kantrud, H.A.

1986-01-01

366

Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow contributing to Crow Creek in the northwestern part of the study area indicated that the primary source of water is the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for Old Hatchery and Higgins Gulch springs, located north of Spearfish, indicated a source water originating from the outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation within the study area. Concentrations of three chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were used to characterize ground-water residence times in the study area. For the four wells where dye was detected, CFC-11 apparent ages ranged from 12 to 26 years, indicating that the wells contained months-old water mixed with years- to decades-old water. Logarithmic regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for water from 10 wells and distance to a possible conduit trending north through the area where dye was detected, yielded an r2 value of 0.71. Straight-line regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for the six wells closest to the possible conduit had an r2 value of 0.96. Two wells located relatively close to the outcrop areas had no or very low tritium values indicating relatively long residence times and diffuse ground-water flow. The tritium value of 7.2 TU in water from well COL where dye was detected, indicated that the water probably is a bimodal mixture, with a substantial portion that is older than 50 years. Water from well ELL, where dye was detected, had a tritium value of 19.7 TU and a CFC apparent age of 15 years, indicating that the sample from this well probably is a unimodal mixture with very little water older than 50 years. Comparison of the CFC apparent age for three spring sites (Cox Lake, 26 years; McNenny Pond, 26 years; Mirror Lake, 13 years) also indicated that Mirror Lake spring probably has a component of local recharge from formations that overlie the Minnelusa Formation. In the Madison aquifer, specific conductance ranges from 18 to 945 microsiemens per cen

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

367

Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

Emerson, Douglas G.

2005-01-01

368

Hydraulic properties of the Madison aquifer system in the western Rapid City area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Available information on hydrogeology, data from borehole geophysical logs, and aquifer tests were used to determine the hydraulic properties of the Madison aquifer. From aquifer-test analysis, transmissivity and storage coefficient were determined for the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, and vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv') along with specific storage (Ss') for the Minnelusa confining bed. Borehole geophysical well logs were used to determine the thickness and location of the Minnelusa aquifer, the lower Minnelusa confining bed, and the Madison aquifer within the Madison Limestone. Porosity values determined from quantitative analysis of borehole geophysical well logs were used in analyzing the aquifer-test data. The average porosity at the two aquifer-test sites is about 10 percent in the Minnelusa aquifer, 5 percent in the lower Minnelusa confining bed, and 35 percent in the Madison aquifer. The first aquifer test, which was conducted at Rapid City production well #6, produced measured drawdown in the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers. Neuman and Witherspoon's method of determining the hydraulic properties of leaky two-aquifer systems was used to evaluate the aquifer-test data by assuming the fracture and solution-opening network is equivalent to a porous media. Analysis of the aquifer test for the Minnelusa aquifer yielded a transmissivity value of 12,000 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 3 x 10-3. The specific storage of the Minnelusa confining bed was 2 x 10-7 per foot, and its vertical hydraulic conductivity was 0.3 foot per day. The transmissivity of the Madison aquifer at this site was 17,000 feet squared per day, and the storage coefficient was 2 x 10-3. The second aquifer test, which was conducted at Rapid City production well #5 (RC-5) produced measured drawdown only in the Madison aquifer. Hantush and Jacob's method of determining the hydraulic properties of leaky confined aquifers with no storage in the confining bed was used to evaluate the aquifer-test data by assuming the fracture and solution-opening network is equivalent to a porous media. The analysis of data from the RC-5 aquifer test showed that transmissivity was not equal in all directions. Hantush's method was used to determine the direction of radial anisotropy and magnitude of the major and minor axes of transmissivity. The major axis of transmissivity is at an angle of 42? east of north, and the transmissivity along this axis is about 56,000 feet squared per day. The minor axis of transmissivity is at an angle of 48? west of north, and the transmissivity along this axis is about 1,300 feet squared per day. The major axis of transmissivity intersects Cleghorn Springs, a large resurgent spring on the west edge of Rapid City. The shape of the potentiometric contours of the Madison aquifer near RC-5 agree with the orientation of the transmissivity ellipse. The average value of the storage coefficient from the isotropic analysis of the aquifer-test data was 3.5 x 10-4, and the average vertical hydraulic conductivity of the lower Minnelusa confining bed was 9.6 x 10-3 foot per day.

Greene, Earl A.

1993-01-01

369

Geologic map of the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Restricted outcrops of Archean (2.5 Ga) rock, primarily granite, are the basement for a thick sequence of early Proterozoic (2.4-1.8 Ga) metasedimentary units (fanglomerate, conglomerate, quartzite, iron-formation, graywacke, and shale) containing minor basaltic metavolcanic rocks and associated gabbroic sills. The map shows the complex lithologic sequence developed in an early Proterozoic rift basin or passive margin. Two major periods of folding have created a complex map pattern of the stratified rocks. Early Proterozoic (1.7 Ga) granite and pegmatite emplacement is the last recognized Precambrian event.

DeWitt, E.; Redden, J.A.; Buscher, D.; Wilson, A.B.

1989-01-01

370

HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF PRAIRIE WETLAND BIRDS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

waterfowl and nongame species occur e4i more frequently in wetlands with intermediate cover-to-water ratios dabbling duck species richness was at a maximum compared to wetlands without dabbling ducks. Despite

371

Mediterranean Sea potential seen in area south of Malta  

SciTech Connect

Seismic data and stratigraphic projections indicate that an entirely different facies exists in Area 4 in the Mediterranean Sea south of Malta than the continuous carbonate sequence of the Malta platform. Japan National Oil Corp., in September 1989 under authority of the government of Malta, conducted a 3,615 line km geophysical survey (seismic, gravity, magnetics) in Area 4, which comprises about 13,000 sk km and is 40 km south of Malta. The paper describes the geology of Malta Area 4, its inferred stratigraphy, seismic results, and potential geologic traps.

Bishop, W.F. (Bishop (William F.), Houston, TX (United States)); Debono, G. (Office of the Prime Minister, Valletta (Malta))

1993-07-05

372

ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

373

20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA - LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to the left leads into empty can storage area from which a can conveyor track, for flat oval cans, can be seen descending at a forty-five degree angle. Cement bases in the foreground held brining tanks into which cut fish were sluiced. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

374

Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

1999-01-01

375

SOUTH RAMP 3.01.X AREA GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the stability and determine ground support requirements for the 3.01.X areas in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) South Ramp. The 3.01.X area refers to the ESF tunnel portions that were constructed under Section 3.01.X of the ESF General Construction Specification (Reference 8.4). Four 3.01.X areas in the ESF Main Loop are covered

S. Bonabian

1999-01-01

376

Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

2012-01-01

377

More Dakota texts: collections of Alanson Buck Skinner and Amos Oneroad  

E-print Network

Minnesota, and sporadic battles continued on the plains until the 1890 battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota. The Eastern Dakota loyalties were divided in the uprising between active participants, those friendly to whites, and pacifists. Thomas A...

Anderson, Laura Lee

1993-01-01

378

Fargo, North Dakota, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much broader, topographically distinct pathway of former glaciation that narrows to about 190 km (120 miles) wide. South of Fargo this narrowed pathway splits into two distinct paths (broad dark swaths on the image) that were carved by the southward flowing glaciers. Arcuate glacial moraines (deposits of rocks that were carried by glaciers) can be seen near this split, near what is now the approximate boundary between the Hudson Bay and Gulf of Mexico drainage basins (the latter via the Mississippi River).

This glacial landscape has features that were favorable for the transport of ice but are not now so favorable for the transport of water. As measured in the digital elevation data, the Red River decreases in elevation only 40 meters (130 feet) from Fargo to the Canadian border (top of image) over a straight-line distance of 235 kilometers (145 miles) along the glacial trough. This is a gradient of only 17 centimeters per kilometer (11 inches per mile), and the actual river gradient is much lower as it follows a longer curvilinear path. Areas surrounding the trough (more rugged and bright in the image) have variable but generally much steeper gradients. In simple terms, this is a fundamental cause of flooding in Fargo. The speed of drainage of the rainfall and snowmelt is greatly related to topographic slope. The steeper slopes and merging streams concentrate water runoff into the glacial trough at Fargo, while the lower gradients within the trough allow the water to spread (and flood) but not drain quickly away.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission was a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies, and was managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

Size: 440x380 kilometers; 270x235 miles Location:

2009-01-01

379

Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium-osmium sulfide geochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homestake gold deposit, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, is one of the largest known hydrothermal gold deposits globally, with total mining production exceeding 40 Moz Au. Rhenium-osmium geochronology of ore-associated arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite was performed in an effort to delineate the timing of gold mineralization in relation to known tectonothermal events in the northern Black Hills. Arsenopyrite yields a rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) age of 1,736 ± 8 Ma (mean squared weighted deviation = 1.6), consistent with existing age constraints for gold mineralization, whereas Re-Os pyrrhotite data are highly scattered and do not yield a meaningful mineralization age. This is taken to indicate that the Re-Os arsenopyrite chronometer is robust to at least 400°C, whereas the Re-Os pyrrhotite chronometer is likely disturbed by temperatures of 300-350°C. The Re-Os arsenopyrite age and initial Os ratio (0.28 ± 0.15) are interpreted to indicate that gold was introduced at ca. 1,730 Ma, coincident with the onset of exhumation of crustal blocks and, possibly, the earliest intrusive phases of Harney Peak granite magmatism. New in situ U-Pb monazite analyses from an aplite dike in the east-central Black Hills indicate that granite magmatism was a protracted event, persisting until at least ca. 1,690 Ma.

Morelli, Ryan M.; Bell, Chris C.; Creaser, Robert A.; Simonetti, Antonio

2010-06-01

380

Use of hydrologic budgets and hydrochemistry to determine ground-water and surface-water interactions for Rapid Creek, Western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study of ground-water and surface-water interactions often employs streamflow-gaging records and hydrologic budgets to determine ground-water seepage. Because ground-water seepage usually is computed as a residual in the hydrologic budget approach, all uncertainty of measurement and estimation of budget components is associated with the ground-water seepage. This uncertainty can exceed the estimate, especially when streamflow and its associated error of measurement, is large relative to other budget components. In a study of Rapid Creek in western South Dakota, the hydrologic budget approach with hydrochemistry was combined to determine ground-water seepage. The City of Rapid City obtains most of its municipal water from three infiltration galleries (Jackson Springs, Meadowbrook, and Girl Scout) constructed in the near-stream alluvium along Rapid Creek. The reach of Rapid Creek between Pactola Reservoir and Rapid City and, in particular the two subreaches containing the galleries, were studied intensively to identify the sources of water to each gallery. Jackson Springs Gallery was found to pump predominantly ground water with a minor component of surface water. Meadowbrook and Girl Scout Galleries induce infiltration of surface water from Rapid Creek but also have a significant component of ground water.

Anderson, Mark T.

1995-01-01

381

Apollo 10 spacecraft approaches touchdown in South Pacific recovery area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 10 spacecraft approaches touchdown in the South Pacific recovery area to conclude an eight-day lunar orbit mission. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the capsules parachutes are fully deployed.

1969-01-01

382

Chemical quality of surface waters, and sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin, North and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the chemical quality of surface waters and of the sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1946. The chemical quality of the water was studied to obtain information on the nature and amounts of dissolved solids in the streams and on the suitability of the water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. Sedimentation was studied to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams, the particle sizes of the sediment, and the probable specific weight of the sediment when deposited in a reservoir. The basin is underlain by consolidated sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age; along the Grand River and its tributaries the rocks are mantled by alluvium of Quaternary age. The Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations underlie about 4,700 of the 5,680 square miles of drainage area. The climate of the basin is semiarid and is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. Mean annual runoff is about 53 acre-feet per square mile of drainage area and is equal to about 7 percent of the mean annual precipitation. The highest streamflows on the Grand River and major tributaries are caused by melting of snow in March and April. Streamflow is extremely variable from year to year. Most of the surface waters in the basin are of the sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate type. High percent sodium is typical of almost all the surface waters. The streamflow-quality patterns of the Grand River and its two forks are very similar; dissolved-solids concentration, which usually does not exceed 3,000 ppm, is maximum during low-flow periods. The water in Shadehill Reservoir became stratified during the flood inflow of 1952; about 75 percent of the floodwater, which was of good quality, passed through the reservoir. The quality of the water became almost uniform throughout the reservoir the latter part of July 1952. After the specific conductance became relatively stable in 1956, it fluctuated from about 1,300 to 1,600 micromhos per centimeter and was between 1,400 and 1,500 micromhos per centimeter most of the time. During the representative period July 1937 to June 1950 the quantity of dissolved solids passing the station near Wakpala was estimated to have been about 140,000 tons per year. Yields computed for different parts of the basin ranged from about 22 to 32 tons per square mile. Except for sulfate, concentrations of chemical constituents usually do not exceed the maximum concentrations recommended for domestic supplies. The rather high dissolved solids, and hardness of most of the surface waters prevent the use of these waters for most industrial purposes unless the quality is improved by treatment. Classified for irrigation use according to its specific conductance and sodium-adsorption-ratio, the water stored in Shadehill Reservoir has a high salinity hazard and a medium sodium hazard. The water can be used safely for sustained irrigation on soils of the proposed irrigation unit if adequate leaching is practiced and if gypsum or some other calcium compound is added to the water or land during the high sodium cycle. Suspended-sediment discharges of the Grand River at Shadehill from March 1946 through July 1950 averaged 700,000 tons per year. Suspended-sediment discharges of the South Fork Grand River near Cash for 1947-50, estimated from periodic measurements, averaged 270,000 tons per year. Sediment discharges during these periods were much greater than normal. Suspended-sediment discharges of the North Fork Grand River for 1947-60, estimated from periodic measurements, averaged 31,000 tons per year at Haley and 140,000 tons per year near White Butte. Suspended sediment is predominantly clay ; some silt and a little sand are transported. The probable specific weights of sediment deposits are about 42 pounds per cubic foot for the North and South Forks and 56 pounds per cubic foot for the Grand River at Shadehill. These speci

Hembree, Charles Herbert; Krieger, Robert A.; Jordan, Paul Robert

1964-01-01

383

78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe...

2013-11-12

384

75 FR 23793 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1901-DR), dated April...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe...

2010-05-04

385

75 FR 11900 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1879-DR), dated February...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe...

2010-03-12

386

76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe...

2011-07-22

387

Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 80 (2001) 33 SIMULATED EFFECTS OF ANGLER HARVEST  

E-print Network

perch (Perca flavescens) in recently formed Parks Pond, South Dako- ta. Yellow perch (N = 203) were Yellow perch, Perca flavescens, growth, age structure, exploitation, simu- lation model INTRODUCTION property, the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population had not been exploited at the time of this study

388

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment...Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2013-07-01

389

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

...Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment...Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2014-07-01

390

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment...Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment...Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment...Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2011-07-01

393

40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. North Dakota—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR 172 X North Dakota—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

394

Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 have orbits that are offset from each other by 8 days. During the time that the sensors on both satellites are operational, there is an opportunity for conducting analyses that incorporate multiple intra-annual high spatial resolution data sets for characterizing the Earth's land surface. In the current study, nine Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data sets, covering the same path and row on different dates, were acquired during a 1-year time interval for a region in southeastern South Dakota and analyzed. Scenes were normalized using pseudoinvariant objects, and digital data from a series of test sites were extracted from the imagery and converted to surface reflectance. Sunphotometer data acquired on site were used to atmospherically correct the data. Ground observations that were made throughout the growing season by a large group of volunteers were used to help interpret spectroradiometric patterns and trends. Normalized images were found to be very effective in portraying the seasonal patterns of reflectance change that occurred throughout the region. Many of the radiometric patterns related to plant growth and development, but some also related to different background properties. The different kinds of land cover in the region were spectrally and radiometrically characterized and were found to have different seasonal patterns of reflectance. The degree to which the land cover classes could be separated spectrally and radiometrically, however, depended on the time of year during which the data sets were acquired, and no single data set appeared to be adequate for separating all types of land cover. This has practical implications for classification studies because known patterns of seasonal reflectance properties for the different types of land cover within a region will facilitate selection of the most appropriate data sets for producing land cover classifications.

Vogelmann, J.E.; DeFelice, T.P.

2003-01-01

395

Isolation and characterization of cellulose-degrading bacteria from the deep subsurface of the Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (60 degrees C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Molecular community structures were determined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from enrichment cultures growing in presence of microcrystalline cellulose as the sole source of carbon. All phylotypes retrieved from enrichment cultures were affiliated to Firmicutes. Cellulose-degrading mesophilic and thermophilic pure cultures belonging to the genera Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus, and Geobacillus were isolated from enrichment cultures, and selected cultures were studied for enzyme activities. For a mesophilic isolate (DUSELG12), the optimum pH and temperature for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) were 5.5 and 55 degrees C, while for a thermophilic isolate (DUSELR7) they were 5.0 and 75 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, DUSELG12 retained about 40% CMCase activity after incubation at 60 degrees C for 8 h. Most remarkably, thermophilic isolate, DUSELR7 retained 26% CMCase activity at 60 degrees C up to a period of 300 h. Overall, the present work revealed the presence of different cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages in the unique deep subsurface environment of the mine. The results also have strong implications for biological conversion of cellulosic agricultural and forestry wastes to commodity chemicals including sugars. PMID:19189143

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Muppidi, Geetha L; Gurram, Raghu N; Adhikari, Akash; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hughes, Stephen R; Apel, William A; Bang, Sookie S; Dixon, David J; Sani, Rajesh K

2009-04-01

396

An inferred relationship between some uranium deposits and calcium carbonate cement in southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evidence resulting from geologic mapping in the southern Black Hills indicates that the areas marginal to some of the larger carbonate-cemented sandstones constitute favorable geochemical environments for the localization of uranium deposits. To determine whether these favorable environments are predictable a limited experimental core-drilling program was carried out. An extensive deposit was discovered in an area marginal to a sandstone well-cemented with calcium carbonate. The deposit has not yet been developed, but from the available data it appears that there is a significant quantity of mineralized rock present containing as much as 3.0 percent eU3O8.

Gott, Garland B.

1956-01-01

397

NORTH DAKOTA INFORMATION  

E-print Network

NORTH DAKOTA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS User's Conference News Abstract Deadline Extended! Didn on Facebook! The ND GIS User's Conference has been added to the University of North Dakota Geography Facebook Consultants GeoNorth Frontier Precision University of North Dakota Sanborn Greater Grand Forks Convention

Delene, David J.

398

Sparrows of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted several new biological resources on the Web. "Sparrows of North Dakota," by Chris Grondahl (North Dakota Game and Fish Department), is intended as a field guide for the nineteen species of native sparrows that occupy grasslands and other important habitats in North Dakota. All resources may be downloaded as .zip files.

Grondahl, Chris.

2000-01-01

399

29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE HOPPERS IN THE RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH DISCHARGE FLY ASH INTO A VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE OGIVE SHAPED DEVICE BELOW THE HOPPER IS A RELIEF INTAKE VALVE FOR THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE "S" SHAPED CONDUITS TO THE LEFT OF THE HOPPERS CARRY BOILER FEED WATER FROM THE ECONOMIZERS (WATER PREHEATERS) TO THE BOILERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

400

Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.

401

Appraisal of the water resources of the Big Sioux aquifer, Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite-difference method digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, S. Dak. Average annual water levels in the Big Sioux aquifer and average base flow discharge 58 cubic feet per second on the Big Sioux River near Brookings were based on the period 1970 through 1976. The computer model was used to model transient conditions by simulating monthly periods from April through August 1976. Evapotranspiration and pumpage changes were made for each month. A computer simulation was made without irrigation pumpage which resulted in an increase in the base flow from 0.66 to 9 cubic feet per second for August 1976 in the Big Sioux River near Brookings. Two transient simulations , one with the drought conditions of 1976 and one using all the pumpage allowed by irrigation permits approved by the State as of February 1979 showed, as a result of pumpage, that there was a decrease in evapotranspiration and a decrease in discharge to streams which amounts to 26 and 31% of the total groundwater pumped. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are primarily calcium bicarbonate types and are chemically suitable for irrigation with respect to sodium hazard. Sepcific conductance of groundwater ranged from 407 to 1,790 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius. (USGS)

Koch, Neil C.

1980-01-01

402

Marine biofouling in offshore areas south of Hainan Island, northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study on the characteristics of fouling communities in offshore areas south of Hainan Island, northern South China Sea, was conducted at four sites there. At each station, test panels on iron frames were hung on the mooring system at different depths. Data on biofouling were mainly obtained by examination of the fouled test panels. Organisms attached to buoys and anchors were scraped off and examined also. The results showed that the thickness and biomass of marine growth that increased the fluid loading on offshore installations depended to a large extent on hard foulers, i. e. mollusks and acorn barnacles. Algae, hydroids, stalked barnacles and bryozoans were important fouling species. The occurrence frequency and biomass of acorn barnacles decreased with increasing distance from the shore.

Yan, Tao; Yan, Wen-Xia; Liang, Guan-He; Dong, Yu; Wang, Hua-Jie; Yan, Yan

2000-06-01

403

Petrogenetic relationships between pegmatite and granite based on geochemistry of muscovite in pegmatite wall zones, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

SciTech Connect

The compositions of large samples of granitic pegmatite wall zones have been determined for a suite of ten pegmatites of diverse geochemical character and degree of compositional evolution in the Keystone area of the Black Hills. Whole-rock compositions are strongly peraluminous, and they deviate substantially from the granite minimum composition in quartz-albite-orthoclase normalized components, showing considerably more scatter than Harney Peak Granite whole rocks. Wall-zone minerals are commonly coarsely segregated, leading to large modal variability among whole rocks. These features make whole-rock samples of wall zones unsuitable for the determination of initial pegmatite bulk compositions. Trace and minor element compositions of muscovite separates from the wall zones were thus determined to eliminate the effects of modal variability on trace element concentrations so that geochemical differences between pegmatites could be modeled. Estimates of initial pegmatite melt trace element concentrations range from 800-4,000 ppm Rb, 100-1,000 ppm Cs, 200-2,000 ppm Li, and 1-50 ppm Ba. Trace element concentrations of muscovite from a given pegmatite generally cluster together, although several show considerable intra-pegmatite scatter, and there are large overlaps among different pegmatites. The geochemical characteristics of samples from the Etta pegmatite indicate mixing with and assimilation of country rocks. Exceptionally low Rb/Cs ratios of muscovite from the Etta pegmatite and similar to those of muscovite from K-feldspar-rich assemblages of other pegmatites where the Rb concentration of melt may have been buffered by crystallizing assemblages that had bulk Rb distribution coefficients close to 1.

Jolliff, B.L. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States))

1992-05-01

404

Deposition of Crow Creek Member (Pierre Shale, Campanian), southeast South Dakota, and supposed relations to Iowa's Manson Structure  

SciTech Connect

Previous dates from the Manson Impact Structure (MIS) indicated an age near the K-T boundary (65 Ma), but a date of 73.8 Ma was recently reported for a single breccia clast at Manson. The discovery of shock metamorphosed grains in roughly coeval Pierre Shale strata in S. Dak. led Izett et al. to propose that the Crow Creek Mbr contains Manson's distal impact ejecta. They indicated that Manson was covered by a seaway at that time, and postulated effects from an impact-triggered tsunami in the Western Interior. A study of Crow Creek strata from four sites in Yankton Co., S. Dak. was undertaken to evaluate the sedimentary context of the contained impact-derived grains. The sub-Crow Creek unconformity truncates lower Pierre strata eastward across S. Dak. and locally overlies the Niobrara Fm on the sioux Ridge. Probable leaf fossils are seen along this surface at one site. Basal Crow Creek strata reveal evidence of condensed sedimentation coincident with the onset of Bearpaw transgression, particularly occurrences of glauconite, abundant phosphate (pellets, phosphatized matrix, fish bone apatite), and foam-rich lithologies. Basal strata contain detrital grains (15--25% volume) derived from eastern source areas, including quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals and small clasts of siltstone, mudstone, shale, dolomite, limestone, and quartzite. Floating silt and sand-sized detrital grains persist in the overlying Crow Creek marls, indicating continuing detrital influx. Shock metamorphic planar deformation features (PDFs) are seen in many quartz grains (10-30% in basal unit) and some quartzite and siltstone grains; these are definitive for an impact-derived source. Was the MIS the source of these grains, and does the Crow Creek show evidence of a Manson-triggered tsunami Several obstacles remain and are discussed.

Witzke, B.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ludvigson, G.A. (Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources, Iowa City, IA (United States). Geological Survey Bureau); Hammond, R.H. (South Dakota Geological Survey, Vermillion, SD (United States))

1994-04-01

405

Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood deposits in conjunction with hydraulic calculations based on modern channel and valley geometry. Reach-scale paleoflood chronologies were interpreted for each study reach, which generally entailed correlation of flood evidence among multiple sites, chiefly based on relative position within stratigraphic sequences, unique textural characteristics, or results of age dating and flow estimation. The FLDFRQ3 and PeakfqSA analytical models (assuming log-Pearson Type III frequency distributions) were used for flood-frequency analyses for as many as four scenarios: (1) analysis of gaged records only; (2) gaged records with historical information; (3) all available data including gaged records, historical flows, paleofloods, and perception thresholds; and (4) the same as the third scenario, but ?top fitting? the distribution using only the largest 50 percent of gaged peak flows. The PeakfqSA model is most consistent with procedures adopted by most Federal agencies for flood-frequency analysis and thus was (1) used for comparisons among results for study reaches, and (2) considered by the authors as most appropriate for general applications of estimating low-probability flood recurrence. The detailed paleoflood investigations indicated that in the last 2,000 years all study reaches have had multiple large floods substantially larger than in gaged records. For Spring Creek, stratigraphic records preserved a chronology of at least five paleofloods in approximately (~) 1,000 years approaching or exceeding the 1972 flow of 21,800 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The largest was ~700 years ago with a flow range of 29,300-58,600 ft3/s, which reflects the uncertainty regarding flood-magnitude estimates that was incorporated in the flood-frequency analyses. In the lower reach of Rapid Creek (downstream from Pactola Dam), two paleofloods in ~1,000 years exceeded the 1972 flow of 31,200 ft3/s. Those occurred ~440 and 1,000 years ago, with flows of 128,000-256,000 and 64,000-128,000 ft3/s, respectively. Five smaller paleofloods of 9,500-19,000 ft3/s occurred between ~200 and 400 year

Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

2011-01-01

406

Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating their statistics over large areas. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

2011-01-01

407

SOUTH RAMP 3.01.X AREA GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the stability and determine ground support requirements for the 3.01.X areas in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) South Ramp. The 3.01.X area refers to the ESF tunnel portions that were constructed under Section 3.01.X of the ESF General Construction Specification (Reference 8.4). Four 3.01.X areas in the ESF Main Loop are covered in this analysis that extend from Station 60+15.28 to 60+49.22, 62+04.82 to 62+32.77, 75+21.02 to 75+28.38, and 76+63.08 to 77+41.23. The scope of the analysis is (1) to document the as-built configuration including existing voids and installed ground support, (2) to evaluate the existing ground conditions, (3) to determine applicable design loads, (4) to evaluate the stability and determine a ground support system, and (5) to analyze the recommended system.

S. Bonabian

1999-07-12

408

19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

2011-04-01

409

19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

2014-04-01

410

19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

2010-04-01

411

19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

2013-04-01

412

19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

2012-04-01

413

76 FR 51047 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 10 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Amendment No. 10 to Notice of...major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May...in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding...

2011-08-17

414

Quality and Age of Shallow Groundwater in the Bakken Formation Production Area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota.  

PubMed

The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had (14) C ages ranging from <1000 to >30,000?years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from (14) C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5?km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6?km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur. PMID:25392910

McMahon, P B; Caldwell, R R; Galloway, J M; Valder, J F; Hunt, A G

2014-11-13

415

CHANGES IN WATERFOWL, WETLANDS, DEMOGRAPHICS, AND LAND USE ON THE WAUBAY STUDY AREA, DAY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

found in 1992 and 64 in 1993. Redheads (Avthya americana) were the most abundant over-water nester.6% in 1993. Forty upland nests were incidentally found with blue-winged teal (Anas discors) being the most

416

Coefficients of Conservatism for the Vascular Flora of the Dakotas and Adjacent Grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floristic quality assessment can be used to identity natural areas, to facilitate comparisons among different sites, to provide long-term monitoring of natural area quality, and to evaluate habitat management and restoration efforts. To facilitate the use of floristic quality assessment in North Dakota, South Dakota (excluding the Black Hills), and adjacent grasslands, we developed a species list and assigned coefficients of conservatism (C values; range 0 to 10) to each plant species in the region's flora. The C values we assigned represented our collective knowledge of the patterns of occurrence of each plant species in the Dakotas and our confidence that a particular taxon is natural-area dependent. Because state boundaries usually do not follow ecological boundaries, the C values we assigned should be equally valid in nearby areas with the same vegetation types. Of the 1,584 taxa we recognized in this effort, 275 (17%) were determined to be nonnative to the region. We assigned C values of 4 or higher to 77% of our taxa, and the entire native flora had a mean C value (C) of 6.l. A floristic quality index (FQI) can be calculated to rank sites in order of their floristic quality. By applying the coefficients of conservatism supplied here and calculating C and FQI, an effective means of evaluating the quality of plant communities can be obtained. Additionally, by repeating plant surveys and calculations of C and FQI over time, temporal changes in floristic quality can be identified.

The Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel

2001-01-01

417

77 FR 52756 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the South Gillette Area Maysdorf II Coal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the South Gillette Area Maysdorf II Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental...of Decision (ROD) for the Maysdorf II Coal Lease-by- Application (LBA) included in the South Gillette Area Coal Lease Applications Final...

2012-08-30

418

19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

2012-04-01

419

19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.  

...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

2014-04-01

420

19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

2011-04-01

421

19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

2013-04-01

422

The artesian water supply of the Dakota sandstone in North Dakota, with special reference to the Edgeley quadrangle: Chapter E in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota sandstone and the overlying dense plastic shales form the most remarkable artesian basin in the United States with respect to its great extent, the long distances through which its water has percolated from the outcrops of the sandstone in the western mountains to the areas of artesian flow, and especially the tremendous pressure under which the water in the sandstone was originally by thick and continuous cover of impermeable shales. In 1882 a well was drilled to the Dakota sandstone at Aberdeen, S. Dak., by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. This well was reported by Nettleton1 to have been "the first bore put down which reached the artesian basin of the Dakotas." In 1896 Darton2 estimated that about 400 artesian wells had been drilled to the Dakota sandstone, presumably in South Dakota and adjacent parts of the artesian basin in North Dakota which he investigated.3 The strongest of these wells had pressures ranging from 100 to more than 200 pounds to the square inch and flows ranging from 1,000 to more than 4,000 gallons a minute. The present brief paper is based chiefly on the data that have been obtained in the successive surveys in regard to about 230 artesian wells in or near the Edgeley quadrangle. A table of these well data is on file in the United States Geological Survey and is to be published in the detailed report on the geology and hydrology of the Edgeley and La Moure quadrangles that has been prepared by Mr. Hard. The well data obtained by Mr. Hard have already been published in a report prepared by him in his capacity as State flood-control engineer.

Meinzer, Oscar E.; Hard, Herbert A.

1925-01-01

423

Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

Not Available

1981-04-01

424

OUTBREAK OF VIVAX MALARIA IN AREAS ADJACENT TO THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, SOUTH KOREA, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria had been eradicated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) by the late 1970s. In 1993, a soldier was infected with Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ; the border area between North and South Korea), and since then, the number of cases has been steadily increasing year after year. In 1998, 3,932 vivax malaria cases were microscopically

JONG SOO LEE; WON JA LEE; SHIN HYUNG CHO; HAN-IL REE

425

South Carolina Department of Archives and History Archives and Records Management Service Area  

E-print Network

South Carolina Department of Archives and History Archives and Records Management Service Area 1919 Blanding Street, Columbia South Carolina 29201 General Records Retention Schedules for Data Processing and Electronic Records of State Agencies and Institutions #12;1 General Records Retention Schedules for Data

Kasman, Alex

426

Cleaning Up Groundwater in Areas South and Southeast of Brookhaven National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Cleaning Up Groundwater in Areas South and Southeast of Brookhaven National Laboratory This pamphlet summarizes the questions you or your neighbors raised about groundwater treatment systems National Laboratory have been listening to the concerns of the community about groundwater

427

78 FR 58266 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Air Basin, Coachella Valley, and Sacramento Metro Ozone Nonattainment Areas; Reclassification AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of...

2013-09-23

428

Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, TylerMcconnell ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge middleground, and Henry Clay Village and Walkers Mill in upper background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

429

2013 North Dakota State Baseball Winnipeg at North Dakota State  

E-print Network

2013 North Dakota State Baseball Winnipeg at North Dakota State Apr 30, 2013 at Fargo, ND (Newman 0 0 0 0 0 0 .286 Totals 39 6 11 6 8 13 24 10 14 North Dakota State 7 (18-17) Player ab r h rbi bb so 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 6 11 2 North Dakota State 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 X 7 13 1 E - Zamko(2); Gaunt(5

Martin, Jeff

430

North Dakota geology school receives major gift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

Showstack, Randy

2012-10-01

431

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This North Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

432

Fault control of channel sandstones in Dakota Formation, southwest Powder River basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dakota Formation is an important oil reservoir in the southwestern Powder River basin and adjoining Casper arch. Two fields, Burke Ranch and South Cole Creek, are used as examples to show the depositional environments of the Dakota and to indicate the influence of tectonic control on the distribution of the environments. Burke Ranch field is a stratigraphic trap which

W. Richard Moore

1983-01-01

433

GREATER SAGE GROUSE ON THE EDGE OF THEIR RANGE: LEKS AND SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES IN THE DAKOTAS  

E-print Network

GREATER SAGE GROUSE ON THE EDGE OF THEIR RANGE: LEKS AND SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES IN THE DAKOTAS the study for his knowledge and experience with sage grouse, his lek count data, and his willingness to take, and the history of sage grouse management in South Dakota. I also would like to thank Charles Berdan, Kenneth Parr

434

Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

435

Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

Craddock, William H.; Drake, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

2012-01-01

436

North Dakota's Forests Resource Bulletin  

E-print Network

North Dakota's Forests 2005 Resource Bulletin NRS-31 Forest Service United States Department and analysis of North Dakota's forest resources. Tom Berg James Blehm Joseph Boykin Gary Brand Bill Burkman Tom Missouri River corridor. Photo used with permission from the North Dakota Forest Service. #12;1 Manuscript

437

North Dakota's Forests Resource Bulletin  

E-print Network

North Dakota's Forests 2010 Resource Bulletin NRS-76 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service #12;Abstract The second annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports more than 772,000 acres of North Dakota's forest resources. Primary field crew and QA staff over the 2006-2010 field inventory

438

75 FR 6347 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...in 3 provinces in the Republic of South Africa as pest-free areas for citrus black...of the documentation submitted by South Africa's national plant protection...

2010-02-09

439

33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided...danger zone. The waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as...

2011-07-01

440

33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided...danger zone. The waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as...

2010-07-01

441

74 FR 36999 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa; Request for Comments AGENCY...the Government of the Republic of South Africa to recognize 16 additional magisterial...the Government of the Republic of South Africa to recognize additional areas...

2009-07-27

442

GEOLOGIC FEATURES OF AREAS OF ABNORMAL RADIOACTIVITY SOUTH OF OCALA, MARION COUNTY, FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion Courty, Fla., ; were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power-auger drill holes. ; Iuterbedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of ; anomalous radioactivity. Miocene fossils occur at 3 localities in these beds ; which are evidently outliers of Miocene sedimentary rocks on the Ocala limestone

Espenshade

1958-01-01

443

Geomorphological study of an area with mud diapirs south of Crete (Mediterranean Ridge)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Meteor Cruise 254 in 1993, a multibeam bathymetric (Hydrosweep) survey was carried out on the Mediterranean Ridge in an area south of Crete (comprising the original Olimpi and Prometheus-2 mud diapir fields). The morphology is characterized by subcircular (domes) and elongated (ridges) features. The studied area is subdivided from west to east in three relief provinces with predominance of

W. Hieke; F. Werner; H.-W. Schenke

1996-01-01

444

Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina hills of northeastern North Dakota. Resource pub  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value.

C. A. Faanes; J. M. Andrew

1983-01-01

445

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2011-10-01

446

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2013-10-01

447

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2012-10-01

448

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2014-10-01

449

General geology and mineral resources of the coal area of south-central Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the topography, physiography, geology, coal and other resources, and geologic hazards of the coal areas of south-central Utah. The report area lies generally between lat. 37° and 38°N. and long. 111° and 113°W. Despite the magnitude of structure and of canyon erosion, large areas of Late Cretaceous coal-bearing rocks have been preserved within synclinal

K. A. Sargeant; D. E. Hansen

1976-01-01

450

Black carbon measurement in a coastal area of south China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand anthropogenic pollution originating in Asia and its transport into the global atmosphere, black carbon (BC) emissions were measured continuously from June 2004 to May 2005 at Hok Tsui (22.13°N, 114.15°E). Hok Tsui is a continental outflow, downwind monitoring site, located in a coastal area near Hong Kong. Using an Aethalometer, hourly BC concentrations ranged from 63.0 ng\\/m3

Y. Cheng; S. C. Lee; K. F. Ho; Y. Q. Wang; J. J. Cao; J. C. Chow; J. G. Watson

2006-01-01

451

A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San Francisco Bay salt ponds.

Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

2006-01-01

452

name to an account. (2) As noted in Birds of South Dakota, Third Edition (2002) a young Eastern Screech-Owl may be misidentified as a Boreal Owl. Nonetheless, the  

E-print Network

Dakota State University · Brookings, SD 57007 The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus), in The Birds of North America, No. 342 (A. Poole and F

453

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

454

North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

455

Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas  

E-print Network

Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas butterflies to change direction and move away from the pine edge. Only four species crossed the grassland/pine edge, and of these, only two flew farther than 20 m into the pine forest. The adjacent grassland

456

Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

Hongo, Hiroko

457

Geology Fieldnotes: Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Kentucky/Tennesee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The free-flowing Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries pass through 90 miles of scenic gorges and valleys containing a wide range of natural and historic features. This National Park Service site includes a brief history of the area, visitor information, and links to sites pertaining to the geology of the region.

458

Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the Shenhu area, South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the China’s first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range

Xiujuan Wang; Shiguo Wu; Myung Lee; Yiqun Guo; Shengxiong Yang; Jinqiang Liang

2011-01-01

459

Driving under the influence of cannabis, in a New South Wales rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC), and DUIC and alcohol together, in an area of Australia with a high number of young cannabis users. A telephone survey of 502 18-29 year olds on the North Coast of New South Wales revealed that, overall, 11.2 per cent of respondents had ever driven within an

Craig Jones; Karen Freeman; Don Weatherburn

460

PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AREAS: THE CASE OF CWEBE, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa, influenced by global trends towards good governance and sustainable natural resource management, has begun to adopt a participatory management approach to state-owned indigenous forests. This study, in a remote communal area and State Forest in the Eastern Cape, sought to understand the importance of forest products to local users, together with the relationships between key stakeholders and institutions

I. M. GRUNDY; B. M. CAMPBELL; R. M. WHITE; R. PRABHU; S. JENSEN; T. N. NGAMILE

2004-01-01

461

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can

Mattia Taroni; Paolo Bartolomei; Massimo Esposito; Carmela Vaccaro

2010-01-01

462

11. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING OUTSIDE DOOR TO SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING OUTSIDE DOOR TO SOUTH SIDE OF HOUSE, PLUMBING HOOKUPS FOR WASHER AND DRYER BELOW BUILT-IN CABINETS AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

463

Species–area relationships in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld, Succulent Karoo, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion is part of the Succulent Karoo hotspot of biodiversity which stretches along the southwestern\\u000a side of South Africa and Namibia. Forty Whittaker plots were surveyed in the spring of 2005, in eight vegetation associations,\\u000a to gather diversity data for the Hantam, Tanqua Karoo and Roggeveld areas. Seven plot sizes were used to construct species–area\\u000a curves using three

H. van der Merwe; M. W. van Rooyen

2011-01-01

464

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

SciTech Connect

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05

465

Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

Smith, J.T.; Flake, L.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Kobriger, G.D.; Homer, C.G.

2005-01-01

466

Geologic map of the South Sierra Wilderness and South Sierra Roadless area, southern Sierra Nevada, California  

SciTech Connect

The study area is underlain predominantly by granitoid rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Metamorphic rocks are present in roof pendants mainly in the southwest corner of the study area and consist of quartz-biotite schist, phyllite, quartzite, marble, calc-silicate hornfels, and meta-dacite. Among the seven Triassic and (or) Jurassic plutons are three newly described units that consist of the gabbro of Deer Mountain, the tonalite of Falls Creek, and the quartz diorite of Round Mountain. The map shows one newly described unit that intrudes Triassic rocks: the granodiorite of Monache Creek which is a leucocratic, medium-grained, equi-granular, locally porphyritic biotite hornblende granodiorite. Among the seven Cretaceous plutons are two newly described units. The Cretaceous rocks are generally medium- to coarse-grained, potassium-feldspar porphyritic granite with biotite and minor hornblende; it includes abundant pods of alaskite. The granite of Haiwee Creek is similar but only locally potassium-feldspar porphyritic and with only minor hornblende. Major-element data plotted on Harker diagrams show the older rocks to be higher in iron and magnesium and lower in silica than the younger rocks. There are abundant local pods of alaskite throughout the study area that consist of medium- to coarse-grained, leucocratic granite, alkali-feldspar granite and associated aplite and pegmatite bodies occurring as small pods and highly leucocratic border phases of nearby plutons. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rock include the rhyolite of Monache Mountain and Quaternary surficial deposits: fan, stream-channel, colluvium, talus, meadow-filling, rock-glacier, and glacial-moraine deposits. Important structures include the Sierran front fault and a possible extensional feature along which Bacon (1978) suggests Monache Mountain erupted.

Diggles, M.F. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Carter, K.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-04-01

467

Arsenopyrite in the bank deposits of the Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River-Lake Oahe system, South Dakota, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mining, milling, and processing wastes containing quantities of arsenopyrite were produced around Lead, South Dokata, from 1875 to 1977. Much of this material was discharged into Whitewood Creek, and from there portions of the waste were transported to the Belle Fourche River, thence to the Cheyenne River, and finally to the Missouri River. In 1958, the Missouri River was dammed at Pierre, forming Lake Oahe. Analyses of cores collected from the lake bottom showed the presence of arsenic-rich layers in the bed sediments; substantial portions of the arsenic are due to arsenopyrite in the 8-16 and 16-32 ??m size fractions of the sediments. In addition, suspended-sediment samples collected from the Cheyenne River above Lake Oahe contain detectable quantities of arsenopyrite in the 8-16 and 16-32 ??m fractions. Solid material collected from the banks and floodplains of the Belle Fourche River and Whitewood Creek contains reduced and oxidized phases. The reduced phases have arsenic maxima in the 16-32 and 32-63 ??m size ranges. These fractions also contribute the most arsenic to the samples; the major source being arsenopyrite. The oxidi