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1

Hydrology of the Black Hills Area, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. This report summarizes the hydrology of the Black Hills area and the results...

D. G. Driscoll J. M. Carter J. E. Williamson L. D. Putnam

2002-01-01

2

Hydrology of the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. This report summarizes the hydrology of the Black Hills area and the results of this long-term study.The Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming is an important recharge area for several regional, bedrock aquifer systems and various local aquifers; thus, the study focused on describing the hydrologic significance of selected bedrock aquifers. The major aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. The highest priority was placed on the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, which are used extensively and heavily influence the surface-water resources of the area.Within this report, the hydrogeologic framework of the area, including climate, geology, ground water, and surface water, is discussed. Hydrologic processes and characteristics for ground water and surface water are presented. For ground water, water-level trends and comparisons and water-quality characteristics are presented. For surface water, streamflow characteristics, responses to precipitation, annual yields and yield efficiencies, and water-quality characteristics are presented. Hydrologic budgets are presented for ground water, surface water, and the combined ground-water/surface-water system. A summary of study findings regarding the complex flow systems within the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers also is presented.

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet; Williamson, Joyce; Putnam, Larry

2002-01-01

3

Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

1985-01-01

4

South Dakota's State Assessment System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Assessment System provides information for schools to use in evaluating their teaching and curriculum as well as allowing parents to monitor their child's progress. All public schools in South Dakota test students according to South Dakota Codified Law 13-3-55, which was adopted in January 1997 and amended in January 2003. This…

South Dakota Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

5

40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land...

2013-07-01

6

Workforce Brief: South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In South Dakota, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare and healthcare support occupations will see growth of about 25 percent; over 2,500 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. There will be a 24 percent increase in the number of…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

7

Drainage areas in the Vermillion River basin in eastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Above-normal precipitation in the northern portion of the Vermillion River basin from 1982 through 1987 caused substantial rises in lake levels in the Lake Thompson chain of lakes, resulting in discharge from Lake Thompson to the East Fork Vermillion River. Prior to 1986, the Lake Thompson chain of lakes was thought to be a noncontributing portion of the Vermillion River basin. To better understand surface drainage, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than approximately 10 sq mi within the Vermillion River basin in South Dakota and lists by stream name the area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins and reaches, as well as drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M. D.; Amundson, Frank D.

1988-01-01

8

Selected hydrogeologic data for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents selected hydrogeologic data on wells and springs in the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The data were used to create potentiometric maps for these five aquifers.

Galloway, J. M.

1999-01-01

9

South Dakota State Medical Facilities Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document supplements the South Dakota State Health Plan in the area of medical facilities. Medical facilities are defined as those entities which provide institutional health services. This includes hospitals, long-term care facilities, kidney disease...

1985-01-01

10

South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services (SDCES) is to "provide practical learning resources to address complex problems of youth and families, communities, agriculture, business, and industry." The SDCES is based at South Dakota State University, and their work includes creating fact sheets, reports, and educational materials on community development, Native American life, 4-H programs, and natural resources. Visitors should start by visiting the "Extension Library", where they will find the publications database, the mobile apps section of the site, and the websites for "On Call" and "Garden Line". The last two websites include interactive content such as archived shows, which in the case of "Garden Line", includes topics like nursery plants and how to plant to effectively attract songbirds. In the "Publications" area visitors can make their way through hundreds of publications from the SDCES.

2011-03-11

11

South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services (SDCES) is to "provide practical learning resources to address complex problems of youth and families, communities, agriculture, business, and industry." The SDCES is based at South Dakota State University, and their work includes creating fact sheets, reports, and educational materials on community development, Native American life, 4-H programs, and natural resources.

12

South Dakota geothermal resources  

SciTech Connect

South Dakota is normally not thought of as a geothermal state. However, geothermal direct use is probably one of the best kept secrets outside the state. At present there are two geothermal district heating systems in place and operating successfully, a resort community using the water in a large swimming pool, a hospital being supplied with part of its heat, numerous geothermal heat pumps, and many individual uses by ranchers, especially in the winter months for heating residences, barns and other outbuildings, and for stock watering.

Lund, J.W.

1997-12-01

13

Availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An evaluation made in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota, concluded that Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development of the three major aquifers investigated (the Inyan Kara, the Minnelusa, and the Madison). Ground-water availability and quality were evaluated on the basis of unit thickness and depth, potentiometric-surface altitudes and gradients, estimated recharge and discharge rates, estimated aquifer transmissivities and storage coefficients, reported yields of existing wells, and concentrations of ions in the water that may affect its use as a community supply. The Inyan Kara aquifer has the least potential for additional development because of reported small well yields , the proximity of the outcrop, and concentration of radium-226 exceeding 5 picocuries per liter. The Minnelusa aquifer is unsuitable for development in the eastern two-thirds of the study area because the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate commonly exceed the recommended maximum level for community water supplies. The Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development because it has the greatest recharge rate, has areas with significant fracture permeability, yields as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells, and has satisifactory water quality, though it is hard (hardness 120 to 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard (hardness greater than 180 milligrams per liter). (USGS)

Peter, K. D.

1985-01-01

14

Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the burned areas. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between burned and unburned areas were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on annual-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. Annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-burn periods. Many of the post-burn data points are well beyond the range of the pre-burn data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely burned drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for burned drainage areas; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-burn condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

2004-01-01

15

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

16

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

Cochran, Carole

17

South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

18

Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

Zartman, R. E.; Norton, J. J.; Stern, T. W.

1964-01-01

19

Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei. PMID:17759093

Zartman, R E; Norton, J J; Stern, T W

1964-07-31

20

Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

21

75 FR 60102 - South Dakota PrairieWinds Project (DOE/EIS-0418)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Western Area Power Administration South Dakota PrairieWinds Project...interconnect their proposed South Dakota PrairieWinds Project...not in the action area nor in South Dakota; therefore, destruction...the most prone to flooding (streams and wetlands [see below...

2010-09-29

22

Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty development programs in Minnesota, South Dakota, and North Dakota, which were funded by the Bush Foundation, are described. Activities include advising, curriculum development and course review, department reviews, grants, humanistic studies, internships and interdisciplinary teaching, journals, leave supplements, master teachers,…

Davis, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

23

South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

Not Available

1980-06-01

24

South Dakota Public Higher Education System Opportunities Plan: A Report to the South Dakota Legislature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Opportunities Plan is being presented to the South Dakota Legislature in fulfillment of the Legislature's directive from the 2006 session (House Bill 1238). The plan is intended to provide insight into the critical issues confronting higher education in South Dakota, responses made by the Board of Regents to these situations, and…

South Dakota Board of Regents, 2006

2006-01-01

25

Wetland Resources of Eastern South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has recently posted a resource on South Dakota Wetlands. This report, by R. Johnson and K. Higgins, offers text, tables, and color illustrations of South Dakota's wetlands, including history of wetland drainage and the National Wetlands Inventory. Both reports may be browsed online or downloaded (.zip) from the respective sites.

Higgens, Kenneth F.; Johnson, Rex R.

26

Graduate Programs in South Dakota State Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1971, the South Dakota Regents of Education adopted a resolution that stated that all graduate programs at South Dakota State University, the University of South Dakota, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Northern State College, and Black Hills State College be rejustified to the Regents. If such programs could not be rejustified,…

Gibb, Richard D.

27

Digital Library of South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To know the Digital Library of South Dakota (DLSD) is to explore the wide world of this majestic state and its rich history. The DLSD is a collaboration of the libraries of the six Board of Regents colleges and universities, along with other educational partners around the state. On the site's homepage, visitors can elect to search across all of the DLSD collections or use the "Browse" feature. There are about three dozen collections available and they include Black Hills National Forest, Institute of American Indian Studies, and the Mahoney Music Collection. The Black Hills National Forest collection is a wonderful tour through the history of this regal national treasure, complete with dramatic historic vistas and the gorgeous Bridal Veil Falls. There's much more to explore here and overall it's a nice model of interinstitutional cooperation married to a wealth of diverse resources.

28

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

29

Geothermal resource assessment, South Dakota: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Seven geothermal aquifers in South Dakota contain an accessible resource base of about 11,207 x 10/sup 18/ J. The potentially productive geothermal aquifers are: Deadwood Formation (Cambrian), Winnipeg Formation + Red River Formation + Englewood Limestone (Ordovician through Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), Minnelusa Formation (Mississippian-Permian), Inyan Kara Group (Cretaceous), and Newcastle Sandstone (Cretaceous). The resource estimate was obtained by first using heat flow, thermal conductivity, temperature gradient, and stratigraphic data to estimate aquifer temperatures. The heat content of each aquifer was determined from the product of the volumetric heat capacity, aquifer volume, and temperature difference between the aquifer and the mean annual temperature for a 14 x 14 grid of 240 km/sup 2/ cells. Geothermal fluid temperatures range from about 120/sup 0/C in the Deadwood Formation in the Williston Basin to about 30/sup 0/C for the Newcastle Sandstone in south-central South Dakota. The area containing the resource lies largely west of the Missouri River. About 10,000 km/sup 2/ of the resource area is characterized by anomalously high heat flow values greater than 100 mW m/sup -2/.

Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

1987-07-01

30

Ground-Water Resources in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The availability of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area is influenced by many factors including location, local recharge and ground-water flow conditions, and structural features. Thus, the availability of ground water can be extremely variable throughout the Black Hills area, and even when water is available, it may not be suitable for various uses depending on the water quality. The major bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Minor bedrock aquifers occur in other hydrogeologic units, including confining units, due to fracturing and interbedded permeable layers. Various information and maps are presented in this report that describe availability and quality of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area. However, there is no guarantee of obtaining usable water at any location due to the extreme potential variability in conditions that can affect the availability and quality of ground water in the area. Maps presented in this report include the distribution of hydrogeologic units; depth to the top of the five formations that contain major aquifers; thickness of the five formations that contain major aquifers; potentiometric maps for the five major aquifers; saturated thickness of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers; water temperature in the Madison aquifer; specific conductance in the Madison, Minnelusa, and Inyan Kara aquifers; hardness in the Inyan Kara aquifer; sulfate concentrations in the Minnelusa aquifer; and radon concentrations in the Deadwood aquifer. Water quality of the major aquifers generally is very good in and near outcrop areas but deteriorates progressively with distance from the outcrops. In the Minnelusa aquifer, an abrupt increase in concentrations of dissolved sulfate occurs downgradient from outcrop areas, where a zone of active anhydrite dissolution occurs. Most limitations for the use of ground water are related to aesthetic qualities associated with hardness and high concentrations of chloride, sulfate, sodium, manganese, and iron. Very few health-related limitations exist for ground water; most limitations are for radionuclides, such as radon and uranium. In addition, high concentrations of arsenic have been measured in a few samples from the Minnelusa aquifer.

Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Sawyer, J. Foster

2003-01-01

31

Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the Minnelusa aquifer. Three conceptual models, which are simplifications of lumped-parameter models, are considered for evaluation of mixing conditions and general ground-water ages. For a simple slug-flow model, which assumes no mixing, measured tritium concentrations in ground water can be related through a first-order decay equation to estimated concentrations at the time of recharge. Two simplified mixing models that assume equal proportions of annual recharge over a range of years also are considered. An ?immediate-arrival? model is used to conceptually represent conditions in outcrop areas and a ?time-delay? model is used for locations removed from outcrops, where delay times for earliest arrival of ground water generally would be expected. Because of limitations associated with estimating tritium input and gross simplifying assumptions of equal annual recharge and thorough mixing conditions, the conceptual models are used only for general evaluation of mixing conditions and approximation of age ranges. Headwater springs, which are located in or near outcrop areas, have the highest tritium concentrations, which is consistent with the immediate-arrival mixing model. Tritium concentrations for many wells are very low, or nondetectable, indicating general applicability of the timedelay conceptual model for locations beyond outcrop areas, where artesian conditions generally occur. Concentrations for artesian springs generally are higher than for wells, which indicates generally shorter delay times resulting from preferential flowpaths that typically are associated with artesian springs. In the Rapid City area, a distinct division of isotopic values for the Madison aquifer corresponds with distinguishing 18O signatures for nearby streams, where large streamflow recharge occurs. Previous dye testing in this area documented rapid ground-water flow (timeframe of weeks) from a streamflow loss zone to sites located several miles away. These results are used to ill

Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

2001-01-01

32

Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

33

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

34

Indian Place Names in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

Gasque, Thomas J.

35

Educational Renewal in Rural South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Howard High School (Miner County, South Dakota), educational reform focuses on student understanding of community history, economics, and government; entrepreneurship; sustainability of agriculture, environment, and community; and democratic values. The school aims to nurture community and give students the option of staying in the community.…

Stangohr, Mary

2000-01-01

36

Report of the Class I and II Cultural Resources Investigations of a Portion of the Cendak Water Project Area, Eastern South Dakota. Volume I. Archaeological Sampling Survey of the East Half of the Proposed Cendak Irrigation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beginning in August 1982, the South Dakota Archaeological Research Center initiated a cultural resources investigation of the CENDAK Water Project in eastern South Dakota. A Class I cultural resources inventory indicated 25 previously recorded sites in th...

J. K. Haug R. J. Rood V. O. Rood

1983-01-01

37

Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 910, 1972, which cause...

D. G. Driscoll J. E. Williamson J. F. Stamm J. M. Carter M. J. Bunkers

2010-01-01

38

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) of the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure, format, and quality of the LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS photographic and digital products for one scene covering the Black Hills area of South Dakota were assessed and the extent to which major resource categories can be detected and identified on various photographic products generated from a subset of TM spectral bands and from all bands of the MSS was determined. The overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data was found to be excellent. Agricultural fields of variable shape, size, and orientation were detected with relative ease. The addition of the short-wave infrared band (TM5) has significantly improved the ability to detect and identify crop types on single date imagery.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

39

Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

2000-01-01

40

South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)  

DOE Data Explorer

WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and transmission system expansion. [Copied from http://sdwind.com/about/

41

An Archeological Investigation and Assessment of the Three Horse Site (39DW35), Moreau River Area, West Shore Lake Oahe, Dewey County, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An archeological reconnaissance investigation of the Three Horse site (39DW35), located on the west shore of Lake Oahe, Dewey County, South Dakota, was completed in July 1979 under an agreement between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Omaha District) and...

C. R. Falk R. E. Pepperl

1980-01-01

42

Spring 1996 Enrollment. South Dakota Public and Private Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compendium of data tables summarizes state enrollment data for six public universities in South Dakota -- Black Hills State University, Dakota State University, Northern State University, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, South Dakota State University, and the University of South Dakota -- and 12 private institutions: Augustana…

South Dakota Board of Regents, Pierre.

43

76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State Implementation...proposing to approve a revision to the South Dakota State Implementation Plan (SIP...regional haze submitted by the State of South Dakota on January 21, 2011, as...

2011-12-08

44

Geologic and hydrologic data from a test-drilling program in the High Plains area of South Dakota, 1979-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer system in south-central South Dakota comprises dune sands, the Ogallala Formation, the Arikaree Formation, and the White River Group. As part of the High Plains Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis, a total of 29 test holes were drilled from 1979 to 1980 to aid in defining the geometry of the aquifer system. The information obtained from these drilling progrms is presented. (USGS)

Loskot, C. L.; Case, H. L.; Hern, D. G.

1984-01-01

45

Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report No. 79-55-600, Raven Industries, Inc., Parkston, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breathing zone and general area atmospheric samples were taken for total particulates, respirable particulates, and qualitative and quantitative inorganic analyses on March 15, 1979 at a Raven Industries facility in Parkston, South Dakota. A bulk sample o...

C. J. Bryant

1979-01-01

46

South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

Wegman, S.

1985-01-01

47

Soil-Vegetation Correlations in Prairie Potholes of Beadle and Deuel Counties, South Dakota,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a national study, vegetation associated with known hydric and nonhydric soils was sampled in selected prairie potholes and adjacent upland areas in Beadle and Deuel Counties in South Dakota. Weighted averages and unweighted averages were calcul...

D. E. Hubbard J. B. Millar D. D. Malo K. F. Higgins

1988-01-01

48

Floods in eastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota, June 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thunderstorms during 1984 produced significant rainfall and subsequent runoff that caused substantial flooding in eastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota. The storms ocurred in rapid succession over the area, and the rain fell on ground that was near saturation from greater-than-normal precipitation during April and May. Flooding ocurred in the Loup River, Blue River, Platte River, Elkhorn River, and Weeping Water Creek basins in Nebraska and the James River, Vermillion River, and Big Sioux river basins in South Dakota. Record and near-record peak discharges occurred on many streams. The floodflows from tributary streams caused the highest stages and the most widespread flooding along the Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, to Rulo, Nebraska, since April 1952. (USGS)

Engel, G. B.; Benson, R. D.

1987-01-01

49

75 FR 71453 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1947-DR...2010, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

2010-11-23

50

75 FR 15452 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1886-DR...2010, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

2010-03-29

51

Attitudes of South Dakota Teachers toward the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are presented of a survey questionnaire based on the 1984 Gallup Poll of Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Public Schools but adapted to solicit the opinions of K-12 public school teachers in South Dakota about South Dakota public schools. Responses were received from 60 percent of the 500 teachers surveyed. Question topics included: (1)…

Webster, Loraine; Wood, Robert W.

52

Education in South Dakota: District & Statewide Profiles, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents in a single volume information about South Dakota education previously presented in the Statistical Digest and the Academic Progress Report. The information is presented in the form of district profiles and statewide summaries, giving users a complete snapshot of each public school district in South Dakota. The easy-to-use…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

53

Systematic Spacing of Townsites along Eastern South Dakota's Rail Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates townsite distribution in South Dakota's land settlement pattern. Reviews past theories explaining eastern South Dakota's systematic spacing of towns along rail lines. Indicates a correlation between railroad functions and town development, advancing the theory that nineteenth-century railroad technology, involving traffic control and…

Lockwood, Catherine M.

1990-01-01

54

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

55

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-13

56

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-12

57

Herpetofaunal Surveys of National Park Service Sites in Western Nebraska, Eastern Wyoming, Western South Dakota, and Western North Dakota: Interim Report, 2002 Field Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

During spring and summer of 2002, surveys of seven national park units were conducted in western Nebraska, eastern Wyoming, western South Dakota, and western North Dakota. The objectives were to assess various survey techniques used in the area, including visual encounter surveys, nighttime call surveys, night driving and trail searches, and nighttime searches of prairie dog burrows. Drift fences were

Brian E. Smith

58

2009 Spring Floods in North Dakota, Western Minnesota, and Northeastern South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flodding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 ...

K. M. Macek-Rowland T. A. Gross

2010-01-01

59

Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

1980-01-01

60

Distance Education in South Dakota: A Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of distance education in South Dakota. Highlights include interactive videoconferencing on the Digital Dakota Network (DDN); four video consortiums for K-12 schools; the Rural Development Telecommunications Network; the Electronic University Consortium; higher Education opportunities via the Internet, satellites,…

Bauck, Tamara

2001-01-01

61

Connecting the Schools: Another Phase of South Dakota's Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains South Dakota's Connecting the Schools project that distributed hardware and software for K-12 schools, as well as provided training; developed the Digital Dakota Network (DDN), a high-speed statewide telecommunications network that provides data and video services to educational and governmental communities and helps with network design;…

Moore, John

2001-01-01

62

Use of Molecular Subtyping To Document Long-Term Persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in South Dakota  

PubMed Central

Enhanced surveillance of patients with upper respiratory symptoms in a Northern Plains community revealed that approximately 4% of them were infected by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae of both mitis and gravis biotypes, showing that the organism is still circulating in the United States. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae was isolated from five members of four households. Four molecular subtyping methods—ribotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and single-strand conformation polymorphism—were used to molecularly characterize these strains and compare them to 17 archival South Dakota strains dating back to 1973 through 1983 and to 5 isolates collected from residents of diverse regions of the United States. Ribotyping and RAPD clearly demonstrated the household transmission of isolates and provided precise information on the circulation of several distinct strains within three households. By MEE, most recent and archival South Dakota strains were identified as closely related and clustered within the newly identified ET (electrophoretic type) 215 complex. Furthermore, three recent South Dakota isolates and eight archival South Dakota isolates were indistinguishable by both ribotyping and RAPD. All of these molecular methods showed that recent South Dakota isolates and archival South Dakota isolates were more closely related to each other than to the C. diphtheriae strains isolated in other parts of the United States or worldwide. The data also supported the improbability of importation of C. diphtheriae into this area and rather strongly suggest the long-term persistence of the organism in this region.

Popovic, Tanja; Kim, Chung; Reiss, Jonathan; Reeves, Mike; Nakao, Hiroshi; Golaz, Anne

1999-01-01

63

Industrial Hygiene Report: Homestake Mining Company, Lead, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for fibrous materials, arsenic (7440382), radon (10043922) daughters, and trace metals at the Homestake Gold Mine (SIC-1041), Lead, South Dakota in July, 1977. The survey was prompted by an excess of ...

H. R. Ludwig J. M. Dement R. D. Zumwalde

1981-01-01

64

An Educator's Guide to South Dakota's Natural Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website focuses on environmental education and includes pages on the flora, fauna, endangered species, and other natural resources of South Dakota. The pages feature descriptions and illustrations, and are intended for use by educators.

Jarrett, Martin J.; Survey, South D.

65

75 FR 39994 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00031  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated 05/13/2010. Incident: Flooding. Incident Period: 03/10/2010 through...

2010-07-13

66

Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota  

Cancer.gov

Sanford USD Medical Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota Sanford Cancer Center 1305 W. 18th Street Sioux Falls, SD 57105 www.sanfordhealth.org • Pat O’Brien, MD, President, Sanford USD Medical Center • Dan Blue, MD, President, Sanford Clinic •

67

Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

1975-01-01

68

Flow-System Analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota: Conceptual Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic M...

A. J. Long L. D. Putnam

2002-01-01

69

Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa an...

2009-01-01

70

Isopach and structure contour mapping of thin bentonite and shale beds in an area of mapped lineaments, central South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The N aquifer is an important source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona. The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to monitor long-term effects on the groundwater resources of the mesa as part of withdrawals from the aquifer by the strip-mining operation of Peabody Coal Co. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by the mine increased from 95 acre-feet in 1968 to more than 4,000 acre-feet in 1984. In 1985, withdrawals from the mine wells were temporarily reduced to about 2,500 acre-feet. Water levels in the confined area of the aquifer declined as much as 87 feet from 1965 to 1985 in some municipal and observation wells within about a 15-mile radius of the mine well field. In 1986, measurements indicated some recovery in water levels in most of these wells because of an approximate 90-percent reduction in pumpage from Peabody Coal Co. wells during the last half of 1985. Part of the drawdown in municipal wells is due to local pumpage. Water levels have not declined in wells tapping the unconfined area of the aquifer. Chemical analyses indicate no significant changes in the quality of water from wells that tap the N aquifer or from springs that discharge from several stratigraphic units, including the N aquifer, since pumping began at the mine. (USGS)

Chleborad, A. F.

1986-01-01

71

Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater-flow model, was used to simulate flow in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units with five layers. Layer 1 represented the fractured sandstone layers in the upper 250 ft of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, and layer 2 represented the lower part of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit. Layer 3 represented the upper 150 ft of the Madison hydrogeologic unit, and layer 4 represented the less permeable lower part. Layer 5 represented an approximation of the underlying Deadwood aquifer to simulate upward flow to the Madison hydrogeologic unit. The finite-difference grid, oriented 23 degrees counterclockwise, included 221 rows and 169 columns with a square cell size of 492.1 ft in the detailed study area that surrounded Rapid City. The northern and southern boundaries for layers 1-4 were represented as no-flow boundaries, and the boundary on the east was represented with head-dependent flow cells. Streamflow recharge was represented with specified-flow cells, and areal recharge to layers 1-4 was represented with a specified-flux boundary. Calibration of the model was accomplished by two simulations: (1) steady-state simulation of average conditions for water years 1988-97 and (2) transient simulations of water years 1988-97 divided into twenty 6-month stress periods. Flow-system components represented in the model include recharge, discharge, and hydraulic properties. The steady-state streamflow recharge rate was 42.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and transient streamflow recharge rates ranged from 14.1 to 102.2 ft3/s. The steady-state areal recharge rate was 20.9 ft3/s, and transient areal recharge rates ranged from 1.1 to 98.4 ft3/s. The upward flow rate from the Deadwood aquifer to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was 6.3 ft3/s. Discharge included springflow, water use, flow to overlying units, and regional outflow. The estimated steady-state springflow of 32.8 ft3/s from seven springs was similar to the simulated springflow of 31.6 ft3/s, which included 20.5 ft3

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

72

Floods in North and South Dakota, frequency and magnitude  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnitude of a flood of a selected frequency for any point in the two states may be determined by methods outlined in this report, with two limitations. These methods are not applicable for regulated streams or for small-drainage areas (in general, less than 100 square miles). The determination of the magnitude of a flood of a selected frequency in the two-state area is accomplished by the use of composite frequency curves for 2 flood regions and curves showing variation of mean annual flood with drainage area for 9 hydrologic areas and 10 main-stem streams. These curves are based on all flood data collected in North and South Dakota with some use made of records from adjoining states. These data are tabulated in the report. Also included in the report is a tabulation of maximum flood experiences at gaging stations and outstanding floods at many miscellaneous sites.

McCabe, John A; Crosby, Orlo A.

1959-01-01

73

Transition year labeling error characterization study. [Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Oklahoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling errors made in the large area crop inventory experiment transition year estimates by Earth Observation Division image analysts are identified and quantified. The analysis was made from a subset of blind sites in six U.S. Great Plains states (Oklahoma, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, North and South Dakota). The image interpretation basically was well done, resulting in a total omission error rate of 24 percent and a commission error rate of 4 percent. The largest amount of error was caused by factors beyond the control of the analysts who were following the interpretation procedures. The odd signatures, the largest error cause group, occurred mostly in areas of moisture abnormality. Multicrop labeling was tabulated showing the distribution of labeling for all crops.

Clinton, N. J. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

74

Development of historic and synthesized unregulated streamflow for the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota, 1983-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit may have some affect on the hydrology of the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The Garrison Diversion Unit Monthly Operations Model was developed to analyze a wide range of streamflow conditions that could occur in the James River Basin. The purpose of this study was to compute monthly streamflows that are required as input to the model. Historic stream flow data were complied and record extension methods were used, when necessary, to compute monthly streamflow for 1983-91 for 15 gaging stations on the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The record extension methods used include Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1, Ordinary Least Squares, and drainage-area ratio. In addition to the historic streamflow, synthesized unregulated streamflow was computed for the 15 gaging stations on the James River for 1983-91 by eliminating the effects of Jamestown Reservoir, Pipestem Reservoir, Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, consumptive surface-water withdrawals, and wastewater withdrawals. Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1, Ordinary Least Squares regression, water-balance procedures, and drainage-area ratio method were used to compute the unregulated streamflows.

Emerson, D. G.; Niehus, C. A.

1994-01-01

75

Nontarget bird exposure to DRC-1339 during fall in North Dakota and spring in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower (Heltantbus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) was used experimentally on fall-ripening sunflower fields in North Dakota so researchers could evaluate its effectiveness for reducing crop depredations by blackbirds. DRC-1339 was applied to rice and broadcast on the ground in a confined area within ripening sunflower fields. One objective of this study was to determine whether nontarget birds, birds other than blackbirds, were eating rice and were exposed to the DRC-1339. In 1999, 8 of 11 (73%) sparrows collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRe-1339 had rice in their gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. In 2000, 5 mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and 3 sparrows were collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRC-1339. Three doves had rice in their GI tracts, 4 doves and all 3 sparrows had measurable DRC1339 concentrations in their GI tracts, and 3 mourning doves and 1 savannah sparrow (Passerculus sanduncbensis) exhibited histopathological signs of kidney damage. In April 2002, untreated rice was applied to corn stubble plots in South Dakota to determine which bird species ate rice. In 2002, 3 of 3 song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) collected by shotgun had rice in their GI tracts. Our results demonstrate that the use of DRC-1339 to control blackbirds in the northern Great Plains will likely expose nontarget birds to the DRC-1339 bait.

Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul M.; Linz, George M.; Sileo, Louis; Stahl, Randal S.; Johnston, John J.

2003-01-01

76

30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are applicable to surface coal mining operations in South Dakota...been adopted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act...regulations in this chapter. The full text of a rule is in the permanent...part apply to all surface coal mining operations in South...

2009-07-01

77

30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are applicable to surface coal mining operations in South Dakota...been adopted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act...regulations in this chapter. The full text of a rule is in the permanent...part apply to all surface coal mining operations in South...

2010-07-01

78

40 CFR 282.91 - South Dakota State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false South Dakota State-Administered Program. 282...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED...STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.91 South Dakota State-Administered Program....

2013-07-01

79

77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection...proposed to authorize South Dakota's State Hazardous waste management Program revisions published in the December...

2012-08-08

80

Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

Hamilton, L. J.

1985-01-01

81

Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.  

PubMed

Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota. PMID:23444597

Kightlinger, Lon

2013-01-01

82

Depositional environments of middle Minnelusa Leo (Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian), Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The informal middle member of the Minnelusa Formation, commonly known as Leo, consists of a spectrum of sediments including sandstone, dolomite, anhydrite, bedded chert, limestone, and radioactive carbonaceous shale. Deposition within the upper Paleozoic alliance basin of the present day tri-state area of South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska occurred in sabkha, tidal flat, and shallow subtidal environments. Major and minor

Paul L. Tromp

1983-01-01

83

State Teacher Policy Yearbook: What States Can Do to Retain Effective New Teachers, 2008. South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's 2008 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook." The 2008 "Yearbook" focuses on how state policies impact the retention of effective new teachers. This policy evaluation is broken down into three areas that encompass 15 goals. Broadly, these goals examine the impact of…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2008

2008-01-01

84

An Evaluation of the Preparation of Industrial Arts Graduates of South Dakota State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires were used to gather data from 1955-1969 industrial arts graduates and state public secondary school administrators in order to evaluate the undergraduate industrial arts program at South Dakota State University. Among the findings were: (1) 53 percent of the graduates are teaching, (2) Prevalent teaching areas are woodworking,…

Gifford, Kenneth Keith, Jr.

85

South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System. A Case History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Core Curriculum Project involving the career ladder approach to health manpower training, which began in 1970, had seven objectives including the following: (1) To organize a Health Manpower Council for the entire State; (2) to define the areas of basic commonality among the various training programs; and (3) to develop a core…

Brekke, Donald G.; Gildseth, Wayne M.

86

77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY: Forest...treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 250,000 acres...NFS) lands from the ongoing mountain pine beetle epidemic, and to help protect...

2012-02-23

87

Lightning fires in North Dakota grasslands and in pine-savanna lands of South Dakota and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lightning strike fires which occurred between 1940 and 1981 were studied in mixed-grass prairie grasslands and in pine-savanna lands in the Northern Great Plains region. A majority (73%) of ignitions occurred during July and August, while a lesser number was recorded in April, May, June, and September. The April-September period is also the average time of the freeze-free period and approximates the average distribution period for thunderstorm activity in this region. The area burned by each of 293 lightning fires (most of which were suppressed) ranged from 0.004-1158.3 ha (mean = 10.8 ha). The frequency of lightning fires in mixed-grass prairie grasslands averaged 6.0/yr per 10,000 km2 in eastern North Dakota, 22.4/yr per 10,000 km2 in southcentral North Dakota, 24.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in western North Dakota, and 91.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in pine-savanna lands in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. The ecological role of lightning-set fires is discussed relative to the development of resource research and management plans and to the interpretation of historical records of natural fire occurrence in the Northern Great Plains region.

Higgins, K. F.

1984-01-01

88

Solar Project Description for First Baptist Church, Aberdeen, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar energy system at the First Baptist Church in Aberdeen, South Dakota is described. The solar energy system was built into the new 12,350 square foot church to heat the church and to provide domestic hot water. The 1404 square foot collector array...

1979-01-01

89

"A Few Good Books": South Dakota's Country School Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books were scarce in nineteenth-century South Dakota. Limited resources and a lack of widespread interest worked to hinder the growth of libraries in rural schools. Library advocates persisted in their cause, voicing their support, engaging in fund-raising activities, and proposing library legislation. Their efforts eventually led to the passage…

Lindell, Lisa

2003-01-01

90

ACID LEACHING OF URANIUM FROM SOME SOUTH DAKOTA LIGNITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different variables, such as acid concentration, leaching ; time, oxidation, rate and mode of agitation, temperature, and pulp density on the ; recovery of uranium from three samples of uranium-bearing lignites from South ; Dakota with high, intermediate, and low uranium contents was studied. The ; recovery of uranium increases with increase in acid concentration, leaching time,

S. Sun; J. W. Fetterman

1963-01-01

91

ACID LEACHING OF URANIUM FROM SOME SOUTH DAKOTA LIGNITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acid concentration, leaching time, oxidation, rate and ; mode of agitation, temperature, and pulp density on the recovery of U from three ; samples of U-bearing lignites from South Dakota with high, intermediate, and low ; U contents was studied. The recovery of U increased with increase in acid ; concentration, leaching time, extent of aeration, and

S. Sun; J. W. Fetterman

1963-01-01

92

South Dakota Department of Education 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Dakota has many things to be proud of: Its students consistently outperform their peers on national assessments. The state has a high graduation rate, and it ranks among the top states in the nation for students going on to postsecondary. Credit for these achievements goes to the state's local school districts. This annual report covers key…

South Dakota Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

93

An Analysis of Bank Regulation in South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of the banking industry in South Dakota was made to help the Interim Sunset Committee in its deliberations pertaining to the regulation of the banking industry. The study analyzed a vast amount of literature, data of each bank in the state, and ...

R. L. Johnson

1977-01-01

94

ACT Profile Report: State. Graduating Class 2012. South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about the performance of South Dakota's 2012 graduating seniors who took the ACT as sophomores, juniors, or seniors; and self-reported at the time of testing that they were scheduled to graduate in 2012 and tested under standard time conditions. This report focuses on: (1) Performance: student test performance in…

ACT, Inc., 2012

2012-01-01

95

Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

96

South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists contact information for educational programs, human services, and other resources for children, youth, and families in South Dakota. Sections cover adult basic education programs, alcohol and drug treatment facilities, career learning centers, clothing, community health nurses, community mental health centers, consumer credit…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

97

South Dakota Progress Report on the National Education Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication assesses the status of public elementary-secondary education in South Dakota and describes the state's progress toward meeting the six National Education Goals. A notable achievement is the Families First program, which is a broad-based initiative that empowers communities to identify and meet local human service needs and to…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

98

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

99

The geochemistry of the Fox Hills-Basal Hell Creek Aquifer in southwestern North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Cretaceous Fox Hills Formation and the basal portion of the overlying Hell Creek Formation constitute an important aquifer in the Fort Union coal region. Throughout most of southwestern North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota the aquifer is at depths ranging from 1000 to 2000 ft, except for exposures along the Cedar Creek anticline. Water flows in the aquifer

Donald C. Thorstenson; Donald W. Fisher; Mack G. Croft

1979-01-01

100

2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second exceeded the previous peak of record set in 1997 by 1,500 cubic feet per second. For the cities of Fargo, and Moorhead, Minn., and the surrounding area, the stage of the Red River remained above flood stage for nearly 2 months. In addition to high stage and flow on the main-stem Missouri and Red Rivers, peak of record stage and discharge were recorded at many U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the Missouri River and Red River Basins. Several reservoirs and lakes in the region also experienced record stage elevations from the high flows during the 2009 spring snowmelt floods.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

2011-01-01

101

Compilation of selected hydrologic data, through water year 1992, Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents water-level, water-quailty, and springflow data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1992, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). Water-level data are presented for 32 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tabular data. Water- quality data are presented for 12 surface-water sites and 5 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, cyanide, phenols, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Spring data are presented for 83 springs and 21 stream reaches with significant springflow components. Data presented include site information, discharge, and field water-quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH.

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell

1994-01-01

102

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Newcastle Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Uranium resources of the Newcastle 1/sup 0/x2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Many of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled and described. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, interpreted from an aerial radiometric survey, were outlined. Areas favorable for uranium deposits in the subsurface were evaluated using gamma-ray logs. Based on surface and subsurface data, two areas have been delineated which are underlain by rocks deemed favorable as hosts for uranium deposits. One of these is underlain by rocks that contain fluvial arkosic facies in the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations of Tertiary age; the other is underlain by rocks containing fluvial quartzose sandstone facies of the Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Tertiary age above the Wasatch Formation, all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and most rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and all rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group.

Santos, E S; Robinson, K; Geer, K A; Blattspieler, J G

1982-09-01

103

Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

Shearer, J. S.; Berry, Jr. , C. R.

2003-01-01

104

Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

Myers, V. I. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

105

Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

Reed, C. C.; Larson, D. L.; Larson, J. L.

2006-01-01

106

Summary Report on Quality of Interstate Waters. Little Missouri River (Including Beaver Creek and Little Beaver Creek) (Wyoming-Montana-South Dakota-North Dakota).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water quality data are reported for Little Missouri River and its tributaries in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota. Information is given on: sources of pollution, interference with water uses, stream flow, adequacy of treatment measures, ac...

1977-01-01

107

Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L. E.

1986-01-01

108

Genesis of monazite and Y zoning in garnet from the Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paragenesis of monazite in metapelitic rocks from the contact aureole of the Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, was investigated using zoning patterns of monazite and garnet, electron microprobe dating of monazite, bulk-rock compositions, and major phase mineral equilibria. The area is characterized by low-pressure and high-temperature metamorphism with metamorphic zones ranging from garnet to sillimanite zones. Garnet

Panseok Yang; David Pattison

2006-01-01

109

Factors affecting road mortality of white- tailed deer in eastern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 - 0.12 (percentage tree coverage) + 0.0002 (county area) + 5.39 (county hunter

TROY W. GROVENBURG; JONATHAN A. JENKS; ROBERT W. KLAVER; KEVIN L. MONTEITH; DWIGHT H. GALSTER; RON J. SCHAUER; WILBERT W. MORLOCK; JOSHUA A. DELGER

2008-01-01

110

Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007 flow of 26,000 cubic feet per second was generated entirely within an intervening drainage area of only 44.4 square miles. An especially large flow of 44,100 cubic feet per second was documented for this location in 1972. The 2007 peak flow of 18,600 cubic feet per second for Battle Creek at Hermosa (station 06406000) was only slightly smaller than the 1972 peak flow of 21,400 cubic feet per second. Peak-flow values from 2007 for three sites with small drainage areas (less than 1.0 square mile) plot close to a regional envelope curve, indicating exceptionally large flow values, relative to drainage area. Physiographic factors that affect flooding in the area were examined. The limestone headwater hydrogeologic setting (within and near the Limestone Plateau area on the western flank of the Black Hills) has distinctively suppressed peak-flow characteristics for small recurrence intervals. Uncertainty is large, however, regarding characteristics for large recurrence intervals (low-probability floods) because of a dearth of information regarding the potential for generation of exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. In contrast, the greatest potential for exceptionally damaging floods is around the flanks of the rest of the Black Hills area because of steep topography and limited potential for attenuation of flood peaks in narrow canyons. Climatological factors that affect area flooding also were examined. Area thunderstorms are largely terrain-driven, especially with respect to their requisite upward motion, which can be initiated by orographic lifting effects, thermally enhanced circulations, and obstacle effects. Several other meteorological processes are influential in the development of especially heavy precipitation for the area, including storm cell training, storm anchoring or regeneration, storm mergers, supercell development, and weak upper-level air flow. A composite of storm total precipitation amounts for 13 recent individual storm events indicates

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

2010-01-01

111

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

U.S. Geological Survey Williston Basin Province Assessment Team

2011-01-01

112

76 FR 3926 - Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CORPORATION Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota...ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments--LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota...Washington, DC 20007; or haleyr@lsc.gov. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2011-01-21

113

South Dakota Country School Bibliography: An Annotated List of References Relating to Country Schools in the Collections of I. D. Weeks Library, the University of South Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials from the I.D. Weeks Library of the University of South Dakota, relating to country schools and the history of rural education in South Dakota and written between 1874 and 1976, are listed in this annotated bibliography. Publications of the South Dakota Department of Public Instruction include: school laws, some dating back to 1877;…

Siegrist, Edith B., Comp.

114

School Library Media Programs: A Resource & Planning Guide for South Dakota Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide is designed to assist local schools in South Dakota to evaluate and improve their library media programs. The information provided is non-regulatory in nature (with the exception of information from the "Administrative Rules of South Dakota"), and represents a foundation for building a quality library media program. The guide…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

115

South Dakota State University's Library: A History. Hilton M. Briggs Library Occasional Paper Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tracing the history of South Dakota State University's Hilton M. Briggs Library over the past 102 years, this occasional paper describes the development of what is now the largest library (over 1.1 million total pieces) in the South Dakota Library Network from its inception as part of a small land grant college. Administrative eras are reviewed,…

Brown, Philip

116

75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...312-6231, or the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Joe Foss Building...Update, effective September 13, 2007. 3. Nonwastewaters from Dyes 70 FR 9138-9180 South Dakota Code and Pigments....

2010-12-27

117

75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dakota PrairieWind Project (Project) in Aurora, Bule and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota...service roads to access the facilities in Aurora, Brule and Jerauld Counties in eastern...the City of White Lake within Brule, Aurora and Jerald Counties, South...

2010-10-05

118

South Dakota Arts Council: Long Range Plan. Fiscal Years 2006-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Arts Council submitted this FY 2006 annual report to the Governor and Legislature. It presents the 530 grants that were awarded with funds from the State of South Dakota and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency. Fiscal Year 2006 grant funds of $977,000 generated $12 million in local cash matching funds. These…

South Dakota Arts Council, 2007

2007-01-01

119

South Dakota 1995 Kids Count Factbook: Key Indicators of Child Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Dakota Kids Count Project began in 1993 with a grant from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The goal is to improve the collection of national, state, and local data on the well-being of children in a way that increases awareness of their situation and provides the means to address their needs. South Dakota Kids Count tracks children using…

Kids Count--South Dakota, Vermillion.

120

40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County...Statewide Unclassifiable/Attainment Aurora County Beadle County Bennett County...area Designation a Date 1 Type Aurora County...

2013-07-01

121

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Huron Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow migratory game bird hunting on Waterfowl Production Areas...refuge for any purpose at any time. B. Upland Game Hunting . We allow upland game hunting...

2011-10-01

122

50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Huron Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow migratory game bird hunting on Waterfowl Production Areas...refuge for any purpose at any time. B. Upland Game Hunting . We allow upland game hunting...

2012-10-01

123

Health Manpower Planning and Linkage System: Associated Health Component of the South Dakota Health Manpower Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The associated health component of a health manpower planning project in South Dakota is detailed. Linkages in health manpower planning provide a framework for cooperative decisionmaking and facilitate communication. Particular attention in the South Dako...

1978-01-01

124

Estimated use of water in South Dakota, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2000, the total amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in South Dakota was about 528 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, about 222 Mgal/d, or 42 percent of the total, was from ground water. Surface-water withdrawals were about 306 Mgal/d, or 58 percent of the total. Total withdrawals for six categories of offstream use in South Dakota during 2000 were compiled. The withdrawals include: 93.3 Mgal/d for public supply, 9.53 Mgal/d for self-supplied domestic, 5.12 Mgal/d for industrial, 372.7 Mgal/d for irrigation, 5.24 Mgal/d for thermoelectric power, and 42.0 Mgal/d for livestock. Water use for hydroelectric power was the only instream use compiled in this report. About 57,794 Mgal/d was used by the hydroelectric powerplants to generate about 6,151 gigawatt-hours of electricity during 2000.

Amundson, Franklin D.

2002-01-01

125

South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota solar-energy-system performanceevaluation, June 1980-April 1981  

SciTech Connect

The South Dakota School of Mines site is the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Visitor's Center in Keystone, South Dakota. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 45% of the heating load and 53% of the observation room cooling load. The system is equipped with 2000 square feet of flat-plate collector panels double-glazed with a black chrome absorber surface; 3000 gallons of water in an insulated tank for sensible heat storage; a two-stage fuel oil furnace for auxiliary heating; and direct expansion electric air conditioning units for auxiliary cooling. The actual heating and cooling provided are 42% and 12% respectively. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fueld savings, electrical energy expense, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are among the performance data listed. A control problem is reported that kept the collector pump running 24 hours a day for 18 days. Performance data are given for each subsystem as well as for the overall system. Typical system operation and the system operating sequence for a day are given. The system's use of solar energy and the percentage of losses are given. Also included are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, long-term weather data, chemical analysis of the antifreeze solutions, sensor technology, and typical weather and performance data for a month. (LEW)

Eck, T.F.

1981-01-01

126

Distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota: clarifying the epidemiology of bluetongue disease in the northern Great Plains region of the United States.  

PubMed

The presence or absence of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a primary vector of bluetongue viruses (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, BTV) in North America, was assessed on ranches and farms across the Northern Great Plains region of the United States, specifically Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, as part of a 2-yr regional study of BTV exposure among cattle. Blacklight/suction trap samples totaling 280 2-night intervals were taken at 140 aquatic sites (potential larval habitat for C. sonorensis) on 82 livestock operations (ranches and farms) that span a south-to-north gradient of expected decreasing risk for exposure to BTV. In Nebraska, C. sonorensis populations were common and widespread, present at 15 of 18 operations. Of 32 operations sampled in South Dakota, seven of which were sampled in successive years, 18 were positive for C. sonorensis; 13 of 14 operations located west of the Missouri River were positive, whereas 13 of 18 operations east of the river were negative. Of 32 operations sampled in North Dakota, seven of which were sampled both years, 12 were positive for C. sonorensis. Six of eight operations located west and south of the Missouri River in North Dakota were positive, whereas 18 of 24 operations east and north of the river were negative for C. sonorensis. These data illustrate a well-defined pattern of C. sonorensis spatial distribution, with populations consistently present across Nebraska, western South Dakota, and western North Dakota; western South Dakota, and North Dakota encompass the Northwestern Plains Ecoregion where soils are nonglaciated and evaporation exceeds precipitation. In contrast, C. sonorensis populations were largely absent east of the Missouri River in South Dakota and North Dakota; this area comprises the Northwestern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion and Northern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion where surface soils reflect Wisconsinan glaciation and precipitation exceeds evaporation. In defining a well-demarcated pattern of population presence or absence on a regional scale, the data suggest that biogeographic factors regulate the distribution of C. sonorensis and in turn BTV exposure. These factors, ostensibly climate and soil type as they affect the suitability of larval habitat, may explain the absence of C. sonorensis, hence limited risk for exposure to BTV, across the eastern Northern Plains, upper Midwest, and possibly Northeast, regions of the United States. PMID:21661325

Schmidtmann, E T; Herrero, M V; Green, A L; Dargatz, D A; Rodriquez, J M; Walton, T E

2011-05-01

127

National uranium resource evaluation, Rapid City Quadrangle, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Rapid City (1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/) Quadrangle, South Dakota, was evaluated for environments favorble for uranium deposits to a depth of 1500 m. Criteria used were those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Field reconnaissance involved the use of hand-held scintillometers to investigate uranium occurrences reported in the literature and anomalies in aerial radiometric surveys, and geochemical samples of stream sediments and well waters. Gamma-ray logs were used to define the favorable environments in the subsurface. Environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group, the Fox Hills Sandstone, and the Hell Creek Formation. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include all Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary rocks other than those identified as favorable.

Nanna, R.F.; Milton, E.J.

1982-04-01

128

Insecticide residues in big game mammals of South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis was made of eight insecticide residues in the renal fat tissue of 23 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 13 mule deer (O. hemionus), 9 pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), and 2 elk (Cervus canadensis) collected in South Dakota during the fall of 1964. Identification and quantitative analysis of the insecticide residues were accomplished by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Eighty-five percent of the samples had residues of DDT with an average of 0.13 ppm. DDD residues were found in 11 percent of the samples, DDE in 38 percent, dieldrin in 38 percent, and lindane in 15 percent, with an average of 0.07, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.04 ppm, respectively. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and aldrin were not detected in concentrations above the limits of the experiment set by the investigators.

Greenwood, R. J.; Greichus, Y. A.; Hugghins, E. J.

1967-01-01

129

Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

1981-01-01

130

An occurrence of autunite, Lawrence County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July 1952 an occurrence of autunite was found in the northern part of the Black Hills, South Dakota, during a reconnaissance for radioactive deposits. The autunite occurs as fracture coatings and disseminations in siltstone of the Deadwood formation of Cambrian age and is concentrated mainly in the lower 2 feet of the siltstone at the contact with an intrusive rhyolite porphyry; the radioactive zone is exposed in two old workings, which are 90 feet apart. An 18-inch vertical channel sample of the autanite-bearing siltstene contained 0. 048 percent uranium. The gangue minerals are fluorite and limonite. The uranium is believed to have been introduced into the siltstone by solutions of magmatic origin that migrated along the lower contact of the siltstone after or during emplacement of the porphyry'

Vickers, Rollin C.

1953-01-01

131

Toward the Twenty-First Century. Public Supported Academic Libraries and the State Library in South Dakota. Report of a Study-Team. Publication 87-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the findings of a study that examined library and information services in South Dakota's state-supported academic libraries, the first such study conducted in 15 years. The state library and six schools--University of South Dakota, South Dakota State University, Black Hills State College, Dakota State College, Northern State…

Eaton, Nancy; And Others

132

Estimated recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1931-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual recharge from streamflow losses and infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas is estimated for water years 1931-98. All estimates are for recharge that contributes to regional ground-water flow patterns and that occurs in outcrop areas connected to the regional flow system. Estimates exclude recharge to outcrop areas that are isolated from the regional flow system, which generally results in ground-water discharge to area streams. Streamflow recharge is calculated directly for 11 streams in the Black Hills area that have continuous-record gaging stations located upstream from loss zones, using available records of daily streamflow, against which estimated loss thresholds (from previous investigations) are applied. Daily streamflow records are extrapolated, when necessary, using correlations with long-term gages, to develop annual estimates of streamflow recharge for 1950-98. Streamflow recharge is estimated for a number of smaller basins using loss thresholds for miscellaneous-record sites. Annual recharge estimates are derived from synthetic records of daily streamflow for 1992-98, which are based on drainage-area ratios applied to continuous-record gaging stations. Recharge estimates are further extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins during 1992-98, relative to overall streamflow recharge.Streamflow recharge also is estimated for small drainage areas with undetermined loss thresholds that are situated between larger basins with known thresholds. Estimates for 1992-98 are based on estimates of annual streamflow derived using drainage-area ratios, with assumed losses equal to 90 percent of annual streamflow. Recharge estimates also are extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins.Precipitation recharge for 1931-98 is estimated using relations between precipitation and streamflow (or basin yield) for representative gaging stations. Basin yields are first normalized, relative to drainage area, by expressing in inches per unit of drainage area. Yields are further converted to yield efficiencies, by dividing by precipitation on contributing drainage areas. Relations between yield efficiency and precipitation are identified, which are developed for use in generically estimating annual yield for given areas, based on average yield efficiency and annual precipitation. The resulting annual yield is used as a surrogate for estimating annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Annual yield (or recharge) efficiencies are estimated to range from about 2 percent to in excess of 30 percent, with corresponding average annual recharge estimates ranging from 0.4 inch in the southern Black Hills to about 8.7 inches in the northwestern Black Hills.Estimates of precipitation recharge for 1931-49 are used to estimate streamflow recharge for the same period, based on correlations between the two variables for 1989-98. Combined streamflow and precipitation recharge to both aquifers averaged about 344 ft3/s for 1931-98. Streamflow recharge averaged about 93 ft3/s, or 27 percent of combined recharge, and precipitation recharge averaged about 251 ft3/s, or 73 percent of combined recharge. Combined recharge ranged from 62 ft3/s in 1936 to 847 ft3/s in 1995. The lowest recharge amounts generally occurred during the 1930?s; however, a more prolonged period of low recharge occurred during 1947-61.For 1931-98, average precipitation recharge to the Madison aquifer is about 3.6 inches, compared with 2.6 inches for the Minnelusa aquifer. However, recharge volumes to these aquifers are nearly identical because th

Carter, J. M.; Driscoll, D. G.; Hamade, G. R.

2001-01-01

133

78 FR 22901 - United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota Proposed Final Judgment and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...negotiating contracts on behalf of its members increased prices for chiropractic services in South Dakota. Antitrust law treats naked agreements among competitors that set prices as per se illegal.\\2\\ Where competitors economically integrate in a joint...

2013-04-17

134

40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false South Dakota State-Administered Program...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...Chapter 34A-6, Solid Waste Disposal... (4) Unauthorized State Amendments....

2013-07-01

135

75 FR 28603 - City of Spearfish, South Dakota; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12775-001] City of Spearfish, South Dakota...FR) 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the city of Spearfish's application...

2010-05-21

136

Continuing Development of a Collaborative Plan to Further Engage South Dakota in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ongoing set of research planning activities have occurred in South Dakota as a consequence of the past two years of NASA-EPSCoR Preparation Grants. During this time a group of approximately 60 scientists, engineers, and university administrators in South Dakota have been directly involved as "theme team" members in a series of five all-day meetings to identify the research and technological priorities that are consistent both with NASA-ESE's interests and the State's expertise. Institutions represented within the group's membership include: South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, South Dakota State University, Augustana College, University of South Dakota, USGS EROS Data Center, Si ranks College, Santa Gleska University, Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, USGS Water Resources Division, US National Weather Service, and the SD Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Many of these organizations are also members and affiliates of the SD Space Grant Consortium. The evolving plan has been guided by the following desirable actions: 1. To establish new contacts and strengthen existing linkages with NASA Centers, relevant NASA researchers, and key personnel at the USGS EROS Data Center. 2. To promote participation from the State's major research institutions, State agencies, and relevant businesses in South Dakota that are interested in strengthening our scientific and technological enterprises. 3. To develop the State's scientific talent and infrastructure for enhanced competitiveness in research, development, and technology-based economic development. 4. To encourage greater participation by under represented groups, especially Native Americans, in scientific education and research. 5. To build greater public and political support in South Dakota for the overall science, engineering, and technology enterprise. 6. To communicate the benefits of current and future NASA programs to the progress and development of South Dakota, the Northern Great Plains Region, and the Nation.

Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

137

Avian use of natural versus planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared avian use of naturally occurring and planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA, to evaluate whether planted woodlands support the same avian communities as natural woodlands. A stratified cluster sample was used to randomly select 307 public areas in which to survey planted (n = 425) and natural (n = 99) woodland patches. Eighty-five species of birds were detected in eastern South Dakota woodlands, 36 of which occurred in ??? 5 of 524 patches surveyed. The probability of occurrence for 8 of 13 woodland-obligate species was significantly greater in natural woodland habitats than in planted woodland habitats. Four of these species breed in relatively high numbers in eastern South Dakota. Only one woodland-obligate occurred less frequently in natural woodlands. Probability of occurrence for 6 edge and generalist species, including the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater [Boddaert]), was significantly higher in planted woodlands. The avian community of planted woodlands was dominated by edge and generalist species. The homogeneous vegetation structure typical of planted woodlands does not appear to provide the habitat characteristics needed by woodland-obligate birds. We conclude that planted woodlands do not support significant numbers of woodland-obligate species and may negatively impact grassland-nesting birds by attracting edge and generalist bird species and predators into previously treeless habitats. Planted woodlands cannot be considered equal replacement habitats for natural woodland patches when managing for nongame woodland bird species. However, the preservation and maintenance of natural woodlands is critical for woodland-obligate species diversity in the northern Great Plains.

Bakker, K. K.; Higgins, K. F.

2003-01-01

138

Comparing geotechnical to geologic estimates for past overburden in the Pierre-Hayes, South Dakota area: an argument for in-situ pressuremeter determination ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A knowledge of past overburden thickness is useful for designing underground structures such as waste repositories. This study attempts to determine if a correlation can be made between a geologic estimate and two types of geotechnical calculations of past overburden thickness. In the Pierre-Hayes area, Late Cretaceous Pierre Shales is the only bedrock present, but clasts of the Miocene Ogallala Formation were found in the Pleistocene deposits, suggesting that rocks of the Ogallala Formation once covered this area. Based on the geologic estimate, the Ogallala surface was 1100 ft higher than the present surface. Of the two types of geotechnical data acquired for the Hayes site, the laboratory overconsolidation ratios indicate a past overburden thickness value of 2300 ft, whereas the in situ pressuremeter overconsolidation ratios indicate 1318 ft. We, therefore, believe that in situ determination is a better indicator of past overburden that the laboratory results. However, why the two test results differ to this degree is unknown at present.-from Authors

Collins, D. S.; Nichols, Jr, T. C.

1987-01-01

139

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). LACIE third interim phase 3 accuracy assessment report. [South Dakota and U.S.S.R.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. An accuracy of 90/85 was achieved with the October estimates which had a relative bias of -9.9 percent and a coefficient of variation of 5.2 percent for the total wheat production in the USGP. The probability was 0.9 that the LACIE estimate was within + or - 15 percent of true wheat production for the USGP. The LACIE spring wheat production underestimates in August, September, and October were the results of area underestimates for spring wheat in the USNGP region. The winter wheat blind study showed that the average proportion estimates were significantly different from the average dot-count, ground truth proportions at the USSGP and USGP-7 levels.

1978-01-01

140

Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Edited by Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

2011-01-01

141

ENSO's Effects on the Wind Energy Production of South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aging infrastructure, environmental concerns, and growing demand threaten to undermine the reliability and long-term sustainability of the current fossil fuel electricity supply and transmission system. It is widely agreed that renewable energy sources will become increasingly important in the evolution to a next generation electric grid. In this study we investigated the use and value of climate information in determining the location and performance of wind power turbines in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Fifty years of hourly wind speed data were used to evaluate the possible influence of seasonal and interannual climate variability on wind power production at four location in South Dakota. The El Nino Southern Oscillation is a documented source of climate variability in the Northern Great Plains. Our results documented a dominant El Nino influence on the probability of a lull in wind speed, with a stronger influence in the eastern half of the state. Information on wind speed lulls in important to the wind energy industry because these are periods when no energy is being produced. All of the locaitons also showed a slight decrease in power production potential during El Nino events. Our preliminary results confirmed that information on climate variability and change can be of significant use and value to future wind power planning, siting, and performance.

Harper, B. R.

2005-12-01

142

78 FR 54905 - South Dakota; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency...This notice amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of South Dakota...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of South...

2013-09-06

143

National uranium resource evaluation, Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

The Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The evaluation used criteria developed by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface reconnaissance was conducted using a portable scintillometer and a gamma spectrometer. Geochemical sampling was carried out in all geologic environments accessible within the quadrangle. Additional investigations included the followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical anomalies and a subsurface study. Environments favorable for sandstone-type deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group and Chadron Member of the White River Group. Environments favorable for marine black-shale deposits occur in the Hayden Member of the Minnelusa Formation. A small area of the Harney Peak Granite is favorable for authigenic deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the Precambrian granitic and metasedimentary rocks and Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks other than those previously mentioned.

Truesdell, D.B.; Daddazio, P.L.; Martin, T.S.

1982-06-01

144

The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of South Dakota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, water supply and quality, infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

Carswell, William J., Jr.

2014-01-01

145

Education Watch: South Dakota. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents state-level data on South Dakota's K-college education, including demographic distribution across each educational level, participation and success in Advanced Placement, percentage of students taking high-level courses, school funding gaps, and high school and college graduation rates. South Dakota's 2002 Stanford 9 results…

Education Trust, Washington, DC.

146

South Dakota Annual Performance Report--1994. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During fiscal year 1994, South Dakota's vocational-technical education delivery system served 30,498 secondary students, 3,809 postsecondary students, and 8,358 adults. Of South Dakota's 178 school districts, 132 had to organize into some type of consortium arrangement to qualify for Perkins Act funds. The Perkins funds were used to provide…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre. Office of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

147

Message from the Governor and State Education Secretary. South Dakota Department of Education 2003-2004 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Dakota's Department of Education aims to put kids first. In order to do that, efforts are focused on promoting leadership and service among administrators and educators, who touch the lives of children on a daily basis. The department has identified seven goals for 2004-05 to ensure that South Dakota students have the best educational…

South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

2005-01-01

148

75 FR 70021 - South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...60138-1265-6CCP-S3] South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind Energy Development; Record of Decision...statement (FEIS) on the South Dakota Prairie Winds Project issued by the Department of...

2010-11-16

149

Lifelong Education Needs for Providing Pastoral Care for Post-Traumatic Stress in South Dakota National Guard Soldiers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout many communities in South Dakota the members of the South Dakota National Guard have been activated to serve in many different parts of the world since 2001. Approximately 20% of these individuals returned to their homes with some degree of PTSD (Hoge, et al., 2004). Pastoral Care has changed since September 11, 2001. The purpose of…

Meirose, William J.

2010-01-01

150

Identification of soil associations in western South Dakota on ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units having characteristic soil depths and textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, pH characteristics, plasticity indices, liquid limits, and the like, from which broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited as a source for top soil, and as a source for sand and gravel, and how corrosive the soil is for steel and concrete, and what crop and grass yields can be expected. Film color composites of bands 4, 5 and 7 viewed over a light table with magnification show the soil associations of western South Dakota that are now recognized, and, in addition, several new soil association areas have been brought to light.

Westin, F. C.; Myers, V. I.

1973-01-01

151

Estimation of Potential Bridge Scour at Bridges on State Routes in South Dakota, 2003-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flowing water can erode (scour) soils and cause structural failure of a bridge by exposing or undermining bridge foundations (abutments and piers). A rapid scour-estimation technique, known as the level-1.5 method and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, was used to evaluate potential scour at bridges in South Dakota in a study conducted in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This method was used during 2003-07 to estimate scour for the 100-year and 500-year floods at 734 selected bridges managed by the South Dakota Department of Transportation on State routes in South Dakota. Scour depths and other parameters estimated from the level-1.5 analyses are presented in tabular form. Estimates of potential contraction scour at the 734 bridges ranged from 0 to 33.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 35.8 feet for the 500-year flood. Abutment scour ranged from 0 to 36.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 45.9 feet for the 500-year flood. Pier scour ranged from 0 to 30.8 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 30.7 feet for the 500-year flood. The scour depths estimated by using the level-1.5 method can be used by the South Dakota Department of Transportation and others to identify bridges that may be susceptible to scour. Scour at 19 selected bridges also was estimated by using the level-2 method. Estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour calculated by using the level-1.5 and level-2 methods are presented in tabular and graphical formats. Compared to level-2 scour estimates, the level-1.5 method generally overestimated scour as designed, or in a few cases slightly underestimated scour. Results of the level-2 analyses were used to develop regression equations for change in head and average velocity through the bridge opening. These regression equations derived from South Dakota data are compared to similar regression equations derived from Montana and Colorado data. Future level-1.5 scour investigations in South Dakota may benefit from the use of these South Dakota-specific regression equations for estimating change in stream head and average velocity at the bridge.

Thompson, Ryan F.; Fosness, Ryan L.

2008-01-01

152

Analysis of flood-flow frequency, flow duration, and channel-forming flow for the James River in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)

Benson, R. D.

1988-01-01

153

Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from...

A. J. Long L. D. Putnam

2007-01-01

154

Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

2002-01-01

155

Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents water-level and water-quality data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1998, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota D...

D. G. Driscoll M. J. Moran W. L. Bradford

2000-01-01

156

Trace element zoning in pelitic garnet of the Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element (REE, Cr, Ti, Y, Y, and Zr) analysis of garnet from the garnet, staurolite, and lower sillimanite zones of an aluminous schist of the Black Hills, South Dakota, indicates that REE zoning varies as a function of grade. Garnet-zone garnet has high concentrations of REEs, Cr, Ti, Y, Y, and Zr in the cores and low concentrations in

CRAIG S. SCHWANDT; JAMES J. PAPIKE

1996-01-01

157

Hydrological response to climate change in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological response due to potential CO 2 forced climate change in the Black Hills of South Dakota was investigated using modelling techniques that include variations to atmospheric CO2, temperature, and precipitation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the 427 km Spring Creek basin hydrology and simulate the impact of potential climate change. As expected,

T. A. FONTAINE; J. F. KLASSEN; T. S. CRUICKSHANK; R. H. HOTCHKISS

2001-01-01

158

Leucogranites in the Black Hills of South Dakota: The consequence of shear heating during continental collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucogranites are common features of convergent orogens. However, the heat necessary for producing leucogranite magma from pelitic sources in convergent orogens is a major unresolved issue. We suggest that the generation of the Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, during the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogeny is best explained by shear heating during thrusting of a Proterozoic sedimentary sequence over the

Peter I. Nabelek; Mian Liu

1999-01-01

159

Trembling aspen response to a mixed-severity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) regeneration dynamics including sprout production, growth, and clone size were measured to determine the effects of fire on small aspen clone persistence following a mixed- severity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Four years postfire, 10 small, isolated aspen clones per low and high fire severity classes were compared with 10 unburned clones. Regardless

Tara L. Keyser; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2005-01-01

160

Hydrological response to climate change in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological response due to potential CO,~forced climate change in the Black Hills of South Dakota was investigated using modelling techniques that include variations to atmospheric CO,, temperature, and precipitation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the 427 km2 Spring Creek basin hydrology and simulate the impact of potential climate change. As expected, modelling results

T. A. FONTAINE; J. F. KLASSEN; T. S. CRUICKSHANK; R. H. HOTCHKISS

2001-01-01

161

Spatial models for estimating fuel loads in the Black Hills South Dakota USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Fire suppression has increased fuel loadings and fuel continuity in many forested ecosystems, resulting in forest structures that are vulnerable to catastrophic fire. This paper describes the statistical properties of models developed to describe the spatial variability in forest fuels on the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota. Forest fuel loadings (tonnes\\/ha) are modeled,to a 30 m resolution using

Robin M. Reich; John E. Lundquist; Vanessa A. Bravo

162

75 FR 37822 - South Dakota; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency...This notice amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of South Dakota...given that the incident period for this disaster is closed effective June 20,...

2010-06-30

163

South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

Soka, John Alex

2011-01-01

164

Murdo Municipal Airport, Murdo, South Dakota. Project 72-1-7-46-0036-01.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposal for the construction of a general aviation airport at Murdo, South Dakota. Land acquisition - development and clear zones; runway and site preparation 4400x150 ft; taxiway 150x50 ft; apron 300x150 ft; aircraft tie down an...

1972-01-01

165

State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Progress on Teacher Quality, 2007. South Dakota State Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" examines what is arguably the single most powerful authority over the teaching profession: state government. This South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the first of what will be an annual look at the status of state policies impacting the…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007

2007-01-01

166

Perceptions of South Dakota Public School Superintendents and Board Presidents Regarding Collaboration Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No single relationship in a school district has a greater impact on successful education than that between the school board and superintendent (Kowalski, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine and compare perceptions of South Dakota public school superintendents and board presidents regarding collaboration practices for communicating…

Plumb, Elizabeth C.

2011-01-01

167

Criteria and Format to Optimize Political Debates: An Analysis of South Dakota's "Election '80" Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic community, news media, and public have expressed interest in debate as a vehicle to facilitate intelligent citizen evaluation of political candidates. This paper focuses on the format, criteria, and survey results of the "Election 80" television debates between congressional candidates from South Dakota, as compared with the…

Pfau, Michael

1983-01-01

168

Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. South Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for South Dakota related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

2013-01-01

169

De Smet Municipal Airport, De Smet, South Dakota. Project 73-1-7-46-0063-01.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes to construct a new airport at De Smet, South Dakota. This would involve land acquisition - development and clear zones; site preparation and drainage of the NW/SE landing strip 150' x 4,100'; connecting taxiway 40' x 175'; apron 150' ...

1973-01-01

170

EFFECTS OF PRAIRIE DOG RODENTICIDES ON DEER MICE IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 A BSTRACT .-Mortality of nontarget small mammals was determined after application of three black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys Zudovicianus) rodenticide treatments (prebaited zinc phosphide, prebaited strychnine, and strychnine alone) in western South Dakota. Immediate (September 1983) and long-term (September 1983 through August 1984) impacts on deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) relative densities were evaluated, and the three rodenticide treatments were compared

Michele S. Deisch; Daniel W. Uresk; Raymond L. Linder

1990-01-01

171

South Dakota Weather Modification Program Research Cooperative Studies Under Project Skywater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of gridded monthly rainfall data indicates that South Dakota seeded counties received, overall, 6.7% more rainfall during the four program seasons than would be expected on the basis of unseeded county rainfall. The Bureau of Reclamation Envir...

J. A. Donnan J. L. Pellett R. S. Leblang

1976-01-01

172

Field Evaluation of Pyrotechnic Cloud Seeding Devices at Lemmon, South Dakota, 17-21 July 1967.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 17 and 21 July 1967 a number of experiments were conducted in the general vicinity of Lemmon, South Dakota to evaluate the effectiveness of pyrotechnic cloud seeding devices. Six test cases were treated, with the amount of silver iodide released i...

J. A. Donnan R. A. Schleusener

1968-01-01

173

EHRLEITE, A NEW CALCIUM BERYLLIUM ZINC PHOSPHATE HYDRATE FROM THE TIP TOP PEGMATITE, CUSTER, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehrleite, a new mineral species from the Tip Top mine, Custer, South Dakota, occurs as vitreous, white to color- less, thick tabular crystals up to 2 x 2 xl.l mm on a matrix of beryl and quartz, with mitridatite, roscherite, hy\\

GEORGE W. ROBINSON; JOEL D. GRICE; JERRY VAN VELTHUIZEN

174

Report of an Evaluation of the Vocational-Technical Program in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of an evaluation study made to determine how well South Dakota has met vocational-technical education objectives and goals are provided. The three sections of the report are as follows: Section I: Presentation, Analysis, Interpretation of Data and Evaluation of Outcome Objectives (15 tables and 4 charts); Section II: Part A.…

South Dakota State Advisory Council on Vocational and Technical Education, Pierre.

175

Attitudes of South Dakota Elementary and Secondary Parents toward the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a modified version of the 1983 Gallup Poll survey of parents of school-aged children in South Dakota. Parents of elementary and secondary school students were asked to grade the nation's and their state's schools and were surveyed on the following topics: their perceptions of the causes of discipline problems,…

Webster, Loraine; Wood, Robert W.

176

South Dakota Arts Council Long Range Plan FY 2006-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents South Dakota Arts Council Long Range Plan for Fiscal Years 2006-2008 in terms of how it intends to achieve six goals. These goals are: (1) Enhance quality of life and economic development through the arts; (2) Promote public awareness and support of the arts; (3) Advance the arts as essential to education and life-long…

South Dakota Arts Council, 2006

2006-01-01

177

The Hutterite Brethern: An Annotated Bibliography with Special Reference to South Dakota Hutterite Colonies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Dakota is the home of a small religious group known as the Hutterite Brethren. The members of this sect live in small cooperative colonies in the northern United States and in several provinces in Canada. The Hutterites are unique in that, while using modern agricultural technology, they have isolated themselves from the main current of…

Riley, Marvin P.

178

Arsenic and uranium transport in sediments near abandoned uranium mines in Harding County, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples were analyzed as part of ongoing environmental investigations of historical U mining impacts within Custer National Forest in Harding County, South Dakota. Correlations between As and U content, grain size and soil mineralogy were determined to identify contaminant fate and transport mechanisms. Soil samples collected near the mining source zone and up to 61km downgradient of the minesites

Gregory G. Kipp; James J. Stone; Larry D. Stetler

2009-01-01

179

Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, May 2, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University (South Dakota) faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are…

Anagnopoulos, Cheryl, Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

180

Weather Modification and Public Opinion in South Dakota, 1972 and 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public response to South Dakota's operational cloud seeding program (SDWMP) has been traced since before its implementation. Data are presented from interviews conducted at the end of each of the program's first two operational seasons. Variables included are respondent 1) attitudes toward weather modification, 2) beliefs that it is effective in increasing precipitation and suppressing hail, 3) sources of information

Barbara C. Farhar

1975-01-01

181

Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

Cederstrand, J. R.; Becker, M. F.

1998-01-01

182

Karstic gypsum problems at wastewater stabilization sites in the Black Hills of South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Triassic Spearfish Formation contains numerous gypsum beds in which karstic conditions have developed in the Black Hills\\u000a of South Dakota. The evaporite karst has caused severe engineering problems for foundations and water retention facilities,\\u000a including wastewater stabilization sites. Two dramatic examples include the former sewage lagoons for the City of Spearfish\\u000a and a proposed lagoon\\/wetlands facility for Whitewood, South

Arden D. Davis; Perry H. Rahn

1997-01-01

183

Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

Higgins, K. F.

1977-01-01

184

Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Long, A. J.; Sawyer, J. F.; Putnam, L. D.

2008-01-01

185

The Archaeological and Historical Survey and Report on a Proposed Project Near Pollock and Herreid, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An historical and archaeological records check, literature search, and surface survey was conducted during 1977 and 1978 in Campbell County, South Dakota, on the proposed route of the Pollock-Herreid Irrigation Unit for the United States Department of the...

K. A. Roetzel N. L. Woolworth

1978-01-01

186

Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

Eads, D. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Biggins, D. E.; Livieri, T. M.; Jachowski, D. S.

2011-01-01

187

Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

Clausen, E.N.

1988-07-01

188

Remote sensing of physiographic soil units of Bennett County, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted in Bennett County, South Dakota, to establish a rangeland test site for evaluating the usefulness of ERTS data for mapping soil resources in rangeland areas. Photographic imagery obtained in October, 1970, was analyzed to determine which type of imagery is best for mapping drainage and land use patterns. Imagery of scales ranging from 1:1,000,000 to 1.20,000 was used to delineate soil-vegetative physiographic units. The photo characteristics used to define physiographic units were texture, drainage pattern, tone pattern, land use pattern and tone. These units will be used as test data for evaluating ERTS data. The physiographic units were categorized into a land classification system. The various categories which were delineated at the different scales of imagery were designed to be useful for different levels of land use planning. The land systems are adequate only for planning of large areas for general uses. The lowest category separated was the facet. The facets have a definite soil composition and represent different soil landscapes. These units are thought to be useful for providing natural resource information needed for local planning.

Frazee, C. J.; Gropper, J. L.; Westin, F. C.

1973-01-01

189

Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

Jachowski, D. S.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Biggins, D. E.; Livieri, T. M.; Matchett, M. R.; Rittenhouse, C. D.

2011-01-01

190

Interrelationships between Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Water Quality for South Dakota Natural Lakes and Impoundments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity\\u000a may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation\\u000a of 0.3 mg kg?1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg?1 total mercury, far exceeding US

James J. Stone; Cindie M. McCutcheon; Larry D. Stetler; Steven R. Chipps

191

CHARACTERISTICS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWN BEDS, BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. - Forty-two white-tailed ,deer fawns ,(Odocoileus virginianus dakotensis) were captured ,and ,fitted with radio transmitters and observed ,from ,June through ,September 1991 and 1992 to determine ,diurnal ,bed,site use,in the Black Hills of South ,Dakota. Fawns ,were ,monitored ,biweekly ,during ,daylight hours and ,259 bed sites ,were ,located. In addition, 301 random sites were measured for comparison. Of 31

Daniel W. Uresk; Ted A. Benzon; Kieth E. Severson; Lakhdar Benkobi

192

75 FR 69436 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with the provisions of section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given that the State of South Dakota has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program by adopting federal regulations for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Stage 2 Disinfection By-Product Rule, Groundwater......

2010-11-12

193

SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

-,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied injl tensively along a IS-mile stretch of the Big Sioux River and less intensively on an expanse of 1,100; square miles in central eastern South Dakota from February, 1964, to March, 1966. Thirty-three deer were.'i marked individually with ear tags, streamers, and collars, and 461 locations were recorded.

ROLLIN D. SPARROWE; PAUL F. SPRINGER

194

Avian use of rice-baited corn stubble in east-central South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blackbirds (Icteridae) cause substantial damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annus) in the northern Great Plains. One management option to reduce damage is to bait spring-migrating blackbirds with the compound DRC-1339 (3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride). In March and April 1994 and 95, we evaluated nontarget risks associated with use of DRC-1339-treated rice baits broadcast in fields of corn stubble in east-central South Dakota.

George M. Linz; Mary Jo Kenyon; H. Jeffrey Homan; William J. Bleier

2002-01-01

195

Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature-dependent growth models were developed for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held in a circular culture tank for two months and trained to accept a pelleted diet. Five temperature treatments (16, 19, 22, 25, and 28°C) were randomly assigned in triplicate to 15, 38-L tanks containing 10 fish averaging 84±0.4 mm

Michael L. Brown; Kevin A. Smith

2004-01-01

196

Baiting blackbirds (Icteridae) in stubble grain fields during spring migration in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blackbirds (Icteridae) annually damage US$5–8 million of ripening sunflower in the northern Great Plains. Baiting blackbirds with avicide-treated rice during spring migration might reduce the regional breeding population. In March and April 1996–1997, we simulated a baiting program in eastern South Dakota to compare attractiveness of rice-baited plots placed in fields of corn and soybean stubble. Blackbirds used plots in

G. M. Linz; G. A. Knutsen; H. J. Homan; W. J. Bleier

2003-01-01

197

Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota through September 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of flood-flow frequency were made for 80 active continuous-record gaging stations and 105 discontinued crest-stage partial-record stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1981.) (USGS)

Hoffman, E. B.; Freese, M. E.; Winter, D. R.

1986-01-01

198

Avian Use of Various Bait Mixtures Offered in Harvested Cornfields during Spring Migration in South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avicide, DRC-1339, is used to cull populations of spring-migrating blackbirds in eastern South Dakota to reduce damage to ripening sunflower in late summer. We investigated non-target bird hazards associated with using various grain mixtures to attract blackbirds (Icteridae), especially red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), to avicide-treated bait broadcast in harvested cornfields. During spring 1997 and 1998, we recorded the species

George M. Linz; H. Jeffrey Homan; Ryan L. Wimberly

2001-01-01

199

Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.  

PubMed

Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills. PMID:23068162

Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

2012-10-01

200

Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

1974-01-01

201

Technical-assistance report on a geothermal heating utility for Lemmon, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this effort was to review work already done toward establishing a geothermal heating utility in Lemmon, South Dakota; to redefine the goals for such a project; and to recommend how the project might proceeed to completion. The minimum size Phase I suggested would provide heat for up to 62 buildings in a 9-block area. Total cost is estimated at $1,800,000 to 1,950,000. The geothermal source is expected to be 100 to 400 gpm of 160/sup 0/F water pumped from 500 feet deep. Proposed energy savings and energy cost savings are presented. Analysis indicates that the major geothermal development effort in Lemmon should be directed toward the Madison aquifer. The minimum project dictates simple reinjection of the water after primary thermal extraction, although other uses are attractive and may be promoted if this resource is developed. A wide range of funding sources was investigated. Most promising avenues appear to be some form of local bond financing, and loans from the Farmer's Home Administration or the HUD Urban Development action grant program. The report suggests that a municipally-owned geothermal district heating utility be established, and a bond issue approved to pay for the initial well drilling, which is the major risk in the whole venture. A UDAG grant for 25% of the well cost may be obtainable. If the well proves successful, then the rest of the project can go forward.

Not Available

1982-02-01

202

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-278-2035, Twin City Fruit, F. L. Thorpe Co. , Deadwood, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the South Dakota Health Department, an evaluation was made of possible exposure to methylene-bisphenyl-diisocyanate (MDI) among employees of Thorpe's, a jewelry facility located in a warehouse owned by Twin City Fruit in Deadwood, South Dakota. At this facility gold was casted, soldered, buffed, finished, packaged, and shipped. The facility employed 85 women and two men in two rooms of the warehouse basement. Insulation was applied by spraying MDI and polyol in a 1:1 mixture onto the warehouse ceiling, walls, and basement rooms adjacent to the jewelry facility. Five days after insulation spraying ceased, seven of 16 area samples had detectable quantities of MDI, but all were below NIOSH's recommended exposure limit of 50 micrograms/cubic meter. It was not possible to estimate the concentration of MDI in the jewelry facility during the spraying application. Thirteen employees had probable MDI induced respiratory diseases. Of these 13, one had respiratory symptoms persisting at least 6 days after the exposure and four had symptoms 2 months later. All blood tests for allergy to MDI were negative. Inadequate isolation procedures during the spraying operation were cited as the cause of these difficulties. The authors conclude that MDI exposure probably occurred during the application of the insulation material.

Hales, T.R.; Gunter, B.

1990-04-01

203

Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002-2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0-2 weeks, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; ??-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83-0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0-2 weeks of age, 26% at 2-8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Swanson, C. C.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Brinkman, T. J.; Burris, B. M.; Deperno, C. S.; Jenks, J. A.

2011-01-01

204

Delineating the size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining non-invasive surface geophysical results and geotechnical drill hole data can provide valuable information about the subsurface. Unfortunately, the placement of inclinometers is often limited to areas along roads and other areas accessible by drill rigs, yet many surface geophysical investigations take place in areas where accessibility is difficult or impossible for vehicles. An integrated investigation using surface geophysics and existing borehole data was conducted at the active Cliff Shelf landslide along South Dakota State Route (SR) 240 in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. The purpose of the geophysical investigation was to provide an approximate size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide for the engineering design alternative of the short-and long-term stabilization of the landslide. Additional objectives were to determine the strength/stiffness of the landslide materials, and to locate any heterogeneities of the Cliff Shelf landslide, specifically discontinuities which may imply slide planes within the landslide. Surface geophysical methods used for this investigation included seismic refraction tomography, Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), and electrical resistivity tomography. Inclinometers were previously installed at two locations on SR 240 to determine a depth to the slide plane. Drill log data, specifically SPT N-values (i.e., blow counts), were used to interpret a depth to a stiffness contact. Observations from the inclinometers indicate maximum horizontal displacement at approximate depths of 47-49 feet. Borings near the inclinometers show an increase in N-value at depths of 50-60 feet, indicating a stiffness contact at similar depths. Seismic refraction and MASW surveys were acquired within 18 feet of the inclinometers and borehole locations. At depths where maximum displacement occurred and blow counts increased, the P-wave and S-wave velocities increased from 3200 ft/s to 4300-4700 feet per second (ft/s), and from 550 ft/s to 900 ft/s, respectively. Therefore, these velocities (referred to hereafter as 'stiffness contact') are interpreted to represent a stiffness contact where displacement is likely to occur, and a possible depth to the slide plane. Two locations along the seismic refraction and MASW profiles were identified where there is an abrupt decrease in the depth to the stiffness contact, interpreted to represent the location of the slide plane. Additional seismic refraction and MASW surveys were collected away from the highway (where instruments could not be installed) to delineate the shape and size of the slide plane in the subsurface, specifically the northern and western extents. By determining the extents of the slide plane, an estimation of the size of the landslide was made by engineers and incorporated to designing mitigation solutions. Also, by successfully applying multiple geophysical techniques the interpreted depth and extents of the slide plane allowed design engineers to determine the total size of the landslide. The interpretations of the slide plane extents, vertically and horizontally, correlate well with the limited standard geotechnical data currently being used to monitor landslide movement.

Genco, A. J.

2013-12-01

205

National uranium resource evaluation: Lemmon quadrangle, South Dakota and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Lemmon Quadrangle was evaluated to identify and delineate geologic environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface studies included investigation of uranium occurrences, general surface reconnaissance, and detailed rock sampling in selected areas. In addition, followup studies were conducted on carborne spectrometric, aerial radiometric, and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. Subsurface investigations included examination of geophysical well logs and ground-water geochemical data. These investigations indicate environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Upper Cretaceous strata and lignite-type deposits in the Paleocene strata. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary sandstones and Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, exclusive of the Upper Cretaceous sandstones.

Sewell, J.M.; Pickering, L.A.

1982-06-01

206

Understory-overstory relationships in ponderosa pine forests Black Hills South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Under-story-overstory relationships,were,examined,over 7 dif- different growing stock levels(GSLs) of 2 size classes(saplings,8-10 cmd.b.h. and poles, 15-18 cm d.b.h.) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Generally, produc- tion of graminoids, forbs, and shrubs was similar between sapling and,pole stands. Trends among ,GSLs were ,also similar between these tree size classes. Graminoids,and forbs were,most,abundant inclearcuts,and the

Daniel W. Uresk; Kieth E. Severson

207

Medical library service in a community-based medical school: a case study in South Dakota.  

PubMed Central

The historical background of community-based medical schools is described with emphasis on the experiences of the University of South Dakota Lommen Health Sciences Library. The steps undertaken by the library to meet Liaison Committee for Medical Education accreditation standards required for a full four-year, M.D.-degree granting institution are outlined. The governance structure of the participating Libraries of the Affiliated Teaching Hospitals Council is described. Special problems and their solutions are discussed in the context of providing service to a medical school which is decentralized on a statewide basis.

Brennen, P W; Boilard, D W

1981-01-01

208

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Zimmerman, T. J.; Jenks, J. A.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Neiger, R. D.

2008-01-01

209

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

2008-04-01

210

Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

1982-01-01

211

JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS  

SciTech Connect

Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-11-01

212

Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

Howard, S.M.

1983-09-01

213

Stable isotope evidence for the petrogenesis and fluid evolution in the Proterozoic Harney Peak leucogranite, Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope systematics of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, were examined in order to constrain its petrogenesis and to examine the role of fluids in a peraluminous granite-pegmatite magmatic system. The leucogranite and its satellite intrusions were emplaced as hundreds of sills and dikes which are texturally heterogeneous, ranging from aplitic to pegmatitic. The

P. I. Nabelek; C. Russ-Nabelek; G. T. Haeussler

1992-01-01

214

South Dakota Deaf Blind Project: Expanding the Circle of Services for Children & Youth Who Are Deaf Blind. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes activities and accomplishments of the 3-year project, "Expanding the Circle of Services for Children and Youth Who Are Deaf Blind," a South Dakota project to improve services to this population through improved interagency cooperation and technical assistance. A highlight of the third year was the formation of the Great…

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

215

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 89-278-2035, Twin City Fruit, F.L. Thorpe Co., Deadwood, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a request from the South Dakota Health Department, an evaluation was made of possible exposure to methylene-bisphenyl-diisocyanate (101688) (MDI) among employees of Thorpe's, a jewelry facility (SIC-3911) located in a warehouse owned by Twi...

B. Gunter T. R. Hales

1990-01-01

216

Geochemical data from groundwater at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, Edgemont, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.

Johnson, Raymond H.

2012-01-01

217

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND SUPPORTING MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FACTORS WHICH WERE BELIEVED TO CONTRIBUTE TO STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT WERE INVESTIGATED. THE SAMPLE WAS TAKEN FROM 130 FOUR-YEAR SECONDARY PUBLIC AND NON-PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS WAS COMPARED TO CLASS RANK, AND EXAMINED IN RELATION TO SUCH SCHOOL VARIABLES AS (1) SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, (2) SCIENCE AND…

BEDWELL, THOMAS HOWARD

218

Nutrient database for distiller's dried grains with solubles produced from new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the nutrient content and variability of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) originating from new (less than 5 yr old) ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota. Ten plants (8 MN, 2 SD) participated in the study, submitting a total of 118 samples. Samples were collected every 2 mo from ten ethanol plants in

M. J. Spiehs; M. H. Whitney; G. C. Shurson

219

The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

2014-01-01

220

The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

2014-01-01

221

Remote Sensing for Evaluating Post-Disaster Damage Conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota Tornado, 23 July 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imagi...

A. E. Rusche V. I. Myers

1974-01-01

222

Learning at a Distance in South Dakota: Description and Evaluation of the Diffusion of a Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One major component of the efforts to promote the use of technology and distance education in South Dakota and specifically of Phase III of the Connecting the Schools Project-an initiative announced in the spring of 1999 by Governor Janklow that built a statewide intranet among all 176 school districts--was a comprehensive evaluation activity. The…

Simonson, Michael; Bauck, Tamara

223

Research, Issues, and Practices. Annual Curriculum and Instruction Research Symposium Conference Proceedings (1st, Vermillion, South Dakota, April 22, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to promote the professional sharing of current educational issues, to provide a forum for dialogue concerning relevant educational topics, and to share University of South Dakota faculty research interests. The proceedings are comprised of 10 presentations: (1) "Japan Related Education in…

South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

224

Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.  

PubMed

Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid density on open-cage plants did not differ from that on noncaged plants and those accessible by small predators. In a separate 3-yr experiment, exclusion of ants from soybean plants did not lead to differences in soybean aphid density compared with ant-accessible plants. Overall, these results suggest that the soybean aphid natural enemy guild is unsaturated and could be enhanced to improve biological control of soybean aphid in South Dakota. PMID:24874151

Hesler, Louis S

2014-06-01

225

Evaluation of recharge to the Skunk Creek Aquifer from a constructed wetland near Lyons, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A wetland was constructed in the Skunk Creek flood plain near Lyons in southeast South Dakota to mitigate for wetland areas that were filled during construction of a municipal golf course for the city of Sioux Falls. A water-rights permit was obtained to allow the city to pump water from Skunk Creek into the wetland during times when the wetland would be dry. The amount of water seeping through the wetland and recharging the underlying Skunk Creek aquifer was not known. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls, conducted a study during 1997-2000 to evaluate recharge to the Skunk Creek aquifer from the constructed wetland. Three methods were used to estimate recharge from the wetland to the aquifer: (1) analysis of the rate of water-level decline during periods of no inflow; (2) flow-net analysis; and (3) analysis of the hydrologic budget. The hydrologic budget also was used to evaluate the efficiency of recharge from the wetland to the aquifer. Recharge rates estimated by analysis of shut-off events ranged from 0.21 to 0.82 foot per day, but these estimates may be influenced by possible errors in volume calculations. Recharge rates determined by flow-net analysis were calculated using selected values of hydraulic conductivity and ranged from 566,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 0.5 foot per day to 1,684,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 foot per day. Recharge rates from the hydrologic budget varied from 0.74 to 0.85 foot per day, and averaged 0.79 foot per day. The amount of water lost to evapotranspiration at the study wetland is very small compared to the amount of water seeping from the wetland into the aquifer. Based on the hydrologic budget, the average recharge efficiency was estimated as 97.9 percent, which indicates that recharging the Skunk Creek aquifer by pumping water into the study wetland is highly efficient. Because the Skunk Creek aquifer is composed of sand and gravel, the 'recharge mound' is less distinct than might be found in an aquifer composed of finer materials. However, water levels recorded from piezometers in and around the wetland do show a higher water table than periods when the wetland was dry. The largest increases in water level occur between the wetland channel and Skunk Creek. The results of this study demonstrate that artificially recharged wetlands can be useful in recharging underlying aquifers and increasing water levels in these aquifers.

Thompson, Ryan F.

2002-01-01

226

Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

Howe, Jenika

227

LANDSAT's role in HUD 701 programs. [New Jersey and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of states concerning the use of LANDSAT in support of the comprehensive planning assistance program (Title IV, section 701) of the Housing and Community Development Act (1974) which is aimed mostly at small communities and rural counties, shows: (1) state governments used or were aware of the application of LANDSAT for inventorying land use and land cover at the state and local level; (2) use of satellite data was associated with the development of automated geographic information systems and the computer capability of handling and analyzing mapped information and other data tied to geographic coordinates and boundaries; and (3) LANDSAT capabilities in states tend to be institutionalized within state government information services where they can be readily assessed by state agencies. A summary of the state program for New Jersey and South Dakota is presented along with the state development guide plans, the rationale for using the satellite, and potential applications.

1979-01-01

228

Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

1974-01-01

229

Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive land use planning process model is being developed in Meade County, South Dakota, using remote sensing technology. The proper role of remote sensing in the land use planning process is being determined by interaction of remote sensing specialists with local land use planners. The data that were collected by remote sensing techniques are as follows: (1) level I land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies; (2) detailed land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:24,000 from enlargement color prints of high altitude RB-57 photography; and (3) general soils map interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies. In addition to use of imagery as an interpretation aid, the utility of using photographs as base maps was demonstrated.

1974-01-01

230

Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

231

Fishes and habitat characteristics of the Keya Paha River, South Dakota-Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fishes were collected in four mainstem reaches and eight tributary reaches in the Keya Paha River basin during May and June 2002. Most reaches were characteristically run habitats with sand substrates and riparian pastures. Data were combined with historical records to construct a basin-wide ichthyofaunal list which comprised 38 species from seven families. Dominant species were sand shiners (Notropis ludibundus; 47%), red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis; 37%), and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni; 8%). Dominant game species were bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We found one species previously listed as rare in South Dakota - plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus), and four species not previously found in the Keya Paha River - silver chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), northern pike (Esox Indus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

Harland, B.; Berry, Jr. , C. R.

2004-01-01

232

A Resource Inventory of Selected Outcrops Along the White Clay Fault in Southwestern South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The White Clay Fault, located in southwestern South Dakota, formed after the Laramide orogeny (65mya) that resulted in the uplift of the Black Hills in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming. Many of the outcrops along the White Clay Fault are part of the Eocene-Oligocene White River Group (37-26.9 mya), an accumulation of nonmarine sediments composed primarily of tuffaceous mudstones and silty claytones with lesser amounts of kaolinitic sandstones, lacustrine limestones and gypsum. (LaGarry, 1998; LaGarry and LaGarry, 1997). White River Group sediments also consist of volcanic ash from eruptions in the southwestern United States (Larson and Evanoff, 1998). The White Clay Fault lies at the outer boundary of the Black Hills uplift. After the fault formed, the eventual erosion of overlying White River Group materials exposed outcrops of Late Cretaceous Niobrara chalk that formed between 145.5-65.5 mya, at a time when this region was covered by the Western Interior Seaway. The Niobrara Formation consists of chalk and limestone interbedded with marls and shale (Locklear and Sageman, 2008). This poster records a geological and paleontological resource inventory for two selected outcrops that are within a short walking distance of each other along the White Clay Fault. Outcrops on the downside of the fault belongs to the Peanut Peak member of the White River Group, while the outcrops on the upside of the fault belong to the Niobrara Formation; a difference of 60 million years. The selected outcrops are on sensitive land on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation that has never been inventories before due to sovereignty issues. As such, this resource inventory represents one of many initial steps being taken by students and faculty at Oglala Lakota College to determine the geological resources of the Reservation.

Sanovia, L.

2012-12-01

233

Ground-water data for selected coal areas in western North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water data are provided for the Sand Creek-Hanks, New England-Mott, Dickenson, and Bowman-Gascoyne coal areas, western North Dakota. The report contains the following: (1) Maps showing the location of wells, springs, and test holes; the location of test holes; where driller ' logs are available; and the location of wells with chemical analysis; and (2) tables showing well, spring, and test hole records; logs; and chemical analyses of water. (USGS)

Wald, James D.; Norbeck, Steven W.

1983-01-01

234

National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Lemmon NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Lemmon Quadrangle, South Dakota. Field and laboratory data are presented for 565 groundwater and 531 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors are briefly discussed which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization. The groundwater data indicate that the area which appears most promising for uranium mineralization is located in the southwestern portion of the quadrangle. Groundwater in this area is produced primarily from the Cretaceous Fox Hills Formation where high values were determined for uranium, arsenic, potassium, and silicon and low values for boron, sodium, pH, sulfate, specific conductance, and total alkalinity. The presence of Tertiary ash deposits and the abundance of organics downdip in the permeable Fox Hills Formation could provide a suitable geochemical framework for uranium accumulation. The stream sediment data indicate that the Pierre Shale, Fox Hills, and Hell Creek Formations in the southwestern portion of the quadrangle have the highest potential for uranium mineralization. Sediments derived from these units are high in uranium, aluminum, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, lithium, magnesium, niobium, nickel, phosphorous, scandium, vanadium, yttrium, zinc, and zirconium.

Not Available

1980-01-31

235

Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Hoganson, J. W.; Erickson, J. M.; Holland, Jr. , F. D.

2007-01-01

236

15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative is thin but printable) - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

237

The generation and crystallization conditions of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Leucogranite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Petrologic and geochemical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, were examined in view of experimentally determined phase equilibria applicable to granitic systems in order to place constraints on the progenesis of peraluminous leucogranites and commonly associated rare-element pegmatites. The granite was emplaced at 3–4 kbar as multiple sills and dikes into quartz-mica schists at

P. I. Nabelek; C. Russ-Nabelek; J. R. Denison

1992-01-01

238

Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T\\/sub DM\\/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T\\/sub DM\\/

R. J. Walker; G. N. Hanson; J. J. Papike; J. R. ONeil

1986-01-01

239

Factors controlling oil distribution in the Minnelusa reservoirs, southern Black Hills Region (South Dakota, U.S.A.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors controlling oil distribution in the oil-producing Minnelusa Formation (a thick series of sandstones, carbonates,\\u000a evaporites, and shales in the southern Black Hills Region, South Dakota) are described. Surface and subsurface geologic studies\\u000a of outcrops, cores, and well logs were made to determine the sedimentology, petrography, and reservoir parameters of the Minnelusa\\u000a and to relate them to its oil

Co?kun Namo?lu

1988-01-01

240

Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and how new deposits might be found  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the recorded production of 34,694,552 troy ounces of gold mined in South Dakota through 1971, about 90 percent has come from Precambrian ore bodies in the Homestake mine at Lead in the northern Black Hills. Most of the rest has come from ore deposited in the Deadwood Formation (Cambrian) by hydrothermal replacement during early Tertiary igneous activity. About 99 percent of the total production has been within a radius of 5 miles (8 km) of Lead. Elsewhere, prospecting has been intense, both in the Precambrian rocks, which are exposed over an area 61 by 26 miles (98 by 42 km), and in nearby Paleozoic rocks. All the known ore bodies have been found either at the surface or in subsurface workings of operating mines. Efforts to find totally new deposits have been modest and sporadic; no comprehensive and systematic program has ever been attempted. Obviously, any exploration program should be aimed at finding a new deposit resembling the Homestake in the Precambrian, but discovery in the Deadwood of a new group of ore bodies containing several hundred thousand ounces of gold would certainly be worthwhile. Evidence has long been available that the Deadwood deposits and the Homestake deposit are somehow related. Current opinion is that (1) the Homestake ore is mainly Precambrian, (2) a trivial amount of Homestake ore is Tertiary, (3)gold in Deadwood basal conglomerate is largely of placer origin, and (4) the gold of replacement deposits in the Deadwood and in other rock units came originally from sources similar to the Homestake deposit or its parent materials. Homestake ore is virtually entirely contained in a unit of iron-formation locally known as the Homestake Formation, which seemingly had more gold in the original sediments than similar rocks exposed elsewhere in the Black Hills. Gold, sulfur, and other constituents were subsequently concentrated in ore shoots in zones of dilation caused by cross folds that deformed earlier major folds. These ore shoots are in metamorphic rocks of a grade just above the garnet isograd, in a zone where the principal iron-magnesium mineral of the iron-formation changes from a carbonate (sideroplesite) to a silicate (cummingtonite). This metamorphic reaction would release carbon dioxide to the fluid that presumably formed the ore bodies. In short, three controls over localization of the ore have been identified: (1) the cross folds; (2) the so-called Homestake Formation, which passes beneath Paleozoic rocks north of Lead and has not been proved to reappear anywhere else in the Black Hills (Other units of iron-formation less enriched in gold might locally become more like the Homestake Formation beneath the cover of Paleozoic rocks.}; (3} proximity to the garnet isograd--nearly all the exposed Precambrian rocks in the Black Hills are at a metamorphic grade higher than this isograd--and occurrence of this isograd zone mostly beneath Paleozoic rocks. In searching for new deposits, one can guess from existing data where Precambrian rocks of suitable nature may be concealed. The usefulness of such guesses can be increased if they are made with information about the distribution of gold in younger rocks. Gold in the Deadwood basal conglomerate would be the simplest indicator of a deposit once exposed on the pre-Deadwood surface. Tertiary replacement deposits in the Deadwood or other rocks, which obtained their gold from Precambrian sources that may be nearby or far away, can also be helpful; they, like anomalies found by geochemical sampling, at least outline the regions of mineralizing activity. A suitable approach to exploration is to make a thorough study of the stratigraphy, the structure, and the metals geochemistry of the Deadwood Formation and associated rocks, chiefly in the northern Black Hills but to a lesser extent elsewhere in localities where the Precambrian geology seems promising and where gold has been found nearby. Such a program, even if it does not yield

Norton, James Jennings

1974-01-01

241

Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K. R.

1987-01-01

242

Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J/K carbonate and clastic strata juxtaposed against amphibolite grade metamorphic and ophiolitic complexes) Student comments during and after field camp support full immersion into a traditional summer geology field camp as an unforgettable experience (life changing in some cases) -- everyone who dreams to be a geologist should have a chance to taste it.

Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

2012-12-01

243

Appraisal of the water resources of the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, Beadle, Hand, and Spink Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A system of glacial outwash aquifers lie in the central James Valley in east-central South Dakota. Within this system, the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, which has an area of approximately 681 square miles, was simulated by means of a numerical ground-water flow model. The model estimates the yearly average recharge rate for that part of the aquifer lying west of the James River to be approximately 23,000 acre-feet per year. This rate is considerably more than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 9,800 acre-feet per year. It is expected that, since pumping will reduce discharge from the aquifer through evapotranspiration and flow to the James River, this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at recent pumpage rates for an indefinite period. For that part of the aquifer lying east of the river, estimated recharge is 6,800 acre-feet per year; a rate slightly smaller than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 7,200 acre-feet per year. It is estimated that this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at 7,200 acre-feet per year for approximately 50 years, at which time excessive drawdown would begin to cause reduced well yields at several locations. (USGS)

Kuiper, L. K.

1984-01-01

244

Inventory of wetland habitat using remote sensing for the proposed Oahe irrigation unit in eastern South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inventory of wetlands for the area included in the proposed Oahe irrigation project was conducted to provide supplemental data for the wildlife mitigation plan. Interpretation techniques for inventoring small wetlands in the low relief terrain of the Lake Dakota Plain were documented and data summaries included. The data were stored and tabulated in a computerized spatial data analysis system.

Best, R. G.; Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

1977-01-01

245

Physical Processes Affecting the Distribution of Diydymosphenia Geminata Biomass Bloom in Rapid Creek, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Didymosphenia geminata is a freshwater diatom that has invaded and colonized many of the world’s oligotrophic streams and rivers, including Rapid Creek in Western South Dakota - a perennial oligotrophic stream that emerges from the Black Hills and is fed by cold water release from the Pactola Reservoir. Since 2002, D. geminata blooms have been observed in certain stretches of the Rapid Creek. These massive blooms are localized to certain segments of the Creek where the flow is mainly slow, stable and shallow dominated by boulder type bed material and submerged large woody debris. Water chemistry data from this Creek showed the variability of major nutrients such as phosphate, nitrates/nitrites and ammonium are insignificant across our study sites while the nature of the stream flow is quite irregular. We measured flow rates, depth, temperature, stream bed characteristics, water chemistry, and D. geminata biomass in regions with and without blooms. The presentation will discuss how changes in physical parameters along the various reaches of the Creek impact the biomass distribution of this invasive alga.

Abessa, M. B.; Sundareshwar, P. V.; Updhayay, S.

2010-12-01

246

Mordenite and montmorillonite alteration of glass structures in a rhyolite pipe, northern Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Green structures, 0.5 to 1.5 in. across, occur in a Tertiary rhyolite pipe in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. The structures are of two types: angular to ellipsoidal masses and stretched or smeared structures. Thin section analysis revealed that those of the first type are massive, with no internal structure, and those of the second type are cellular and have classic flame structure characteristics. XRD indicated the composition to be a mixture of secondary mordenite (a zeolite) and montmorillonite. The first type is interpreted to be deuterically altered vitrophyre clasts and the second type to be altered vesicular structures produced by degassing of the magma in the pipe. Chemical analysis of the alteration material indicates a loss of alkalies and silica, with an increase in water, CaO, MgO and ferric iron when compared to the composition of fresh vitrophyre from the same pipe. The changes are in agreement with experimental work on the alteration of rhyolitic glass by a number of researchers. This is the first occurrence of mordenite reported for the Black Hills.

Kirchner, J.G. (Illinois State Univ., Normal (United States))

1991-10-01

247

Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

Smith, J. B.; Jenks, J. A.; Klaver, R. W.

2007-01-01

248

Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

Howard, B.D.

1981-01-01

249

Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

2013-01-01

250

Geohydrology and water quality of the Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers are the principal sources of ground water in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming. The aquifers are exposed in the Bear Lodge Mountains and the Black Hills and are about 3,000 to 5,000 ft below the land surface in the northeast corner of the study area. The direction of groundwater movement is from the outcrop area toward central South Dakota. Recharge is by infiltration of precipitation and streamflow is by springs and well withdrawals. All three aquifers yield water to flowing wells in some part of the area. Measured and reported well yields in each of the three aquifers exceed 100 gal/min (gpm). A well open to the Minnelusa Formation and the upper part of the Madison Limestone yielded more than 2 ,000 gpm. Water from the Inyan Kara aquifer may require treatment for gross alpha radiation, iron, manganese, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment for sulfate and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Madison aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment of fluoride, gross alpha radiation, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers in the southern one-half of the study area, though very hard (more than 180 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate), is suitable for public water systems and irrigation. Flow between the Minnelusa and the Inyan Kara aquifers appears to be insignificant, based on the results of a digital model results. The model indicated there may be significant recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers by leakage between these two aquifers and perhaps deeper aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

Kyllonen, D. P.; Peter, K. D.

1987-01-01

251

Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential evapotranspiration, calculated in soil-water-balance analysis, ranged from 21.8 inches in WY 1983 to 27.0 inches in WY 1985, with a mean of 24.6 inches. Water use from the glacial aquifer system primarily was from the Elm aquifer for irrigation, municipal, and suburban water supplies, and the annual rate ranged from 1.0 to 2.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The MODFLOW-2005 numerical model represented the Elm aquifer, the Middle James aquifer, and the Deep James aquifer with model layers 1-3 respectively separated by confining layers 1-2 respectively. Groundwater flow was simulated with 75 stress periods beginning October 1, 1974, and ending September 30, 2009. Model grid spacing was 200 by 200 ft and boundaries were represented by specified-head boundaries and no-flow boundaries. The model used parameter estimation that focused on minimizing the difference between 954 observed and simulated hydraulic heads for 135 wells. Calibrated mean horizontal hydraulic conductivity values for model layers 1-3 were 94, 41, and 30 ft/d respectively. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values for confining layers 1 and 2 were 0.0002 and 0.0003 ft/d, respectively. Calibrated specific yield for model layer 1was 0.1 and specific storage ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0005 per foot. Calibrated mean recharge rates ranged from 2.5 in/yr where glacial till thickness was less than 10 ft to 0.8 in/yr where glacial till thickness was greater than 30 ft. Calibrated mean annual evapotranspiration rate was 8.8 in/yr. Simulated net streamflow gain from model layer 1 was 3.1 ft3/s.

Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

2012-01-01

252

Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

Schaap, Bryan D.

2000-01-01

253

Resolving lithospheric and athenospheric anisotropy beneath broadband station RSSD in NW South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleseismic shear waves from data-rich broadband station RSSD in the Black Hills of South Dakota are analyzed for the effects of shear wave splitting. Silver and Chan reported a small delay time of 0.6 seconds, which they attribute to an incoherent structural fabric due to multiple deformational episodes since the Achaean. This interpretation requires that shear due to plate motion is either not present or is accommodated at a depth below where the mantle deforms in the dislocation creep regime. A third possibility is that anisotropic fabric due to plate motion is present but cannot be resolved by the Silver and Chan method which assumes one flat layer of anisotropy. To test this third hypothesis, we present a new technique that shows promise in extracting multiple-layered anisotropy structure, such as that due to lithospheric and asthenospheric strain. We model anisotropy at RSSD by testing and statistically ranking possible models of multiple layer structure by comparing observed SKS to predicted SKS using the cross-convolution method of Menke and Levin, and a directed Monte-Carlo search method (the Neighborhood Algorithm) is used to guide the search through parameter space and produce maximum likelihood models. We then use the F test to rank the significance of the relative error reductions between the different model parameterizations. This combination of methods provides for statistical examinations of the fit of various complex models, and proves more effective than fitting back-azimuthal variations of splitting times. Furthermore, we test the power of this method to resolve various multi layer geometries at RSSD by generating and testing synthetic waveforms. Our one-layer model result agrees with that of Silver and Chan in that it indicates very little anisotropy. However, our results for more complex models indicate that larger degrees of anisotropy are in fact present. We present these results in terms of their statistical likelihood, and examine their implications for our ability to resolve lithospheric anisotropy.

Solomon, M. A.; Schutt, D.

2011-12-01

254

Management of warm-season grass mixtures for biomass production in South Dakota USA.  

PubMed

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash) are native warm-season grasses commonly used for pasture, hay, and conservation. More recently switchgrass has also been identified as a potential biomass energy crop, but management of mixtures of these species for biomass is not well documented. Therefore, the objectives of our study were to: (1) determine the effects of harvest timing and N rate on yield and biomass characteristics of established warm-season grass stands containing a mixture of switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass, and (2) evaluate the impact of harvest management on species composition. Five N rates (0, 56, 112, and 224 kg ha(-1) applied annually in spring and 224 kg ha(-1) evenly split between spring and fall) and two harvest timings (anthesis and killing frost) were applied to plots at two South Dakota USA locations from 2001 to 2003. Harvesting once a year shortly after a killing frost produced the greatest yields with high concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) along with lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and ash. This harvest timing also allowed for the greatest percentage of desirable species while maintaining low grass weed percentages. While N rates of 56 and 112 kg ha(-1) tended to increase total biomass without promoting severe invasion of grass and broadleaf weed species, N application did not always result in significant increases in biomass production. Based on these results, mixtures of switchgrass and big bluestem were well suited for sustainable biomass energy production. Furthermore, N requirements of these mixtures were relatively low thus reducing production input costs. PMID:17349789

Mulkey, V R; Owens, V N; Lee, D K

2008-02-01

255

Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of flood flow frequency were made for 111 continuous-record gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council. The procedure characterizes flood occurrence at a single site as a sequence of annual peak flows. The magnitudes of the annual peak flows are assumed to be independent random variables following a log-Pearson Type III probability distribution, which defines the probability that any single annual peak flow will exceed a specified discharge. By considering only annual peak flows, the flood-frequency analysis becomes the estimation of the log-Pearson annual-probability curve using the record of annual peak flows at the site. The recorded data are divided into two classes: systematic and historic. The systematic record includes all annual peak flows determined in the process of conducting a systematic gaging program at a site. In this program, the annual peak flow is determined for each and every year of the program. The systematic record is intended to constitute an unbiased and representative sample of the population of all possible annual peak flows at the site. In contrast to the systematic record, the historic record consists of annual peak flows that would not have been determined except for evidence indicating their unusual magnitude. Flood information acquired from historical sources almost invariably refers to floods of noteworthy, and hence extraordinary, size. Although historic records form a biased and unrepresentative sample, they can be used to supplement the systematic record. (Author 's abstract)

Benson, R. D.; Hoffman, E. B.; Wipf, V. J.

1985-01-01

256

Appraisal of the water resources of the Skunk Creek Aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Skunk Creek aquifer, a major glacial outwash deposit in the Skunk Creek drainage basin, consists of a 30-sq-mi shallow stream connected sand and gravel aquifer in southeastern South Dakota. The aquifer thickness ranges from 1 to 74 ft. Average annual fluctuation of the water table is 2.5 ft. The water has an average dissolved-solids content of 620 mg/L and is very hard , averaging 403 mg/L calcium carbonate hardness. A numerical model was developed and calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. The model contained 484 active nodes each representing 0.0625 sq mi. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer used in the model range from 10 to 400 ft/d, and average specific yield is 20%. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated to be 6 inches/yr or 24% of average annual precipitation. Maximum evapotranspiration rate was 32 inches/yr and the evapotranspiration extinction depth for the model was 5 ft. The steady-state hydrologic budget was about 11 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Recharge by precipitation was about 9,500 acre-ft and recharge from streams was about 1,100 acre-ft. Discharge by evapotranspiration was about 5,000 acre-ft and discharge to streams was about 5,700 acre-ft. A hypothetical simulation to determine maximum withdrawal under steady-state conditions resulted in a groundwater withdrawal of about 15,700 acre-ft/yr from 19 hypothetical wells pumping at a rate of 500 gal/min and 13 existing wells pumping at a combined average rate of 24 gal/min. (USGS)

Ohland, G. L.

1990-01-01

257

Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

Norton, James Jennings

1984-01-01

258

HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

Moore, D. G. (principal investigator); Heilman, J. L.

1980-01-01

259

Ectoparasites in Black-footed Ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from the Largest Reintroduced Population of the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract The black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes, is an endangered carnivore endemic to the grasslands of North America. We present the first investigation of ectoparasites associated with black-footed ferrets since reintroduction. We sampled more than 200 individuals from one of the largest and most successful reintroduced populations located in the Conata Basin of South Dakota, USA. We compared our findings with ectoparasite assemblages of sympatric carnivores and historic ferret records. We collected more than 1,000 ectoparasites consisting mainly of three flea and tick species, two of which were known historically from South Dakota. Despite our extensive sampling efforts, we did not detect any lice. This is notable because a putative host-specific louse, Neotrichodectes sp., was presumed to have gone extinct when black-footed ferrets were extirpated from the wild. The ectoparasite assemblage on black-footed ferrets comprised only generalist parasites, particularly those found on their prey such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.). Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant ectoparasite, representing 57% of all ectoparasites detected; a flea vector important in the persistence and transmission of plague. Black-footed ferrets like other endangered species undergo repeated parasite removal and vaccination efforts to facilitate population recovery, which may have unintentionally contributed to their depauperate ectoparasite community. PMID:24499333

Harris, Nyeema C; Livieri, Travis M; Dunn, Robert R

2014-04-01

260

Assessment of fish abundance and species composition at selected sites in South Dakota: an overview  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted surveys of streams throughout the State of South Dakota during 2008-09 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) Program. During 2008-09, as part of the stream assessment, the USGS completed surveys of fish populations and species composition at 64 sites. Fish were inventoried at 60 of the 64 sites, but not at four of the sites because water was too low to sustain fish or specific conductivity was too high to electroshock effectively. Four of the sites were surveyed in 2000-04 during the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) project. Two wadeable sites and two boatable sites were revisited for quality-assurance/quality-control requirements. During the study, both wadeable and boatable streams were sampled using electrofishing equipment and methods. Of the 64 sites, 62 were wadeable and 2 were boatable. Procedures for sampling wadeable streams differed slightly from procedures for boatable streams. Backpack electrofishing equipment was used for wadeable streams, whereas boat electrofishing equipment was used for boatable streams. Wadeable streams also were fished in an opposite direction than boatable streams. Several species of fish were collected during the NRSA. Species diversity ranged from 0-11 species in wadeable streams and from 6-26 species in boatable streams. Many common species were sampled during the study. The most frequently sampled fish was the sand shiner (Notropis stramineus), with 609 individuals sampled. In contrast, only one heritage species, the skipjack herring (Alosa chrysochloris), was identified during 2008-09. Common anomalies found in fish caught were parasitic lesions, "black spot disease," and tumors. When comparing the fish sampling results for the four sites visited in both 2000-04 and in 2008-09, more individuals and species were collected during 2008-09 than in 2000-04 at two sites, whereas fewer were collected at the other two sites.

Harwood, Alison

2010-01-01

261

South Dakota Regional Diversity of Air Temperature Regime: System Analysis of Empirical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional diversity of monthly temperatures were analyzed based on long-term data obtained for South Dakota (SD) from the High Plains Regional Climate Center. System hierarchical model of landscape (Krcho, 1990) was used for research tasks formulation. Initial matrixes for three tasks were compiled for the state. The first set of initial matrices of time series Xt*n, where t = number of years and n = number of meteorological stations, contains three matrixes: X(67*29), X(57*58)and X(33*94). The second set - Xt*m, where t = number of years and m = number of months in a year: X(113*12), X(110*12), and X(102*12). The third set - Xn*m, where n = number of meteorological stations and m = number of months in a year, contains two matrixes: X(29*12) and X(94*12). Factor analysis was used and the models of regional regime air temperatures have known and high (87 and 91%) representation of a variability of the initial matrix, while the models for seasonal regime have lower representation (60 and 61%). The models for distributions of average monthly temperatures have the highest representation of variability in the initial matrix (94 and 97%). Statistical analysis allowed us to differentiate between weather stations by temporal trends and spatial distribution during the time intervals 1932-1998, 1949- 2005 and 1963-1995. The most variable stations (Brookings, Camp Crook, and Highmore) were determined for the longest time interval 1932-1998. Their seasonality was described (the most variable months and correlation among months during the year); and their annual and seasonal regimes were determined and described with the use of simplified Fourier analysis. The average annual and monthly temperature distributions were presented for SD based on 29 (1932-1998) and 94 stations (1963-1995). Spatial temporal regimes of monthly air temperatures for SD on basis of analyzing existing empirical data has to be regarded as a multidimensional process with cyclic positive and negative trends as well as fuzzy regional boundaries of units with different regimes. The obtained result may have immediate application for developing a climatic monitoring network in SD and establishing a plan for regional drought research in SD to help in understanding the bigger picture of monthly and annual air temperatures regimes in SD and their connection to global and continental temperatures.

Shmagin, B.

2007-12-01

262

Genetic linkage study of high-grade myopia in a Hutterite population from South Dakota  

PubMed Central

Purpose Myopia is a common, complex disorder, and severe forms have implications for blindness due to increased risk of premature cataracts, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and macular degeneration. Autosomal dominant (AD) non-syndromic high-grade myopia has been mapped to chromosomes 18p11.31, 12q21-23, 17q21-23, 7q36, 2q37.1, 7p15.3, 15q12-13, 3q26, 4q12, 8p23, 4q22-q27, 1p36, and Xq23-q25. Here, we demonstrate evidence of linkage for AD non-syndromic high-grade myopia in a large Hutterite family to a locus on chromosome 10q21.1. Methods After clinical evaluation, genomic DNA was genotyped from 29 members of a Hutterite family from South Dakota (7 affected). The average refractive error of affected individuals was -7.04 diopters. Microsatellite markers were used to exclude linkage to the known AD nonsyndromic high-grade myopia loci as well as to syndromic high-grade myopia loci. A genome screen was then performed using 382 markers with an average inter-marker distance of 10 cM followed by fine-point mapping in all regions of the genome that gave positive LOD scores. SimWalk2 software was used for multipoint linkage based on AD and autosomal recessive (AR) models with a penetrance of 90% and a disease allele frequency of 0.001. Results A maximum multipoint LOD score of 3.22 was achieved under an AD model at microsatellite marker D10S1643. Fine point mapping and haplotype analysis defined a critical region of 2.67 cM on chromosome 10q21.1. Haplotype analysis demonstrated two distinct haplotypes segregating with high-grade myopia, indicative of two distinct mutations occurring in the same gene. Conclusions We have identified a presumptive myopia locus for high-grade myopia based on linkage and haplotype analysis.

Nallasamy, Sudha; Paluru, Prasuna C.; Devoto, Marcella; Wasserman, Nora F.; Zhou, Jie

2007-01-01

263

Normal crop calendars. Volume 2: The spring wheat states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state crop calendars for the principal spring wheat producing states within the United States are presented. These crop calendars are an update of those produced for the large area crop inventory experiment multilabeling task during 1978and are compiled for the foreign commodity production forecasting (FCPF) project of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing program.

West, W. L., III (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

264

Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common subareas are identified for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, and previous components from the overall budget generally are distributed over the subareas. Estimates of net ground-water flow for the two aquifers are computed, with net ground-water outflow exceeding inflow for most subareas. Outflows range from 5.9 ft3/s in the area east of Rapid City to 48.6 ft3/s along the southwestern flanks of the Black Hills. Net groundwater inflow exceeds outflow for two subareas where the discharge of large artesian springs exceeds estimated recharge within the subareas. More detailed subarea budgets also are developed, which include estimates of flow components for the individual aquifers at specific flow zones. The net outflows and inflows from the preliminary subarea budgets are used to estimate transmissivity of flow across specific flow zones based on Darcy?s Law. For estimation purposes, it is assumed that transmissivities of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are equal in any particular flow zone. The resulting transmissivity estimates range from 90 ft2/d to about 7,400 ft2/d, which is similar to values reported by previous investigators. The highest transmissivity estimates are for areas in the northern and southwestern parts of the study area, and the lowest transmissivity estimates are along the eastern study area boundary. Evaluation of subarea budgets provides confidence in budget components developed for the overall budget, especially regarding precipitation recharge, which is particularly difficult to estimate. Recharge estimates are consistently compatible with other budget components, including artesian springflow, which is a dominant component in many subareas. Calculated storage changes for subareas also are consistent with other budget components, specifically artesian springflow and net ground-water flow, and also are consistent with water-level fluctuations for observation wells. Ground-water budgets and flowpaths are especially complex i

Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

2001-01-01

265

HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235) or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246). Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01) and reported more sexual partners (p < 0.001). A lower percentage of AI women tested negative for HPV infection compared to Whites (58% [95% CI = 51-65] vs. 77% [95% CI = 71-82]; p < 0.001), and a higher percentage of AI women were infected by oncogenic types (30% [95% CI = 25-36] vs. 16% [95% CI = 11-21]; p = 0.001). Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001). AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p < 0.001). Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

2011-01-01

266

Fluid inclusions in the Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Implications for solubility and evolution of magmatic volatiles and crystallization of leucogranite magmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that magmatic fluids have strong influence on phase equilibria of granitic systems. A microthermometric study of fluid inclusions in the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, was undertaken to obtain direct evidence for the composition and evolution of magmatic fluids in a leucogranitic system and to evaluate their effect on liquid-lines-of-descent

Peter I. Nabelek; Kim Ternes

1997-01-01

267

Patch structure, fire-scar formation, and tree regeneration in a large mixed-severity fire in the South Dakota Black Hills, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared patch structure, fire-scar formation, and seedling regeneration in patches of low, moderate, and high burn severity following the large (~34 000 ha) Jasper fire of 2000 that occurred in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponder- osa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) forests of the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. This fire created a patchy mosaic of effects, where

Leigh B. Lentile; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2005-01-01

268

IN SITU CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT LEADING TO SUCCESSFUL WATER DISCHARGE FROM ANCHOR HILL PIT LAKE, GILT EDGE MINE SUPERFUND SITE, SOUTH DAKOTA, U.S.A.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Abstract. The EPA Region 8 Superfund office and the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) have been conducting a field-scale technology demonstration of an in situ treatment of the Anchor Hill Pit lake at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund site near Deadwood, South Dakota since March of 2001. The project goal was to

K. W. Wangerud; S. D. Fundingsland; M. E. Adzic; N. M. Lewis

269

Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Lead, South Dakota - Final Performance Evaluation Report  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Lead, South Dakota. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of SolmeteX?s adsorptive media system in removin...

270

A Program of Management and Technical Assistance in EDA Designated Areas in North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is a final report of the Center for Economic Development, North Dakota State University, for the period October 1, 1979 through September 30, 1980. The Center for Economic Development provides technical assistance to private firms, community org...

1981-01-01

271

Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the upper Minnelusa Formation, which is caused by upward leakage of relatively fresh water from the Madison aquifer. The anhydrite dissolution and dedolomitization account for the net removal of minerals that would lead to breccia pipe formation by gravitational collapse. Breccia pipes in the lower Minnelusa Formation are uncommon; however, networks of interconnected breccia layers and breccia dikes are common. These networks, along with vertical fractures and faults, are likely pathways for transmitting upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. It is concluded that suspended sediment discharged at Cascade Springs probably results from episodic collapse brecciation that is caused by subsurface dissolution of anhydrite beds and cements of the upper Minnelusa Formation, accompanied by replacement of dolomite by calcite. It is further concluded that many breccia pipes probably are the throats of artesian springs that have been abandoned and exposed by erosion. The locations of artesian spring-discharge points probably have been shifting outwards from the center of the Black Hills uplift, essentially keeping pace with regional erosion over geologic time. Thus, artesian springflow probably is a factor in controlling water levels in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, with hydraulic head declining over geologic time, in response to development of new discharge points. Development of breccia pipes as throats of artesian springs would greatly enhance vertical hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of spring-discharge points. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the Minnelusa Formation also may be enhanced by dissolution processes related to upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. Potential processes could include dissolution resulting from leakage in the vicinity of breccia pipes that are abandoned spring throats, active spring discharge, development of subsurface breccias with no visible surface expression or spring discharge, as well as general areal leakage

Hayes, Timothy Scott

1999-01-01

272

Waterfowl production on the Woodworth Station in south-central North Dakota, 1965-1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 17 years of study at the Woodworth, North Dakota study area, the percent of 548 wetland basin with water during 1-15 May ranged from 8 to 87 and averaged 56; waterfowl pair densities varied from 19 to 56/km2 and averaged 40/km2. Pond occupancy by duck pairs averaged 37% during mid-May counts and 48% for late May and early June counts. A positive linear relation occurred between the estimated number of duck pairs and the percent of basins with water during 1-15 May.There were 3,339 duck nests found in grassland habitats from 1966 through 1981. Approximately 66% (85% Mayfield) of these were depredated or abandoned. Mammals caused 88% of nest failures. Half or more of the eventually successful clutches were unhatched by 10 July in 9 of 16 years. Haying would have disturbed or destroyed an average of 43%, 33%, 22%, 15%, and 9% of the duck nests if initiated on 10 July, 15 July, 20 July, 25 July, and 1 August, respectively.The total average size of completed clutch for all species was 29% smaller at the end of the nesting season than at the beginning, underscoring the importance of protecting early clutches.Production averaged 30 broods per 100 pairs of ducks and ranged from 15 to 61 broods per 100 pairs. Brood densities ranged from 10 to 63/km2 and averaged 12/km2. Mean brood size averaged 6.4 for all species. July broods averaged 7.2 ducklings and August broods 5.7 ducklings. Duckling loss averaged 2.6 per brood and 85% (2.2 ducklings) of this loss was estimated to occur during the first 14 days after hatch.Wetlands of all sizes and classes were important at some time to one species of duck or another. With the exception of some diving ducks, all species used a complex of sizes and classes of wetlands for space, food, and shelter necessary for nesting and brooding. Pair counts during 20 May-7 June were most indicative of the breeding population. A combination of two brood counts resulted in the best estimate of annual production. An average of only 50% of the total duck broods per year was counted during the 1-15 July surveys, which approximated the average time of the Service's July aerial surveys. During this study the area produced an average of 1 duck per 4 ha of upland and had a nest density of approximately 1 nest per 14 ha. Nest success rates averaged 35.1% (16.3% Mayfield). Predation was significantly reduced by good vegetative cover at nest sites. Seeded grasslands (dense nesting cover) yielded better production than native prairie or croplands. Seeded grasslands also produced 3 times more ducklings per unit area than adjacent native prairie and more than 14 times as many as adjacent, annually tilled croplands.Ducks generally showed higher nest densities and better nesting success when using growing grain crops than when nesting in standing or mulched stubble fields. Among native mixed-grass prairie and seeded grassland, production was enhanced by leaving fields idle or by treating them with periodic burning. Duck production was generally lowered by grazing field of native prairie but duck production on grazing lands was higher than in annually tilled croplands.

Higgins, K. F.; Kirsch, L. M.; Klett, A. T.; Miller, H. W.

1992-01-01

273

Remote sensing for evaluating post-disaster damage conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota tornado, 23 July 1973  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation. The immediate advantages of the data are identified as a 'quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.

Rusche, A. E.; Myers, V. I.

1974-01-01

274

2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean supercontinent at ???2480 Ma. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

Dahl, P. S.; Hamilton, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Foland, K. A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J. A.; Holm, D. K.

2006-01-01

275

Data Collected to Support Monitoring of Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat on the Missouri River Downstream from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has constructed emergent sandbar habitat on sections of the Missouri River bordering South Dakota and Nebraska downstream from Gavins Point Dam to create and enhance habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. Two areas near river miles 761.3 and 769.8 were selected for construction of emergent sandbar habitat. Pre- and postconstruction data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, to evaluate the success of the habitat management techniques. Data collected include pre- and postconstruction channel-geometry data (bathymetric and topographic) for areas upstream from, downstream from, and within each construction site. Water-velocity data were collected for selected parts of the site near river mile 769.8. Instruments and methods used in data collection, as well as quality-assurance and quality-control measures, are described. Geospatial channel-geometry data are presented for transects of the river channel as cross sections and as geographical information system shapefiles. Geospatial land-surface elevation data are provided for part of each site in the form of a color-shaded relief map. Geospatial water-velocity data also are provided as color-shaded maps and geographical information system shapefiles.

Thompson, Ryan F.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Andersen, Michael J.

2007-01-01

276

Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

Schmer, F. A. (principal investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

1977-01-01

277

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01

278

Evaluation of a Total Dissolved Solids Model in Comparison to ActualField Data Measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids\\u000a in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the\\u000a predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field\\u000a measurements conducted in

Bruce W. Berdanier; Anf H. Ziadat

2006-01-01

279

Quartz-sillimanite leucosomes in high-grade schists, Black Hills, South Dakota: A perspective on the mobility of Al in high-grade metamorphic rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Black Hills, South Dakota, anatectic migmatites that formed above the second sillimanite isograd comprise mesosomes dominated by quartz, biotite, sillimanite, plagioclase, and sporadic poikiloblasts of K-feldspar, melanosomes dominated by biotite and sillimanite, and leucosomes. Some leucosomes have near-minimum granite composition, but many lack alkali elements and have fibrolitic sillimanite instead of feldspar. The proportion of Si\\/Al is the

Peter I. Nabelek

1997-01-01

280

Influence of topography and forest structure on patterns of mixed severity fire in ponderosa pine forests of the South Dakota Black Hills, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We examined,the influence of topography and stand structure on fire effects within the perimeter of the ?34 000 ha Jasper fire of 2000 in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) forests of the South Dakota Black Hills, USA. We used a remotely sensed and field-verified map of post-fire burn severity (accuracy 69%, kappa statistic 0.54), the Digital Elevation Model, and

Leigh B. Lentile; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2006-01-01

281

PETROGENETIC LINKS AMONG GRANITES AND PEGMATITES IN THE HARNEY PEAK RARE-ELEMENT GRANITE-PEGMATITE SYSTEM. BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AssrRAcr Linkages between the fertile granite and associated pegmatites, linkages among pegmatites, and processes instrumental in defining their textural, chemical, and mineralogical uniqueness are obscured by their coarse grain-size and the transitional nature between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes. Our studies of the Harney Peak granite-pegmatite system in the Black Hills, South Dakota, indicate that these systems are a cuhnination of

CHARLES K. SHEARER; JAMES J. PAPIKE; BRADLEY L. JOLLIFF

282

9. Control Area, Administration Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Control Area, Administration Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

283

21. Launch Area, Missile Assembly Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Launch Area, Missile Assembly Building VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

284

Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota  

PubMed Central

Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU to a potentially novel phylum that falls sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and grouped most closely to an ammonia–oxidizing, carbon–fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that were often identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community with unique phylotypes identified within each sample.

Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.

2013-01-01

285

Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer. PMID:18459406

Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R

2008-04-01

286

Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

2010-03-13

287

Mitochondrial DNA of protohistoric remains of an Arikara population from South Dakota: implications for the macro-Siouan language hypothesis.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was extracted from skeletal remains excavated from three Arikara sites in South Dakota occupied between AD 1600 and 1832. The diagnostic markers of four mtDNA haplogroups to which most Native Americans belong (A, B, C, and D) were successfully identified in the extracts of 55 (87%) of the 63 samples studied. The frequencies of the four haplogroups were 42%, 29%, 22%, and 7%, respectively, and principal coordinates analysis and Fisher's exact tests were conducted to compare these haplogroup frequencies with those from other populations. Both analyses showed closer similarity among the Mohawk, Arikara, and Sioux populations than between any of these three and any other of the comparison populations. Portions of the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of the mitochondrial genome were successfully amplified and sequenced for 42 of these 55 samples, and haplotype networks were constructed for two of the four haplogroups. The sharing of highly derived lineages suggests that some recent admixture of the Arikara with Algonquian-speaking and Siouan-speaking groups has occurred. The Arikara shared more ancient lineages with both Siouan and Cherokee populations than with any other population, consistent with the Macro-Siouan language hypothesis that Iroquoian, Siouan, and Caddoan languages share a relatively recent common ancestry. PMID:20649398

Lawrence, Diana M; Kemp, Brian M; Eshleman, Jason; Jantz, Richard L; Snow, Meradeth; George, Debra; Smith, David Glenn

2010-04-01

288

A probable extralimital post-breeding assembly of Bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola breeds predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

Igl, L. D.

2003-01-01

289

A probable extralimital postbreeding assembly of bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south-central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

Igl, L. D.

2003-01-01

290

Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (principal investigators)

1980-01-01

291

Fire History in Interior Ponderosa Pine Communities of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less fre- quently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number of years between fire

Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg

1996-01-01

292

Fire History in Interior Ponderosa Pine Communities of the Black Hills South Dakota USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared,to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less fre- quently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number of years between fireyears,

Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg

293

Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (USA)); Laul, J.C. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

1988-07-01

294

Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 A??, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ?? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 ?? 10-19 m2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 ?? 10-5 m-1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 ?? 10-11 m2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10-21 to 10-20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garavito, A. M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C. E.

2006-01-01

295

Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 Å, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 × 10 -19 m 2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 × 10 -5 m -1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 × 10 -11 m 2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10 -21 to 10 -20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems.

Garavito, A. M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C. E.

2006-03-01

296

A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in the northern three-fourths of Brown County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in a complex glacial-aquifer system that includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers in South Dakota. The average thickness of the aquifers ranges from 16 to 32 ft and the average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 240 to 300 ft/day. The maximum steady-state recharge to the aquifer system was estimated to be 7.0 in./yr, and the maximum potential steady- state evapotranspiration was estimated to be 35.4 in/yr. Maximum monthly recharge for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 2.5 in in May. The potential monthly evapotranspiration for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 7.0 in in July. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from steady-state conditions (pre-1983) was 0. 78 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.59 ft for aquifer layer 1 (the Elm aquifer) from 22 observation wells and 3.49 ft and 5.10 ft, respectively, for aquifer layer 2 (the Middle James aquifer) from 13 observation wells. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from simulated monthly potentiometric heads for 1985 in aquifer layer 1 ranged from -2.54 ft in July to 0.59 ft in May and in aquifer layer 2 ranged from -1.22 ft in April to 4.98 ft in November. Sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that it is most sensitive to changes in recharge and least sensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity. (USGS)

Emmons, P. J.

1990-01-01

297

125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

298

75 FR 78208 - Black Hills National Forest, Northern Hills Ranger District; South Dakota; Steamboat Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to provide structural diversity in big game winter range, reduce the risk of mountain...structural diversity in an area managed for big game winter range, to reduce the risk of mountain...structural diversity in an area managed as big game winter range through meadow...

2010-12-15

299

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

300

Preliminary map showing freshwater heads for the Red River Formation, Bighorn Dolomite, and equivalent rocks of Ordovician age in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map showing freshwater heads for the Ordovician Red River Formation, Bighorn Dolomite, and equivalent rocks has been prepared as part of a study to determine the water-resources potential of the Mississippian Madison Limestone and associated rocks in the Northern Great Plains of Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming. Most of the data used to prepare the map are from drill-stem tests of exploration and development wells drilled by the petroleum industry from 1964 to 1978. A short explanation describes the seven categories of reliability used to evaluate the drill-stem-test data and identifies several factors that might explain the apparent anomalous highs and lows on the potentiometric surface. The map is at a scale of 1:1,000 ,000 and the potentiometric contour interval is 100 feet. (USGS)

Miller, W. Roger; Strausz, S. A.

1980-01-01

301

Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

Goddard, K. E.

1989-01-01

302

Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northeastern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map shows the altitude of the top of the Permian--and Pennsylvanian age Minnelusa Formation, the deepest aquifer in the northeastern Black Hills for which there is sufficient data available to construct a structural map. The Minnelusa Formation outcrops in the western part of the map area and is more than 3 ,600 ft below land surface in the northeastern corner of the area. The formation consists of interbedded sandstone, sandy dolomite and limestone, shale, siltstone, gypsum, and anhydrite. The upper beds are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. Small anticlines and synclines parallel the Minnelusa outcrop. Domal structures and peaks in the study area are the result of Tertiary-age intrusions. (USGS)

Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, Kathy R.

1988-01-01

303

Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

2014-01-01

304

Hydrogeologic Characterization of the Minnelusa and Madison Aquifers near Spearfish, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a 3-year study to characterize the hydrogeology and describe the hydraulic properties of the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers in the Spearfish area. In addition, the hydrogeology of the aquifers is syn...

E. A. Greene A. M. Shapiro J. M. Carter

1999-01-01

305

Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Rapid City NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Rapid City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 417 groundwater and 477 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are in the central portion of the quadrangle in the Pierre Shale. Three main clusters of groundwater samples with high uranium values occur here. Associated with the high uranium concentrations are high values for calcium, potassium, magnesium, strontium, and specific conductance. Stream sediment data indicate high concentrations of uranium are usually found in the Pierre Shale. Scattered samples occur in the Graneros Shale and in the Paleozoic and Precambrian units of the Black Hills. Arsenic, cobalt, and yttrium are associated with the areas of high uranium concentration. No areas are indicated with strong potential for uranium mineralization.

Not Available

1980-06-30

306

Water-Quality Characteristics for Selected Streams in Lawrence County, South Dakota, 1988-92.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to characterize the water quality of selected streams with Lawrence County, samples were collected from 1988 through 1992 at different times of the year and under variable hydrologic conditions. During the time of this study, the Black Hills area...

J. E. Williamson T. S. Hayes

2000-01-01

307

Hydrologic conditions and budgets for the Black Hills of South Dakota, through water year 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Black Hills are an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains. The surface-water hydrology of the area is highly influenced by interactions with the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, including large springs and streamflow loss zones. Defining responses of ground water and streamflow to a variety of hydrogeologic influences is critical to development of hydrologic budgets for ground- and surface-water systems. Hydrographs for 52 observation wells and 1 cave site are used to show ground-water response to cumulative precipitation departures. Aquifers considered include the Precambrian, Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers, with wells completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer generally showing small response to precipitation patterns. Many wells completed in the other aquifers have large short- and long-term fluctuations in water levels. Madison and Minnelusa wells in the southern Black Hills show a general tendency for smaller water-level fluctuations than in other areas. Streamflow characteristics and relations with precipitation are examined for 33 gaging stations representative of five different hydrogeologic settings that are identified. The ?limestone headwater? setting occurs within outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation along the ?Limestone Plateau,? where direct runoff is uncommon and streamflow consists almost entirely of base flow originating as ground-water discharge from headwater springs. Thus, variability in daily, monthly, and annual flow is small. Annual streamflow correlates poorly with precipitation; however, consideration of ?moving averages? (involving up to 11 years of annual precipitation data for some stations) improves relations substantially. The ?crystalline core? area is encircled by the outcrop band of the Madison and Minnelusa Formations and is dominated by igneous and metamorphic rocks. Base flow ranges from about 41 to 73 percent for representative streams; however, monthly flow records demonstrate shortterm response to precipitation, which probably indicates a relatively large component of interflow. Streamflow generally correlates well with annual precipitation, with r2 values ranging from 0.52 to 0.87. Downgradient from the crystalline core area is the ?loss zone? setting, where streamflow losses occur to outcrops of the Madison and Minnelusa Formations. Relations between streamflow and annual precipitation are defined by a power equation for the only two representative gages in this setting. The loss zone and ?artesian spring? areas are combined because many artesian springs are located along stream channels that are influenced by streamflow losses and several artesian springs are within outcrops of the Minnelusa Formation. Streamflow characteristics for artesian springs generally have small variability and poor correlations with annual precipitation because of large influence from relatively stable ground-water discharge. The ?exterior? setting is located downgradient from the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group, which coincides with the outer extent of the loss zone/artesian spring setting. Large flow variability is characteristic for this setting, and base flow generally is smaller than for other settings. Basin yields are highly variable, with the largest yields occurring in high-altitude areas of the northern Black Hills that receive large annual precipitation. Relations between annual yield efficiency and precipitation were applied by previous investigators in developing a method for estimating annual precipitation recharge, based on annual precipitation. The resulting ?yield-efficiency algorithm? compares spatial distributions for annual precipitation, average annual precipitation, and efficiency of basin yield. This algorithm is applied in estimating precipitation recharge on aquifer outcrops and in estimating streamflow yield from various outcrop areas, for purposes of developing average hydrologic budgets

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

2001-01-01

308

Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

309

View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area No. 22 in foreground, Building No. 40, No. 42, and No. 43 at left rear, note boulders as a landscape design element. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 45, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, south of Foothill Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

310

U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River system, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1985-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cheyenne River system in Western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1985 and 1986 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers, and for the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water quality to very complex photon-correlation spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (USGS)

Edited by Goddard, Kimball E.

1988-01-01

311

U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River System, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1987-88  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cheyenne River System in western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1987 and 1988 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Data collected in the 1985 and 1986 water years have been published in a companion report (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-484). Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, and the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water-quality to very complex energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (See also W89-08390) (USGS)

edited by Goddard, K. E.

1990-01-01

312

Coal geology of the Bowman-Gascoyne area, Adams, Billings, Bowman, Golden Valley, and Slope counties, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bowrnan-Gascoyne area is located in southwestern North Dakota. It is situated on the southwestern edge of the Williston structural basin and the northeastern flank of the Cedar Creek anticline. Strata of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), consisting of nonmarine claystone, sandstone, and lignite, dip to the northeast 25-50 ft/mi. Seven correlatable coal beds of varying thicknesses and areal dimensions occur in the area. The thickest and most persistent of these beds is the Harmon bed which attains a maximum thickness of 38 ft in T. 134 N., Rs. 101 and 102 W. Analyses show a heating value of 5,915-6,680 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 0.6-1.4 percent. Two areas of high-coal-development potential are located near Gascoyne and Amidon. The Harmon bed in these two areas contains a total of 740,000,000 and 650,000,000 tons, respectively, and is under less than 150 ft of overburden.

Lewis, Robert C.

1979-01-01

313

Evaluation of trawls for monitoring and harvesting fish populations in Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trawls of various designs and sizes were compared to evaluate their use for monitoring and harvesting fish populations in Lake Oahe. Catches of a 10.7-m semiballoon trawl, selected to monitor changes in the fish populations from 1965 to 1970, showed a downward trend in the abundance of all species, except walleye; the decline was largest in the lower area of the reservoir with a slight increase in the upper area. Of two trawl designs tested, semiballoon trawls captured more fish per hour than high-rise trawls, and a 15.9-m semiballoon trawl with a 3.8-cm mesh cod end captured fish at the highest and most consistent rate. The size and species composition of fish caught in small-mesh trawls differed from those caught in trap nets. Trawl catches were too small to recommend or warrant their use as a commercial fishing gear, but the use of both small mesh trawls and trap nets should improve accuracy in monitoring fish populations in this reservoir.

Nelson, William R.; Boussu, Marvin S.

1974-01-01

314

Carnotite-bearing sandstone in Cedar Canyon, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carnotite-bearing sandstone and clay have been found in the Chadron formation of the White River group of Oligocene age in the southern part of the Slim Buttes area, Harding County, S. Dak. Locally the mineralized sandstone contains as much as 0.23 percent uranium. The uranium and vanadium ions are believed to have been derived from the overlying mildly radioactive tuffaceous rocks of the Arikaree formation of Miocene age. Analyses of water from 26 springs issuing from the Chadron and Arikaree formations along the margins of Slim Buttes show uranium contents of as much as 200 parts per billion. Meteoric water percolating through tuffaceous rocks is thought to have brought uranium and other ions into environments in the Chadron formation that were physically and chemically favorable for the deposition of carnotite.

Gill, James R.; Moore, George W.

1954-01-01

315

Natural gas in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all natural gas produced in North Dakota is casinghead gas from oil pools in the Madison group along the Nesson anticline and from pools in Burke County. Relatively minor quantities of dry gas are produced from the gas fields of North Dakota part of the Cedar Creek anticline. Only the natural gas from these areas is used commercially; the

S. B. Anderson; W. P. Eastwood

1968-01-01

316

A digital-computer model of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite-difference digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County. Average water levels and average base flow discharge (4.9 cu ft/s) of the Big Sioux River were based on data from 1970 through 1979. The computer model was calibrated for transient conditions by simulating monthly historic conditions for 1976. During 1976, pumpage was offset mostly by surface-water recharge to the aquifer from January through June and ground-water discharge from storage from July through December. Measured drawdowns during 1976 generally were less than 2 feet except in the Sioux Falls city well field where drawdowns were as much as 15 feet. The model was used to study the effects of increased withdrawals under three hypothetical hydrologic situations. One hypothetical situation consisted of using 1976 pumping rates, recharge, and evapotranspiration but the Big Sioux River dry. The pumping rate after 16 months was decreased by 40 percent from the actual pumping rate for that month in order to complete the monthly simulation without the storage being depleted at a nodal area. The second hypothetical situation consisted of a pumpage rate of 44.4 cubic feet per second from 60 wells spaced throughout the aquifer under historic 1976 hydrologic conditions. The results were that the aquifer could supply the additional withdrawal. The third hypothetical situation used the same hydrologic conditions as the second except that recharge was zero and the Big Sioux River was dry downstream from row 54. After 18 monthly simulations, the pumping rate was decreased by 44 percent to prevent pumping wells from depleting the aquifer, and, at that rate, 63 percent of the water being pumped was being replaced by water from the river. (USGS)

Koch, N. C.

1982-01-01

317

A Study of the Economic Impact of Variation in the Nonresident Tuition Rate at Public Institutions of Higher Education in South Dakota. Bulletin Number One Hundred Thirty-Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the likely response of nonresident enrollments to a lowering of nonresident tuition rates in South Dakota public institutions of higher education; the cost of educating additional nonresident students; and other economic benefits to the state of increased enrollment of nonresident students at state universities. Nonresident…

Brown, Ralph J.; Johnson, Dennis A.

318

Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers increasingly practice uneven-aged management. We established 84 clusters of four plots, one

José F. Negrón; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

2008-01-01

319

Creating a New Future in West River. A Series of Case Studies by Teachers, Principals, Superintendents and an Outside Observer of the South Dakota Rural Schools and Community Development Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many rural communities share these complaints: (1) an exodus of the best and brightest young people; (2) a changing and ambivalent self-concept about the identity and the future of the community; and (3) a scarcity of good jobs to act as the mortar that bonds the other elements together. The South Dakota Rural Schools and Community Development…

Cole, R.; And Others

320

Rural Experiment. How Three South Dakota Schools Are Opening Doors to Their Communities...Exploring Business Partnerships, Professional Alliances, Functional Building Designs, and Expanded Learning Environments for the Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural School and Community Development Project encourages South Dakota rural schools to take roles in local economic planning. This booklet profiles 3 of the project's 12 pilot schools: Takini School on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, Estelline, and Belle Fourche. The three communities differ greatly in their histories, lifestyles,…

Higbee, Paul S.

321

Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

Horak, W. F.

1983-01-01

322

Ar40\\/Ar39 Evidence for Middle Proterozoic (1300-1500 Ma) Slow Cooling of the Southern Black Hills, South Dakota, Midcontinent, North America: Implications for Early Proterozoic PT Evolution and Posttectonic Magmatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ar-40\\/Ar-39 total gas and plateau dates from muscovite and biotite in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, provide evidence for a period of Middle Proterozoic slow cooling. Early Proterozoic (1600-1650 Ma) mica dates were obtained from metasedimentary rocks located in a synformal structure between the Harney Peak and Bear Mountain domes and also south of Bear Mountain. Metamorphic rocks from

Daniel K. Holm; Peter S. Dahl; Daniel R. Lux

1997-01-01

323

Water quality of selected springs and public-supply wells, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, 1992-97  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents results of a water-quality study for the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. The study was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Water Resources Department of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. Discharge and water-quality data were collected during 1992-97 for 14 contact springs located in the northwestern part of the Reservation. Data were collected to evaluate potential alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt, which currently obtains water of marginal quality from a well completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. During 1995-97, water-quality data also were collected for 44 public-supply wells that serve about one-half of the Reservation's population. Quality-assurance sampling was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of environmental samples. Ten of the springs sampled contact the White River Group, and four contact the Pierre Shale. Springs contacting the White River Group range from calcium bicarbonate to sodium bicarbonate water types. Two springs contacting the Pierre Shale have water types similar to this; however, sulfate is the dominant anion for the other two springs. In general, springs contacting the White River Group are shown to have better potential as alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt than springs contacting the Pierre Shale. Nine of the springs with better water quality were sampled repeatedly; however, only minor variability in water quality was identified. Six of these nine springs, of which five contact the White River Group, probably have the best potential for use as water supplies. Discharge from any of these six springs probably would provide adequate water supply for Red Shirt during most periods, based on a limited number of discharge measurements collected. Concentrations of lead exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 15 ?g/L for three of these six springs. Five of these six springs also had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 10 ?g/L, which could be problematic if the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) is lowered. Blending of water from one or more springs with water from the existing Inyan Kara well may be an option to address concerns regarding both quantity and quality of existing and potential sources. All nine springs that were sampled for indicator bacteria had positive detections on one or more occasions during presumptive tests. Although USEPA standards for bacteria apply only to public-water supplies, local residents using spring water for domestic purposes need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with consuming untreated water. One spring contacting the White River Group and two springs contacting the Pierre Shale exceeded 15 pCi/L for gross alpha; these values do not necessarily constitute exceedances of the MCL, which excludes radioactivity contributed by uranium and radon. Additional sampling using different analysis techniques would be needed to conclusively determine if any samples exceeded this MCL. Nine springs were sampled for selected pesticides and tritium. The pesticides atrazine, carbaryl, and 2,4-D were not detected in any of the samples. The nine springs were analyzed for tritium in order to generally assess the age of the water and to determine if concentrations exceeded the MCL established for gross beta-particle activity. Tritium results indicated two springs are composed primarily of water recharged prior to atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs and two other springs have a relatively large percentage of test-era water. The remaining five springs had tritium values that indicated some percentage of test-era water; however, additional sampling would be needed to determine whether water is predominantly pre- or post-bomb age. Of the 44 public-supply wells sampled, 42 are completed in the Arikaree aquifer, one is completed in an alluvial aquifer, and one is completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. Water

Heakin, Allen J.

2000-01-01

324

Field and laboratory data describing physical and chemical characteristics of metal-contaminated flood-plain deposits downstream from Lead, west-central South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples from metal-contaminated flood-plain sediments at 9 sites downstream from Lead, in west-central South Dakota, were collected during the summers of 1985-87 to characterize aspects of the sedimentology, chemistry, and geometry of a deposit that resulted from the discharge of a large volume of mining wastes into a river system. Field and laboratory data include stratigraphic descriptions, chemical contents and grain-size distributions of samples, and surveyed flood-plain positions of samples. This report describes sampling-site locations, and methods of sample collection and preservation, and subsequent laboratory analysis. Field and laboratory data are presented in 4 figures and 11 tables in the ' Supplemental Data ' section at the back of the report. (USGS)

Marron, D. C.

1988-01-01

325

View of south elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 14 in foreground, Building No. 45 at right rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

326

120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF THE COTTONWOOD CREEK DRAW, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

327

Establishing a Patient Navigator Program to Reduce Cancer Disparities in the American Indian Communities of Western South Dakota: Initial Observations and Results  

PubMed Central

Background American Indians (AIs) in the Northern Plains region suffer disproportionately high cancer mortality rates compared with the general US population and with AIs from other regions in the United States. Methods The National Cancer Institute developed the Cancer Disparity Research Partnership to address these inequities. This initiative in Rapid City, South Dakota, attempts to lower cancer mortality rates for AIs by access to innovative clinical trials, behavioral research, and a genetic study. Patient navigation is a critical part of the program. Two navigation strategies are described: navigators at the cancer center and navigators on each reservation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine if navigated patients (n = 42) undergoing potentially curative radiotherapy had fewer treatment interruptions compared with nonnavigated patients (n = 74). Results A total of 213 AIs with cancer have undergone patient navigation. For those undergoing cancer treatment, the median number of patient navigation interactions was 15 (range 1 to 95), whereas for those seen in follow-up after their cancer treatment, the median number of contacts was 4 (range 1 to 26). AIs who received navigation services during curative radiation treatment had on average 3 fewer days of treatment interruptions compared to AIs who did not receive navigation services during curative radiation treatment (P = .002, N = 116). Conclusions Early findings suggest that patient navigation is a critical component in addressing cancer disparities in this population. The program has established trust with individual cancer patients, with the tribal councils, and with the general population on each of the three reservations of western South Dakota.

Petereit, Daniel G.; Molloy, Kevin; Reiner, Mary L.; Helbig, Petra; Cina, Kristin; Miner, Raylene; Rost, Catherine; Conroy, Patricia; Roberts, Chester R.

2008-01-01

328

Geology of pre-Dakota uranium geochemical cell, sec. 13, T. 16 N. , R. 17 W. , Church Rock area, McKinley County  

SciTech Connect

Exploration drilling on sec. 13, T. 16 N., R. 17 W., McKinley County, New Mexico, has defined uranium deposits within the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). Elongate, tabular, redistributed deposits were formed peripherally along the zones of highest transmissivity of the northeast-trending Westwater Canyon fluvial system by a Jurassic-Cretaceous geochemical cell. Strongly reducing conditions, which existed locally in the channel-margin areas owing to the presence of organic materials, were the primary ore control. Evidence that this major redistribution process took place in pre-Dakota time is the bleaching of the Westwater Canyon Sandstone by Dakota swamps is superimposed on older oxidation, and the primary mineralization above the Jurassic-Cretaceous water table was not affected by the geochemical-cell redistribution process.

Peterson, R.J.

1980-01-01

329

North Dakota: Connectivity and Cooperation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains North Dakota's telecommunications infrastructure which is particularly suited to rural areas and low population communities. Topics include an information network of multitype libraries; distance learning for elementary and secondary education; local library networks; Interactive Video Network; educational telecommunications; public…

Daugherty, Doris; Jaugstetter, Mike, Ed.

1996-01-01

330

8. TANKWATER VAT IN RENDERING AREA ON SOUTH SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. TANKWATER VAT IN RENDERING AREA ON SOUTH SIDE OF LEVEL 3; LOOKING WEST - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

331

127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

332

Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

333

26. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, looking south, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, looking south, showing window construction and wall framing details - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

334

Western Stump Lake, a major canvasback staging area in eastern North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large numbers of waterfowl, especially canvasback (Aythya valisineria), used Western Stump Lake as a staging area during most of October 1985. Selection of the lake as a conditioning site by this species likely is caused by extensive, shallow-water beds of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and lack of human disturbance. A brief limnological and historical account of the lake is provided.

Kantrud, H. A.

1986-01-01

335

Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow contributing to Crow Creek in the northwestern part of the study area indicated that the primary source of water is the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for Old Hatchery and Higgins Gulch springs, located north of Spearfish, indicated a source water originating from the outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation within the study area. Concentrations of three chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were used to characterize ground-water residence times in the study area. For the four wells where dye was detected, CFC-11 apparent ages ranged from 12 to 26 years, indicating that the wells contained months-old water mixed with years- to decades-old water. Logarithmic regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for water from 10 wells and distance to a possible conduit trending north through the area where dye was detected, yielded an r2 value of 0.71. Straight-line regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for the six wells closest to the possible conduit had an r2 value of 0.96. Two wells located relatively close to the outcrop areas had no or very low tritium values indicating relatively long residence times and diffuse ground-water flow. The tritium value of 7.2 TU in water from well COL where dye was detected, indicated that the water probably is a bimodal mixture, with a substantial portion that is older than 50 years. Water from well ELL, where dye was detected, had a tritium value of 19.7 TU and a CFC apparent age of 15 years, indicating that the sample from this well probably is a unimodal mixture with very little water older than 50 years. Comparison of the CFC apparent age for three spring sites (Cox Lake, 26 years; McNenny Pond, 26 years; Mirror Lake, 13 years) also indicated that Mirror Lake spring probably has a component of local recharge from formations that overlie the Minnelusa Formation. In the Madison aquifer, specific conductance ranges from 18 to 945 microsiemens per cen

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

336

Data from the surface-water hydrologic investigations of the Hay Creek Study Area, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek Study Area, North Dakota, October 1976 through April 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are provided for the Hay Creek study area near Wibaux, Montana, and the West Branch Antelope Creek study area near Beulah, North Dakota. The report contains data on the following: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind run, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature, snowpack temperature, snowpack density and moisture content, streamflow, water quality, soil moisture, land use, and basin characteristics. Detailed descriptions of the location of the data-collection sites, instrumentation, and methods used to collect data are included. (USGS)

Emerson, Douglas G.; Norbeck, Steven W.; Boespflug, Kelvin L.

1983-01-01

337

75 FR 47755 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Pactola Project Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...existing insect and disease epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition...and harvest approximately 8,566 acres of pine stands using a variety of methods to treat mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested stands, reduce...

2010-08-09

338

76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...insect and disease epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition...harvest approximately 14,954 acres of pine stands using a variety of methods to treat...stands, reduce the overall density of pine trees and create a mosaic of...

2011-10-24

339

Mediterranean Sea potential seen in area south of Malta  

SciTech Connect

Seismic data and stratigraphic projections indicate that an entirely different facies exists in Area 4 in the Mediterranean Sea south of Malta than the continuous carbonate sequence of the Malta platform. Japan National Oil Corp., in September 1989 under authority of the government of Malta, conducted a 3,615 line km geophysical survey (seismic, gravity, magnetics) in Area 4, which comprises about 13,000 sk km and is 40 km south of Malta. The paper describes the geology of Malta Area 4, its inferred stratigraphy, seismic results, and potential geologic traps.

Bishop, W.F. (Bishop (William F.), Houston, TX (United States)); Debono, G. (Office of the Prime Minister, Valletta (Malta))

1993-07-05

340

20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA - LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to the left leads into empty can storage area from which a can conveyor track, for flat oval cans, can be seen descending at a forty-five degree angle. Cement bases in the foreground held brining tanks into which cut fish were sluiced. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

341

Step-leach Pb-Pb dating of inclusion-bearing garnet and staurolite, with implications for Early Proterozoic tectonism in the Black Hills collisional orogen, South Dakota, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 207Pb\\/206Pb stepwise-leaching (PbSL) ages of 1762 ± 15 Ma, 1759 ± 8 Ma, and 1760 ± 7 Ma for almandine garnet, staurolite, and garnet-staurolite (combined) in an Early Proterozoic metapelite from the Black Hills collisional orogen, South Dakota. PbSL-derived 208Pb\\/206Pb (Th\\/U) trends reveal that staurolite contains inclusions of both cogenetic monazite (ca. 1760 ± 7 Ma) and older

Peter S. Dahl; Robert Frei

1998-01-01

342

Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

2012-01-01

343

33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY...165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY... All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks....

2013-07-01

344

40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land...

2013-07-01

345

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle ({lt}1{degree}) northeast regional dip allows oil entrapment in both areas of updip porosity pinch-out and small ({lt}2 km diameter), low-relief ({lt}30 m) structural closures. Reservoir rocks in both types of traps are burrowed dolomitized carbonate mudstones and wackestones deposited in open to restricted shelf environments. The best reservoir rocks occur where up to 25% porosity is present between completely dolomitized burrow fills. Reservoir-quality porosity is mainly intercrystalline and vuggy in finely crystalline dolomites, but even in the most porous intervals, permeability only locally exceeds 30 md. Amounts of porosity in wells producing from the 'D' zone can be used to estimate a well's ultimate oil recovery when integrated with data on structural position, thickness of porous dolomite, and the nature of the fluid saturation (best indicated by bulk volume water values). Production in the structurally trapped 'D' zone oil pools in each field, where initial water saturation was 22%, will average about 625 thousand bbl of oil/well with initially negligible water, but with increasing watercut through time. The stratigraphically trapped oil pools in the fields, where initial water saturations ranged from 32 to 66%, will average 237 thousand bbl of oil/well with higher initial watercuts, but little increase in watercut through time.

Longman, M.W. (Consulting Geologist, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Fertal, T.G. (Samuel Gary, Jr. and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Stell, J.R. (Snyder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

1992-04-01

346

67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

347

Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV control panel room (room 139) at far left corner. The stairway leads to the commander's quarters and the senior battle viewing bridge at top right. Control and communication consoles at the right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

348

Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

2009-01-01

349

Applications of Skylab EREP photographs to mapping of landforms and environmental geology in the Great Plains and Midwest. [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The utility of Skylab 2 and 3 S-190A multispectral photos for environmental-geologic/geomorphic applications is being tested by using them to prepare 1:250,000-scale maps of geomorphic features, surficial geology, geologic linear features, and soil associations of large, representative parts of the Great Plains and Midwest. Parts of Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and South Dakota were mapped. The maps were prepared primarily by interpretation of the S-190A photos, supplemented by information from topographic, geologic, and soil maps and reports. The color band provides the greatest information on geology, soils, and geomorphology; its resolution also is the best of all the multispectral bands and permits maximum detail of mapping. The color-IR band shows well the differences in soil drainage and moisture, and vegetative types, but has only moderate resolution. The B/W-red band is superior for topographic detail and stream alinements. The B/W-infrared bands best show differences in soil moisture and drainage but have poor resolution, especially those from SL 2. The B/W-green band generally is so low contrast and degraded by haze as to be nearly useless. Where stereoscopic coverage is provided, interpretation and mapping are done most efficiently using a Kern PG-2 stereoplotter.

Morrison, R. B. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

350

Fargo, North Dakota, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much broader, topographically distinct pathway of former glaciation that narrows to about 190 km (120 miles) wide. South of Fargo this narrowed pathway splits into two distinct paths (broad dark swaths on the image) that were carved by the southward flowing glaciers. Arcuate glacial moraines (deposits of rocks that were carried by glaciers) can be seen near this split, near what is now the approximate boundary between the Hudson Bay and Gulf of Mexico drainage basins (the latter via the Mississippi River).

This glacial landscape has features that were favorable for the transport of ice but are not now so favorable for the transport of water. As measured in the digital elevation data, the Red River decreases in elevation only 40 meters (130 feet) from Fargo to the Canadian border (top of image) over a straight-line distance of 235 kilometers (145 miles) along the glacial trough. This is a gradient of only 17 centimeters per kilometer (11 inches per mile), and the actual river gradient is much lower as it follows a longer curvilinear path. Areas surrounding the trough (more rugged and bright in the image) have variable but generally much steeper gradients. In simple terms, this is a fundamental cause of flooding in Fargo. The speed of drainage of the rainfall and snowmelt is greatly related to topographic slope. The steeper slopes and merging streams concentrate water runoff into the glacial trough at Fargo, while the lower gradients within the trough allow the water to spread (and flood) but not drain quickly away.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission was a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies, and was managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

Size: 440x380 kilometers; 270x235 miles Location:

2009-01-01

351

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 4. Soil and vegetation development on topsoiled areas. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four North Dakota reclaimed mined sites one to four years in age were studied for patterns of species colonization, biochemical interaction among species, competitive phenomena, and management applications. Kochia scoparia, a colonizer, was the dominant species for the first two years, but was completely eliminated by the fourth year; the planted Agropyron grasses concomitantly increased during this four year period.

L. R. Iverson; M. K. Wali

1982-01-01

352

Chemical quality of surface waters, and sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin, North and South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of the chemical quality of surface waters and of the sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1946. The chemical quality of the water was studied to obtain information on the nature and amounts of dissolved solids in the streams and on the suitability of the water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. Sedimentation was studied to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams, the particle sizes of the sediment, and the probable specific weight of the sediment when deposited in a reservoir. The basin is underlain by consolidated sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age; along the Grand River and its tributaries the rocks are mantled by alluvium of Quaternary age. The Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations underlie about 4,700 of the 5,680 square miles of drainage area. The climate of the basin is semiarid and is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. Mean annual runoff is about 53 acre-feet per square mile of drainage area and is equal to about 7 percent of the mean annual precipitation. The highest streamflows on the Grand River and major tributaries are caused by melting of snow in March and April. Streamflow is extremely variable from year to year. Most of the surface waters in the basin are of the sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate type. High percent sodium is typical of almost all the surface waters. The streamflow-quality patterns of the Grand River and its two forks are very similar; dissolved-solids concentration, which usually does not exceed 3,000 ppm, is maximum during low-flow periods. The water in Shadehill Reservoir became stratified during the flood inflow of 1952; about 75 percent of the floodwater, which was of good quality, passed through the reservoir. The quality of the water became almost uniform throughout the reservoir the latter part of July 1952. After the specific conductance became relatively stable in 1956, it fluctuated from about 1,300 to 1,600 micromhos per centimeter and was between 1,400 and 1,500 micromhos per centimeter most of the time. During the representative period July 1937 to June 1950 the quantity of dissolved solids passing the station near Wakpala was estimated to have been about 140,000 tons per year. Yields computed for different parts of the basin ranged from about 22 to 32 tons per square mile. Except for sulfate, concentrations of chemical constituents usually do not exceed the maximum concentrations recommended for domestic supplies. The rather high dissolved solids, and hardness of most of the surface waters prevent the use of these waters for most industrial purposes unless the quality is improved by treatment. Classified for irrigation use according to its specific conductance and sodium-adsorption-ratio, the water stored in Shadehill Reservoir has a high salinity hazard and a medium sodium hazard. The water can be used safely for sustained irrigation on soils of the proposed irrigation unit if adequate leaching is practiced and if gypsum or some other calcium compound is added to the water or land during the high sodium cycle. Suspended-sediment discharges of the Grand River at Shadehill from March 1946 through July 1950 averaged 700,000 tons per year. Suspended-sediment discharges of the South Fork Grand River near Cash for 1947-50, estimated from periodic measurements, averaged 270,000 tons per year. Sediment discharges during these periods were much greater than normal. Suspended-sediment discharges of the North Fork Grand River for 1947-60, estimated from periodic measurements, averaged 31,000 tons per year at Haley and 140,000 tons per year near White Butte. Suspended sediment is predominantly clay ; some silt and a little sand are transported. The probable specific weights of sediment deposits are about 42 pounds per cubic foot for the North and South Forks and 56 pounds per cubic foot for the Grand River at Shadehill. These speci

Hembree, Charles Herbert; Krieger, Robert A.; Jordan, Paul Robert

1964-01-01

353

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle (>1°) northeast

M. W. Longman; T. G. Fertal; J. R. Stell

1992-01-01

354

Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the different units, with medians that range from about 2.4 to 4.0 mg/L. Median whole-water phosphorus concentrations for the different Lake Andes units range from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/L, and decrease downstream through Lake Andes. Median selenium concentrations are substantially lower for Andes Creek (3 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)) than for the other tributary stations (34, 18, and 7 ?g/L). Median selenium concentrations for the lake stations (ranging from less than 1 to 2 ?g/L) are substantially lower than tributary stations. The pesticides 2,4-D and atrazine were the most commonly detected pesticides in Lake Andes. Median concentrations for 2,4-D for Lake Andes range from 0.07 to 0.11 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is 0.04 ?g/L. Median concentrations for atrazine for Lake Andes range from 0.2 to 0.4 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is less than 0.1 ?g/L. Concentrations of both 2,4-D and atrazine are largest for the most upstream part of Lake Andes that is most influenced by tributary inflow. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for Lake Andes tributaries range from 22 to 56 mg/L. Most of the suspended sediment transported in the Lake Andes tributaries consists of particles less than 63 ?m (micrometers) in diameter. Concentrations of most constituents in bottom sediments generally had similar ranges and medians for the Lake Andes tributaries. However, Andes Creek generally had lower concentrations of several metals. For Lake Andes, medians and ranges for most constituents generally were similar among the different units. However, selenium concentrations tended to be higher in the upstream part of the lake, and generally decreased downstream. Results of vertical sediment cores collected from a single site in the South Unit of Lake Andes in October 2000 indicate that selenium loading to Lake Andes increased during the period 1952 through 2000. Choteau Creek has a drainage area of 619 mi2. In the upstream part of the basin, Chotea

Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

2003-01-01

355

Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

1990-01-01

356

Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

2005-01-01

357

Flood of April 1989 in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge and Fargo-Moorhead areas, Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most severe flooding during the April 1989 flood in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota occurred in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area. Flood stage on April 5, 1989, was the highest stage that has been reported in almost 100 years. The 1989 peak flow was not as large as that of the 1969 flood, which had the largest peak flow since the Wahpeton gage was installed in 1942. The 1989 peak stage, however, was more than 1 foot higher than during the 1969 flood because of backwater from ice. Cooler weather subsequent to the peak at Wahpeton slowed the snowmelt and allowed the peak to attenuate as it moved downstream; thus, the severity of flooding in the Fargo-Moorhead area and in areas farther downstream was reduced. Advance flood warning allowed communities downstream from the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area to prepare for the flood and was instrumental in reducing flood damage. Aerial photographs were used to delineate the extent of the April 1989 flood in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge and the Fargo-Moorhead areas on topographic maps. The aerial photographs of the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area were taken during the flood peak on April 5 and those of the Fargo-Moorhead area were taken during the flood peak on April 9.

Ryan, Gerald L.; Harkness, R. E.

1994-01-01

358

The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

2014-01-01

359

Initial results and implications of [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mica age dating in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion of the 1,700 Ma Harney Peak Granite, southern Black Hills, South Dakota resulted in the formation of a large thermal aureole reaching second-sillimanite grade metamorphism and local migmatization. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages for micas were obtained from staurolite-zone country rock samples collected over a wide region surrounding the pluton. Excess argon appears to be a problem in only one sample which exhibited a total gas age much older than the pluton. A sample ([number sign]87) located [approximately]15 km SW of the pluton yielded a biotite near-plateau age (and concordant total gas age) of 1,669[+-]16 Ms. Muscovite from the sample yielded a concordant plateau and total gas age of 1,648[+-]12 Ma. The concordant mica pair ages (within error) suggests cooling from above [approximately]350 C to below [approximately]300 C about 30--40 Ma after intrusion of the main pluton. Five separates from three localities (W and NW of the pluton) yield concordant plateau and near-plateau mica ages which cluster around 1,620--1,630 Ma ages as having been reset after initial cooling to below [approximately]300 C at about 1,660 Ma. Since no igneous activity of this age has been reported in the Black Hills, the authors favor a resetting event associated with a low-grade metamorphic event long recognized regionally east and west of the Black Hills and perhaps visibly represented within the Black Hills by a late (post-Harney Peak Granite) widespread but non-penetrative (F4) foliation.

Holm, D.K.; Dahl, P.S.; Gardner, E.T. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology); Lux, D.R. (Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

360

Archaeological Testing and Survey: Testing of Three Sites and Survey of a Road Detour within Proposed Project Construction Zones, Burlington Dam Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This cultural resource survey is of lands to be affected by the proposed Burlington Flood Control Project. The study area is located in north-central North Dakota along the Souris River from approximately two mile north of Burlington to the Canadian borde...

K. N. Good J. L. Hauff

1980-01-01

361

Sonar Use in Locating Fish Aggregations for Commercial Seining under the Ice, 1970-1973, South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sonar was used to locate fish aggregations to define the potentially good haul areas, and eliminate unproductive seining during January, February and March of 1971, 1972, and 1973. Seine catch rates for Lake Poinsett for carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bigmout...

D. C. Warnick

1974-01-01

362

1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

363

An inferred relationship between some uranium deposits and calcium carbonate cement in southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evidence resulting from geologic mapping in the southern Black Hills indicates that the areas marginal to some of the larger carbonate-cemented sandstones constitute favorable geochemical environments for the localization of uranium deposits. To determine whether these favorable environments are predictable a limited experimental core-drilling program was carried out. An extensive deposit was discovered in an area marginal to a sandstone well-cemented with calcium carbonate. The deposit has not yet been developed, but from the available data it appears that there is a significant quantity of mineralized rock present containing as much as 3.0 percent eU3O8.

Gott, Garland B.

1956-01-01

364

Historical variability in fire at the ponderosa pine - Northern Great Plains prairie ecotone, southeastern Black Hills, South Dakota1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotones are boundaries between plant assemblages that can represent a physiological or competitive limit of species' local distributions, usually through one or more biotic or abiotic constraints on species' resource requirements. However, ecotones also result from the effects of chronic or episodic disturbances, and changes in disturbance regimes may have profound effects on vegetation patterns in transitional areas. In this

Peter M. BROWN; Carolyn H. SIEG

1999-01-01

365

29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE HOPPERS IN THE RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH DISCHARGE FLY ASH INTO A VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE OGIVE SHAPED DEVICE BELOW THE HOPPER IS A RELIEF INTAKE VALVE FOR THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE "S" SHAPED CONDUITS TO THE LEFT OF THE HOPPERS CARRY BOILER FEED WATER FROM THE ECONOMIZERS (WATER PREHEATERS) TO THE BOILERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

366

Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, C.; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

2011-01-01

367

Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.

368

Appraisal of the water resources of the Big Sioux aquifer, Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A finite-difference method digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, S. Dak. Average annual water levels in the Big Sioux aquifer and average base flow discharge 58 cubic feet per second on the Big Sioux River near Brookings were based on the period 1970 through 1976. The computer model was used to model transient conditions by simulating monthly periods from April through August 1976. Evapotranspiration and pumpage changes were made for each month. A computer simulation was made without irrigation pumpage which resulted in an increase in the base flow from 0.66 to 9 cubic feet per second for August 1976 in the Big Sioux River near Brookings. Two transient simulations , one with the drought conditions of 1976 and one using all the pumpage allowed by irrigation permits approved by the State as of February 1979 showed, as a result of pumpage, that there was a decrease in evapotranspiration and a decrease in discharge to streams which amounts to 26 and 31% of the total groundwater pumped. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are primarily calcium bicarbonate types and are chemically suitable for irrigation with respect to sodium hazard. Sepcific conductance of groundwater ranged from 407 to 1,790 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius. (USGS)

Koch, Neil C.

1980-01-01

369

Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota aquifer in northwest Iowa consists of sandstones in the Dakota Formation. Sandstone beds are from less than 10 to more than 150 feet thick and cumulatively total more than 200 feet throughout much of the area. The aquifer is confined by shale, carbonate rocks, till and loess. Water flows from the north-central part of the area to the south and southwest. Recharge is through leakage from above. Discharge is to underlying aquifers and alluvium along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers. An average hydraulic conductivity of 300 gallons per day per foot squared was used to estimate potential yield to wells. Yields of more than 350 gallons per minute can be commonly expected and more than 1000 gallons per minute can be produced in some areas. The quality of water from the Dakota is a calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is generally suitable for irrigation. Water quality may be locally altered by leakage from the underlying Paleozoic aquifers if withdrawals reverse the natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic. Such a reversal may exist around the City of LeMars. The presence of radionuclides exceeds recommended limits at several sites. (USGS)

Burkart, M. R.

1982-01-01

370

33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay...including the waters of the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area...

2013-07-01

371

Deposition of Crow Creek Member (Pierre Shale, Campanian), southeast South Dakota, and supposed relations to Iowa's Manson Structure  

SciTech Connect

Previous dates from the Manson Impact Structure (MIS) indicated an age near the K-T boundary (65 Ma), but a date of 73.8 Ma was recently reported for a single breccia clast at Manson. The discovery of shock metamorphosed grains in roughly coeval Pierre Shale strata in S. Dak. led Izett et al. to propose that the Crow Creek Mbr contains Manson's distal impact ejecta. They indicated that Manson was covered by a seaway at that time, and postulated effects from an impact-triggered tsunami in the Western Interior. A study of Crow Creek strata from four sites in Yankton Co., S. Dak. was undertaken to evaluate the sedimentary context of the contained impact-derived grains. The sub-Crow Creek unconformity truncates lower Pierre strata eastward across S. Dak. and locally overlies the Niobrara Fm on the sioux Ridge. Probable leaf fossils are seen along this surface at one site. Basal Crow Creek strata reveal evidence of condensed sedimentation coincident with the onset of Bearpaw transgression, particularly occurrences of glauconite, abundant phosphate (pellets, phosphatized matrix, fish bone apatite), and foam-rich lithologies. Basal strata contain detrital grains (15--25% volume) derived from eastern source areas, including quartz, feldspar, and heavy minerals and small clasts of siltstone, mudstone, shale, dolomite, limestone, and quartzite. Floating silt and sand-sized detrital grains persist in the overlying Crow Creek marls, indicating continuing detrital influx. Shock metamorphic planar deformation features (PDFs) are seen in many quartz grains (10-30% in basal unit) and some quartzite and siltstone grains; these are definitive for an impact-derived source. Was the MIS the source of these grains, and does the Crow Creek show evidence of a Manson-triggered tsunami Several obstacles remain and are discussed.

Witzke, B.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ludvigson, G.A. (Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources, Iowa City, IA (United States). Geological Survey Bureau); Hammond, R.H. (South Dakota Geological Survey, Vermillion, SD (United States))

1994-04-01

372

Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22–21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12–9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

2013-01-01

373

Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22-21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12-9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

2013-09-01

374

Petrogenetic relationships between pegmatite and granite based on geochemistry of muscovite in pegmatite wall zones, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

SciTech Connect

The compositions of large samples of granitic pegmatite wall zones have been determined for a suite of ten pegmatites of diverse geochemical character and degree of compositional evolution in the Keystone area of the Black Hills. Whole-rock compositions are strongly peraluminous, and they deviate substantially from the granite minimum composition in quartz-albite-orthoclase normalized components, showing considerably more scatter than Harney Peak Granite whole rocks. Wall-zone minerals are commonly coarsely segregated, leading to large modal variability among whole rocks. These features make whole-rock samples of wall zones unsuitable for the determination of initial pegmatite bulk compositions. Trace and minor element compositions of muscovite separates from the wall zones were thus determined to eliminate the effects of modal variability on trace element concentrations so that geochemical differences between pegmatites could be modeled. Estimates of initial pegmatite melt trace element concentrations range from 800-4,000 ppm Rb, 100-1,000 ppm Cs, 200-2,000 ppm Li, and 1-50 ppm Ba. Trace element concentrations of muscovite from a given pegmatite generally cluster together, although several show considerable intra-pegmatite scatter, and there are large overlaps among different pegmatites. The geochemical characteristics of samples from the Etta pegmatite indicate mixing with and assimilation of country rocks. Exceptionally low Rb/Cs ratios of muscovite from the Etta pegmatite and similar to those of muscovite from K-feldspar-rich assemblages of other pegmatites where the Rb concentration of melt may have been buffered by crystallizing assemblages that had bulk Rb distribution coefficients close to 1.

Jolliff, B.L. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States))

1992-05-01

375

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 4. Soil and vegetation development on topsoiled areas. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

Four North Dakota reclaimed mined sites one to four years in age were studied for patterns of species colonization, biochemical interaction among species, competitive phenomena, and management applications. Kochia scoparia, a colonizer, was the dominant species for the first two years, but was completely eliminated by the fourth year; the planted Agropyron grasses concomitantly increased during this four year period. Competition experiments between Kochia and Agropyron revealed that Kochia initially acted as a 'nurse' crop for Agropyron establishment. Mowing of the first year colonizing species (especially Kochia) just prior to seed set proved to be very effective at reducing weed populations and improving planted Agropyron populations in the second year. This method is highly recommended for use in hastening the establishment of planted species after mining.

Iverson, L.R.; Wali, M.K.

1982-06-01

376

Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating their statistics over large areas.

Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

2011-01-01

377

Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating their statistics over large areas. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Gumma, M. K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Singh, A. N.

2011-01-01

378

Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood deposits in conjunction with hydraulic calculations based on modern channel and valley geometry. Reach-scale paleoflood chronologies were interpreted for each study reach, which generally entailed correlation of flood evidence among multiple sites, chiefly based on relative position within stratigraphic sequences, unique textural characteristics, or results of age dating and flow estimation. The FLDFRQ3 and PeakfqSA analytical models (assuming log-Pearson Type III frequency distributions) were used for flood-frequency analyses for as many as four scenarios: (1) analysis of gaged records only; (2) gaged records with historical information; (3) all available data including gaged records, historical flows, paleofloods, and perception thresholds; and (4) the same as the third scenario, but ?top fitting? the distribution using only the largest 50 percent of gaged peak flows. The PeakfqSA model is most consistent with procedures adopted by most Federal agencies for flood-frequency analysis and thus was (1) used for comparisons among results for study reaches, and (2) considered by the authors as most appropriate for general applications of estimating low-probability flood recurrence. The detailed paleoflood investigations indicated that in the last 2,000 years all study reaches have had multiple large floods substantially larger than in gaged records. For Spring Creek, stratigraphic records preserved a chronology of at least five paleofloods in approximately (~) 1,000 years approaching or exceeding the 1972 flow of 21,800 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The largest was ~700 years ago with a flow range of 29,300-58,600 ft3/s, which reflects the uncertainty regarding flood-magnitude estimates that was incorporated in the flood-frequency analyses. In the lower reach of Rapid Creek (downstream from Pactola Dam), two paleofloods in ~1,000 years exceeded the 1972 flow of 31,200 ft3/s. Those occurred ~440 and 1,000 years ago, with flows of 128,000-256,000 and 64,000-128,000 ft3/s, respectively. Five smaller paleofloods of 9,500-19,000 ft3/s occurred between ~200 and 400 year

Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

2011-01-01

379

75 FR 6347 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...3 provinces in the Republic of South Africa as pest-free areas for citrus...the documentation submitted by South Africa's national plant protection...

2010-02-09

380

Climate Change and South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

381

South Dakota After 3PM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each afternoon across the U.S., 15 million children--more than a quarter of children--are alone and unsupervised after school. The parents of 18 million would enroll their children in an afterschool program, if one were available. These are some of the key findings from the nation's most in-depth study of how America's children spend their…

Afterschool Alliance, 2009

2009-01-01

382

Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Michel, A. L.; Bengis, R. G.; Keet, D. F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P. C.; Jolles, A. E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I. J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

2006-01-01

383

75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0009] RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy...is establishing a temporary regulated navigation area on the navigable waters of the...south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation area is necessary to promote...

2010-02-25

384

Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

Young, H. W.; Newton, G. D.

1989-01-01

385

Preliminary report on the coal resources of the Dickenson area, Billings, Dunn, and Stark counties, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dickinson area is underlain by the coal-bearing Fort Union Formation (Paleocene). The Fort Union in this area contains nine potentially economic coal beds. Five of these beds are, either all or in part, shallow enough to be economically extracted by conventional strip-mining methods, while the remaining four deeper beds represent future possible strip-mining, in situ, or shaft-mining coal resources. The Fort Union coal beds in the Dickinson area are relatively flat lying (dips are less than 1??) and only slightly influenced by faulting and both depositional and post-depositional channeling. Topography, coal thickness, and minimum overburden all combine to give the Dickinson area an excellent future coal resource development potential.

Menge, Michael L.

1977-01-01

386

Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

NONE

1996-02-01

387

Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dakota aquifer in northwest Iowa consists of sandstones in the Dakota Formation. It underlies most of the study area and is the most extensive source of ground water in the area. Individual sandstone beds are from less than 10 to more than 150 feet thick. The cumulative thickness of sandstone is more than 200 feet throughout much of the area. The aquifer is confined by overlying Cretaceous limestone and shale, Quaternary glacial deposits and loess. The underlying confining material is shale of the Dakota Formation, undifferentiated Paleozoic age rocks, or Precambrian crystalline rock. Water flows through the aquifer from the north-central part of the study area to the east, south and southwest. Recharge is dominantly by infiltration from the land surface through the confining materials. Discharge is to underlying Paleozoic aquifers and to the alluvium and glacial outwash deposits along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers in the southwest part of the area. Flow components toward bedrock valleys may reflect discharge to Quaternary sand and gravel deposits in these valleys. Pumping tests conducted in the study area indicate a narrow range of hydraulic conductivities of the Dakota aquifer, from 37 to 50 feet per day. Consequently, an average hydraulic conductivity of 40 feet per day was used to estimate the potential yield to wells completed in the aquifer. Yields of more than 250 gallons per minute can be expected throughout much of the study area and more than 1,000 gallons per minute could be produced in some areas. The quality of water from the Dakota is a calcium, magnesium, sulfate type. It is generally suitable for irrigation purposes, based on comparisons of sodium adsorption ratios and electrical conductivities. In some areas the aquifer has water with high salinity hazard that may restrict its use to irrigation of only well-drained types of soil. The concentration of radium-226 and other radionuclides exceeds recommended limits at several sites. The quality of water pumped from the aquifer may be altered by induced leakage from the underlying aquifers in Paleozoic age rocks if withdrawals reverse the pattern of natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic aquifers. Evidence for such a reversal exists in the area around the city of LeMars.

Burkart, M. R.

1984-01-01

388

Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E., III; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

2009-01-01

389

Summary and Trend Analysis of Water-Quality Data for the Oakes Test Area, Southeastern North Dakota, 1984-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oakes Test Area is operated and maintained by the Garrison Diversion Conservancy District, under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation, to evaluate the effectiveness and environmental consequences of irrigation. As part of the evaluation, the Bureau of Reclamation collected water-quality samples from seven sites on the James River and the Oakes Test Area. The data were summarized and examined for trends in concentration. A nonparametric statistical test was used to test whether each concentration was increasing or decreasing with time for selected physical properties and constituents, and a trend slope was estimated for each constituent at each site. Trends were examined for two time periods, 1988-2004 and 1994-2004. Results varied by site and by constituent. All sites and all constituents tested had at least one statistically significant trend in the period 1988-2004. Sulfate, total dissolved solids, nitrate, and orthophosphate have significant positive trends at multiple sites with no significant negative trend at any site. Alkalinity and arsenic have single significant positive trends. Hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, potassium, and chloride have both significant positive and negative trends. Ammonia has a single significant negative trend. Fewer significant trends were identified in 1994-2004, and all but one were positive. The contribution to the James River from Oakes Test Area drainage appears to have little effect on water quality in the James River.

Ryberg, Karen R.

2007-01-01

390

19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

2014-04-01

391

Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

Armstrong, C. A.

1982-01-01

392

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 3. soil and vegetation development of abandoned mines. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and vegetation development were studied on abandoned mine sites near Velva in Ward County, North Dakota. The sites studied were 1, 7, 17, 30 and 45 years old since abandonment; unmined sites were also studied to provide measures of comparison. Species diversity was the highest at unmined sites (114) and lowest at the 1 year old site (26). Stand-environmental

M. K. Wali; R. H. Pemble

1982-01-01

393

Geohydrologic system and probable effects of mining in the Sand Creek-Hanks lignite area, western Williams County, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Aquifers occur in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and the Hell Creek Formation of Cretaceous age in sandstone lenses and lignite beds in the Tongue River and Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation of Tertiary age. The top of the Fox Hills aquifer ranges from 1,200 to 2,000 ft below land surface. Wells completed in the aquifers may yield as much as 40 gal/min of sodium bicarbonate or a sodium sulfate type water that contains about 800 to 4,100 mg/L dissolved solids. Well yields range from a few gal/min to 900 gal/min. Dissolved solids concentrations in water from the glacial drift generally range from 477 to 2,050 mg/L. Mining of lignite will destroy all aquifers in and above the mined lignite and will expose overburden to oxidation. Leaching will cause an increase in dissolved solids in groundwater immediately beneath the mines and possibly will cause some increase in the dissolved solids in low flows in area streams. 20 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Armstrong, C.A.

1985-01-01

394

Coefficients of Conservatism for the Vascular Flora of the Dakotas and Adjacent Grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floristic quality assessment can be used to identity natural areas, to facilitate comparisons among different sites, to provide long-term monitoring of natural area quality, and to evaluate habitat management and restoration efforts. To facilitate the use of floristic quality assessment in North Dakota, South Dakota (excluding the Black Hills), and adjacent grasslands, we developed a species list and assigned coefficients of conservatism (C values; range 0 to 10) to each plant species in the region's flora. The C values we assigned represented our collective knowledge of the patterns of occurrence of each plant species in the Dakotas and our confidence that a particular taxon is natural-area dependent. Because state boundaries usually do not follow ecological boundaries, the C values we assigned should be equally valid in nearby areas with the same vegetation types. Of the 1,584 taxa we recognized in this effort, 275 (17%) were determined to be nonnative to the region. We assigned C values of 4 or higher to 77% of our taxa, and the entire native flora had a mean C value (C) of 6.l. A floristic quality index (FQI) can be calculated to rank sites in order of their floristic quality. By applying the coefficients of conservatism supplied here and calculating C and FQI, an effective means of evaluating the quality of plant communities can be obtained. Additionally, by repeating plant surveys and calculations of C and FQI over time, temporal changes in floristic quality can be identified.

The Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel

2001-01-01

395

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

2010-07-01

396

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

2009-07-01

397

19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

2014-04-01

398

33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans...District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New...

2013-07-01

399

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

2012-07-01

400

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

2011-07-01

401

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 10. Elements of macro- and microclimate. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general or macroclimate of the study sites in western North Dakota is characterized by rapid and sometimes extreme daily and day-to-day temperature fluctuations, rainfall patterns which are erratic in spatial and temporal distribution and intensity, generally low relative humidity, plentiful sunshine, nearly continuous air movement, and a relatively short frost-free period. Of particular relevance to plant growth and productivity

Bares

1982-01-01

402

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Junior Web Ranger Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet (or "Junior Ranger Handbook") was designed to help children 4 to 12 years of age learn about the National Park Service and the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (Tennessee). The booklet offers activities and questions about the park; answers may be found by using the Big South Fork Web site (http://www.nps.gov/biso/).…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

403

Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, TylerMcconnell ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge middleground, and Henry Clay Village and Walkers Mill in upper background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

404

VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North , Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

405

75 FR 10300 - South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This notice requests individuals interested in serving on the South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee to submit their application for membership to the Captain of the Port, Corpus Christi,...

2010-03-05

406

North Dakota geology school receives major gift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

Showstack, Randy

2012-10-01

407

1975 Rural Manpower Report [North Dakota].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau's objectives is to provide equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. This includes services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower…

North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

408

1974 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Dakota Employment Security Bureau provides equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. It also provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower Services provides supervision…

North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

409

Biomass Production and Soil Carbon Level Changes in Various Tillage, Residue Management, and Cropping Systems in Moderately High Organic Matter Soils in Eastern South Dakota, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-year replicated field study was conducted in eastern South Dakota to assess the impact of maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop residue accumulation and soil carbon when various tillage, crop residue management, and crop rotation scenarios were applied. Before planting, half the plots were chisel plowed and harrowed (tilled vs. no-till treatments). Corn-soybean, soybean-wheat, or corn-wheat-soybean rotations were established (rotation treatments). After grain harvest, crop residues were removed on half of the plots (residue-removed vs. residue-retained treatments). The range of initial soil carbon levels (loss by ignition method) for the 0-15cm depth was 1.7-3.0%. Post-harvest crop residue accumulation was greatest for the residue-retained treatment compared to the residue-removed treatment and for the no-till treatment compared to the tilled treatment. In addition, surface biomass accumulation was greatest when maize was part of a crop rotation. Maize can produce greater levels of biomass compared to either spring wheat or soybean. The least surface biomass accumulation was measured in the soybean-wheat rotation.

Woodard, H. J.; Bly, A.

2003-12-01

410

Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations: Southeast Asian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 3. Area 8 - Kuala Trengganu, Area 9 - Endau, Area 10 - South Malacca Strait, Area 11 - North Malacca Strait.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains data from marine surface observations taken in Southeast Asian coastal marine areas. Synoptic meteorological data is presented for Kuala Trengganu, Endau, South Malacca Strait, and North Malacca Strait.

1972-01-01

411

Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

412

75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0794] RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy...Guard proposes to establish a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters...the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES: Comments and related...

2010-12-10

413

76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2010-0794] RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy...Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters...the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES: This rule is effective...

2011-02-15

414

LAND REFORM IN THE TRIBAL AREAS OF SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intense population pressure, arable land is often underutilised in tribal areas. Conversely, grazing resources are often over-utilised. Supply response to price incentives is inelastic as the potential gains to farmers are limited by small farm sizes. A land rental market could improve efficiency in farming and also has equity advantages. Institutional changes are needed to encourage land rental. Overstocking

M. C. Lyne

1991-01-01

415

33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.660 Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola,...

2013-07-01

416

Alkali influences on sulfur capture for North Dakota lignite combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-scale testing was performed at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the levels and mechanisms of sulfur capture on fly ash. Core samples of lignite having low-, medium-, and high-sulfur levels were sampled and analyzed from a potential lignite mine area in western North Dakota. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) analysis revealed that

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Andrea L. Stomberg; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Joshua R. Strege

2006-01-01

417

Evolution of late Pleistocene and Holocene climates in the circum-South Pacific land areas  

SciTech Connect

Paleovegetation maps were reconstructed based on a network of pollen records from Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America for 18000, 12000, 9000, 6000, and 3000 BP and interpreted in terms of paleoclimatic patterns. These patterns permitted us to speculate on past atmospheric circulation in the South Pacific and the underlying forcing missing line mechanisms. During full glacial times, with vastly extended Australasian land area and circum-Antarctic ice-shelves, arid and cold conditions characterized all circum-South Pacific land areas, except for a narrow band in southern South America (43{degrees} to 45{degrees}S) that might have been even wetter and moister than today. This implies that ridging at subtropical and mid-latitudes must have been greatly increased and that the storm tracks were located farther south than today. At 12000 BP when precipitation had increased in southern Australia, New Zealand, and the mid-latitudes of South America, ridging was probably still as strong as before but has shifted into the eastern Pacific, leading to weaker westerlies in the western Pacific and more southerly located westerlies in the eastern Pacific. At 9000 BP when, except for northernmost Australia, precipitation reached near modern levels, the south Pacific ridges and the westerlies must have weakened. Because of the continuing land connection between New Guinea and Australia, and reduced seasonality, the monsoon pattern had still not developed. By 6000 BP, moisture levels in Australia and New Zealand reached their maximum, indicating that the monsoon pattern had become established. Ridging in the South Pacific was probably weaker than today, and the seasonal shift of the westerlies was stronger than before. By 3000 BP essentially modern conditions had been achieved, characterized by patterns of high seasonal variability. 93 refs., 8 figs.

Markgraf, V. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Dodson, J.R. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Kershaw, A.P. [Monash Univ., Victoria (Australia)] [and others

1992-01-01

418

Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.  

PubMed

Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. PMID:24084375

Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

2013-11-15

419

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

420

Depths to the magnetic layer bottom in the South China Sea area and their tectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depths to the magnetic layer bottom (Zb) in the South China Sea (SCS) area are estimated by computing radially averaged amplitude spectra of total field magnetic anomalies. We test different sizes of moving windows in which the spectra are calculated to better understand how window sizes affect the depth estimations. Apart from lowering the resolutions of estimated Zb, larger

Chun-Feng Li; Xiaobin Shi; Zuyi Zhou; Jiabiao Li; Jianhua Geng; Bing Chen

2010-01-01

421

Fluid flow in the South Eugene Island area, offshore Louisiana: results of numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations of heat and fluid transport in the South Eugene Island (SEI) area, offshore Louisiana, suggest fluids migrate from deep, abnormally pressured sediments, along fault zones, and into overlying oil and gas reservoirs. In the simulations, fluid flow along the fault produces a narrow thermal anomaly around the fault. A negative thermal anomaly forms adjacent to the thermal maximum

Sheila J. Roberts

2001-01-01

422

Legal Aspects of Ownership and Use of Estuarine Areas in Georgia and South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Legal doctrines governing the ownership and use of estuarine areas in Georgia and South Carolina are identified and analyzed. The law of each state is analyzed, first, from the standpoint of 'ownership' of land in each of the following categories or class...

C. Leavell

1971-01-01

423

Gravity Investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, South-Central Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian we...

D. S. Scheirer A. H. Scheirer

2006-01-01

424

Regional hydrochemical study on salinization of coastal aquifers, western coastal area of South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the salinization in the western coastal area of South Korea, we performed a regional hydrochemical study on a total of 356 shallow groundwaters sampled within 10km from the coastline. About 13, 5, and 37% of the samples exceed the drinking water standards for total dissolved solids, chloride, and nitrate, respectively, indicating significant deterioration and salinization of

Seh-Chang Park; Seong-Taek Yun; Gi-Tak Chae; In-Sik Yoo; Kwang-Sub Shin; Chul-Ho Heo; Sang-Kyu Lee

2005-01-01

425

Sewage Treatment Facilities for the South Bloomington and Lake Monroe Service Areas, Bloomington, Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis of alternatives indicates that the needs of the South Bloomington Service Area would most adequately be served by a 15 MGD two-stage activated sludge sewage treatment plant (STP) with sand filters located at the Dillman Road site. (The presen...

1976-01-01

426

Nguni cattle marketing constraints and opportunities in the communal areas of South Africa: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle production is the most important livestock sub-sector in South Africa. It contributes about 25 - 30% to the total agricultural output per annum. However, cattle productivity is declining due to diseases and parasites prevalence, lack of feed resources, and poor breeding and marketing management. To increase sustainability and contribution of cattle in eradicating hunger and poverty in communal areas,

L. Musemwa; A. Mushunje; M. Chimonyo; G. Fraser; C. Mapiye; V. Muchenje

2008-01-01

427

Critical phosphorus concentrations for subterranean clover in the high rainfall areas of South?Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between yield and phosphorus (P) concentration of dried subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) herbage has been measured in many long?term field experiments in the greater than 800 mm annual average rainfall areas of south?western Australia. In the experiments, seven levels of different P fertilizers (single superphosphate, rock phosphates, partially acidulated rock phosphates) were applied to the surface, either annually,

M. D. A. Bolland; M. F. Clarke; J. S. Yeates

1995-01-01

428

Workforce: North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 2002 and 2012, the rate of job growth in North Dakota will be modest: under 1 percent annually. However, a large number of positions-close to a quarter of all jobs in the state-will open up for hiring due to retirements and separations. In addition, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

429

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

SciTech Connect

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05

430

Foz do Amazonas area: The last frontier for elephant hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic realm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most areas of the South Atlantic, exploration is far from being\\u000a mature because exploration in ultradeep water has just begun.\\u000a Geochemical data suggest that similar organic-rich facies and oil types\\u000a are found across the South Atlantic petroleum provinces and that they\\u000a have undergone similar tectonic-stratigraphic evolution, allowing the\\u000a application of a unified model for hydrocarbon provenance in basins on

Mello; R Mosmann; SRP Silva; RR Maciel; FP Miranda

2002-01-01

431

The Role of Prescribed Burning in Regenerating Quercus Macrocarpa and Associated Woody Plants in Stringer Woodlands in the Black Hills, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the range of Quercus macrocarpa, fire historically played an important role in maintaining Quercus stands. However, little is known about the role of fire in maintaining stringe r Quercus stands on the western edge of its distribution. This research suggests that pre- scribed burning could be used to rejuvenate woody plants in Quercus woodlands. Relative to unburned areas, there

Carolyn Hull Sieg; Henry A. Wright

1996-01-01

432

Comparative Licensing Study: Profiles of State Day Care Licensing Requirements. Day Care Centers. Volume 4: South Dakota - Wyoming. Revised Edition 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Updating the Administration for Children, Youth and Families' 1978 "Comparative Licensing Study," a study was conducted to provide a common framework for assessing state activities in critical child care licensing areas and to record the status of child care licensing as of March 1981 in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico,…

Johnson (Lawrence) and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.