Sample records for area south dakota

  1. HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF PRAIRIE WETLAND BIRDS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF PRAIRIE WETLAND BIRDS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA BY DAVID E. NAUGLE Dakota State University 1997 #12;II HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF PRAIRIE WETLAND BIRDS IN EASTERN SOUTH HABITAT AREA REQUIREMENTS OF PRAIRIE WETLAND BIRDS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA David E. Naugle December 1997

  2. Drainage areas in the James River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M.E.; Amundson, F.D.; Wipf, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    The James River of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface-water supply for the agricultural economy within the basin. Proposed water-resource development has prompted numerous hydrologic studies of the James River. To aid in planning for future development, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than 10 square miles within the James River basin South Dakota and lists by stream name and area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey seven and one-half minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins, reaches, and noncontributing areas and drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

  3. Drainage areas in the Vermillion River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M.D.; Amundson, Frank D.

    1988-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation in the northern portion of the Vermillion River basin from 1982 through 1987 caused substantial rises in lake levels in the Lake Thompson chain of lakes, resulting in discharge from Lake Thompson to the East Fork Vermillion River. Prior to 1986, the Lake Thompson chain of lakes was thought to be a noncontributing portion of the Vermillion River basin. To better understand surface drainage, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than approximately 10 sq mi within the Vermillion River basin in South Dakota and lists by stream name the area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins and reaches, as well as drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

  4. South Dakota Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the geological survey is to conduct geologic studies, hydrologic studies, and research, and to collect, correlate, preserve, interpret, and disseminate information, leading to a better understanding of the geology and hydrology of South Dakota. Information includes maps of relief, geology, ground water, and earthquakes; projects such as well testing, hydrology, and aquifers; and searchable databases, such as lithologic logs, digital base, and water quality. Links are provided for more information.

  5. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  6. South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the South Dakota Cooperative Extension Services (SDCES) is to "provide practical learning resources to address complex problems of youth and families, communities, agriculture, business, and industry." The SDCES is based at South Dakota State University, and their work includes creating fact sheets, reports, and educational materials on community development, Native American life, 4-H programs, and natural resources.

  7. South Dakota Social Studies Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This document presents the South Dakota Content Standards for K-12 Social Studies. The document outlines the four major areas of social studies: history, geography, civics, and economics. Standards are provided for each major area according to grade level, separately for grades K-8 and collectively for grades 9-12. Grade level standards represent…

  8. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the burned areas. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between burned and unburned areas were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on annual-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. Annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-burn periods. Many of the post-burn data points are well beyond the range of the pre-burn data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely burned drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for burned drainage areas; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-burn condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows

  9. South Dakota Kids Count Project: 1994 Factbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry; Dykstra, De Vee

    This factbook provides data on the well-being of South Dakota children. It is intended as a vehicle for policy makers, advocates, the media, and service providers to raise awareness on the status of children in South Dakota. Section 1 of the factbook is an introduction and overview on South Dakota demographics. Section 2 presents special reports…

  10. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

  11. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  12. Loss and Reconstitution of Sioux Tribal Lands in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    Inconsistent government policies towards American Indian landholdings have created jurisdictional chaos on South Dakota's Sioux reservations. Although the Sioux had occupied the area of South Dakota since the seventeenth century, white settlers began to move into the territory in the 1840's. Despite treaties, the federal government began…

  13. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  14. Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  15. The Arts in South Dakota: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Ron, Comp.; Bell, Rebecca L., Comp.; Amiotte, Arthur D., Comp.; Murray, Janette K., Comp.; Huenemann, Lynn F., Comp.

    This bibliography pulls together some of the available resources on the arts in South Dakota and the Dakota Territory. In preparing this bibliography, the arts were defined as broadly as possible. The major arts areas identified are: (1) Visual Arts (painting, sculpture, photography, graphic arts and printing, architecture, decorative and…

  16. Ecoregions of North Dakota and South Dakota: Interactive Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. This interactive map shows the ecoregions of North and South Dakota in increasing levels of detail (from level III to level IV). Clicking on the legend shows information for each type of ecoregion, including a photo and description, physiography, geology, soils type, climate, natural vegetation types, and land use/land cover. A downloadable version is available.

  17. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  18. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  19. 2008 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Mark Anderson, Director of the USGS South Dakota Water Science Center, with Dr. John H. Marburger, III, Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. Dr. Marburger was the keynote speaker for the 2008 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, held on April 17...

  20. Wetland Resources of Eastern South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Higgens, Kenneth F.

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has recently posted a resource on South Dakota Wetlands. This report, by R. Johnson and K. Higgins, offers text, tables, and color illustrations of South Dakota's wetlands, including history of wetland drainage and the National Wetlands Inventory. Both reports may be browsed online or downloaded (.zip) from the respective sites.

  1. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    as well as private organizations interested in specific water issues. The mission of the South DakotaSouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction South Dakota's Water Resources Research

  2. Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

  3. Geothermal resource assessment, South Dakota: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Seven geothermal aquifers in South Dakota contain an accessible resource base of about 11,207 x 10/sup 18/ J. The potentially productive geothermal aquifers are: Deadwood Formation (Cambrian), Winnipeg Formation + Red River Formation + Englewood Limestone (Ordovician through Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), Minnelusa Formation (Mississippian-Permian), Inyan Kara Group (Cretaceous), and Newcastle Sandstone (Cretaceous). The resource estimate was obtained by first using heat flow, thermal conductivity, temperature gradient, and stratigraphic data to estimate aquifer temperatures. The heat content of each aquifer was determined from the product of the volumetric heat capacity, aquifer volume, and temperature difference between the aquifer and the mean annual temperature for a 14 x 14 grid of 240 km/sup 2/ cells. Geothermal fluid temperatures range from about 120/sup 0/C in the Deadwood Formation in the Williston Basin to about 30/sup 0/C for the Newcastle Sandstone in south-central South Dakota. The area containing the resource lies largely west of the Missouri River. About 10,000 km/sup 2/ of the resource area is characterized by anomalously high heat flow values greater than 100 mW m/sup -2/.

  4. USGS Water Resources of South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of South Dakota site contains hydrologic data, including realtime streamflow, precipitation, and water use data. There are USGS water resources publications and information on projects such as the Black Hills Hydrology Study; the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Volatile Organic Chemicals National Synthesis; the Belle Fourche Watershed Assessment Study; and the Sensitivity of Ground Water to Contamination project in Lawrence County, South Dakota.

  5. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    agencies as well as private organizations interested in specific water issues. The mission of the SouthSouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 1 #12;Introduction South Dakota's Water Resources Research

  6. Stratabound geothermal resources in North Dakota and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Analysis of all geothermal aquifers in North Dakota and South Dakota indicates an accessible resource base of approximately 21.25 exajoules (10{sup 18} J = 1 exajoule, 10{sup 18} J{approximately}10{sup 15} Btu=1 quad) in North Dakota and approximately 12.25 exajoules in South Dakota. Resource temperatures range from 40{degree}C at depths of about 700 m to 150{degree}C at 4500 m. This resource assessment increases the identified accessible resource base by 31% over the previous assessments. These results imply that the total stratabound geothermal resource in conduction-dominated systems in the United States is two-to-three times greater than some current estimates. The large increase in the identified accessible resource base is primarily due to inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the resource assessment and secondarily due to the expanded data base compiled in this study. These factors were interdependent in that the extensive data base provided the means for inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the analysis. Previous assessments included only well-known aquifer systems and were limited by the amount of available data. 40 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the Minnelusa aquifer. Three conceptual models, which are simplifications of lumped-parameter models, are considered for evaluation of mixing conditions and general ground-water ages. For a simple slug-flow model, which assumes no mixing, measured tritium concentrations in ground water can be related through a first-order decay equation to estimated concentrations at the time of recharge. Two simplified mixing models that assume equal proportions of annual recharge over a range of years also are considered. An ?immediate-arrival? model is used to conceptually represent conditions in outcrop areas and a ?time-delay? model is used for locations removed from outcrops, where delay times for earliest arrival of ground water generally would be expected. Because of limitations associated with estimating tritium input and gross simplifying assumptions of equal annual recharge and thorough mixing conditions, the conceptual models are used only for general evaluation of mixing conditions and approximation of age ranges. Headwater springs, which are located in or near outcrop areas, have the highest tritium concentrations, which is consistent with the immediate-arrival mixing model. Tritium concentrations for many wells are very low, or nondetectable, indicating general applicability of the timedelay conceptual model for locations beyond outcrop areas, where artesian conditions generally occur. Concentrations for artesian springs generally are higher than for wells, which indicates generally shorter delay times resulting from preferential flowpaths that typically are associated with artesian springs. In the Rapid City area, a distinct division of isotopic values for the Madison aquifer corresponds with distinguishing 18O signatures for nearby streams, where large streamflow recharge occurs. Previous dye testing in this area documented rapid ground-water flow (timeframe of weeks) from a streamflow loss zone to sites located several miles away. These results are used to ill

  8. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  9. BTOLOGY OF THE PORCUPINE (ERETHIZON DORSATUM) IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    BTOLOGY OF THE PORCUPINE (ERETHIZON DORSATUM) IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA by Judith Johnson in Wildlife and Fisheries Science South Dakota State University 1977 #12;BIOLOGY OF THE PORCUPINE (ERETHIZON DORSATUM) IN NORTHWESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis is approved as a.creditable and independent

  10. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES

    E-print Network

    GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES BY SARAH J. BANDAS A thesis AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES This thesis is approved as a creditable and independent investigation GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES Sarah J. Bandas 2003 Relatively little

  11. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on major hydrologic processes. Finally, conservative tracers were weighted preferentially in model calibration, which distributed model errors of optimized values, or residuals, more appropriately than would otherwise be the case The latter item also provides an estimate of the relative effect of geochemical evolution along flow paths in comparison to mixing. The end-member mixing model estimated that Wind Cave sites received 38 percent of their groundwater inflow from local surface recharge, 34 percent from the upgradient Precambrian aquifer, 26 percent from surface recharge to the west, and 2 percent from regional flow. Artesian springs primarily received water from end members assumed to represent regional groundwater flow. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gasses (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oxygen), and tritium at selected sites and used to estimate groundwater age. Apparent ages, or model ages, for the Madison aquifer in the study area indicate that groundwater closest to surface recharge areas is youngest, with increasing age in a downgradient direction toward deeper parts of the aquifer. Arsenic concentrations in samples collected for this study ranged from 0.28 to 37.1 micrograms per liter (?g/L) with a median value of 6.4 ?g/L, and 32 percent of these exceeded 10 ?g/L. The highest arsenic concentrations in and near the study area are approximately coincident with the outcrop of the Minnelusa Formation and likely originated from arsenic in shale layers in this formation. Sample concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite were less than 2 milligrams per liter for 92 percent of samples collected, which is not a concern for drinking-water quality. Water samples were collected in the park and analyzed for five trace metals (chromium, copper, lithium, vanadium, and zinc), the concentrations of which did not correlate with arsenic. Dye tracing indicated hydraulic connection between three water bodies in Wind Cave.

  12. SURVEY OF FURBEARERS IN FALL RIVER COUNTY SOUTH DAKOTA WITH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Peterson; Jonathan A. Jenks; Eileen Dowd Stukel

    Suitable soil substrates in 2 survey areas of Fall River County, South Dakota containing both public (i.e., Buffalo Gap National Grassland) and private rangeland were searched for evidence of furbearers with emphasis on swift fox (Vulpes velox) between 1 September and 4 November 1999. Surveys of roads, dams, creeks, and cowpaths were conducted by walking selected land quarter sections (64.8

  13. BIRDS ON MODIFIED WETLANDS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles G. Scalet; Head Date

    Abstract E. NELL BRADY To examine,the,role,of bird,species,(other,than,Anatidae) in the prairie wetlands ecosystem, 7 wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas,in eastern,South,Dakota,were,utilized,to measure,differences between,bird,communities,in plots,with,dug,brood,complexes,and non-modified,plots.,Thirty-eight,species,of wetland,birds,were

  14. Results of a Randomized Cloud Seeding Experiment in South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Dennis; Alexander Koscielski

    1969-01-01

    A 3-year randomized crossover seeding experiment has been conducted in South Dakota to test effects of artificial nucleation upon supercooled convective clouds of spring and early summer. The associated rainfall observations have been analyzed by several statistical techniques. The principal conclusions are: 1) on days with isolated showers, rainfall has been heavier in the seeded target area than in the

  15. SOUTH DAKOTA STUDIES PROVIDE NEW INSIGHT INTO ROOTWORM MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1997, the South Dakota areawide management site was entered into the ARS-sponsored corn rootworm areawide management program, which was used to illustrate the management of corn rootworms over large geographic areas. This site had substantial Diabrotica populations and damage to corn produced ann...

  16. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

  17. The Death of Distance: Documenting the Effects of Distance Education in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Steve; Amiotte, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    South Dakota has arguably the most technologically advanced educational system in the United States. The state boasts a population of approximately 750,000 residents, distributed across an area measuring approximately 250 by 400 miles. South Dakota is experiencing a shortage of specialist teachers and university faculty, and the vast geographical…

  18. The Death of Distance: Documenting the Effects of Distance Education In South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve WHEELER; Shannon AMIOTTE

    South Dakota has arguably the most technologically advanced educational system in the United States. The state boasts a population of approximately 750,000 residents, distributed across an area measuring approximately 250 by 400 miles. South Dakota is experiencing a shortage of specialist teachers and university faculty, and the vast geographical distances prohibit the physical sharing of educational resources. To begin to

  19. Animal rabies--South Dakota, 1995.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    On July 28, 1995, the South Dakota Public Health Laboratory diagnosed rabies in an 8-week-old puppy; on July 23, the puppy had had onset of neurologic signs (e.g., head tilt, ataxia, and somnolence) that culminated in seizures, and the puppy was euthanized. A clinically normal littermate owned by a neighboring family was euthanized on July 31 and tested positive for rabies. This report summarizes the epidemiologic investigation and follow-up management by the South Dakota Department of Health (SDDH), with assistance from CDC, of persons and domestic animals potentially exposed to rabies. PMID:8596530

  20. HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth C. Schitoskey

    During the trapping season of 1977-78 and 1978-79, 51 bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic helminths. Diaphragm, tongue, and masseter muscle samples from 153 bobcats were examined for trichinosis. Nematodes located included Toxascaris leonina in 46 of 51 (90%), Toxocara mystax in 2 of 51 (4%). Physaloptera prae­ putialis in

  1. Provisional Checklist of Mammals of South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry R. Choate; J. Knox Jones

    Distribution al patterns of mammals in South Dakota are among th e most poorly known for an y region of similar size in temperate N orth America . The only state-wide treatment of th e group was the mimeograph ed compilation by Over and Churchill (1945), which consisted mostly of nontechnical anecdotes . Consequently , much of what is known

  2. South Dakota Social Studies Standards. Draft II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This framework for social studies curriculum design in South Dakota schools incorporates 10 themes: (1) culture; (2) time, continuity, and change; (3) people, places, and the environment; (4) individual development and identity; (5) individuals, groups, and institutions; (5) power, authority, and governance; (6) production, distribution, and…

  3. State of South Dakota's child: 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    For the third consecutive year in 2013, South Dakota had a slight increase in the number of resident births and also an increase in their racial diversity with 25 percent represented by minorities. In 2013 there was a slight decrease in very low birth weight with the percent of multiple births remaining stable. Following the previous year's spike in infant deaths, mortality for infants in South Dakota in 2013 returned to a rate (6.5 per 1,000 live births) similar to previous years but was higher than the current national infant mortality rate of 6.0. Within the state, mortality is twice as high for infants of minority races as it is for white infants. PMID:25638904

  4. Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JONATHAN A. JENKS; JARET D. SIEVERS; DANIEL E. RODDY; FREDERICK G. LINDZEY

    2007-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) have been well-documented in several western states and Canadian provinces. However, no information has been collected in western South Dakota, USA, where mixed-grass prairie habitats characterize rangelands. The objectives of our study were to determine survival and cause-specific mortality of adult (.18 months) and yearling (6-18 months) pronghorns and to determine monthly

  5. Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

  6. Geologic and hydrologic data from a test-drilling program in the High Plains area of South Dakota, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loskot, C.L.; Case, H.L.; Hern, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer system in south-central South Dakota comprises dune sands, the Ogallala Formation, the Arikaree Formation, and the White River Group. As part of the High Plains Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis, a total of 29 test holes were drilled from 1979 to 1980 to aid in defining the geometry of the aquifer system. The information obtained from these drilling progrms is presented. (USGS)

  7. Hydrodynamics of the Mission Canyon Formation in the Billings Nose area, North Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Mitsdarffer, Alan Ray

    1985-01-01

    HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE MISSION CANYON FORMATION IN THE BILLINGS NOSE AREA, NORTH DAKOTA A Thesis by ALAN RAY MITSDARFFER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree.... The basin encompasses approximately 250, 000 sq mi (647, 500 sq km) and occupies much of North Dakota, eastern Montana, southern Saskatchewan, and parts of South Dakota and Manitoba. The major structural features which bound the basin are the Sweetgrass...

  8. South Dakota Indian Recipients of Social Welfare, December 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Social Services, Pierre. Div. of Program Analysis.

    Because American Indians are the largest minority group in South Dakota and because they are known to be among the most poverty stricken in the Nation, South Dakota annually reports on the extent to which the group depends on welfare payments. The report, prepared by the Program Analysis Section of the State Department of Social Services, analyzes…

  9. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Manager, a Program Assistant, an Assistant Professor and a Research Associate. During FY 2012 the SDWRI assistants and four undergraduate research assistants. The annual base grant from the United StatesSouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 South Dakota Water Research

  10. A Critical Look At South Dakota Cable TV Franchising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rick P.

    An examination of the present status and future potential of cable television (CATV) in South Dakota is conducted. Chapter 1 offers a brief introduction to cable in the State and Chapter 2 discusses the value of CATV to South Dakota. The next Chapter presents a State plan for communications and the fourth deals with the subject of franchising. The…

  11. Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota

    E-print Network

    213 Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota SARAH J. BANDAS1 and KENNETH F. HIGGINS, morphometric measurements were recorded for 755 turtles representing six species in South Dakota. Turtles were captured in a wide variety of wetland habitats across the entire state. With few exceptions, morphometric

  12. Encyclopedia of Research on Distance Education in South Dakota. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael, Comp.; Crawford, Margaret, Comp.

    The action research reports compiled in this revised Encyclopedia focus on distance education in South Dakota. Contents include: "Designing Instruction for Distance Education: Guide to Best Practice" (Michael Simonson); "Effectiveness of Strategies Used by South Dakota Distance Education Teachers" (Jan Brockel); "Consortium: Key To Successful…

  13. Systematic Spacing of Townsites along Eastern South Dakota's Rail Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Catherine M.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates townsite distribution in South Dakota's land settlement pattern. Reviews past theories explaining eastern South Dakota's systematic spacing of towns along rail lines. Indicates a correlation between railroad functions and town development, advancing the theory that nineteenth-century railroad technology, involving traffic control and…

  14. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  15. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  16. SURVEYS AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF HARMONIA AXYRIDIS AND OTHER COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA) IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmonia axyridis, a coccinellid native to Asia, was discovered in South Dakota in 1996, but its distribution and habitat use in the state had remained undetermined. We sampled coccinellids from various habitats, including agricultural and natural areas, in eastern and central South Dakota in 2000 a...

  17. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  18. American Indian Population in South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Hess

    This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

  19. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  20. Water resources of Yankton County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugliosi, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The major surface-water sources in Yankton County, South Dakota are Lewis and Clark Lake, Marindahl and Beaver Lakes, and the Missouri and James Rivers. The James River has an average flow of 375 cu ft/sec and the Missouri River at Yankton has an average flow of 26,410 cu ft/sec. Major aquifers are the Dakota, the Niobrara, and the Lower James-Missouri glacial outwash. Depth to the Dakota aquifer, which underlies the entire county, ranges from about 300 to more than 500 ft below land surface. Wells completed in this artesian aquifer below altitudes of 1 ,260 ft will flow from 3 to 60 gallons/min at the land surface when properly constructed. Recharge is by subsurface inflow from the west. The water is a calcium sulfate type and is suitable in most cases for domestic, livestock, and irrigation uses. The Niobrara aquifer, which underlies the northeast and southwest parts of the county, may be under artesian or water-table conditions. Well yields vary but usually are suitable only for domestic use. Recharge to the northeast part of the aquifer is from precipitation infiltrating the overlying glacial deposits. The southwest part receives recharge as subsurface inflow from the west and from precipitation. The water is a magnesium sulfate type. The Lower James-Missouri aquifer underlies almost 50% of the county. Water in the aquifer is present under both artesian and water-table conditions. Wells can be expected to yield at least 1,000 gallons/min. Recharge is from subsurface inflow from the north and west, the Missouri River to the south, and from precipitation. The water is predominantly calcium sodium sulfate type, and specific conductance and hardness average 1,910 micromhs and 870 milligrams/L, respectively. (USGS)

  1. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  2. University of South Dakota Mathematics/Science Symposium: First Eisenhower Focused Initiative K-12 Mathematics and Science Symposium Conference Proceedings (Vermillion, South Dakota, January 13-14, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Paul B., Ed.

    This document contains papers presented at a mathematics and science symposium. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for the interchange of the state-of-the-art mathematics and science education activities taking place within a South Dakota National Science Foundation State Systemic Initiative project within Southeast Area

  3. Creating Opportunities for a Lifetime South Dakota State University, South Dakota Counties and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating. South

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    without regard for ancestry, age, race, citizenship, color, creed, religion, gender, disability, national. Follow the South Dakota Cat Health Regulations and learn about the current vaccinations needed. Get

  4. Tuberculosis outbreak on Standing Rock Sioux Reservation--North Dakota and South Dakota, 1987-1990.

    PubMed

    1991-03-29

    From 1987 through 1988, a cluster of cases of tuberculosis (TB) occurred among persons residing on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation; recognition of this cluster prompted an epidemiologic investigation by the Indian Health Service (IHS), Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Health and Community Health Programs, South Dakota State Department of Health, North Dakota State Department of Health, and CDC. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation and follow-up public health interventions. PMID:1900567

  5. Development of historic and synthesized unregulated streamflow for the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota, 1983-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Niehus, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit may have some affect on the hydrology of the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The Garrison Diversion Unit Monthly Operations Model was developed to analyze a wide range of streamflow conditions that could occur in the James River Basin. The purpose of this study was to compute monthly streamflows that are required as input to the model. Historic stream flow data were complied and record extension methods were used, when necessary, to compute monthly streamflow for 1983-91 for 15 gaging stations on the James River in North Dakota and South Dakota. The record extension methods used include Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1, Ordinary Least Squares, and drainage-area ratio. In addition to the historic streamflow, synthesized unregulated streamflow was computed for the 15 gaging stations on the James River for 1983-91 by eliminating the effects of Jamestown Reservoir, Pipestem Reservoir, Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, consumptive surface-water withdrawals, and wastewater withdrawals. Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1, Ordinary Least Squares regression, water-balance procedures, and drainage-area ratio method were used to compute the unregulated streamflows.

  6. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major land forms of southwestern North Dakota are: (1) high buttes that stand above (2) a gravel-capped planation surface and (3) a gently-rolling upland; below the upland surface are (4) remnants of a broad valley stage of erosion into which (5) modern valleys have been cut. The broad valley profiles of many streams continue east across the Missouri River trench and are part of a former drainage system that flowed into Hudson Bay. Crossing the divides are (6) large trenches, formed when the former northeast-flowing streams were dammed by the glacier and diverted to the southeast. The largest diversion valley is occupied by the Missouri River; another diversion system, now largely abandoned, extends from the Killdeer Mountains southwest to the mouth of Porcupine Creek in Sioux County. By analogy with South Dakota, most of the large diversion valleys are thought to have been cut in Illinoian time. Numerous diversion valleys of Illinoian to late Wisconsin age cut across the divides. Other Pleistocene land forms include ground and moraines, kames, and terraces. Land forms of Recent age include dunes, alluvial terraces, floodplains, and several types of landslide blocks. One type of landslide, called rockslide slump, has not previously been described. Drainage is well adjusted to the structure, most of the streams flowing down the axes of small synclines. The bedrock formations have been gently folded into small domes and synclines that interrupt a gentle northward regional dip into the Williston Basin. Three episodes of deformation affected southwestern North Dakota in Tertiary time: (1) intra-Paleocene, involving warping and minor faulting; (2) post-Eocene, involving uplift and tilting; (2) Oligocene, involving uplift and gentle folding. Mineral resources include ceramic clay, sand and gravel and lignite coal. The Knife River area is the largest lignite-producing district in the United States.

  7. Numerical Groundwater-Flow Model of the Minnelusa and Madison Hydrogeologic Units in the Rapid City Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater-flow model, was used to simulate flow in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units with five layers. Layer 1 represented the fractured sandstone layers in the upper 250 ft of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, and layer 2 represented the lower part of the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit. Layer 3 represented the upper 150 ft of the Madison hydrogeologic unit, and layer 4 represented the less permeable lower part. Layer 5 represented an approximation of the underlying Deadwood aquifer to simulate upward flow to the Madison hydrogeologic unit. The finite-difference grid, oriented 23 degrees counterclockwise, included 221 rows and 169 columns with a square cell size of 492.1 ft in the detailed study area that surrounded Rapid City. The northern and southern boundaries for layers 1-4 were represented as no-flow boundaries, and the boundary on the east was represented with head-dependent flow cells. Streamflow recharge was represented with specified-flow cells, and areal recharge to layers 1-4 was represented with a specified-flux boundary. Calibration of the model was accomplished by two simulations: (1) steady-state simulation of average conditions for water years 1988-97 and (2) transient simulations of water years 1988-97 divided into twenty 6-month stress periods. Flow-system components represented in the model include recharge, discharge, and hydraulic properties. The steady-state streamflow recharge rate was 42.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and transient streamflow recharge rates ranged from 14.1 to 102.2 ft3/s. The steady-state areal recharge rate was 20.9 ft3/s, and transient areal recharge rates ranged from 1.1 to 98.4 ft3/s. The upward flow rate from the Deadwood aquifer to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was 6.3 ft3/s. Discharge included springflow, water use, flow to overlying units, and regional outflow. The estimated steady-state springflow of 32.8 ft3/s from seven springs was similar to the simulated springflow of 31.6 ft3/s, which included 20.5 ft3

  8. Flow-system analysis of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota--conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual model of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Rapid City area synthesizes the physical geography, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow components of these important aquifers. The Madison hydrogeologic unit includes the karstic Madison aquifer, which is defined as the upper, more permeable 100 to 200 ft of the Madison Limestone, and the Madison confining unit, which consists of the lower, less permeable part of the Madison Limestone and the Englewood Formation. Overlying the Madison hydrogeologic unit is the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit, which includes the Minnelusa aquifer in the upper, more permeable 200 to 300 ft and the Minnelusa confining unit in the lower, less permeable part. The Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units outcrop in the study area on the eastern flank of the Black Hills where recharge occurs from streamflow losses and areal recharge. The conceptual model describes streamflow recharge, areal recharge, ground-water flow, storage in aquifers and confining units, unsaturated areas, leakage between aquifers, discharge from artesian springs, and regional outflow. Effective transmissivities estimated for the Madison aquifer range from 500 to 20,000 ft2/d and for the Minnelusa aquifer from 500 to 10,000 ft2/d. Localized anisotropic transmissivity in the Madison aquifer has tensor ratios as high as 45:1. Vertical hydraulic conductivities for the Minnelusa confining unit determined from aquifer tests range from 1.3x10-3 to 3.0x10-1 ft/d. The confined storage coefficient of the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units was estimated as 3x10-4 ft/d. Specific yield was estimated as 0.09 for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers and 0.03 for the Madison and Minnelusa confining units. Potentiometric surfaces for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers have a general easterly gradient of about 70 ft/mi with local variations. Temporal change in hydraulic head in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers ranged from about 5 to 95 ft in water years 1988-97. The unconfined areas were estimated at about 53 and 36 mi2 for the Madison and Minnelusa hydrogeologic units, respectively, in contrast to an aquifer analysis area of 629 mi2. Dye-tracer tests, stable isotopes, and hydrogeologic features were analyzed conjunctively to estimate generalized ground-water flowpaths in the Madison aquifer and their influences on the Minnelusa aquifer. The western Rapid City area between Boxelder Creek and Spring Creek was characterized as having undergone extensive tectonic activity, greater brecciation in the Minnelusa Formation, large transmissivities, generally upward hydraulic gradients from the Madison aquifer to the Minnelusa aquifer, many karst springs, and converging flowpaths. Water-budget analysis included: (1) a dry-period budget for declining water levels; October 1, 1987, to March 31, 1993; (2) a wet-period budget for rising water levels, April 1, 1993, to September 30, 1997; and (3) a full 10-year period budget for water years 1988-97. By simultaneously balancing these water budgets, initial estimates of recharge, discharge, change in storage, and hydraulic properties were refined. Inflow rates for the 10-year budget included streamflow recharge of about 45 ft3/s or 61 percent of the total budget and areal recharge of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Streamflow recharge to the Madison hydrogeologic unit was about 86 percent of the total streamflow recharge. Outflow for the 10-year budget included springflow of 31 ft3/s or 42 percent of the total budget, water use of about 10 ft3/s or 14 percent, and regional outflow of 22 ft3/s or 30 percent. Ground-water storage increased 9 ft3/s during the 10-year period, and net ground-water movement from the Madison to Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit was about 8 ft3/s.

  9. Exploring Interactions between Walleye and Smallmouth Bass in South Dakota Waters

    E-print Network

    Walleye and Smallmouth Bass in South Dakota Waters Melissa R. Wuellner December 12, 2009 Walleye Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu

  10. Dakota :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the Dakota software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of Dakota-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quanti cation, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of Dakota's iterative analysis capabilities.

  11. Estimated water use in South Dakota, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Rick D.; Winterton, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Water use in South Dakota during 1985 is estimated to have been 674 million gal/day. This is a slight decrease from the 1980 estimate of 690 million gal/day. Of the total use, 63% was from surface-water sources and 37% was from groundwater sources. About 75% of the total water use was for agriculture, 16% was for domestic and commercial use, 8% was for industrial and mining use, and 1% was for thermoelectric and geothermal uses. Of the total used, 361 million gal/day were consumed and 313 million gal/day were returned to the surface- and groundwater system. Water use by agriculture, the largest user, was mostly for irrigation. Total use was 516,000 acre-ft (460 million gal/day) for irrigation of 397,000 acres. Non-irrigation use, mainly for livestock, was 47.1 million gal/day. About 12% of the total use was by public-water suppliers. Seventy-five percent of the deliveries by public-water suppliers were for domestic use by 78% of the population. In addition to offstream use, instream use was substantial because of hydroelectric-power generation by the four dams on the Missouri River. During 1985, 60,500 million gal/day were used to generate 6,095 gigawatt-hr of electricity. (USGS)

  12. Selected hydrologic data, through water year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell L.; Moran, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-level and water-quality data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1998, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term coop-erative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). This report is the third in a series of project data reports produced for the study. Daily water-level data are presented for 71 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells include a network of observation wells that are maintained in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tables of daily water levels. Annual measurements of water levels collected during water years 1995-98 from a net-work of 18 additional, miscellaneous wells are presented. These wells are part of a statewide network of wells completed in bedrock aquifers that was operated from 1959 through 1989 in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Site descriptions and hydrographs for the entire period of record for each site also are presented. Water-quality data are presented for 9 surface-water sites, 19 ground-water sites, and 30 sites that have been classified as areas of surface- and ground-water interaction in the Black Hills area. The surface- and ground-water interaction sites are further divided into three categories that include 11 loss zone sites, 8 headwater spring sites, and 11 downgradient spring sites.

  13. Phenologic Assessment of Western South Dakota Rangelands Matthew B. Rigge

    E-print Network

    Phenologic Assessment of Western South Dakota Rangelands By Matthew B. Rigge A thesis submitted and the value of hard work, their guidance, and support. #12;iv ABSTRACT Phenologic Assessment of Western South composition are also critical components in sustaining rangeland systems. The phenology of production

  14. American Indians in South Dakota: A Profile. Update Series C229, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Linda L.; Bennett, Mary A.

    Life is changing for the American Indians of South Dakota and the United States. Nationally, the population is young, growing, and becoming more urban. The South Dakota population exhibits these same traits, except that it remains predominantly rural. In South Dakota, American Indians combat poverty, unemployment, underemployment, and inadequate…

  15. HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA

    E-print Network

    HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA BY CORY E Abstract HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA Cory E. Mosby 2011 The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is native to much of the United States, including South Dakota where

  16. Smallmouth Bass Seasonal Dynamics in Northeastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes Thomas D. Bacula

    E-print Network

    Smallmouth Bass Seasonal Dynamics in Northeastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes BY Thomas D. Bacula and Fisheries Science (Fisheries Option) South Dakota State University 2009 #12;11 Smallmouth Bass Seasonal, South Dakota Bass Anglers Sportsman Society provided assistance with field collection. There are too

  17. MODELING WETLAND USE BY SPRING-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    MODELING WETLAND USE BY SPRING-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA WETLAND USE BY SPRING-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA This dissertation-MIGRATING LESSER SCAUP (AYTHYA AFFINIS) IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA Sharon N. Kahara 2007 The continental population

  18. Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca

    E-print Network

    Temperature-Dependent Growth Models for South Dakota Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens, Fingerling for juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in eastern South Dakota. Age-0 yellow perch were held. Yellow perch production, temperature, growth, South Dakota, Perca flavescens INTRODUCTION The yellow

  19. Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

  20. South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System. A Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Donald G.; Gildseth, Wayne M.

    The South Dakota Core Curriculum Project involving the career ladder approach to health manpower training, which began in 1970, had seven objectives including the following: (1) To organize a Health Manpower Council for the entire State; (2) to define the areas of basic commonality among the various training programs; and (3) to develop a core…

  1. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Campbell

    2006-01-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen

  2. Virtual Journey into the Cretaceous Seas of South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Everhart Mike

    This site offers a virtual tour of the South Dakota Museum of Geology emphasizing the Cretaceous marine reptile collection. Numerous, high resolution photographs of mosasaurs, elasmosasaurs (plesiosaurs) and other marine fauna are presented with information and references relevant to each specimen. The tour features a 29 foot long mosasaur skeleton, a 4 foot long mosasaur skull, 10 cm long teeth, fossil mosasaur stomach contents as well as other marine fauna recovered from South Dakota. The fauna presented in this collection are good examples of the marine life that flourished in Cretaceous oceans.

  3. South Dakota State University / College of Agriculture & Biological Sciences / USDA Dairy Science

    E-print Network

    of South Dakota dairy producers were roughly $4­$5 and $6­$7 per 100 Lbs. of milk (Garcia 2010, personal. 2011 Dairy Science 3 pages Past reports make reference to advantages offered by states or regions when Dakota and neighboring states for dairy production. South Dakota currently ranks 14th nationally in per

  4. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  5. South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This directory lists contact information for educational programs, human services, and other resources for children, youth, and families in South Dakota. Sections cover adult basic education programs, alcohol and drug treatment facilities, career learning centers, clothing, community health nurses, community mental health centers, consumer credit…

  6. South Dakota School Health Profiles. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the status of elementary health and health education in public schools throughout South Dakota during the 2005-2006 school year. The study was designed to provide current data collected from both elementary and secondary school principals and teachers regarding health and physical education curricula,…

  7. River Size and Fish Assemblages in Southwestern South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Hoagstrom; Steven S. Wall; Jeremy P. Duehr; Berry Jr. Charles R

    2006-01-01

    We studied relations between river size, fish species diversity, and fish species composition along four major rivers in the Great Plains of southwestern South Dakota to assess patterns of species diversity and composition. We expected diversity to increase with river size and fish composition to change via species addition downstream. Previous surveys of 52 sampling stations provided fish assemblage data,

  8. Changes in Walleye Food Habits Throughout Lake Oahe, South Dakota,

    E-print Network

    stomach samples during the annual fish population survey conducted by the South Dakota Department of Game) and the stomach excised and pre- served in formalin. Stomach contents were flushed into a petri dish, and prey for each stomach. Samples were dried at 60°C for 24 hr in a drying oven. - Zooplanktonlengths weremeasured

  9. Population Change in South Dakota Small Towns and Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Donald R.; Dimit, Robert M.

    In this publication, the authors review the historical development of South Dakota communities in the perspective of community change as it occurred in the United States resulting from several important societal factors during the period from 1940-1960. The authors emphasize that, while societal influences continue to operate, forcing adjustment…

  10. Dispersal of Yearling Pronghorns in Western South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JONATHAN A. JENKS

    2007-01-01

    We captured and radiocollared 57 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns in western South Dakota, USA, during May 2002-2003 and radiotracked them through 15 months of age, by which time all surviving individuals had established a permanent home range. We classified 56% (n ¼ 19) of fawns as dispersers and 44% (n ¼ 15) as residents. Eighty-four percent (n ¼ 16) of

  11. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction Research Program productive soils derived from glacial till, which are common in the northern Great Plains and northern Corn has spurred study of two lake habitats to document the natural populations of macroinvertebrates

  12. Research Article Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Research Article Survival of Pronghorns in Western South Dakota CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES,1 Department of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA ABSTRACT Survival and cause-specific mortality of pronghorns (Antilocapra months) and yearling (6­18 months) pronghorns and to determine monthly and summer (Jun­Aug) survival

  13. Research Article Dispersal of Yearling Pronghorns in Western South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Research Article Dispersal of Yearling Pronghorns in Western South Dakota CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES,1, SD 57007, USA ABSTRACT We captured and radiocollared 57 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns ranges varied from 6.2­267.0 km. Winter home-range sizes for all individual pronghorns varied from 39

  14. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  15. ACT Profile Report: State. Graduating Class 2012. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report provides information about the performance of South Dakota's 2012 graduating seniors who took the ACT as sophomores, juniors, or seniors; and self-reported at the time of testing that they were scheduled to graduate in 2012 and tested under standard time conditions. This report focuses on: (1) Performance: student test performance in…

  16. WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA --On 25 November 2002, the South Dakota Department of

    E-print Network

    177 NOTES WHITE-TAILED DEER INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS HYICUS IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- On 25 November plate was positive (Table 1). Based on these results, Staphylococcus hyicus was identified with white-tailed deer. Staphylococcus hyicus causes exudative epidermitis, or greasy pig disease, in young

  17. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  18. Water-Quality Effects and Characterization of Indicators of Onsite Wastewater Disposal Systems in the East-Central Black Hills Area, South Dakota, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian. Mean downgradient dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations in ground water for the alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian settings were 0.734, 7.90, 8.62, and 2.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved chloride concentrations in ground water for these settings were 324, 89.6, 498, and 33.2 mg/L, respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved boron concentrations in ground water for these settings were 736, 53, 64, and 43 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively. Mean dissolved surface-water concentrations for NO2+NO3, chloride, and boron for downstream sites were 0.222 mg/L, 32.1 mg/L, and 28 ug/L, respectively. Mean values of delta-15N and delta-18O (isotope ratios of 14N to 15N and 18O to 16O relative to standard ratios) for nitrate in ground-water samples were 10.4 and -2.0 per mil (0/100), respectively, indicating a relatively small contribution from synthetic fertilizer and probably a substantial contribution from OWDS. The surface-water sample with the highest dissolved NO2+NO3 concentration of 1.6 mg/L had a delta-15N value of 12.36 0/100, which indicates warm-blooded animals (including humans) as the nitrate source. Fecal coliforms were detected in downgradient ground water most frequently in the Spearfish (19 percent) and Minnekahta (9.7 percent) settings. E. coli was detected most frequently in the Minnekahta (29 percent) and Spearfish (13 percent) settings. Enterococci were detected more frequently than other microbiological indicators in all four settings. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were detected in 73 percent and 95 percent of all surface-water samples, respectively. Enterococci, coliphages (somatic), and C. perfringens were detected in 50, 70, and 50 percent of surface-water samples, respectively. Of the 62 OWC analytes, 12 were detected only in environmental samples, 10 were detected in at least one environmental and one blank sample (not necessarily companion pairs), 2 were detected only in blank samples, and 38 were not detected in any blank, environmental, or replicate sample from either ground or surface water. Eleven different organic compounds were detected in ground-water samples at eight different sites. The most frequently occurring compound was DEET, which was found in 32 percent of the environmental samples, followed by tetrachloroethene, which was detected in 20 percent of the samples. For surface-water samples, 16 organic compounds were detected in 9 of the 10 total samples. The compound with the highest occurrence in surface-water samples was camphor, which was detected in 50 percent of samples. The alluvial setting was characterized by relatively low dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations, detection of ammonia nitrogen, and relatively high concentr

  19. Soil moisture variation patterns observed in Hand County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.; Owe, M.; Schmugge, T. J. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture data were taken during 1976 (April, June, October), 1977 (April, May, June), and 1978 (May, June, July) Hand County, South Dakota as part of the ground truth used in NASA's aircraft experiments to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The spatial variability observed on the ground during each of the sampling events was studied. The data reported are the mean gravimetric soil moisture contained in three surface horizon depths: 0 to 2.5, 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm. The overall moisture levels ranged from extremely dry conditions in June 1976 to very wet in May 1978, with a relatively even distribution of values within that range. It is indicated that well drained sites have to be partitioned from imperfectly drained areas when attempting to characterize the general moisture profile throughout an area of varying soil and cover type conditions. It is also found that the variability in moisture content is greatest in the 0 to 2.5 cm measurements and decreases as the measurements are integrated over a greater depth. It is also determined that the sampling intensity of 10 measurements per km is adequate to estimate the mean moisture with an uncertainty of + or - 3 percent under average moisture conditions in areas of moderate to good drainage.

  20. 2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second exceeded the previous peak of record set in 1997 by 1,500 cubic feet per second. For the cities of Fargo, and Moorhead, Minn., and the surrounding area, the stage of the Red River remained above flood stage for nearly 2 months. In addition to high stage and flow on the main-stem Missouri and Red Rivers, peak of record stage and discharge were recorded at many U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the Missouri River and Red River Basins. Several reservoirs and lakes in the region also experienced record stage elevations from the high flows during the 2009 spring snowmelt floods.

  1. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs contains thousands of fossilized mammoths, and was discovered by chance in 1974 while excavating for a housing development in South Dakota. Their website offers visitors a 360-degree virtual tour of the unique museum that was built over the site of the now dry sinkhole, along with views of excavations that are still in progress. The "Paleontology" tab informs visitors not only about the woolly and Columbian mammoths that drowned in the sinkhole, but other animals as well. The "Mammoth Site Vertebrate List" link shows a slew of other animals, such as camels, shrub oxen, and the giant short-faced bear that lived throughout the Great Plains of South Dakota. A PDF of the 85 species of flora and fauna recovered at The Mammoth Site, as of January 2008, is also available in the same link. Visitors should also check out the "Research" tab to learn about current and ongoing research at the site.

  2. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

  3. Hydrogeology of the vicinity of Homestake mine, South Dakota, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry C. Murdoch; Leonid N. Germanovich; Herb Wang; T. C. Onstott; Derek Elsworth; Larry Stetler; David Boutt

    2011-01-01

    The former Homestake mine in South Dakota (USA) cuts fractured metamorphic rock over a region several km2 in plan, and plunges to the SE to a depth of 2.4 km. Numerical simulations of the development and dewatering of the mine workings are based on idealizing the mine-workings system as two overlapping continua, one representing the open drifts and the other

  4. Biotelemetry of White Crappies in a South Dakota Glacial Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis; Jeffrey J. Jackson

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic telemetry was used to determine monthly and diel movements of white crappies Pomoxis annularis in a South Dakota glacial lake, Sonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 37 adult white crappies (265–327 mm, total length; 315–530 g) at intervals from 10 April through 22 September 1992. From 15 April to 15 October, 1,712 locations were recorded for 34 of these

  5. GEOLOGY, TAPHONOMY, AND PALEOECOLOGY OF A UNIQUE UPPER CRETACEOUS BONEBED NEAR THE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    DePalma, Robert Anthony

    2010-04-27

    This research examines a Konzentrat-Lagerstätte, the Bone Butte site, in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota. Field data from a diverse multispecific bonebed in Harding County, South Dakota, including ...

  6. South Dakota Country School Bibliography: An Annotated List of References Relating to Country Schools in the Collections of I. D. Weeks Library, the University of South Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegrist, Edith B., Comp.

    Materials from the I.D. Weeks Library of the University of South Dakota, relating to country schools and the history of rural education in South Dakota and written between 1874 and 1976, are listed in this annotated bibliography. Publications of the South Dakota Department of Public Instruction include: school laws, some dating back to 1877;…

  7. South Dakota Space Grant Consortium: Balancing Indigenous Earth System and Space Science with Western\\/Contemporary Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bolman; J. Nall

    2005-01-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth system and space science education, outreach and services to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five Tribal Colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable

  8. This article was downloaded by: [South Dakota State University] On: 02 May 2014, At: 14:18

    E-print Network

    ://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjfe20 Size and Age at Maturity of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in Southeastern South Dakota) Size and Age at Maturity of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in Southeastern South Dakota Impoundments of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in Southeastern South Dakota Impoundments Nick R. Petersona, Justin A. Van

  9. South Dakota Arts Council: Long Range Plan. Fiscal Years 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Arts Council, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South Dakota Arts Council submitted this FY 2006 annual report to the Governor and Legislature. It presents the 530 grants that were awarded with funds from the State of South Dakota and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency. Fiscal Year 2006 grant funds of $977,000 generated $12 million in local cash matching funds. These…

  10. South Dakota State University's Library: A History. Hilton M. Briggs Library Occasional Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip

    Tracing the history of South Dakota State University's Hilton M. Briggs Library over the past 102 years, this occasional paper describes the development of what is now the largest library (over 1.1 million total pieces) in the South Dakota Library Network from its inception as part of a small land grant college. Administrative eras are reviewed,…

  11. INFLUENCE OF HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ON WETLAND BIRD ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS AT ORDWAY PRAIRIE, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    INFLUENCE OF HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ON WETLAND BIRD ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS AT ORDWAY OF HABITAT ON WETLAND BIRD ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS AT ORDWAY PRAIRIE, SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis CHARACTERISTICS ON WETLAND BIRD ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS AT ORDWAY PRAIRIE, SOUTH DAKOTA Mary C. Miller 2003

  12. Influence of Gizzard Shad on Fish Community Ecology in Northeastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes

    E-print Network

    Moos, Kyle Potter, and Bob Hanten from the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks for providing additional gizzard shad data. Thanks to Dr. Dan Isermann to day basis regarding everything from fish recruitment to handling students, to dog training

  13. BURROWING OWL DISTRIBUTION AND NEST SITE SELECTION IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    for providing prairie dog colony locations. I also commend GFP on the wonderful system of state parks in South to thank the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks for funding this project through State Dakota. Many of these parks served as my base camps during the field seasons, and I was always greeted

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOUNTAIN LION MORTALITIES IN THE BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOROTHY M. FECSKE; JONATHAN A. JENKS; FREDRICK G. LINDZEY

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are a state threatened species in South Dakota, and few sightings were documented from the early 1900's until recently. In 1985, the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGF&P) began compiling and verifying sightings of mountain lions in the Black Hills. Since then, sightings have increased but little is known of population characteristics for

  15. Earth Science Research in the National Underground Science Laboratory at the Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Wang; E. J. Cording; C. Fairhurst; K. T. Lesko; M. Nabighian; L. T. Silver; J. M. Tiedje; P. J. Wierenga; P. A. Witherspoon

    2001-01-01

    A summary of the Earth Science Workshop, Lead, South Dakota, October 4-7 2001, on the planned development of earth science research at the proposed National Underground Science Laboratory (NUSL) will be presented. The Homestake Mine in South Dakota will cease gold production in 2002. The Mine has been recommended for conversion into a NUSL by a national underground science committee

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING A DECLINING PRONGHORN POPULATION IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    FACTORS INFLUENCING A DECLINING PRONGHORN POPULATION IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA Wildlife Science South Dakota State University 2004 #12;FACTORS INFLUENCING A DECLINING PRONGHORN aspects of this study. I thank all of those who volunteered their time during pronghorn capture. A special

  17. South Dakota Communication/Language Arts Standards. Technical Guide for Implementing Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    Serving as a basis for an educational dialogue that needs to take place in every school district in South Dakota, this technical guide to the South Dakota Communication/Language Arts Standards includes the Goals, Indicators, Benchmarks, and Grade Level Standards for reading, writing, listening and viewing, and speaking. It is organized in grade…

  18. School Library Media Programs: A Resource & Planning Guide for South Dakota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This resource guide is designed to assist local schools in South Dakota to evaluate and improve their library media programs. The information provided is non-regulatory in nature (with the exception of information from the "Administrative Rules of South Dakota"), and represents a foundation for building a quality library media program. The guide…

  19. FORAGE FISH POPULATIONS AND GROWTH OF MUSKELLUNGE IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR

    E-print Network

    (Lepomis macrochirus) in Big Stone Power Plant cooling reservoir, South Dakota, and other power plant) of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus), Big Stone Power Plant cooling reservoir, South Dakota, 1979. · · · · · · · · · . · · · · · 18 8. Back-calculated growth increments (mm) of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus), Big Stone Power

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELK SIGHTABILITY MODEL FOR THE BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    in flying and aerial telemetry I would like to thank the pilots of Civil Air Patrol; Gary Hewitt, Leo Becht. This project was funded by South Dakota Game Fish and Parks, the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries sciences) are important in the Black Hills of South Dakota because they are a prized game species, but also have negative

  1. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... We allow hunting of white-tailed and mule deer on designated areas of the refuge in accordance... 1. We require a State permit for muzzleloader deer hunting. 2. All archery deer hunters must possess and carry a refuge...

  2. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... We allow hunting of white-tailed and mule deer on designated areas of the refuge in accordance... 1. We require a State permit for muzzleloader deer hunting. 2. All archery deer hunters must possess and carry a refuge...

  3. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... We allow hunting of white-tailed and mule deer on designated areas of the refuge in accordance... 1. We require a State permit for muzzleloader deer hunting. 2. All archery deer hunters must possess and carry a refuge...

  4. Thunderstorm Charge Structures in South Dakota, Colorado, and New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilles, J.; Thomas, R. J.; Rison, W.; Warner, T. A.; Helsdon, J.; Krehbiel, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    With little exception, New Mexico thunderstorms contain a main negative charge region and a lower (weaker) positive region, whereby the dominate polarity of cloud-to-ground lightning is negative. This Normal Polarity (NP) charge structure is observable via the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), which has been operated by Langmuir Laboratory since the late 1990s. In contrast, an LMA deployed for the 2012 Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project revealed that thunderstorm charge structures were predominantly anomalous—i.e. not NP—in north-central Colorado. These anomalous charge structures are characterized by positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning, and lower-than-normal CG rates. The difference in charge structure between the two geographic locations could possibly be correlated with the scale of forcing: New Mexico storms are predominantly formed by mesoscale (small-scale) forcing, whereas Colorado can have larger synoptically-forced thunderstorms. To gain further insight into the relationship between the scale of forcing and the resulting charge structures, LMA data from the 2014 Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) will be used to determine electrical characteristics of thunderstorms in western South Dakota. The charge structures of similar storm morphologies from each geographic location—central New Mexico, north-central Colorado, and western South Dakota—will be compared.

  5. South Dakota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Sowers, R.A.

    1996-10-04

    Reports findings of a survey of all primary wood-using mills in South Dakota in 1993 and compares those findings with earlier surveys. Reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county. Also reports the quantity, type, and disposition of wood and bark residues generated by South Dakota`s primary wood-using industry.

  6. South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota solar-energy-system performanceevaluation, June 1980-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    The South Dakota School of Mines site is the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Visitor's Center in Keystone, South Dakota. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 45% of the heating load and 53% of the observation room cooling load. The system is equipped with 2000 square feet of flat-plate collector panels double-glazed with a black chrome absorber surface; 3000 gallons of water in an insulated tank for sensible heat storage; a two-stage fuel oil furnace for auxiliary heating; and direct expansion electric air conditioning units for auxiliary cooling. The actual heating and cooling provided are 42% and 12% respectively. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fueld savings, electrical energy expense, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are among the performance data listed. A control problem is reported that kept the collector pump running 24 hours a day for 18 days. Performance data are given for each subsystem as well as for the overall system. Typical system operation and the system operating sequence for a day are given. The system's use of solar energy and the percentage of losses are given. Also included are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, long-term weather data, chemical analysis of the antifreeze solutions, sensor technology, and typical weather and performance data for a month. (LEW)

  7. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HERD-LEVEL BLUETONGUE VIRUS EXPOSURE OF CATTLE IN NEBRASKA, NORTH DAKOTA, AND SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, the major vector (carrier) of bluetongue viruses, was determined across the multi-state region of Nebraska, South, and North Dakota. This study was part of a larger study of bluetongue disease in cattle. Bluetongue disease is important b...

  8. Streamflow losses in the Black Hills of western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Losses occur in numerous streams that cross outcrops of various sedimentary rocks that are exposed around the periphery of the Black Hills of South Dakota. These streamflow losses are recognized as an important source of local recharge to regional bedrock aquifers. Most streams lose all of their flow up to some threshold rate. Streamflow is maintained through a loss zone when the threshold is exceeded. Streamflow records for 86 measurement sites are used to determine bedrock loss thresholds for 24 area streams, which have individual loss thresholds that range from negligible (no loss) to as much as 50 cubic feet per second. In addition, insights are provided regarding springflow that occurs in the immediate vicinity of selected loss zones. Most losses occur to outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation. Losses to the Deadwood Formation probably are minimal. Losses to the Minnekahta Limestone generally are small; however, they are difficult to quantify because of potential losses to extensive alluvial deposits that commonly are located near Minnekahta outcrops. Loss thresholds for each stream are shown to be relatively constant, without measurable effects from streamflow rates or duration of flow through the loss zones. Calculated losses for measurements made during high-flow conditions generally have larger variability than calculated losses for low-flow conditions; however, consistent relations between losses and streamflow have not been identified. Some of this variability results from the inability to account for tributary inflows and changes in storage. Calculated losses are shown to decrease, in some cases, during periods of extended flow through loss zones. Decreased 'net' losses, however, generally can be attributed to springflow (ground-water discharge) within a loss zone, which may occur during prolonged periods of wet climatic conditions. Losses to unsaturated alluvial deposits located adjacent to the stream channels are found to have significant effects on determination of bedrock losses. Large losses occur in filling initial storage in unsaturated alluvial deposits downstream from loss zones, when bedrock loss thresholds are first exceeded. Losses to alluvial deposits in the range of tens of cubic feet per second and alluvial storage capacities in the range of hundreds of acre-feet are documented. Significant changes in loss thresholds for Grace Coolidge Creek, Spring Creek, and Whitewood Creek are documented. Introduction of large quantities of fine-grained sediments into these stream channels may have affected loss thresholds for various periods of time.

  9. Emerging infections and old friends: remaining prepared in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Tinguely, Jennifer; Lindemann, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports of serious infection outbreaks internationally remind us of the importance of accurate information and continual vigilance. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has captured headlines as the most severe outbreak in the history of this disease. West Nile disease, measles, pertussis and tuberculosis infect South Dakota patients on a yearly basis. A significant rise in syphilis cases has prompted recommendations for increased prenatal screening. The more unusual viral diseases, Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and Chikungunha virus, receive media attention but present minimal risk to the state, while the annual influenza epidemic continues to plague us all. We review these infections, both old and emerging, and describe national and local preparedness practices. PMID:25985609

  10. An occurrence of autunite, Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, Rollin C.

    1953-01-01

    In July 1952 an occurrence of autunite was found in the northern part of the Black Hills, South Dakota, during a reconnaissance for radioactive deposits. The autunite occurs as fracture coatings and disseminations in siltstone of the Deadwood formation of Cambrian age and is concentrated mainly in the lower 2 feet of the siltstone at the contact with an intrusive rhyolite porphyry; the radioactive zone is exposed in two old workings, which are 90 feet apart. An 18-inch vertical channel sample of the autanite-bearing siltstene contained 0. 048 percent uranium. The gangue minerals are fluorite and limonite. The uranium is believed to have been introduced into the siltstone by solutions of magmatic origin that migrated along the lower contact of the siltstone after or during emplacement of the porphyry'

  11. A Tribute to Weatherization Solutions in South Dakota: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    South Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  12. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  13. 75 FR 55346 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management...South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: The United States Department of Agriculture...application with the Bureau of Land Management...Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region,...

  14. 75 FR 51110 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management...South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...SUMMARY: The United States Department of Agriculture...application with the Bureau of Land Management...Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 740 Simms...

  15. PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCL, VOL. 60 (1981) HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1

    E-print Network

    1981-01-01

    bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic%). The acanthocephalan Oncicola canis occurred in 1 of 51 (2%) bob- cats. INTRODUCTION The bobcat (Lynx rufus

  16. Status of Exotic and Previously Common Native Coccinellids (Coleoptera) in South Dakota Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last two decades, three previously common coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) have declined in abundance in South Dakota, while two invasive species (Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Harmonia axyridis (Pall...

  17. ELECTROPHORETIC, MORPHOMETRIC, AND MERISTIC COMPARISONS OF WALLEYE BROODSTOCK IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    Hoffman for grinding otoliths and pressing scales. Jerry Broughton spent many hours fishing Blue Dog Lake Department of Game, Fish and Parks, the u.s. Fish and #12;wildlife Service, South Dakota State University

  18. HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, Odocoileus virginianus, reproduction, South Dakota, white-tailed deer. INTRODUCTION Limited information

  19. An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    An assessment of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, stocking contributions in eastern South Dakota, USA Abstract The success and value of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), stocking programmes, oxytetracycline, stocking, yellow perch. Introduction Panfish [yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), crappies

  20. Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications for

    E-print Network

    Emergence of larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in South Dakota lakes: potential implications and hatch dates were described for larval yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in surface, otoliths, Perca flavescens, yellow perch. Introduction Yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), support

  1. Yellow Perch in South Dakota: Population Variability and Predicted Effects of Creel Limit Reductions and

    E-print Network

    Perca flavescens in six South Dakota lakes over 4­5 years. We also simulated the effects of reductions Lepomis macrochirus, crappies Pomoxis spp., and yellow perch Perca flavescens) have primarily focused

  2. Yellow Perch Production and Harvest Strategies for Semi-permanent Wetlands in Eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    By Matthew T. Mangan A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science and Harvest Strategies for Semi-permanent Wetlands in Eastern South Dakota Matthew T. Mangan July 21, 2004

  3. Continuing Development of a Collaborative Plan to Further Engage South Dakota in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An ongoing set of research planning activities have occurred in South Dakota as a consequence of the past two years of NASA-EPSCoR Preparation Grants. During this time a group of approximately 60 scientists, engineers, and university administrators in South Dakota have been directly involved as "theme team" members in a series of five all-day meetings to identify the research and technological priorities that are consistent both with NASA-ESE's interests and the State's expertise. Institutions represented within the group's membership include: South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, South Dakota State University, Augustana College, University of South Dakota, USGS EROS Data Center, Si ranks College, Santa Gleska University, Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, USGS Water Resources Division, US National Weather Service, and the SD Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Many of these organizations are also members and affiliates of the SD Space Grant Consortium. The evolving plan has been guided by the following desirable actions: 1. To establish new contacts and strengthen existing linkages with NASA Centers, relevant NASA researchers, and key personnel at the USGS EROS Data Center. 2. To promote participation from the State's major research institutions, State agencies, and relevant businesses in South Dakota that are interested in strengthening our scientific and technological enterprises. 3. To develop the State's scientific talent and infrastructure for enhanced competitiveness in research, development, and technology-based economic development. 4. To encourage greater participation by under represented groups, especially Native Americans, in scientific education and research. 5. To build greater public and political support in South Dakota for the overall science, engineering, and technology enterprise. 6. To communicate the benefits of current and future NASA programs to the progress and development of South Dakota, the Northern Great Plains Region, and the Nation.

  4. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  5. Estimated recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1931-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.; Driscoll, D.G.; Hamade, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual recharge from streamflow losses and infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas is estimated for water years 1931-98. All estimates are for recharge that contributes to regional ground-water flow patterns and that occurs in outcrop areas connected to the regional flow system. Estimates exclude recharge to outcrop areas that are isolated from the regional flow system, which generally results in ground-water discharge to area streams. Streamflow recharge is calculated directly for 11 streams in the Black Hills area that have continuous-record gaging stations located upstream from loss zones, using available records of daily streamflow, against which estimated loss thresholds (from previous investigations) are applied. Daily streamflow records are extrapolated, when necessary, using correlations with long-term gages, to develop annual estimates of streamflow recharge for 1950-98. Streamflow recharge is estimated for a number of smaller basins using loss thresholds for miscellaneous-record sites. Annual recharge estimates are derived from synthetic records of daily streamflow for 1992-98, which are based on drainage-area ratios applied to continuous-record gaging stations. Recharge estimates are further extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins during 1992-98, relative to overall streamflow recharge.Streamflow recharge also is estimated for small drainage areas with undetermined loss thresholds that are situated between larger basins with known thresholds. Estimates for 1992-98 are based on estimates of annual streamflow derived using drainage-area ratios, with assumed losses equal to 90 percent of annual streamflow. Recharge estimates also are extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins.Precipitation recharge for 1931-98 is estimated using relations between precipitation and streamflow (or basin yield) for representative gaging stations. Basin yields are first normalized, relative to drainage area, by expressing in inches per unit of drainage area. Yields are further converted to yield efficiencies, by dividing by precipitation on contributing drainage areas. Relations between yield efficiency and precipitation are identified, which are developed for use in generically estimating annual yield for given areas, based on average yield efficiency and annual precipitation. The resulting annual yield is used as a surrogate for estimating annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Annual yield (or recharge) efficiencies are estimated to range from about 2 percent to in excess of 30 percent, with corresponding average annual recharge estimates ranging from 0.4 inch in the southern Black Hills to about 8.7 inches in the northwestern Black Hills.Estimates of precipitation recharge for 1931-49 are used to estimate streamflow recharge for the same period, based on correlations between the two variables for 1989-98. Combined streamflow and precipitation recharge to both aquifers averaged about 344 ft3/s for 1931-98. Streamflow recharge averaged about 93 ft3/s, or 27 percent of combined recharge, and precipitation recharge averaged about 251 ft3/s, or 73 percent of combined recharge. Combined recharge ranged from 62 ft3/s in 1936 to 847 ft3/s in 1995. The lowest recharge amounts generally occurred during the 1930?s; however, a more prolonged period of low recharge occurred during 1947-61.For 1931-98, average precipitation recharge to the Madison aquifer is about 3.6 inches, compared with 2.6 inches for the Minnelusa aquifer. However, recharge volumes to these aquifers are nearly identical because th

  6. PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE AND BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN FREE-RANGING DEER AND ELK IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher N. Jacques; Jonathan A. Jenks; Allen L. Jenny; Steven L. Griffin

    2003-01-01

    Heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout South Dakota (USA) and within established chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with CWD and bovine tuberculosis (TB). We used immunohistochemistry to detect CWD-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically tar- geted surveillance. A total of 537 elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed

  7. Distribution (presence / absence) of Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Clarifying the Epidemiology of Bluetongue Disease in the North-Central United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence or absence of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a primary vector of bluetongue viruses (BTV) in North America, was assessed on ranches and farms across the north-central region of the United States (U.S.), specifically the states of Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, as pa...

  8. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). LACIE third interim phase 3 accuracy assessment report. [South Dakota and U.S.S.R.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An accuracy of 90/85 was achieved with the October estimates which had a relative bias of -9.9 percent and a coefficient of variation of 5.2 percent for the total wheat production in the USGP. The probability was 0.9 that the LACIE estimate was within + or - 15 percent of true wheat production for the USGP. The LACIE spring wheat production underestimates in August, September, and October were the results of area underestimates for spring wheat in the USNGP region. The winter wheat blind study showed that the average proportion estimates were significantly different from the average dot-count, ground truth proportions at the USSGP and USGP-7 levels.

  9. Geology of the Early Arikareean Sharps Formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Surrounding Areas of South Dakota and Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Thomas H.; DiBenedetto, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8–20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group. PMID:23110098

  10. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group. PMID:23110098

  11. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which large quantities of wastes might be injected with minimal danger of contamination of fresh-water aquifers and-oil-producing strata, are available.. The strata and types of reservoirs that deserve primary consideration for waste disposal are the Winnipeg Formation of Middle Ordovician age as a deep salaquifer, the Permian to Jurassic salt beds as moderately deep-units in which solution cavities might be created for storage, the thick Upper Cretaceous shale beds as shallow hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs, and the Newcastle Sandstone of Early Cretaceous age as a shallow shale-enclosed sandstone reservoir.

  12. EVALUATION OF AERIAL TRANSECT SURVEYS, SURVIVAL, AND MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF AERIAL TRANSECT SURVEYS, SURVIVAL, AND MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN WESTERN SOUTH;EVALUATION OF AERIAL TRANSECT SURVEYS, SURVIVAL, AND MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN WESTERN SOUTH DAKOTA, and numerous other volunteers for their assistance during pronghorn captures. So many people contributed

  13. SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    SEASONAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA 1 ROLLIN D. SPARROWE, South Research Unit, Brookings3 -,!.. Abstract: Seasonal activity patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus-three deer were.'i marked individually with ear tags, streamers, and collars, and 461 locations were recorded

  14. This article was downloaded by: [South Dakota State University], [Michael L. Brown] On: 26 June 2012, At: 11:15

    E-print Network

    Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State-2055 print / 1548-8454 online DOI: 10.1080/15222055.2012.675998 ARTICLE Application of a Bioenergetics Model Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State

  15. MULTISCALE RESOURCE SELECTION OF RUFFED GROUSE IN THE BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FOREST OF SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING

    E-print Network

    and Kelly for being my temporary parents for a summer and keeping me out of trouble. I would especially like and Parks, United States Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, South Dakota State University) in the Black Hills National Forest (BHNF). Due to this status the U.S. Forest Service and the South Dakota

  16. Lifelong Education Needs for Providing Pastoral Care for Post-Traumatic Stress in South Dakota National Guard Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meirose, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout many communities in South Dakota the members of the South Dakota National Guard have been activated to serve in many different parts of the world since 2001. Approximately 20% of these individuals returned to their homes with some degree of PTSD (Hoge, et al., 2004). Pastoral Care has changed since September 11, 2001. The purpose of…

  17. Seasonal Movements and Spatial Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    professors, biologists, and South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks personnel who provided assistance, enough for all her patience, love, and support. She and our two dogs, Dude and Jersey, helped keep me of Game, Fish, and Parks and South Dakota State University. Special thanks also go to Dave Raw Commercial

  18. Math and science technology access and use in South Dakota public schools grades three through five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwietert, Debra L.

    The development of K-12 technology standards, soon to be added to state testing of technology proficiency, and the increasing presence of computers in homes and classrooms reflects the growing importance of technology in current society. This study examined math and science teachers' responses on a survey of technology use in grades three through five in South Dakota. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from a random sample of 100 public schools throughout the South Dakota. Forced choice and open-ended responses were recorded. Most teachers have access to computers, but they lack resources to purchase software for their content areas, especially in science areas. Three-fourths of teachers in this study reported multiple computers in their classrooms and 67% reported access to labs in other areas of the school building. These numbers are lower than the national average of 84% of teachers with computers in their classrooms and 95% with access to computers elsewhere in the building (USDOE, 2000). Almost eight out of 10 teachers noted time as a barrier to learning more about educational software. Additional barriers included lack of school funds (38%), access to relevant training (32%), personal funds (30%), and poor quality of training (7%). Teachers most often use math and science software as supplemental, with practice tutorials cited as another common use. The most common interest for software was math for both boys and girls. The second most common choice for boys was science and for girls, language arts. Teachers reported that there was no preference for either individual or group work on computers for girls or boys. Most teachers do not systematically evaluate software for gender preferences, but review software over subjectively.

  19. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Gillette Quadrangle, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, H.W. Jr.; Robinson, K.; Stanton, M.R.; Geer, K.A.

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Gillette 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming, and a very small part of South Dakota, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface information. Most of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature were searched for and many were found, sampled, and described. Some reported occurrences, however, were never located. As time permitted, ground radiometric surveys were made over areas showing Hydrochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) or aerial radiometric anomalies. In general, ground radiometric surveys did not confirm either HSSR or aerial radiometric anomalies in the Powder River Basin portion of the quadrangle. Surface and subsurface studies outlined three areas favorable for uranium deposits. These areas are limited to certain rock units and depositional environments. The eastern- most area consists of the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group which contains marine, marginal-marine, and fluvial paleoenvironments. The second favorable area occurs to the west and up-section in the Upper Cretaceous marginal-marine Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying fluvial Lance Formation. The third and westernmost favorable area is a small area of the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Unfavorable areas include areas underlain by Tertiary rocks, with the exception of the small area of the Wasatch Formation mentioned above; all Mesozoic rocks above the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group and below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Lance Formation. All Paleozoic and older rocks and Tertiary intrusives are considered unfavorable.

  20. Analysis of flood-flow frequency, flow duration, and channel-forming flow for the James River in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Asesssment of mobile gamma-scanning van activities in Edgemont, South Dakota. [UMTRA program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    All accessible thoroughfares in an area in Edgemont, South Dakota, comprising approximately 800 properties, were traversed by a mobile gamma-ray scanning van operated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the mobile survey was to identify residual radioactive contamination on properties in the vicinity of the nearby uranium tailings pile. The properties identified by mobile scanning (herein referred to as anomalies) were compared with results from walk-on measurements conducted by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The mobile scan was successful in identifying 48% of the properties previously identified as contaminated by PNL walk-on measurements. Modification of the algorithm used by the mobile scanning van to identify radioactive contamination from the measured gamma radiation resulted in mixed success; the number of successful identifications increased but the number of false identifications increased disproportionately and unacceptably.

  2. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  3. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 45 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 104 degrees west longitude. The area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  5. Rock-water interactions of the Madison Aquifer, Mission Canyon Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Spicer, James Frank

    1994-01-01

    The Williston Basin is located in the northern Great Plains of the United States. This area includes eastern Montana, northwestern South Dakota, and western North Dakota. The stratigraphy and geologic history of this basin are well understood...

  6. NONTARGET BIRD EXPOSURE TO DRC1339 DURING FALL IN NORTH DAKOTA AND SPRING IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS W. CUSTER; Upper Midwest; CHRISTINE M. CUSTER; PAUL M. DUMMER; GEORGE M. LINZ; LOUIS SILEO; RANDAL S. STAHL; JOHN J. JOHNSTON

    Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) was used experimentally on fall-ripening sunflower fields in North Dakota so researchers could evaluate its effectiveness for reducing crop depredations by blackbirds. DRC-1339 was applied to rice and broadcast on the ground in a

  7. South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soka, John Alex

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

  8. South Dakota's Third-Year Program of Integrated Clerkships in Ambulatory-Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lori A.; Talley, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    In the University of South Dakota's medical school clerkship program, students may choose one of three ambulatory-care settings. In one, the curriculum is problem based and student centered to enhance student interest in primary care. The new program has been successful and well received and is being further developed. (MSE)

  9. Evaluating Diet Composition of Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER N. JACQUES; JARET D. SIEVERS

    The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) was reintroduced into Wind Cave National Park (WCNP), South Dakota, in 1914, and thus, has inhabited the Park for nearly a century. During the 1990's, a decline in the population raised concern for the continued existence of pronghorn inside WCNP; an investigation into the observed decline was initiated. Primary objectives of our study were to evaluate

  10. Optimizing habitat location for black-tailed prairie dogs in southwestern South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hof; Michael Bevers; Daniel W. Uresk; Gregory L. Schenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A spatial optimization model was formulated and used to maximize black-tailed prairie dog populations in the Badlands National Park and the Buffalo Gap National Grassland in South Dakota. The choice variables involved the strategic placement of limited additional protected habitat. Population dynamics were captured in formulations that reflected exponential population growth combined with the recalcitrant dispersal behavior of this social

  11. South Dakota Fine Arts Content Standards: Dance, Music, Theater & Visual Arts. SDICS Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    These South Dakota fine arts content standards identify what students must know and be able to do. This document is a compilation of numerous sources and many years of experience in the teaching of fine arts. For each discipline (dance, music, theater/dramatic arts, and visual arts) the document gives an introduction and definition, multiple…

  12. Early Pleistocene zapodid rodents from the Java Local Fauna of north-central South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Martin

    1989-01-01

    Zapodid rodents are described from the early Pleistocene Java Local Fauna, Walworth County, South Dakota. The fauna includes a new species of Zapus related to the extinct Z. sandersi. The fossil record of Zapus is briefly reviewed, and the Ms of Z. rinkeri and an undescribed species from the Wendell Fox Pasture Local Fauna are illustrated for the first time.

  13. Diet and Body Composition of Migrating Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Diet and Body Composition of Migrating Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Eastern South Dakota without your help this project would have never been possible. #12;v Abstract Diet and Body Composition overlap between lesser scaup and natives fishes and (4) quantify body composition of migrating lesser

  14. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Progress on Teacher Quality, 2007. South Dakota State Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" examines what is arguably the single most powerful authority over the teaching profession: state government. This South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the first of what will be an annual look at the status of state policies impacting the…

  15. Southeastern South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Herbert

    The role of the rural school in southeastern South Dakota from the early days of the frontier to 1981 is examined in this portion of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools. Three hundred and eleven country schools in 21 southeastern counties are still standing, have been photographed, and are…

  16. Reading, Writing, 'Rithmetic and Recitation in Western South Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Caroline

    As revealed in personal interviews, periodicals, published and unpublished manuscripts, and school records, the teachers were the key factor in bringing education and culture to the frontier that was western South Dakota. Many teachers were girls of 16 or 17, inexperienced, hired from states to the east (Minnesota and Iowa), sight unseen.…

  17. Western South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Caroline

    As part of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools, this report examines western South Dakota's country schools as historic sites, country schools as community centers, teachers (their roles, rules, and restrictions), school curriculum, education for Sioux Indians, and country schools today.…

  18. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Archaea and Bacteria in Wind Cave, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa K. Chelius; John C. Moore

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of bacteria and archaea was characterized from sediments collected from Wind Cave located in Wind Cave National Park in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Wind Cave is a limestone dissolution cave with strata that started forming over 300 million years ago, making it one of the oldest in the world. Previous work suggested that the cave was

  19. Carolyn Hull Sieg and Daniel W. Uresk, USDA Forest Service Rapid City, South Dakota 57701

    E-print Network

    Carolyn Hull Sieg and Daniel W. Uresk, USDA Forest Service Rapid City, South Dakota 57701. Bentonite, or the "clay of 1000 uses," is used in a variety of household products (i.e., cosmetics only marginally successful (Sieg et al. 1983). Studies designed to enhance reclama- tion success

  20. Geochemical modeling of the Madison aquifer in parts of Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Niel Plummer; B. B. Hanshaw; J. F. Busby; R. W. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Stable isotope data for dissolved carbonate, sulfate, and sulfide are combined with water composition data to construct geochemical reaciton models along eight flow paths in the Madison aquifer in parts of Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. All reaction models reproduce the observed chemical and carbon and sulfur isotopic composition of the final waters and are partially validated by predicting the

  1. Advanced Largemouth Bass Production and Stock Contribution to Small South Dakota Impoundment Fisheries

    E-print Network

    , and Parks employees who helped with sampling and guidance during these projects, including Matthew J. Ward State University Agricultural Experiment Station, South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks thanks to Blue Dog State Fish Hatchery for providing the largemouth bass fingerlings used

  2. Urban fisheries in Eastern South Dakota: Assessment of angler satisfaction and fishery resources

    E-print Network

    for their assistance with my project. I thank South Dakota Game, Fish, and Parks, specifically Dave Lucchesi and Todd and professionally. The friendships, dog sitting, hunting and fishing trips, liquid inspired philosophy, and sarcasm`re hundreds of miles away. Jake Davis, I thank you on behalf of the Lucky Dog and Gordon Lightfoot. Luke

  3. USGS Outreach at South Dakota School of Mines Field Affair Class

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologist, Janet Carter, demonstrates an interactive groundwater-flow model to the Field Affair class at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology on June 19, 2012, in Rapid City, SD. The model can be used to show how a contaminant can travel through an aquifer to a pu...

  4. Characteristics and Perceived Effectiveness of Staff Development Practices in Selected High Schools in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ernest

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and perceived effectiveness of staff development practices in selected high schools in South Dakota. The review of literature and research related to staff development examined the following questions: What types of staff development practices are being employed to encourage and…

  5. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted. PMID:25588013

  6. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for South Dakota related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  7. South Dakota Physical Education Standards: A Comprehensive Physical Education Program Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    These South Dakota physical education standards provide a framework for use by state education and health agencies and local school districts to create an instructional program that will enable their students to become healthy and capable of academic success. It is a framework for making decisions about which lessons, strategies, activities, and…

  8. South Dakota Health Education Standards: A Resource Guide for Achieving Health Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    These South Dakota health education standards provide a framework for use by state education and health agencies and local school districts to create an instructional program that will enable their students to become healthy and capable of academic success. It is a framework for making decisions about which lessons, strategies, activities, and…

  9. South Dakota Department of Education Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Amended with Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This workbook, submitted by the South Dakota Department of Education to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application…

  10. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

    1990-01-01

    Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

  11. An Evaluation of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens Mortality in South Dakota Casey Walter Schoenebeck

    E-print Network

    An Evaluation of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens Mortality in South Dakota By Casey Walter Aid Project F-15-R, Study 1504). #12;iv Abstract An Evaluation of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens, and mortality) of common yellow perch Perca flavescens population types have been previously investigated

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Tech Prep. The South Dakota Tech Prep Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wienk, Micky J.

    Based on experience with the program in South Dakota, this document contains 54 questions and answers about tech prep, the integrated academic-vocational system of education encompassing 2 years of high school and 2 years of college. The guide provides information on such topics as the following: what tech prep is, how Perkins Act funds are used…

  13. Analysis and evaluation of round hay bale breakwaters at Lake Sharpe, South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Grundy, Thomas Paxson

    1993-01-01

    Lake Sharpe in central South Dakota is one of three reservoirs constructed along the Missouri River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 50's and 60's. The Lake is underlain by Cretaceous Pierre shale and various Quaternary glacial deposits...

  14. WOOD DUCK BROOD MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USE ON PRAIRIE RIVERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    WOOD DUCK BROOD MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USE ON PRAIRIE RIVERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA DIANE A. GRANFORS.'·2. SD 57007. USA ~ .· Absfm£'f: Wood duck (Air SI)0/1.5O) populations have been increasing in the Central Flyway. but little is known about wood duck brood rearing in prairie e

  15. Northeastern South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip L.

    Northeastern South Dakota's country schools are examined in this volume of the Mountain Plains Library Association's eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools. Rural school buildings are discussed in the broad social and historical context that shaped their form and style. Both national trends in…

  16. USGS Outreach at South Dakota School of Mines Field Affair Class

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Technician, Louis Leader Charge, demonstrates collection of stream discharge data to the Field Affair class from the South Dakota School of Mines on June 19, 2012. The demonstration is at Rapid Creek in Rapid City, SD (streamgage 06414000)....

  17. Bilingual Vocational Education Project. Final Report. Little Wound School, Kyle, South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Steve

    The two-year operation of a bilingual (Lakota-English) vocational training program, designed to teach building trades and secretarial skills to young adults on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation at Kyle, South Dakota, who, because of their inability to communicate in the English language and their low skill levels, were unemployed or underemployed,…

  18. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 8: Garfield Elementary School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Presented is an investigation of the possibilities for reducing energy consumption at Garfield Elementary School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The report summarizes methodology and findings of the building investigations, computer simulations and assessments of energy conservation opportunities. Results indicate that approximately 62% of the present…

  19. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 87 (2008) 111 STATUS OF UPLAND SANDPIPERS IN SOUTH DA-

    E-print Network

    2008-01-01

    relative to their life history and habitat needs. INTRODUCTION Upland sandpipers (Bartramia longicauda & Fisheries Sciences, Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT The current status of the upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) popula- tion in South Dakota is of primary concern to natural resource managers be- cause the two

  20. Effects of fire on the nutritional ecology of selected ungulates in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Dakota By Teresa J. Zimmerman A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements family, Wayne and Jeanette Zimmerman, Ronny, Cindi, Ashley, and Clay Jackson, and Sheri Zimmerman. Words ON THE NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF SELECTED UNGULATES IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA Teresa J. Zimmerman 2004

  1. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 89 (2010) 181 CULTURE OF ADVAnCED-SIZED

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    . Csargo2 1 South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks Blue Dog Lake State Fish Hatchery 44437 139A St to growth perfor- mance included initiating the intensive phase while Blue Dog Lake water was 25 º

  2. Interannual Variation in Larval Yellow Perch Abundance in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes and Relation to Sympatric Walleye Populations

    E-print Network

    Lakes and Relation to Sympatric Walleye Populations Andrew C. Jansen November 2008 Yellow perch Perca flavescens are a popular sportfish in eastern South Dakota glacial lakes. In addition to their recreational

  3. Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  4. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  5. Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT), conducted a study to evaluate factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota. The focus of this ice-force evaluation was on maximum ice thickness and ice-crushing strength, which are the most important variables in the SDDOT bridge-design equations for ice forces in South Dakota. Six sites, the James River at Huron, the James River near Scotland, the White River near Oacoma/Presho, the Grand River at Little Eagle, the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, and the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge, were selected for collection of ice-thickness and ice-crushing-strength data. Ice thickness was measured at the six sites from February 1999 until April 2001. This period is representative of the climate extremes of record in South Dakota because it included both one of the warmest and one of the coldest winters on record. The 2000 and 2001 winters were the 8th warmest and 11th coldest winters, respectively, on record at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which was used to represent the climate at all bridges in South Dakota. Ice thickness measured at the James River sites at Huron and Scotland during 1999-2001 ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 feet and 0 to 1.7 feet, respectively, and ice thickness measured at the White River near Oacoma/Presho site during 2000-01 ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 feet. At the Grand River at Little Eagle site, ice thickness was measured at 1.2 feet in 1999, ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 feet in 2001. Ice thickness measured at the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge site ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 feet in 1999, 0.9 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and 0 to 2.2 feet in 2001. At the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge site, ice thickness ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 feet in 2001. Historical ice-thickness data measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at eight selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota were compiled for 1970-97. The gaging stations included the Grand River at Little Eagle, the White River near Oacoma, the James River near Scotland, the James River near Yankton, the Vermillion River near Wakonda, the Vermillion River near Vermillion, the Big Sioux River near Brookings, and the Big Sioux River near Dell Rapids. Three ice-thickness-estimation equations that potentially could be used for bridge design in South Dakota were selected and included the Accumulative Freezing Degree Day (AFDD), Incremental Accumulative Freezing Degree Day (IAFDD), and Simplified Energy Budget (SEB) equations. These three equations were evaluated by comparing study-collected and historical ice-thickness measurements to equation-estimated ice thicknesses. Input data required by the equations either were collected or compiled for the study or were obtained from the National Weather Service (NWS). An analysis of the data indicated that the AFDD equation best estimated ice thickness in South Dakota using available data sources with an average variation about the measured value of about 0.4 foot. Maximum potential ice thickness was estimated using the AFDD equation at 19 NWS stations located throughout South Dakota. The 1979 winter (the coldest winter on record at Sioux Falls) was the winter used to estimate the maximum potential ice thickness. The estimated maximum potential ice thicknesses generally are largest in northeastern South Dakota at about 3 feet and are smallest in southwestern and south-central South Dakota at about 2 feet. From 1999 to 2001, ice-crushing strength was measured at the same six sites where ice thickness was measured. Ice-crushing-strength measurements were done both in the middle of the winter and near spring breakup. The maximum ice-crushing strengths were measured in the mid- to late winter before the spring thaw. Measured ice-crushing strengths were much smaller near spring breakup. Ice-crushing strength measured at the six sites

  7. Environmental Impacts from the North Cave Hills Abandoned Uranium Mines, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Stone; Larry Stetler

    \\u000a This study evaluated environmental impacts from historical uranium mining to soil, water, and air resources occurring on private\\u000a lands surrounding the North Cave Hills complex within Custer National Forest, northwest South Dakota. Surface water concentrations\\u000a of As, Cu, Mo, U, and V exceeded established background concentrations within approximately 27 km of stream length flowing\\u000a below abandoned mines. Uranium concentrations in soils

  8. High purity germanium crystal growth at the University of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-05-01

    High-purity germanium crystal growth is challenging work, requiring the control of individual crystal properties such as the impurity distribution, the dislocation density, and the crystalline structure. Currently, we grow high-purity germanium crystals by the Czochralski method in our laboratory in order to understand the details of the growing process, especially for large diameter crystals. In this paper, we report the progress of detector-grade germanium crystal growth at the University of South Dakota.

  9. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota through September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, E.B.; Freese, M.E.; Winter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of flood-flow frequency were made for 80 active continuous-record gaging stations and 105 discontinued crest-stage partial-record stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1981.) (USGS)

  10. Life History of the Emerald Shiner, Notropis atherinoides, in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everett H. Fuchs

    1967-01-01

    The age, rate of growth, reproduction, feeding habits, and population dynamics of the emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) were studied from 10,375 fish collected in Lewis and Clark Lake, South Dakota. The population in this 28,000-acre reservoir consisted of four age groups dominated by young-of-the-year during the summer and fall and by age-group I during the spring and early summer. Age-group

  11. Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N.

    1988-07-01

    Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

  12. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  13. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10 ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of...

  14. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10 ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of...

  15. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10 ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of...

  16. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10 ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of...

  17. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10 ...location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of...

  18. Statistical and descriptive summaries of water-resources data for the Cannonball River basin, North Dakota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.; Zainhofsky, S.D.; Dressler, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Existing hydrologic data and information for the Cannonball River Basin were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation. This report presents a summary of surface-water quality and streamflow data, ground- water quality data, ground-water level data, water-use data, and other information compiled from the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, North Dakota Game and Fish Department, North Dakota Department of Health, North Dakota Parks and Recreation Department, North Dakota State Water Commission, and Standing Rock Sioux Tribe data bases. The data are summarized statistically or descriptively, depending on the amount or nature of the data.

  19. LEVEL III AND IV ECOREGIONS OF NORTH DAKOTA AND SOUTH DAKOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. Ecore...

  20. Delineating the size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide in Badlands National Park, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Combining non-invasive surface geophysical results and geotechnical drill hole data can provide valuable information about the subsurface. Unfortunately, the placement of inclinometers is often limited to areas along roads and other areas accessible by drill rigs, yet many surface geophysical investigations take place in areas where accessibility is difficult or impossible for vehicles. An integrated investigation using surface geophysics and existing borehole data was conducted at the active Cliff Shelf landslide along South Dakota State Route (SR) 240 in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. The purpose of the geophysical investigation was to provide an approximate size of the Cliff Shelf Landslide for the engineering design alternative of the short-and long-term stabilization of the landslide. Additional objectives were to determine the strength/stiffness of the landslide materials, and to locate any heterogeneities of the Cliff Shelf landslide, specifically discontinuities which may imply slide planes within the landslide. Surface geophysical methods used for this investigation included seismic refraction tomography, Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), and electrical resistivity tomography. Inclinometers were previously installed at two locations on SR 240 to determine a depth to the slide plane. Drill log data, specifically SPT N-values (i.e., blow counts), were used to interpret a depth to a stiffness contact. Observations from the inclinometers indicate maximum horizontal displacement at approximate depths of 47-49 feet. Borings near the inclinometers show an increase in N-value at depths of 50-60 feet, indicating a stiffness contact at similar depths. Seismic refraction and MASW surveys were acquired within 18 feet of the inclinometers and borehole locations. At depths where maximum displacement occurred and blow counts increased, the P-wave and S-wave velocities increased from 3200 ft/s to 4300-4700 feet per second (ft/s), and from 550 ft/s to 900 ft/s, respectively. Therefore, these velocities (referred to hereafter as 'stiffness contact') are interpreted to represent a stiffness contact where displacement is likely to occur, and a possible depth to the slide plane. Two locations along the seismic refraction and MASW profiles were identified where there is an abrupt decrease in the depth to the stiffness contact, interpreted to represent the location of the slide plane. Additional seismic refraction and MASW surveys were collected away from the highway (where instruments could not be installed) to delineate the shape and size of the slide plane in the subsurface, specifically the northern and western extents. By determining the extents of the slide plane, an estimation of the size of the landslide was made by engineers and incorporated to designing mitigation solutions. Also, by successfully applying multiple geophysical techniques the interpreted depth and extents of the slide plane allowed design engineers to determine the total size of the landslide. The interpretations of the slide plane extents, vertically and horizontally, correlate well with the limited standard geotechnical data currently being used to monitor landslide movement.

  1. A preliminary assessment of the hydrologic characteristics of the James River in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The James River in South Dakota has very restricted channel capacities within the Lake Dakota Plain. Channel capacities in Brown County are as little as 200 cubic feet per second, and spring flooding can be expected on an average of every other year. The river has potential for extended periods of flooding an average of once in 10 years. Extended periods of no flow during late-summer and winter also can be expected. Excluding flows of a very large magnitude, average travel time between Columbia and Scotland (a distance of 382 river miles) is estimated to be 25-30 days for most flows. The upstream reach of the James River within the Lake Dakota Plain generally loses discharge with distance whereas the downstream reach generally gains discharge with distance. Ground water - surface water interaction does not appear to be significant along upstream reaches of the James River. Some interaction, although not quantified, does occur in Hanson, Davison, and Yankton Counties. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located just downsteam from the State line and containing Sand and Mud Lakes (combined capacity = 24,600 acre-feet), is a major source of water loss between LaMoure, N. Dak. and Columbia, S. Dak. Gross evaporation losses from the lakes during 1969-81 is estimated to have been slightly more than 29,000 acre-feet per year. Unaccounted-for losses in the lake system are estimated to have been slightly more than 19,000 acre-feet per year. (USGS)

  2. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

  3. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  4. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  5. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in excess of the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentrations prior to 1980 to concentrations after 1980 indicates dissolved-solids concentrations have increased in the alluvial valleys of the Platte, the Republican, and the Arkansas Rivers, as well as in the Ogallala Formation?South hydrogeologic unit.Water-quality results indicate that human activities are affecting the water of the High Plains aquifer. Because there is a potential for water quality to become impaired relative to the historical uses of the aquifer, water quality needs to be considered when evaluating the sustainability of the High Plains aquifer. Data collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study will help to fill in gaps in water-quality information and provide additional information for understanding the factors that govern ambient water quality.

  6. Geology Fieldnotes: Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jewel Cave National Monument feaures the third longest cave in the world; airflow within its passages indicates a vast area yet to be explored. Cave tours provide opportunities for viewing this pristine cave system and its wide variety of rock formations. Features include park geology information, maps, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the history of the park's discovery and exploration by cavers, and describes some of the remarkable rock formations found in the cave. The maps section includes a map of Jewel Cave National Monument and the surrounding area.

  7. Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulase...

  8. Biological Characteristics of the Blue Sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan M. Morey; Charles R. Berry Jr

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28)

  9. Food Habits of Young-of-the-Year Walleyes in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Jackson; David W. Willis; David G. Fielder

    1992-01-01

    Food habits of young-of-the-year walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were determined in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota from June through September, 1991. Walleyes initially fed on zooplankton but soon became piscivorous. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) were initially the most important prey fish, but rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) became important as walleyes moved from the littoral zone of the bay to

  10. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974–79

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rey C. Stendell; David S. Gilmer; Nancy A. Coon; Douglas M. Swineford

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974–79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found

  11. The Young Citizens League: Its Origins and Development in South Dakota to 1930. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip L.

    With the goal of improving citizenship and character education in the elementary school child through learning by doing in the form of a school-based club, the Young Citizens League (YCL) appeared in rural South Dakota early in the twentieth century, introduced by Michael M. Guhin and developed by E.C. Giffen. By 1930, at its peak, it had an…

  12. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 76 (1997) 113 EFFECTS OF WIND TURBINES ON NESTING

    E-print Network

    1997-01-01

    United States and Canada, as well as Latin America (Nel- son and Curry 1995). Although renewable energy Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, USGS-BRD, South Dakota State University Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT technological advances in equipment designed to harness wind- power has made the cost of electricity from

  13. Geochemical data from groundwater at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, Edgemont, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.

  14. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Shannon Deperno

    1998-01-01

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and

  15. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of South Dakota: New State Record for Anatis lecontei Casey and Erratum to Delete Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we provide collection information to add Anatis lecontei Casey to the list of South Dakota Coccinellidae based on its collection for the first time in the state. We also include an erratum to delete Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer from the list based on its mistaken inclusion in an...

  16. VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRONGHORN BED SITES IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA --Much of the previous

    E-print Network

    49 NOTES VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRONGHORN BED SITES IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA -- Much of the previous literature on pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns has focused on fawn and Fichter 1975, Bromley 1977). Selection of bed sites by pronghorn fawns is a major factor affecting fawn

  17. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 86 (2007) 191 EVALUATING MOVEMENTS OF PRONGHORNS IN

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    OF PRONGHORNS IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA Jaret D. Sievers, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A Brookings, SD 57007 ABSTRACT Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) were reintroduced into Wind Cave National during the 1990's raised concern for the continued existence of pronghorn inside the Park. Historically

  18. ELAEOPHOROSIS IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA --Elaeophora schneideri is an intraarterial parasitic nematode transmitted by

    E-print Network

    251 ELAEOPHOROSIS IN FREE-RANGING MULE DEER IN SOUTH DAKOTA -- Elaeophora schneideri and Hibler 1973, Pence 1991). Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and black-tailed deer (O. hemionus columbianus regionally and has been documented in mule deer populations in Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, British

  19. Career & Life Planning Portfolio Resource Book. Activities To Accompany the South Dakota Career and Life Planning Portfolio, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education, Pierre. Div. of Workforce and Career Preparation.

    This resource book provides several career development activities to accompany the South Dakota "My Career and Life Planning Portfolio," which is appended. The activities are arranged according to the following four folders found within the portfolio jacket: career and education planning; skills employers want; projects/work samples; and…

  20. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 78 (1999) 79 SEASONAL FOOD HABITS OF BLUEGILLS

    E-print Network

    1999-01-01

    crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, bluegill, and a low density of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus. Other the bluegill Lepomis macrochirus is a popular panfish species in South Dakota, little information has been- ly. No larger bluegills were collected in October. Keywords bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, food

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  2. Food and Feeding Behavior of the Shovelnose Sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, in the Unchannelized Missouri River, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Modde; James C. Schmulbach

    1977-01-01

    The feeding habits of the shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were investigated in the unchannelized Missouri River, South Dakota, between October 1971 and September 1972. The annual diet was dominated by aquatic arthropods, particularly larvae of the insect orders Trichoptera, Diptera, and Ephemeroptera. The annum feeding behavior was separated into three intervals: (1) the fall months, during which the fish extensively

  3. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for South Dakota's 2013 student achievement in…

  4. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Campbell; T. Bennett

    2005-01-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent

  5. Nutrient database for distiller's dried grains with solubles produced from new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Spiehs; M. H. Whitney; G. C. Shurson

    A study was conducted to evaluate the nutrient content and variability of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) originating from new (less than 5 yr old) ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota. Ten plants (8 MN, 2 SD) participated in the study, submitting a total of 118 samples. Samples were collected every 2 mo from ten ethanol plants in

  6. Geology Fieldnotes: Wind Cave National Park South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wind Cave National Park includes one of the world's longest and most complex caves and 28,295 acres of mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forest, and associated wildlife. The cave is well known for its outstanding display of boxwork, an unusual cave formation composed of thin calcite fins resembling honeycombs. Features include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses geologic history, structural geology, cave formations, and history of exploration of the region. The park maps section includes an area map of Wind Cave National Park and a detailed cave map.

  7. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (principal investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Schmer, F. A.; Streckfuss, J. T.; Wehde, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Change in the vegetative structure was taking place in the Black Hills. Temporal analysis of the areal extent of open meadows was accomplished using black and white and color infrared aerial photography. A reduction of nearly 1100 hectares of open meadows was determined using photointerpretation. Techniques were developed for the management of meandering lakes, including use of LANDSAT imagery for continuous monitoring, classification of hydrophytes on low altitude CIR imagery, and planning and evaluation of improvements and multiple uses on aerial photography and photo mosaics. LANDSAT data were analyzed statistically from small and entire study scene areas to determine the effect of soils stratifications of corn signatures. Band 5 early season and band 7 later season recorded the strongest evidence of the influence of soils on corn signatures. Significant strata were determined by a multiple range test.

  8. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid density on open-cage plants did not differ from that on noncaged plants and those accessible by small predators. In a separate 3-yr experiment, exclusion of ants from soybean plants did not lead to differences in soybean aphid density compared with ant-accessible plants. Overall, these results suggest that the soybean aphid natural enemy guild is unsaturated and could be enhanced to improve biological control of soybean aphid in South Dakota. PMID:24874151

  9. Evaluation of recharge to the Skunk Creek Aquifer from a constructed wetland near Lyons, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2002-01-01

    A wetland was constructed in the Skunk Creek flood plain near Lyons in southeast South Dakota to mitigate for wetland areas that were filled during construction of a municipal golf course for the city of Sioux Falls. A water-rights permit was obtained to allow the city to pump water from Skunk Creek into the wetland during times when the wetland would be dry. The amount of water seeping through the wetland and recharging the underlying Skunk Creek aquifer was not known. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls, conducted a study during 1997-2000 to evaluate recharge to the Skunk Creek aquifer from the constructed wetland. Three methods were used to estimate recharge from the wetland to the aquifer: (1) analysis of the rate of water-level decline during periods of no inflow; (2) flow-net analysis; and (3) analysis of the hydrologic budget. The hydrologic budget also was used to evaluate the efficiency of recharge from the wetland to the aquifer. Recharge rates estimated by analysis of shut-off events ranged from 0.21 to 0.82 foot per day, but these estimates may be influenced by possible errors in volume calculations. Recharge rates determined by flow-net analysis were calculated using selected values of hydraulic conductivity and ranged from 566,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 0.5 foot per day to 1,684,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 foot per day. Recharge rates from the hydrologic budget varied from 0.74 to 0.85 foot per day, and averaged 0.79 foot per day. The amount of water lost to evapotranspiration at the study wetland is very small compared to the amount of water seeping from the wetland into the aquifer. Based on the hydrologic budget, the average recharge efficiency was estimated as 97.9 percent, which indicates that recharging the Skunk Creek aquifer by pumping water into the study wetland is highly efficient. Because the Skunk Creek aquifer is composed of sand and gravel, the 'recharge mound' is less distinct than might be found in an aquifer composed of finer materials. However, water levels recorded from piezometers in and around the wetland do show a higher water table than periods when the wetland was dry. The largest increases in water level occur between the wetland channel and Skunk Creek. The results of this study demonstrate that artificially recharged wetlands can be useful in recharging underlying aquifers and increasing water levels in these aquifers.

  10. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.

    2005-12-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.

  11. Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jenika

    Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

  12. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  13. Geothermal feasibility-analysis II for Polo School District No. 29-2, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to heat the Polo High School and the community of Polo, consisting of 17 residential homes, 2 public school buildings, 5 commercial establishments, and the St. Liborius Church/School complex is addressed. Depending upon the availability of a water use permit from the South Dakota Department of Natural Resources and the payback period required for this type of project, there is heat energy in the existing geothermal resource to heat the Polo High School or even the entire community of Polo. The chemical analysis of the water indicates that any heat exchangers used should be stainless steel or thick-walled copper and piping should be plastic. An environmental assessment would be required to consider the disposal of geothermal fluid.

  14. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive land use planning process model is being developed in Meade County, South Dakota, using remote sensing technology. The proper role of remote sensing in the land use planning process is being determined by interaction of remote sensing specialists with local land use planners. The data that were collected by remote sensing techniques are as follows: (1) level I land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies; (2) detailed land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:24,000 from enlargement color prints of high altitude RB-57 photography; and (3) general soils map interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies. In addition to use of imagery as an interpretation aid, the utility of using photographs as base maps was demonstrated.

  15. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  16. LANDSAT's role in HUD 701 programs. [New Jersey and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of states concerning the use of LANDSAT in support of the comprehensive planning assistance program (Title IV, section 701) of the Housing and Community Development Act (1974) which is aimed mostly at small communities and rural counties, shows: (1) state governments used or were aware of the application of LANDSAT for inventorying land use and land cover at the state and local level; (2) use of satellite data was associated with the development of automated geographic information systems and the computer capability of handling and analyzing mapped information and other data tied to geographic coordinates and boundaries; and (3) LANDSAT capabilities in states tend to be institutionalized within state government information services where they can be readily assessed by state agencies. A summary of the state program for New Jersey and South Dakota is presented along with the state development guide plans, the rationale for using the satellite, and potential applications.

  17. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  18. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  19. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  20. Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

  1. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  2. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Waddell; T. J. Elliott; J. M. Vahrenkamp; W. M. Roggenthen; R. K. Sani; C. M. Anderson; S. S. Bang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil?like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulphur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational

  3. Molecular analysis of prokaryotic diversity in the deep subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurdeep Rastogi; Larry D. Stetler; Brent M. Peyton; Rajesh K. Sani

    2009-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to study the prokaryotic diversity in two soil samples\\u000a collected from the subsurface (1.34 km depth) of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA at two sites, the\\u000a Ross shaft and number 6 Winze. Microbial community analyses were performed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved\\u000a directly from

  4. Contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruelle

    1991-01-01

    The Missouri River in South Dakota is bordered by bluffs containing marine shale. Analyses of shale from these bluffs revealed that they contained maximum concentrations of 13.6 mg\\/kg dry weight selenium and 9.35 mg\\/kg dry weight cadmium. Wind and water erode the dry shale bluffs, releasing biologically available selenium to the river. Selenium also is present at relatively high concentrations

  5. Simulated Groundwater Flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree Aquifers, Rosebud Indian Reservation Area, South Dakota-Revisions with Data Through Water Year 2008 and Simulations of Potential Future Scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area and are used extensively for irrigation, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Drought or increased withdrawals from the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area have the potential to affect water levels in these aquifers. This report documents revisions and recalibration of a previously published three-dimensional, numerical groundwater-flow model for this area. Data for a 30-year period (water years 1979 through 2008) were used in steady-state and transient numerical simulations of groundwater flow. In the revised model, revisions include (1) extension of the transient calibration period by 10 years, (2) the use of inverse modeling for steady-state calibration, (3) model calibration to base flow for an additional four surface-water drainage basins, (4) improved estimation of transient aquifer recharge, (5) improved delineation of vegetation types, and (6) reduced cell size near large capacity water-supply wells. In addition, potential future scenarios were simulated to assess the potential effects of drought and increased groundwater withdrawals. The model comprised two layers: the upper layer represented the Ogallala aquifer and the lower layer represented the Arikaree aquifer. The model's grid had 168 rows and 202 columns, most of which were 1,640 feet (500 meters) wide, with narrower rows and columns near large water-supply wells. Recharge to the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers occurs from precipitation on the outcrop areas. The average recharge rates used for the steady-state simulation were 2.91 and 1.45 inches per year for the Ogallala aquifer and Arikaree aquifer, respectively, for a total rate of 255.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Discharge from the aquifers occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams as base flow and spring flow, and well withdrawals. Discharge rates for the steady-state simulation were 171.3 ft3/s for evapotranspiration, 74.4 ft3/s for net outflow to streams and springs, and 11.6 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Estimated horizontal hydraulic conductivity used for the numerical model ranged from 0.2 to 84.4 feet per day (ft/d) in the Ogallala aquifer and from 0.1 to 4.3 ft/d in the Arikaree aquifer. A uniform vertical hydraulic conductivity value of 4.2x10-4 ft/d was estimated for the Ogallala aquifer. Vertical hydraulic conductivity was estimated for five zones in the Arikaree aquifer and ranged from 8.8x10-5 to 3.7 ft/d. Average rates of recharge, maximum evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals were included in the steady-state simulation, whereas the time-varying rates were included in the transient simulation. Inverse modeling techniques were used for steady-state model calibration. These methods were designed to estimate parameter values that are, statistically, the most likely set of values to result in the smallest differences between simulated and observed hydraulic heads and base-flow discharges. For the steady-state simulation, the root mean square error for simulated hydraulic heads for all 383 wells was 27.3 feet. Simulated hydraulic heads were within ?50 feet of observed values for 93 percent of the wells. The potentiometric surfaces of the two aquifers calculated by the steady-state simulation established initial conditions for the transient simulation. For the transient simulation, the difference between the simulated and observed means for hydrographs was within ?40 feet for 98 percent of 44 observation wells. A sensitivity analysis was used to examine the response of the calibrated steady-state model to changes in model parameters including horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, evapotranspiration, recharge, and riverbed conductance. The model was most sensitive to recharge and maximum evapotranspiration and least sensitive to riverbed and spring conductances. To simulate a potential future drought scenario, a synthetic

  6. Contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Ruelle, R.

    1991-05-01

    The Missouri River in South Dakota is bordered by bluffs containing marine shale. Analyses of shale from these bluffs revealed that they contained maximum concentrations of 13.6 mg/kg dry weight selenium and 9.35 mg/kg dry weight cadmium. Wind and water erode the dry shale bluffs, releasing biologically available selenium to the river. Selenium also is present at relatively high concentrations in Missouri River tributary streams. The waterborne selenium is carried downstream and deposited in slack-water areas near islands and shorelines. Least tern (Sterna antillarum), a federally endangered species, and piping plover (Charadrius melodus), a federally threatened species, nest on Missouri River islands. Addled eggs of both species were collected during the 1988, 1989, and 1990 nesting seasons and were analyzed for selenium and other inorganics. The maximum concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of selenium detected were 13.0 and 11.1 respectively in piping plover and least tern eggs. Selenium concentrations remained elevated and stable in bird eggs during all three years of the study.

  7. Government Draw Bentonite Beds: a newly identified stratigraphic marker in the Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale, central South Dakota ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, T.C., Jr.; Chleborad, A.F.; Collins, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A grouping of four bentonite beds, herein named the Government Draw Bentonite Beds, is identified as a stratigraphic marker within the Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale. The beds are found west of Pierre, South Dakota, over an area of at least 130 mi2 (210 km2) where no other markers within the Virgin Creek Member have been identified. In this area, the Government Draw is a potential tool needed to determine the stratigraphic and structural relationships within the upper part of the Pierre Shale, heretofore little known. A better understanding of structural elements found in the Pierre Shale is needed to unravel the Late Cretaceous and younger geologic history of the area. -Authors

  8. Inventory of wetland habitat using remote sensing for the proposed Oahe irrigation unit in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, R. G.; Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

    1977-01-01

    An inventory of wetlands for the area included in the proposed Oahe irrigation project was conducted to provide supplemental data for the wildlife mitigation plan. Interpretation techniques for inventoring small wetlands in the low relief terrain of the Lake Dakota Plain were documented and data summaries included. The data were stored and tabulated in a computerized spatial data analysis system.

  9. Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and how new deposits might be found

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1974-01-01

    Of the recorded production of 34,694,552 troy ounces of gold mined in South Dakota through 1971, about 90 percent has come from Precambrian ore bodies in the Homestake mine at Lead in the northern Black Hills. Most of the rest has come from ore deposited in the Deadwood Formation (Cambrian) by hydrothermal replacement during early Tertiary igneous activity. About 99 percent of the total production has been within a radius of 5 miles (8 km) of Lead. Elsewhere, prospecting has been intense, both in the Precambrian rocks, which are exposed over an area 61 by 26 miles (98 by 42 km), and in nearby Paleozoic rocks. All the known ore bodies have been found either at the surface or in subsurface workings of operating mines. Efforts to find totally new deposits have been modest and sporadic; no comprehensive and systematic program has ever been attempted. Obviously, any exploration program should be aimed at finding a new deposit resembling the Homestake in the Precambrian, but discovery in the Deadwood of a new group of ore bodies containing several hundred thousand ounces of gold would certainly be worthwhile. Evidence has long been available that the Deadwood deposits and the Homestake deposit are somehow related. Current opinion is that (1) the Homestake ore is mainly Precambrian, (2) a trivial amount of Homestake ore is Tertiary, (3)gold in Deadwood basal conglomerate is largely of placer origin, and (4) the gold of replacement deposits in the Deadwood and in other rock units came originally from sources similar to the Homestake deposit or its parent materials. Homestake ore is virtually entirely contained in a unit of iron-formation locally known as the Homestake Formation, which seemingly had more gold in the original sediments than similar rocks exposed elsewhere in the Black Hills. Gold, sulfur, and other constituents were subsequently concentrated in ore shoots in zones of dilation caused by cross folds that deformed earlier major folds. These ore shoots are in metamorphic rocks of a grade just above the garnet isograd, in a zone where the principal iron-magnesium mineral of the iron-formation changes from a carbonate (sideroplesite) to a silicate (cummingtonite). This metamorphic reaction would release carbon dioxide to the fluid that presumably formed the ore bodies. In short, three controls over localization of the ore have been identified: (1) the cross folds; (2) the so-called Homestake Formation, which passes beneath Paleozoic rocks north of Lead and has not been proved to reappear anywhere else in the Black Hills (Other units of iron-formation less enriched in gold might locally become more like the Homestake Formation beneath the cover of Paleozoic rocks.}; (3} proximity to the garnet isograd--nearly all the exposed Precambrian rocks in the Black Hills are at a metamorphic grade higher than this isograd--and occurrence of this isograd zone mostly beneath Paleozoic rocks. In searching for new deposits, one can guess from existing data where Precambrian rocks of suitable nature may be concealed. The usefulness of such guesses can be increased if they are made with information about the distribution of gold in younger rocks. Gold in the Deadwood basal conglomerate would be the simplest indicator of a deposit once exposed on the pre-Deadwood surface. Tertiary replacement deposits in the Deadwood or other rocks, which obtained their gold from Precambrian sources that may be nearby or far away, can also be helpful; they, like anomalies found by geochemical sampling, at least outline the regions of mineralizing activity. A suitable approach to exploration is to make a thorough study of the stratigraphy, the structure, and the metals geochemistry of the Deadwood Formation and associated rocks, chiefly in the northern Black Hills but to a lesser extent elsewhere in localities where the Precambrian geology seems promising and where gold has been found nearby. Such a program, even if it does not yield

  10. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J/K carbonate and clastic strata juxtaposed against amphibolite grade metamorphic and ophiolitic complexes) Student comments during and after field camp support full immersion into a traditional summer geology field camp as an unforgettable experience (life changing in some cases) -- everyone who dreams to be a geologist should have a chance to taste it.

  11. 61 FR 4253 - Fall River Water Users SystemSouth Unit, Fall River County, South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-02-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Fall River Water Users System--South...Conservation Service, Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of...S. Department of Agriculture, gives notice that...prepared for the Fall River Water Users...

  12. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges to provide quality-assurance/quality-control measures for the level-1.5 scour estimates. An attempt was made to use the same flows among replicate analyses. Scour estimates do not necessarily have to be in numerical agreement to give the same results. For example, if contraction scour replicate analyses are 18.8 and 30.8 feet, both scour depths can indicate susceptibility to scour for which countermeasures may be needed, even though one number is much greater than the other number. Contraction scour has perhaps the greatest potential for being estimated differently in replicate visits. For contraction scour estimates at the various flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -7.8 to 5.5 feet, with a median difference of 0.4 foot and an average difference of 0.2 foot. Abutment scour appeared to be nearly as reproducible as contraction scour. For abutment scour estimates at the varying flows analyzed, differences between results ranged from -17.4 to 11 feet, with a median difference of 1.4 feet and an average difference of 1.7 feet. Estimates of pier scour tended to be the most consistently reproduced in replicate visits, with differences between results ranging from -0.3 to 0.5 foot, with a median difference of 0.0 foot and an average difference of 0.0 foot. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulics Engineering Center River Analysis Systems (HEC-RAS) software package was used to model stream hydraulics at the 41 sites with level-2 analyses. Level-1.5 analyses also were completed at these sites, and the performance of the level-1.5 method was assessed by comparing results to those from the more rigorous level-2 method. The envelope curve approach used in the level-1.5 method is designed to overestimate scour relative to the estimate from the level-2 scour analysis. In cases where the level-1.5 method estimated less scour than the level-2 method, the amount of underestimation generally was less than 3 feet. The level-1.5 method generally overestimated contraction, abutment, and pier scour relative to the level-2 method, as intended. Although the leve

  13. Peak-flow frequency estimates through 1994 for gaged streams in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, M.J.; Korkow, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Annual peak-flow data are listed for 250 continuous-record and crest-stage gaging stations in South Dakota. Peak-flow frequency estimates for selected recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years are given for 234 of these 250 stations. The log-Pearson Type III procedure was used to compute the frequency relations for the 234 stations, which in 1994 included 105 active and 129 inactive stations. The log-Pearson Type III procedure is recommended by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1982, "Guidelines for Determining Flood Flow Frequency."No peak-flow frequency estimates are given for 16 of the 250 stations because: (1) of extreme variability in data set; (2) more than 20 percent of years had no flow; (3) annual peak flows represent large outflow from a spring; (4) of insufficient peak-flow record subsequent to reservoir regulation; and (5) peak-flow records were combined with records from nearby stations.

  14. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  15. `Shelby427', a white-hulled spring oat, was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (SDAES) and released in 2010. Shelby427 was tested as experimental line

    E-print Network

    ORIGIN: `Shelby427', a white-hulled spring oat, was developed by the South Dakota Agricultural for feed grain, milling oat, companion crop, for- age, and/or straw production. RECOMMENDED CULTURAL in the 2008­2010 South Dakota Standard Variety Oat PerformanceTrials. Variety 24loc/yrs* Yield bu/a 24loc

  16. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of HydroSOLVE, Inc. These best fit theoretical response curves are based on a transmissivity of 24,000 ft2/d or a hydraulic conductivity of about 600 ft/d, a storage coefficient of 0.05, a specific yield of 0.42, and vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. The theoretical type curves match the observed data fairly closely at Wells A and B until about 2,500 minutes and 1,000 minutes, respectively, after pumping began. The increasing rate of drawdown after these breaks is an indication that a no-flow boundary (an area with much lower hydraulic conductivity) likely was encountered and that Wells A and B may be completed in a part of the Elm aquifer with limited hydraulic connection to the rest of the aquifer. Additional analysis indicates that if different assumptions regarding the screened interval for Well B and aquifer anisotropy are used, type curves can be calculated that fit the observed data using a lower specific yield that is within the commonly accepted range. When the screened interval for Well B was reduced to 5 ft near the top of the aquifer and horizontal hydraulic conductivity was set to 20 times vertical hydraulic conductivity, the type curves calculated using a specific yield of 0.1 and a transmissivity of 30,200 ft2/d also matched the observed data from Wells A and B fairly well. A version of the Theim equilibrium equation was used to calculate the theoretical drawdown in an idealized unconfined aquifer when a perfectly efficient well is being pumped at a constant rate. These calculations were performed for a range of pumping rates, drawdowns at the wells, and distances between wells that might be found in a production well field in the Elm aquifer. Although the aquifer test indicates that hydraulic conductivity near the well may be adequate to support a production well, the comparison of drawdown and recovery curves indicates the possibility that heterogeneities may limit the productive capacity of specific loca

  17. Habitat Use by Beaver Along the Big Sioux River in Eastern South Dakota

    E-print Network

    Dakota 57007 USA Abstract.-Habitat use by beavers Castor canadensis was investigated during 1985 and 1986 to livestock grazing (Smith and Flake 1983). Grazing can have negative effects on beaver Castor canadensis

  18. 78 FR 25464 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT926000-L142000000-BJ0000...Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the...

  19. Image variance and spatial structure in remotely sensed scenes. [South Dakota, California, Missouri, Kentucky, Louisiana, Tennessee, District of Columbia, and Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Digital images derived by scanning air photos and through acquiring aircraft and spcecraft scanner data were studied. Results show that spatial structure in scenes can be measured and logically related to texture and image variance. Imagery data were used of a South Dakota forest; a housing development in Canoga Park, California; an agricltural area in Mississppi, Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee; the city of Washington, D.C.; and the Klamath National Forest. Local variance, measured as the average standard deviation of brightness values within a three-by-three moving window, reaches a peak at a resolution cell size about two-thirds to three-fourths the size of the objects within the scene. If objects are smaller than the resolution cell size of the image, this peak does not occur and local variance simply decreases with increasing resolution as spatial averaging occurs. Variograms can also reveal the size, shape, and density of objects in the scene.

  20. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  2. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.; Hoffman, E.B.; Wipf, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of flood flow frequency were made for 111 continuous-record gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council. The procedure characterizes flood occurrence at a single site as a sequence of annual peak flows. The magnitudes of the annual peak flows are assumed to be independent random variables following a log-Pearson Type III probability distribution, which defines the probability that any single annual peak flow will exceed a specified discharge. By considering only annual peak flows, the flood-frequency analysis becomes the estimation of the log-Pearson annual-probability curve using the record of annual peak flows at the site. The recorded data are divided into two classes: systematic and historic. The systematic record includes all annual peak flows determined in the process of conducting a systematic gaging program at a site. In this program, the annual peak flow is determined for each and every year of the program. The systematic record is intended to constitute an unbiased and representative sample of the population of all possible annual peak flows at the site. In contrast to the systematic record, the historic record consists of annual peak flows that would not have been determined except for evidence indicating their unusual magnitude. Flood information acquired from historical sources almost invariably refers to floods of noteworthy, and hence extraordinary, size. Although historic records form a biased and unrepresentative sample, they can be used to supplement the systematic record. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted at the proposed Burdock uranium mine site, Burdock, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, J.M.; Jenkins, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    Separate aquifer tests were conducted in two aquifers which may be affected by TVA's proposed uranium mining operation near Burdock, South Dakota. In April 1979, a constant-discharge test was conducted in the Chilson member of the Lakota formation which comprises the principal ore body and an aquifer of regional importance. The hydraulic properties of both the Lakota (Chilson) aquifer and the overlying Fuson shale aquitard were determined. A second test was conducted in July 1979 in the Fall River aquifer which overlies the Fuson. The hydraulic characteristics of the Fall River aquifer and a second estimate of the Fuson aquitard properties were obtained from the test. The test results indicate that the two aquifers are hydrologically connected via: (1) general leakage through the Fuson shale; and (2) direct pathways; probably in the form of numerous old (pre-TVA) unplugged exploration boreholes. The hydrualic properties of the Fall River, Fuson and Lakota units obtained from the aquifer test analyses were incorporated into a computer model of the site geohydrologic system. Results indicate the transmissivity and storativity of the Lakota (Chilson) aquifer are approximately 1400 gallons per day per foot (gpd/ft) and 1.0 x 10/sup -4/, respectively. The Fall River aquifer has an estimated transmissivity of 400 gpd/ft and a storativity of about 1.4 x 10/sup -5/. The hydraulic conductivity of the Fuson aquitard is estimated at approximately 10/sup -3/ foot per day. The specific storativity of the Fuson was not measured but is assumed to be about 10/sup -6/ ft/sup -1/. 5 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79.

    PubMed

    Stendell, R C; Gilmer, D S; Coon, N A; Swineford, D M

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974-79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks. PMID:24248525

  5. HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G. (principal investigator); Heilman, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

  6. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurdeep Rastogi; Shariff Osman; Ravi K. Kukkadapu; Mark H. Engelhard; Parag A. Vaishampayan; Gary L. Andersen; Rajesh K. Sani

    2010-01-01

    A microbial census on deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from\\u000a the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays\\u000a (PhyloChip). Soil mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer\\u000a spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated silicates and iron minerals

  7. Seasonal movements and Home-range use by female pronghorns in sagebrush-steppe communities of western south dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, C.N.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal movements by pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) within the easternmost extension of sagebrush-steppe communities is limited. Current hypotheses regarding movement patterns suggest that pronghorns initiate seasonal movements in response to severe winter weather, snowfall patterns, spatial and temporal variation in forage abundance, and availability of water. From January 2002 to August 2005, we monitored movements of 76 adult (???1.5 years) female pronghorns on 2 study areas (Harding and Fall River counties) in western South Dakota. We collected 8,750 visual locations, calculated 204 home ranges, and documented 17 seasonal movements. Eighty-four percent (n = 55) of pronghorns were nonmigratory and 10% (n = 6) were conditional migrators. Mean distance between summer and winter range was 23.1 km (SE = 2.8 km, n = 13). Five adult pronghorns (8%) dispersed a mean distance of 37.6 km (SE = 12.4 km); of which 1 female moved a straight-line distance of 75.0 km. Winter and summer home-range size varied (P < 0.0001) between study sites. Mean 95% adaptive kernel winter and summer home-range size of pronghorns was 55.5 and 19.7 km 2, respectively, in Harding County and 127.2 and 65.9 km2, respectively, in Fall River County. Nonmigratory behavior exhibited by pronghorns was likely associated with minimal snow cover and moderate temperatures during winter 2002-2004. Variation in size of adult seasonal home ranges between sites was likely associated with differences in forage distribution and availability between regions. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Ectoparasites in black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from the largest reintroduced population of the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nyeema C; Livieri, Travis M; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    The black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes, is an endangered carnivore endemic to the grasslands of North America. We present the first investigation of ectoparasites associated with black-footed ferrets since reintroduction. We sampled more than 200 individuals from one of the largest and most successful reintroduced populations located in the Conata Basin of South Dakota, USA. We compared our findings with ectoparasite assemblages of sympatric carnivores and historic ferret records. We collected more than 1,000 ectoparasites consisting mainly of three flea and tick species, two of which were known historically from South Dakota. Despite our extensive sampling efforts, we did not detect any lice. This is notable because a putative host-specific louse, Neotrichodectes sp., was presumed to have gone extinct when black-footed ferrets were extirpated from the wild. The ectoparasite assemblage on black-footed ferrets comprised only generalist parasites, particularly those found on their prey such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.). Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant ectoparasite, representing 57% of all ectoparasites detected; a flea vector important in the persistence and transmission of plague. Black-footed ferrets like other endangered species undergo repeated parasite removal and vaccination efforts to facilitate population recovery, which may have unintentionally contributed to their depauperate ectoparasite community. PMID:24499333

  9. Water, Bed-Sediment, and Fish-Tissue Quality within the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, North Dakota and South Dakota, September 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    During September 2006, samples from public water-delivery systems, ground water, surface water, bed-sediment, and fish-tissue sources were collected at 32 locations within the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation and analyzed to aid in the evaluation of any immediate water-quality concerns. Samples were collected from Solen, Selfridge, and Fort Yates, North Dakota, water-delivery systems and included raw water samples and treated water samples from water users on the water-delivery systems. Samples from the Solen and Selfridge systems were analyzed for dissolved major inorganic and dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Samples from the Fort Yates system were analyzed for dissolved major inorganic concentrations, dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations, total and dissolved nutrient concentrations, total and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and volatile organic compound concentrations. Water samples were collected from ground-water wells throughout the reservation only in North Dakota and analyzed for dissolved major inorganic concentrations and dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Water samples were collected at locations on the Missouri River and its major tributaries within the reservation and analyzed for dissolved major inorganic concentrations and dissolved minor and trace inorganic concentrations; bed sediment was collected at these sites and analyzed for minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Fish-tissue and liver samples were collected from several species on the Missouri River near Fort Yates and analyzed for minor and trace inorganic concentrations. Results of the water-quality analysis revealed very little of concern, with the exception of elevated boron concentrations in the drinking water and ground water in the area of Selfridge and Solen and minor exceedences of total trihalomethanes in the Fort Yates water-delivery system.

  10. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Whitewood Creek site, Lawrence, Meade, and Butte Counties, South Dakota (first remedial action), Final report, March 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    The Whitewood Creek site is a mine tailings deposit area near the town of Whitewood in Lawrence, Mead, and Butte counties, South Dakota. From 1877 to 1977, arsenic-rich tailings from gold and ore mining and milling operations, conducted by the Homestake Mining Company, were discharged directly into Whitewood Creek. Residential soil contains arsenic contamination as a result of a building in the tailings area. The selected remedial action for the site includes removing and/or covering frequently used areas with clean surface soil (arsenic <20 mg/kg) in residential areas with arsenic levels above 100 mg/kg followed by disposal of the arsenic-contaminated soil, if approved by EPA, and revegetation of the remediated area; soil sampling at all remediated areas to confirm that arsenic levels are below 100 mg/kg. EPA is invoking ARAR waivers based on the technical impracticability of remediating contaminated ground and surface waters. The estimated present worth cost for the remedial action is $882,813, which includes an annual O and M cost of $12,000 for years 1-5 and $6,000 for years 6-30.

  12. Hydrochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Buffalo-Lignite, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Bard, C.S.; White, R.E.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-08-31

    Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. Generalized geologic maps of the project areas are provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater in the Custer project area with anomalously high uranium concentrations occur along the eastern margins of North Cave Hill. Groundwater in this area is derived primarily from the Paleocene Tongue River Formation where high values were determined for U, 1000.U/specific conductance, 1000.U/B, U/SO/sub 4/, Ba, Ca, Mg, Mol, and Sr. Anomalously high uranium concentrations in stream sediments in the Custer project area are derived from the Paleocene Tongue River and Ludlow Formations and are found in four areas: (1) south of Table Mountain, (2) North Cave Hills, (3) east of South Cave Hills, and (4) surrounding Teppee Butte. Sediments with high uranium concentrations are associated with high values for U-FL/U-NT, As, Mo, and Se. Groundwater in the Slim Buttes project area with anomalously high uranium concentrations occur along the northern and southern regions of the Slim Buttes area. Groundwater in this area is derived almost exclusively from the Tertiary White River Group where high values were determined for U, 1000.U/specific conductance, 1000.U/B, U/SO/sub 4/, As, Se, and Si. Anomalously high uranium concentrations in stream sediments in the Slim Buttes project area are derived primarily from the Tertiary White River Group and the Arikaree-Ogallala Sediments. These high uranium concentrations are found primarily scattered along the Slim Buttes with slightly higher concentrations occurring in the central and southern regions. High concentrations are also found north of Flat Top Butte and in areas southeast of Slim Buttes. Sediments with high U concentrations are associated with high values for As, Co, Se, and V.

  13. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  14. South Dakota DOT 1) Rural PCCP -0.0 Band California Profilograph and incentive for less than 25" per mile max incentive

    E-print Network

    South Dakota DOT 1) Rural PCCP - 0.0 Band California Profilograph and incentive for less than 25. No incentive used if not dowels present. If dowels 10 cents per yard per PI less than 5.0. Rural HMA - IRI specification for PCC Grinding. SDDOT also plans to work toward a Rural PCCP IRI specification in the next 3

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose-degrading Bacteria from the Deep Subsurface of the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37ºC) and thermophilic (60ºC) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the s...

  16. Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium-osmium sulfide geochronology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan M. Morelli; Chris C. Bell; Robert A. Creaser; Antonio Simonetti

    2010-01-01

    The Homestake gold deposit, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, is one of the largest known hydrothermal gold deposits globally, with total mining production exceeding 40 Moz Au. Rhenium-osmium geochronology of ore-associated arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite was performed in an effort to delineate the timing of gold mineralization in relation to known tectonothermal events in the northern Black Hills.

  17. SHIFTS IN LANDSCAPE ATTRIBUTES AND INTERACTIONS WITH ADULT WESTERN CORN ROOTWORMS IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT SITE FROM 1997-2001

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworms (CRW) create economic and environmental concerns in the Corn Belt region of the United States. In order to supplement the population control tactics of the areawide program in Brookings, South Dakota, we used GIS to examine the spatial relationships over a five-year period (1...

  18. Food Habits of Juvenile Pallid Sturgeon and Adult Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River Downstream of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Wanner; Dane A. Shuman; David W. Willis

    2007-01-01

    We examined the seasonal food habits and diet overlap of juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and adult shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) in the Missouri River downstream of Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota. Seasonal trends were found for both sturgeon species as chironomids were consumed in the greatest numbers and dry weights during early summer, ephemeropterans dominated during late summer, and

  19. Humanities Resource Center Catalog. A Guide to Speakers, Packaged Programs, and Media Materials Available from the South Dakota Committee on the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Committee on the Humanities, Brookings.

    The purpose of the Humanities Resource Center is to make humanities programs available as efficiently and expeditiously as possible to all organizations in South Dakota. This catalog lists speakers, packaged programs, and audiovisual materials related to various disciplines of the humanities, for example, philosophy, ethics, comparative religion,…

  20. Seasonal Variation in Sampling Indices for Shovelnose Sturgeon, River Carpsucker, and Shorthead Redhorse Collected from the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George R. Jordan; David W. Willis

    2001-01-01

    Gill nets and electrofishing were utilized in the Missouri River below Fort Randall Dam, South Dakota to sample river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). Shorthead redhorse, shovelnose sturgeon, and river carpsucker all exhibited significant monthly variation in mean relative weight (Wr) during at least one sample year (P < 0.05). In general, Wr

  1. Compilation of Data to Support Development of a Pesticide Management Plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe, Charles Mix County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working with the Yankton Sioux Tribe to develop a pesticide management plan to reduce potential for contamination of ground water that may result from the use of registered pesticides. The purpose of this study was to compile technical information to support development of a pesticide management plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe for the area within the Yankton Sioux Reservation, Charles Mix County, South Dakota. Five pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) were selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the management plan approach because they had been identified as probable or possible human carcinogens and they often had been associated with ground-water contamination in many areas and at high concentrations. This report provides a compilation of data to support development of a pesticide management plan. Available data sets are summarized in the text of this report, and actual data sets are provided in one Compact Disk?Read-Only Memory that is included with the report. The compact disk contains data sets pertinent to the development of a pesticide management plan. Pesticide use for the study area is described using information from state and national databases. Within South Dakota, pesticides commonly are applied to corn and soybean crops, which are the primary row crops grown in the study area. Water-quality analyses for pesticides are summarized for several surface-water sites. Pesticide concentrations in most samples were found to be below minimum reporting levels. Topographic data are presented in the form of 30-meter digital elevation model grids and delineation of drainage basins. Geohydrologic data are provided for the surficial deposits and the bedrock units. A high-resolution (30-by-30 meters) land-cover and land-use database is provided and summarized in a tabular format. More than 91 percent of the study area is used for row crops, pasture, or hay, and almost 6 percent of the study area is covered by water or wetlands. Average monthly and yearly precipitation data are summarized in a tabular format. Irrigation information associated with permitted and licensed diversion points is provided. A composite of aerial photographs of Charles Mix County is provided. This report also describes and summarizes the data sets and files, and how the data are relevant to development of a pesticide management plan.

  2. Normal crop calendars. Volume 2: The spring wheat states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The state crop calendars for the principal spring wheat producing states within the United States are presented. These crop calendars are an update of those produced for the large area crop inventory experiment multilabeling task during 1978and are compiled for the foreign commodity production forecasting (FCPF) project of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing program.

  3. 77 FR 53906 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT926000-L19100000-BJ0000-LRCME1G05121...Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the...

  4. 77 FR 22610 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT926000-L19100000-BJ0000-LRCME1G05120...Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the...

  5. 76 FR 64968 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT926000-L19100000-BJ0000-LRCME0G04510...Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the...

  6. 77 FR 38321 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT926000-L19100000-BJ0000-LRCME1G04810...Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the...

  7. 77 FR 22610 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT926000-L19100000-BJ0000-LRCME1G04814...Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the...

  8. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  9. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  10. Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the Ridgway Area, Southwestern Colorado

    E-print Network

    Serradji, Hayet

    2008-01-30

    B. S., Algerian Petroleum Institute, Boumerdes, Algeria, 2005. Submitted to the graduate program in Geology and to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master... Depositional Environments and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the Ridgway Area, Southwestern Colorado By C2007 Hayet Serradji B.S., University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediane, Algeria, 2002...

  11. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Intrusive Rocks, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Fawcett, T. C.; Gregiore, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming are a large Precambrian-cored Laramide uplift. Intruding the Black Hills are a diverse suite of igneous rocks, which include phonolites, trachytes, latites, garnet-bearing rhyolites, and pyroxenites. These intrusive bodies range in size from several meter outcrop-scale bodies, to several 10s of km wide intrusive complexes. New geochronology (40Ar-39Ar) data indicate many of these intrusive rocks are between 58 and 45 Ma in age (Duke at al, 2002). As part of a larger paleomagnetic study aimed at Jurassic strata surrounding the Black Hills, a collection of 20 sites and 145 samples of the Eocene intrusive rocks was made. A combination of alternating field, thermal, and liquid nitrogen step-wise demagnetization revealed that, with a few exceptions, these rocks have two well-defined magnetization components. The first-removed component is interpreted to be a present (dipole) field magnetization, and is removed by 10 to 30 mT a.f., or 200 C thermal demagnetization steps. The second-removed components have either positive or negative inclinations, and are defined by demagnetization steps between 30 and 200 mT a.f., or 300 to 630 C thermal demagnetization steps. These components are interpreted to be ancient, presumably Eocene, magnetizations. A preliminary mean of the normal-polarity sites is D=352, I=59.3, k=26.7, a95=18.2, N=4, and of the reverse-polarity sites is D=154.9, I=-61.3, k=23.1, a95=18.2, N=4. The combined mean direction is D=344.9, I=60.3, k=28.8, a95=10.5, N=8. Two sites of rhyolites at Mt. Theodore Roosevelt have well-defined magnetization components, but either mixed polarity (Site 99Trr1), or reverse-polarity with what might be a transitional-field direction (D=27.7, I=-37.4, k=18.0, a95=18.6, n=5), and are not included in the calculation of means. The magnetizations recorded by these Eocene rocks are essentially identical to the expected direction for the Black Hills calculated from the Diehl et al., 1983 Eocene reference pole for North America. This result indicates that the Black Hills have experienced no rotation or large-scale tilting since the Eocene, that these intrusive rocks are suitable for additional study of geomagnetic field behavior. In addition, the mean direction reported here is similar to the Jurassic Morrison Formation from the Black Hills (D=349.7, I=61.8, k=87.4, a95=4.5, N=13), supporting an assertion that the Jurassic rocks had been remagnetized during the Eocene.

  12. Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1999-01-01

    Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the upper Minnelusa Formation, which is caused by upward leakage of relatively fresh water from the Madison aquifer. The anhydrite dissolution and dedolomitization account for the net removal of minerals that would lead to breccia pipe formation by gravitational collapse. Breccia pipes in the lower Minnelusa Formation are uncommon; however, networks of interconnected breccia layers and breccia dikes are common. These networks, along with vertical fractures and faults, are likely pathways for transmitting upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. It is concluded that suspended sediment discharged at Cascade Springs probably results from episodic collapse brecciation that is caused by subsurface dissolution of anhydrite beds and cements of the upper Minnelusa Formation, accompanied by replacement of dolomite by calcite. It is further concluded that many breccia pipes probably are the throats of artesian springs that have been abandoned and exposed by erosion. The locations of artesian spring-discharge points probably have been shifting outwards from the center of the Black Hills uplift, essentially keeping pace with regional erosion over geologic time. Thus, artesian springflow probably is a factor in controlling water levels in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, with hydraulic head declining over geologic time, in response to development of new discharge points. Development of breccia pipes as throats of artesian springs would greatly enhance vertical hydraulic conductivity in the immediate vicinity of spring-discharge points. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the Minnelusa Formation also may be enhanced by dissolution processes related to upward leakage from the Madison aquifer. Potential processes could include dissolution resulting from leakage in the vicinity of breccia pipes that are abandoned spring throats, active spring discharge, development of subsurface breccias with no visible surface expression or spring discharge, as well as general areal leakage

  13. Seismic-reflection technique used to verify shallow rebound fracture zones in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, T.C., Jr.; King, K.W.; Collins, D.S.; Williams, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Shallow seismic-reflection data are presented to demonstrate their usefulness for locating and showing the continuity and lateral extent of rebound fracture zones in the Pierre Shale. Rebound fracture zones, identified in boreholes near Hayes, South Dakota, have variable depth, thickness, and character, thus making questionable the correlation of these zones between holes. Thus, the subsequent determination of dip and of continuity of the zones is somewhat tenuous, especially if the fracture characteristics change significantly between holes. Once rebound fracture zones have been identified and located by borehole geotechnical and geologic data, seismic profiles can reveal the extent and geometry of fractures in these zones, thus providing valuable preconstruction information without the cost of additional drilling.-Authors

  14. Remote sensing for evaluating post-disaster damage conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota tornado, 23 July 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusche, A. E.; Myers, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation. The immediate advantages of the data are identified as a 'quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.

  15. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-05-31

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

  16. Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmer, F. A. (principal investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

  17. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

  18. A probable extralimital post-breeding assembly of Bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola breeds predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

  19. A probable extralimital postbreeding assembly of bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south-central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

  20. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

  1. Hydrologic Characterization for Spring Creek and Hydrologic Budget and Model Scenarios for Sheridan Lake, South Dakota, 1962-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Norton, Parker A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks to characterize hydrologic information relevant to management of water resources associated with Sheridan Lake, which is formed by a dam on Spring Creek. This effort consisted primarily of characterization of hydrologic data for a base period of 1962 through 2006, development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake for this timeframe, and development of an associated model for simulation of storage deficits and drawdown in Sheridan Lake for hypothetical release scenarios from the lake. Historically, the dam has been operated primarily as a 'pass-through' system, in which unregulated outflows pass over the spillway; however, the dam recently was retrofitted with an improved control valve system that would allow controlled releases of about 7 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or less from a fixed depth of about 60 feet (ft). Development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake involved compilation, estimation, and characterization of data sets for streamflow, precipitation, and evaporation. The most critical data need was for extrapolation of available short-term streamflow records for Spring Creek to be used as the long-term inflow to Sheridan Lake. Available short-term records for water years (WY) 1991-2004 for a gaging station upstream from Sheridan Lake were extrapolated to WY 1962-2006 on the basis of correlations with streamflow records for a downstream station and for stations located along two adjacent streams. Comparisons of data for the two streamflow-gaging stations along Spring Creek indicated that tributary inflow is approximately proportional to the intervening drainage area, which was used as a means of estimating tributary inflow for the hydrologic budget. Analysis of evaporation data shows that sustained daily rates may exceed maximum monthly rates by a factor of about two. A long-term (1962-2006) hydrologic budget was developed for computation of reservoir outflow from Sheridan Lake for the historical pass-through operating system. Two inflow components (stream inflow and precipitation) and one outflow component (evaporation) were considered. The hydrologic budget uses monthly time steps within a computational year that includes two 6-month periods - May through October, for which evaporation is accounted for, and November through April, when evaporation is considered negligible. Results indicate that monthly evaporation rates can substantially exceed inflow during low-flow periods, and potential exists for outflows to begin approaching zero-flow conditions substantially prior to the onset of zero-inflow conditions, especially when daily inflow and evaporation are considered. Results also indicate that September may be the month for greatest potential benefit for enhancing fish habitat and other ecosystem values in downstream reaches of Spring Creek with managed releases of cool water. Computed monthly outflows from Sheridan Lake for September are less than 1.0 ft3/s for 8 of the 44 years (18 percent) and are less than 2.0 ft3/s for 14 of the 44 years (32 percent). Conversely, none of the computed outflows for May are less than 2.0 ft3/s. A short-term (July through September 2007) data set was used to calculate daily evaporation from Sheridan Lake and to evaluate the applicability of published pan coefficients. Computed values of pan coefficients of approximately 1.0 and 1.1 for two low-flow periods are larger than the mean annual pan coefficient of 0.74 for the area that is reported in the literature; however, the computed values are consistent with pan coefficients reported elsewhere for similar late summer and early fall periods. Thus, these results supported the use of variable monthly pan coefficients for the long-term hydrologic budget. A hydrologic model was developed using the primary components of the hydrologic budget and was used to simulate monthly storage deficits and drawdown for Sheridan Lake using hypothetical

  2. Isolation and characterization of cellulose-degrading bacteria from the deep subsurface of the Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurdeep Rastogi; Geetha L. Muppidi; Raghu N. Gurram; Akash Adhikari; Kenneth M. Bischoff; Stephen R. Hughes; William A. Apel; Sookie S. Bang; David J. Dixon; Rajesh K. Sani

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (60°C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity\\u000a in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South\\u000a Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy\\u000a metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and

  3. Evolution of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning and Storm Structure in the Spencer, South Dakota, Tornadic Supercell of 30 May 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence D. Carey; Walter A. Petersen; Steven A. Rutledge

    2003-01-01

    On 30 May 1998, a tornado devastated the town of Spencer, South Dakota. The Spencer tornado (rated F4 on the Fujita tornado intensity scale) was the third and most intense of five tornadoes produced by a single supercell storm during an approximate 1-h period. The supercell produced over 76% positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a peak positive CG flash rate

  4. Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium–osmium sulfide geochronology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan M. Morelli; Chris C. Bell; Robert A. Creaser; Antonio Simonetti

    2010-01-01

    The Homestake gold deposit, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, is one of the largest known hydrothermal gold deposits\\u000a globally, with total mining production exceeding 40 Moz Au. Rhenium–osmium geochronology of ore-associated arsenopyrite and\\u000a pyrrhotite was performed in an effort to delineate the timing of gold mineralization in relation to known tectonothermal events\\u000a in the northern Black Hills. Arsenopyrite

  5. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts. PMID:21544497

  6. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  7. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU to a potentially novel phylum that falls sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and grouped most closely to an ammonia–oxidizing, carbon–fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that were often identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community with unique phylotypes identified within each sample. PMID:20662386

  8. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Waddell, E J; Elliott, T J; Vahrenkamp, J M; Roggenthen, W M; Sani, R K; Anderson, C M; Bang, S S

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil-like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulphur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota, typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU belonging to a potentially novel phylum that fell sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and were grouped most closely to an ammonia-oxidizing, carbon-fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that have often been identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulphur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community, with unique phylotypes identified within each sample. PMID:20662386

  9. Microbial and mineralogical characterizations of soils collected from the deep biosphere of the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Engelhard, Mark; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Andersen, Gary L; Sani, Rajesh K

    2010-10-01

    A microbial census on deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Soil mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable similarities in microbial communities (1,360 common OTUs) despite distinct geochemical characteristics. Fifty-seven phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity by capturing several physiological groups such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. High-density microarrays revealed the greatest prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines. PMID:20386898

  10. Molecular analysis of prokaryotic diversity in the deep subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Stetler, Larry D; Peyton, Brent M; Sani, Rajesh K

    2009-08-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to study the prokaryotic diversity in two soil samples collected from the subsurface (1.34 km depth) of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA at two sites, the Ross shaft and number 6 Winze. Microbial community analyses were performed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved directly from soil samples. Geochemical characterization of soils revealed high amount of toxic metals such as As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and U at both the sites. Phylogenetic analyses showed that soil samples were predominantly composed of phylotypes related to phylum Proteobacteria. Other phyla detected in libraries were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate divisions OP10 and TM7. The majority (>95%) of the phylotypes retrieved in the libraries were most closely related to environmental sequences from yet-uncultured bacteria representing a hitherto unidentified diversity. The archaeal communities at both the sites exhibited lower diversity and were most closely affiliated to uncultivated species within the Crenarchaeota. Results showed the existence of diverse microbial populations in deep subsurface environment of the Homestake gold mine. Statistical analyses demonstrated that each site harbored phylogenetically distinct microbial populations that were more diverse at Ross site compare to winze site. PMID:19763410

  11. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2010-03-13

    A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  12. Geomorphic Classification and Assessment of Channel Dynamics in the Missouri National Recreational River, South Dakota and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    A multiscale geomorphic classification was established for the 39-mile, 59-mile, and adjacent segments of the Missouri National Recreational River administered by the National Park Service in South Dakota and Nebraska. The objective of the classification was to define naturally occurring clusters of geomorphic characteristics that would be indicative of discrete sets of geomorphic processes, with the intent that such a classification would be useful in river-management and rehabilitation decisions. The statistical classification was based on geomorphic characteristics of the river collected from 1999 orthophotography and the persistence of classified units was evaluated by comparison with similar datasets for 2003 and 2004 and by evaluating variation of bank erosion rates by geomorphic class. Changes in channel location and form were also explored using imagery and maps from 1993-2004, 1941 and 1894. The multivariate classification identified a hierarchy of naturally occurring clusters of reach-scale geomorphic characteristics. The simplest level of the hierarchy divides the river from segments into discrete reaches characterized by single and multithread channels and additional hierarchical levels established 4-part and 10-part classifications. The classification system presents a physical framework that can be applied to prioritization and design of bank stabilization projects, design of habitat rehabilitation projects, and stratification of monitoring and assessment sampling programs.

  13. GREAT BLUE HERON NESTING BIOLOGY AND HABITAT USE ON THE JAMES RIVER IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    activities, and habitat use of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) nesting in the Glendale heronry, South, Project 7116-029, and McIntire-Stennis funding. #12;INTRODUCTION The great blue heron (Ardea herodias

  14. Measurements of ambient volatile organic carbons in rural, urban and areas with oil and gas activity in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Prenni, A. J.; Day, D.; Zhou, Y.; Sive, B. C.; Schichtel, B. A.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Recent increases in oil and gas extraction activities and well counts in North Dakota have raised questions on the ambient impact of the emissions from these processes. A Chevy Tahoe SUV was equipped with a PICARRO G2203 analyzer to measure methane and acetylene, a PICARRO A0941 mobile kit to measure GPS coordinates, an AethLabs micro-aethalometer to measure black carbon concentrations and a Radiance Research nephelometer to measure light scattering coefficient values. The SUV was used as a mobile platform to drive through different locations in North Dakota and measure the compounds noted above and also collect ambient air samples. The methane and acetylene concentrations were used to identify areas of interest, where evacuated stainless steel canisters were used to collect air samples and then transported to the laboratory where a three gas chromatograph system equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID), two electron capture detectors (ECD), and a mass spectrometer (MS) was used to measure various VOC concentrations. The results from these measurements will be discussed here with an emphasis on the differences between rural and urban areas and locations with high instances oil and gas activities.

  15. Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (principal investigators)

    1980-01-01

    Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

  16. 75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R08-RCRA-2010-0933, FRL-9244-1] South...Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), allows the Environmental Protection...changes to its hazardous waste program under RCRA. EPA has determined that these...

  17. Bluegill Seasonal Habitat Selection, Movement, and Relationship to Angler Locations in a South Dakota Glacial Lake

    E-print Network

    Bluegill Seasonal Habitat Selection, Movement, and Relationship to Angler Locations in a South University 2004 #12;Bluegill Seasonal Habitat Selection, Movement, and Relationship to Angler LocationsView. To the faculty and staff of the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department, for teaching me the theoretical

  18. Quantification of mass loading to Strawberry Creek near the Gilt Edge mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2006-01-01

    Although remedial actions have taken place at the Gilt Edge mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, questions remain about a possible hydrologic connection along shear zones between some of the pit lakes at the mine site and Strawberry Creek. Spatially detailed chemical sampling of stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in June 2003 as part of a mass-loading study by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the possible connection of shear zones to the stream. Stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution; discharge increased by 25.3 liters per second along the study reach, with 9.73 liters per second coming from three tributaries and the remaining increase coming from small springs and dispersed, subsurface inflow. Chemical differences among inflow samples were distinguished by cluster analysis and indicated that inflows ranged from those unaffected by interaction with mine wastes to those that could have been affected by drainage from pit lakes. Mass loading to the stream from several inflows resulted in distinct chemical changes in stream water along the study reach. Mass loading of the mine-related metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, principally occurred from the discharge from the Gilt Edge mine, and those metals were substantially attenuated downstream. Secondary loadings of metals occurred in the vicinity of the Oro Fino shaft and from two more inflows about 200 m downstream from there. These are both locations where shear zones intersect the stream and may indicate loading associatedwith these zones. Loading downstream from the Oro Fino shaft had a unique chemical character, high in base-metal concentrations, that could indicate an association with water in the pit lakes. The loading from these downstream sources, however, is small in comparison to that from the initial mine discharge and does not appear to have a substantial impact on Strawberry Creek.

  19. Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garavito, A.M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 A??, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ?? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 ?? 10-19 m2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 ?? 10-5 m-1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 ?? 10-11 m2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10-21 to 10-20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggebo, S.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Quamen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands to tillage has increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore, we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old [10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1 [cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity. Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields. Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

  1. Solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, near Edgemont, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Benzel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    This report releases solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. These cores were collected by Powertech Uranium Corporation, and material not used for their analyses were given to the U.S. Geological Survey for additional sampling and analyses. These additional analyses included total carbon and sulfur, whole rock acid digestion for major and trace elements, 234U/238U activity ratios, X-ray diffraction, thin sections, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and cathodoluminescence. This report provides the methods and data results from these analyses along with a short summary of observations.

  2. Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

  3. Tobacco use among South Dakotans.

    PubMed

    Winter, Colleen; Ahrendt, Linda; Clarke, Jacy; Moline, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States and in South Dakota. Reducing tobacco use among South Dakotans is critical to alleviate the heavy burden of preventable deaths, illnesses and excessive health care costs that result from using tobacco products. The South Dakota Department of Health's Tobacco Control Program has collaborated with various agencies and coalitions to discourage people from starting to smoke, to help current smokers quit and to protect all people from exposure to secondhand smoke. The South Dakota Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the South Dakota Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS), the South Dakota Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), South Dakota Vital Statistics and the South Dakota Perinatal Health Risk Assessment Survey are the primary instruments used to measure progress toward achieving the goals and objectives of South Dakota's tobacco control effort. Since 2001, the South Dakota Department of Health's Tobacco Control Program has been implementing comprehensive statewide programs to reduce tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke. Concurrent with the comprehensive tobacco control program implementation, the prevalence of cigarette smoking declined significantly from its peak of 27.2 percent in 1998 to its current low of 19.8 percent in 2007, which is equal to the national average of 19.8 percent. Use of spit tobacco among adult South Dakotans also has declined from 6.8 percent in 2003 to 5.8 percent in 2007. There also has been a reduction in the number of high school students that are current smokers, i.e., having smoked cigarettes on one or more of the past 30 days, from 33 percent in 2001 to 25 percent in 2007.2 The prevalence of current smokers among middle school-aged South Dakotans has decreased from 8 percent in 2005 to 6 percent in 2007. Important shifts have occurred in the struggle to quit smoking: In South Dakota, 57.2 percent of current smokers are trying to quit. In addition, 80.8 percent of respondents report that smoking is not allowed in any work area. Positive changes have taken place in South Dakotans' attitudes toward exposure to secondhand smoke. There is widespread awareness of the harm of secondhand smoke, with 83 percent of respondents indicating that they believed secondhand smoke causes lung cancer. These positive trends across a multitude of indicators suggest that the comprehensive tobacco control effort in South Dakota is having an effect in reducing the harms of tobacco. The decreases in smoking prevalence among South Dakota adults and youth are some of the most encouraging findings. However, challenges remain. The tobacco industry is well aware of efforts to reduce tobacco use and continues to develop and promote new products. Despite decreasing cigarette use among all adults in South Dakota, 18- to 24-year-olds still have the highest smoking rate, at 29.3 percent. Surveillance will continue to monitor tobacco use trends in South Dakota and assess the impact of tobacco control efforts. Some of the most important findings are summarized in the following report. PMID:19363889

  4. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  6. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

  7. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area No. 22 in foreground, Building No. 40, No. 42, and No. 43 at left rear, note boulders as a landscape design element. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 45, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, south of Foothill Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

  10. The Nation's Report Card Science 2011 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 8, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A representative sample of 122,000 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science assessment, which is designed to measure students' knowledge and abilities in the areas of physical science, life science, and Earth and space sciences. This report covers the overall results, achievement level…

  11. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF FISHES IN A SOUTH DAKOTA POWER PLANT COOLING RESERVOIR

    E-print Network

    (Lepomis macrochirus) (51 to 185 mm TL, range) collected January to December, 1979, from the Big Stone number of taxa per stomach of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) > 50 mm TL collected from the 3 areas........................................................14 3. Mean evenness value per stomach of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) >50 mm TL collected from the 3

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Butz; N. E. Dean; C. S. Bard; R. N. Helgerson; J. G. Grimes; P. M. Pritz

    1980-01-01

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium

  13. The Nation's Report Card Science 2009 State Snapshot Report. South Dakota. Grade 4, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Guided by a new framework, the NAEP science assessment was updated in 2009 to keep the content current with key developments in science, curriculum standards, assessments, and research. The 2009 framework organizes science content into three broad content areas. Physical science includes concepts related to properties and changes of matter, forms…

  14. Petrologic and geochemical links between the post-collisional Proterozoic Harney Peak leucogranite, South Dakota, USA, and its source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Peter I.; Bartlett, Cindy D.

    1998-12-01

    The Proterozoic terrane of the Black Hills, South Dakota, includes the composite Harney Peak leucogranite and associated pegmatites that were emplaced into metamorphosed pelites and graywackes. Available dates indicate that granite generation post-dated regional metamorphism and deformation that have been attributed to collision of the Wyoming and Superior cratons at ˜1760 Ma. Previous radiogenic and stable isotope work indicates that the exposed metasedimentary rocks are equivalent to sources of the leucogranites. In this study, whole rock and mineral compositions of the metasedimentary rocks were used to calculate the likely average residue mineralogies and melt fractions that would be generated by muscovite dehydration melting of the rocks. These were then used to model observed trace element compositions of the granites using published mineral/melt distribution coefficients. Model trace element melt compositions using pelitic and graywacke protoliths yield similar results. The models reproduce well the observed depletion of transition metals and Ba in the granites relative to metasedimentary protoliths. The depletion is due mainly to high proportion of biotite with variable amounts of K-feldspar in the model residue. Sr is also depleted in the granites compared to source rocks, but to a lesser relative extent than Ba. This is because of the low biotite/melt distribution coefficient for Sr and because high proportion of plagioclase in the residue is compensated by high Sr concentrations in protoliths. Rubidium, Cs and Ta behaved as slightly compatible to incompatible elements, and therefore, were not strongly fractionated during melting. Of the considered elements, only B appears to have been highly incompatible relative to residue during melting. The protoliths had sufficient B to allow tourmaline crystallization in those parts of the Harney Peak Granite in which Ti concentration was sufficiently low not to enhance crystallization of biotite. The reproducibility of observed trace element concentrations in the Harney Peak Granite by the models supports the often made proposition that metapelites and metagraywackes are common sources for leucogranites. This argues against mass input from the mantle into metagraywacke and metapelitic crustal sources or melting of amphibolites to generate the post-collisional Harney Peak and other similar peraluminous granite suites.

  15. Arsenic loads in Spearfish Creek, western South Dakota, water years 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous small tributaries on the eastern flank of Spearfish Creek originate within a mineralized area with a long history of gold-mining activity. Some streams draining this area are known to have elevated concentrations of arsenic. One such tributary is Annie Creek, where arsenic concentrations regularly approach the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 mg/L (micrograms per liter) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A site on Annie Creek was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1991. This report presents information about arsenic loads and concentrations in Spearfish Creek and its tributaries, including Annie Creek. Stream types were classified according to geologic characteris- tics and in-stream arsenic concentrations. The first type includes streams that lack significant arsenic sources and have low in-stream arsenic concentra- tions. The second type has abundant arsenic sources and high in-stream concentrations. The third type has abundant arsenic sources but only moderate in-stream concentrations. The fourth type is a mixture of the first three types. Annual loads of dissolved arsenic were calculated for two reaches of Spearfish Creek to quantify arsenic loads at selected gaging stations during water years 1989-91. Mass-balance calculations also were performed to estimate arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows to Spearfish Creek. The drainage area of the upstream reach includes significant mineralized areas, whereas the drainage area of the downstream reach generally is without known arsenic sources. The average load of dissolved arsenic transported from the upstream reach of Spearfish Creek, which is representative of a type 4 stream, was 158 kilograms per year, calculated for station 06430900, Spearfish Creek above Spearfish. Gaged headwater tributaries draining unmineralized areas (type 1) contributed only 16 percent of the arsenic load in 63 percent of the discharge. Annie Creek (type 2), which has the highest measured arsenic concentra- tions in the Spearfish Creek drainage, contributed about 15 percent of the arsenic load in about 2 percent of the discharge of the upstream reach. Squaw Creek, which drains another mineralized area, but has only moderate in-stream concentrations (type 3), contributed 4 percent of the arsenic load in 5 percent of the discharge. Ungaged inflows to the reach contributed the remaining 65 percent of the arsenic load in 30 percent of the discharge. The calculated loads from ungaged inflows include all arsenic contributed by surface- and ground-water sources, as well as any additions of arsenic from dissolution of arsenic-bearing solid phases, or from desorption of arsenic from solid surfaces, within the streambed of the upstream reach. Mass-balance calculations indicate that dissolved arsenic concentrations of the ungaged inflows in the upstream reach averaged about 9 mg/L. In-stream arsenic concentrations of ungaged inflows from the unmineralized western flank of Spearfish Creek probably are generally low (type 1). Thus, in-stream arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows draining the mineralized eastern flank of Spearfish probably average almost twice that level, or about 18 mg/L. Some ungaged, eastern-flank inflows probably are derived from type 3 drainages, with only moderate arsenic concentrations. If so, other ungaged, eastern-flank inflows could have in-stream arsenic concentrations similar to those of Annie Creek. No significant arsenic sources were apparent in the downstream reach of Spearfish Creek. Over the course of the downstream reach, arsenic concentrations decreased somewhat, probably resulting from dilution, as well as from possible chemical adsorption to sediment surfaces or arsenic-phase precipitation. A decrease in arsenic loads resulted from various diversions from the creek and from the potential chemical removal processes. Because of a large margin of error associated with calculation o

  16. Okiciyapo Hechel Lena Oyate Kin Nipi Kte (Help Each Other That These People May Live). Facilitating Academic Attainment in Adolescent Sioux Students in the Public School Systems in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Joyce

    This paper reviews educational problems affecting American Indian students, particularly problems related to school climate, and describes efforts to improve school climate at Bennett County (South Dakota) High School. This public school serves the county and two reservations. It also accepts transfer students from Bureau of Indian Affairs schools…

  17. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José F. Negrón; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers increasingly practice uneven-aged management. We established 84 clusters of four plots, one

  18. A Study of the Economic Impact of Variation in the Nonresident Tuition Rate at Public Institutions of Higher Education in South Dakota. Bulletin Number One Hundred Thirty-Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ralph J.; Johnson, Dennis A.

    The study examined the likely response of nonresident enrollments to a lowering of nonresident tuition rates in South Dakota public institutions of higher education; the cost of educating additional nonresident students; and other economic benefits to the state of increased enrollment of nonresident students at state universities. Nonresident…

  19. RESIDENTIAL AREA, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS OF CHARLIE AND DOROTHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RESIDENTIAL AREA, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS OF CHARLIE AND DOROTHY WELL'S HOUSE ABOVE (NORTH OF) THURMOND COMMERCIAL AREA - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  20. Residential area, south and east elevations of Charlie and Dorothy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Residential area, south and east elevations of Charlie and Dorothy Wells' house above (north of) Thurmond Commercial Area. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  1. Executive Director South Central Wisconsin Area Health Education Center, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Executive Director South Central Wisconsin Area Health Education Center, Inc. South Central Wisconsin Area Health Education Center, Inc. (SCAHEC) is a non-profit 501(c) 3 organization serving a 13 on education activities: · enrichment programs for high school students interested in health careers

  2. Carnotite-bearing sandstone in Cedar Canyon, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, James R.; Moore, George W.

    1954-01-01

    Carnotite-bearing sandstone and clay have been found in the Chadron formation of the White River group of Oligocene age in the southern part of the Slim Buttes area, Harding County, S. Dak. Locally the mineralized sandstone contains as much as 0.23 percent uranium. The uranium and vanadium ions are believed to have been derived from the overlying mildly radioactive tuffaceous rocks of the Arikaree formation of Miocene age. Analyses of water from 26 springs issuing from the Chadron and Arikaree formations along the margins of Slim Buttes show uranium contents of as much as 200 parts per billion. Meteoric water percolating through tuffaceous rocks is thought to have brought uranium and other ions into environments in the Chadron formation that were physically and chemically favorable for the deposition of carnotite.

  3. Characterization of stormwater runoff in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Kenai River in southcentral Alaska is an economically important salmon river generating as much as $78 million annually in direct benefits. Resource-management agencies are concerned that increased sedimentation and loss of streamside cover associated with accelerated erosion rates caused by boat activity may threaten salmon returns to the river. Bank loss and boat activity were characterized during 1996 along 67 miles of the Kenai River, including a segment of the river several miles long where boat activity is restricted to non-motorized uses. Bank loss in the non-motorized segment of the river was about 75 percent less than that observed in the highest boat-use area of the river and 33 per cent less than that observed in the lowest boat-use area of the river. Dates of peak boat activity coincided closely with chinook salmon returns to the Kenai River and with peaks in measured bank erosion. The boat activity period began in late May, peaked on weekend days in mid-July, and declined in early August. Observed boat traffic on the Kenai River included boats from 10 to 26 feet in length that transported 1 to 8 passengers. The most commonly observed boats were between 16 and 20 feet long and carried 4 or 5 passengers. The number of boats operated by commercial fishing guides represented 40 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 55 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and 57 percent of those recorded by observers during this study. The maximum boat activity and the maximum bank loss were measured at the RW's Campground study site about 16 river miles upstream from the mouth of the Kenai River. Between July 12 and September 10, 1996, more than 20,100 boats traveled by this site and the streambank along the inside of the meander bend was undercut to a depth of 45 inches at one measuring point. Boat activity and bank loss were greatest in areas of the river between about river miles 9 and 18 and river miles 39 and 46. These two segments of the river are popular residential and fishing areas and have banks composed of non-cohesive soils. In addition, a meandering, un-armored channel makes the banks along these two segments susceptible to erosion. The Kenai River in southcentral Alaska is an economically important salmon river generating as much as $78 million annually in direct benefits. Resource-management agencies are concerned that increased sedimentation and loss of streamside cover associated with accelerated erosion rates caused by boat activity may threaten salmon returns to the river. Bank loss and boat activity were characterized during 1996 along 67 miles of the Kenai River, including a segment of the river several miles long where boat activity is restricted to non-motorized uses. Bank loss in the non-motorized segment of the river was about 75 percent less than that observed in the highest boat-use area of the river and 33 percent less than that observed in the lowest boat-use area of the river. Dates of peak boat activity coincided closely with chinook salmon returns to the Kenai River and with peaks in measured bank erosion. The boat activity period began in late May, peaked on weekend days in mid-July, and declined in early August. Observed boat traffic on the Kenai River included boats from 10 to 26 feet in length that transported 1 to 8 passengers. The most commonly observed boats were between 16 and 20 feet long and carried 4 or 5 passengers. The number of boats operated by commercial fishing guides represented 40 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 55 percent of the boats counted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and 57 percent of those recorded by observers during this study. The maximum boat activity and the maximum bank loss were measured at the RW's Campground study site about 16 river miles upstream from the mouth of the Kenai River. Between July 12 and September 10, 1996, more than 20,10

  4. A digital-computer model of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    A finite-difference digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County. Average water levels and average base flow discharge (4.9 cu ft/s) of the Big Sioux River were based on data from 1970 through 1979. The computer model was calibrated for transient conditions by simulating monthly historic conditions for 1976. During 1976, pumpage was offset mostly by surface-water recharge to the aquifer from January through June and ground-water discharge from storage from July through December. Measured drawdowns during 1976 generally were less than 2 feet except in the Sioux Falls city well field where drawdowns were as much as 15 feet. The model was used to study the effects of increased withdrawals under three hypothetical hydrologic situations. One hypothetical situation consisted of using 1976 pumping rates, recharge, and evapotranspiration but the Big Sioux River dry. The pumping rate after 16 months was decreased by 40 percent from the actual pumping rate for that month in order to complete the monthly simulation without the storage being depleted at a nodal area. The second hypothetical situation consisted of a pumpage rate of 44.4 cubic feet per second from 60 wells spaced throughout the aquifer under historic 1976 hydrologic conditions. The results were that the aquifer could supply the additional withdrawal. The third hypothetical situation used the same hydrologic conditions as the second except that recharge was zero and the Big Sioux River was dry downstream from row 54. After 18 monthly simulations, the pumping rate was decreased by 44 percent to prevent pumping wells from depleting the aquifer, and, at that rate, 63 percent of the water being pumped was being replaced by water from the river. (USGS)

  5. Stratigraphic and diagenetic controls on the occurrence of porosity in the Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation in the Billings Nose Area, North Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Beaber, Daniel Edward

    1989-01-01

    &M University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Geology STRATIGRAPHIC AND DIAGENETIC CONTROLS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF POROSITY IN THE MISSISSIPPIAN MISSION CANYON FORMATION... Statigraphic and Diagenetic Controls on the Occurrence of Porosity in the Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation in the Billings Nose Area, North Dakota. (May, 1989) Daniel Edward Beaber B. S. , The Pennsylvania State University Chair of Advisory...

  6. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  7. Field and laboratory data describing physical and chemical characteristics of metal-contaminated flood-plain deposits downstream from Lead, west-central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marron, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Samples from metal-contaminated flood-plain sediments at 9 sites downstream from Lead, in west-central South Dakota, were collected during the summers of 1985-87 to characterize aspects of the sedimentology, chemistry, and geometry of a deposit that resulted from the discharge of a large volume of mining wastes into a river system. Field and laboratory data include stratigraphic descriptions, chemical contents and grain-size distributions of samples, and surveyed flood-plain positions of samples. This report describes sampling-site locations, and methods of sample collection and preservation, and subsequent laboratory analysis. Field and laboratory data are presented in 4 figures and 11 tables in the ' Supplemental Data ' section at the back of the report. (USGS)

  8. The effect of mining on the sediment - trace element geochemistry of cores from the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Callender, E.

    1988-01-01

    Six cores, ranging in length from 1 to 2 m, were collected in the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe, South Dakota, to investigate potential impacts from gold-mining operations around Lead, South Dakota. Sedimentation rates in the river arm appear to be event-dominated and rapid, on the order of 6-7 cm yr.-1. All the chemical concentrations in the core samples fall within the wide ranges previously reported for the Pierre Shale of Cretaceous age and with the exception of As, generally are similar to bed sediment levels in the Cheyenne River, Lake Oahe and Foster Bay. Based on the downcore distribution of Mn, it appears that reducing conditions exist in the sediment column of the river arm below 2-3 cm. The reducing conditions do not appear to be severe enough to produce differentiation of Fe and Mn throughout the sediment column in the river arm. Cross-correlations for high-level metal-bearing strata within the sediment column can be made for several strata and for several cores; however, cross-correlations for all the high-level metal-bearing strata are not feasible. As is the only element which appears enriched in the core samples compared to surface sediment levels. Well-crystallized arsenopyrite was found in high-As bearing strata from two cores and probably was transported in that form from reducing sediment-storage sites in the banks or floodplains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. It has not oxidized due to the reducing conditions in the sediment column of the Cheyenne River arm. Some As may also be transported in association with Fe- and Mn-oxides and -hydroxides, remobilized under the reducing conditions in the river arm, and then reprecipitated in authigenic sulfide phases. In either case, the As appears to be relatively immobile in the sediment column. ?? 1988.

  9. View of south elevation of Building No. 38. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Building No. 38. Parking Area No. 31 in foreground. Foothill Avenue in middle ground. Looking north/northeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 38, North side of Foothill Avneue, east of South Twenty-sixth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. 120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF THE COTTONWOOD CREEK DRAW, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Seaplane ramp area looking south. Seaplane ramp 3 is in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Seaplane ramp area looking south. Seaplane ramp 3 is in extreme foreground. Building 1 at right, with building 2 beyond. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Ramps Nos. 2, 3 & 4, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. Geology of the South Mason County area, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Alexander, William Luther

    1952-01-01

    , and Lower Ordovician age are present in the South Mason area~ Mason County, Texas, Strata be- longing to the Upper Cambrian series are divided into two formations~ the Riley and the Wilberns. The seven members of these two formations were mapped... in detail in the South Mason area The Riley formation which inc1udes all the Cambrian strata in central Texas beneath the Wilberns formation~ is separated into the Hickory sandstone, the Cap Mountain limestone, and the Lion Mountain sandstone members...

  14. Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow contributing to Crow Creek in the northwestern part of the study area indicated that the primary source of water is the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for Old Hatchery and Higgins Gulch springs, located north of Spearfish, indicated a source water originating from the outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation within the study area. Concentrations of three chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) were used to characterize ground-water residence times in the study area. For the four wells where dye was detected, CFC-11 apparent ages ranged from 12 to 26 years, indicating that the wells contained months-old water mixed with years- to decades-old water. Logarithmic regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for water from 10 wells and distance to a possible conduit trending north through the area where dye was detected, yielded an r2 value of 0.71. Straight-line regression analysis of the CFC-11 apparent ages for the six wells closest to the possible conduit had an r2 value of 0.96. Two wells located relatively close to the outcrop areas had no or very low tritium values indicating relatively long residence times and diffuse ground-water flow. The tritium value of 7.2 TU in water from well COL where dye was detected, indicated that the water probably is a bimodal mixture, with a substantial portion that is older than 50 years. Water from well ELL, where dye was detected, had a tritium value of 19.7 TU and a CFC apparent age of 15 years, indicating that the sample from this well probably is a unimodal mixture with very little water older than 50 years. Comparison of the CFC apparent age for three spring sites (Cox Lake, 26 years; McNenny Pond, 26 years; Mirror Lake, 13 years) also indicated that Mirror Lake spring probably has a component of local recharge from formations that overlie the Minnelusa Formation. In the Madison aquifer, specific conductance ranges from 18 to 945 microsiemens per cen

  15. Geochemistry of water in aquifers and confining units of the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, J.F.; Kimball, B.A.; Downey, J.S.; Peter, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The geochemistry of water in five aquifers and two confining units in the Williston Basin of the Northern Great Plains is similar and is controlled by halite dissolution. In areas outside the Williston Basin ground-water is fresh and controlled by the solution chemistry of carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  16. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  17. Mediterranean Sea potential seen in area south of Malta

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, W.F. (Bishop (William F.), Houston, TX (United States)); Debono, G. (Office of the Prime Minister, Valletta (Malta))

    1993-07-05

    Seismic data and stratigraphic projections indicate that an entirely different facies exists in Area 4 in the Mediterranean Sea south of Malta than the continuous carbonate sequence of the Malta platform. Japan National Oil Corp., in September 1989 under authority of the government of Malta, conducted a 3,615 line km geophysical survey (seismic, gravity, magnetics) in Area 4, which comprises about 13,000 sk km and is 40 km south of Malta. The paper describes the geology of Malta Area 4, its inferred stratigraphy, seismic results, and potential geologic traps.

  18. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Hydrology of the Wibaux-Beach lignite deposit area, eastern Montana and western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The geology and existing hydrologic regime of the Wibaux-Beach deposit area were studied to assess the potential impacts of proposed mining on the water resources. The Paleocene Harmon lignite of the Wibaux-Beach deposit constitutes a 50-square mile strippable reserve of about 1 billion tons. The Harmon bed and underlying discontinuous sand deposits in the lower Tongue River and upper Ludlow Members (Fort Union Formation) are the principal shallow aquifers in the area. Varying thicknesses of salt and clay separate the respective aquifers and act as confining units. Hydraulic and potentiometric data indicate that flow velocities are low, recharge is infrequent and of low magnitude, and vertical leakage is a major flux component. Water quality is quite uniform among the three aquifers. Most water is a sodium bicarbonate-sulfate type. Anomalously large sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and iron concentrations are generated by natural geochemical processes at the Harmon bed outcrop, but such concentrations do not persist far into the aquifer. Significant potentiometric declines in the Harmon lignite aquifer will extend for a few miles from active mines. Impact on the deeper aquifers will be minimal. (USGS)

  20. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of the Avoca lignite deposit area near Williston, northwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.; Crosby, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Avoca deposit in the Sentinel Butte member of Fort Union Formation consists of four potentially strippable lignite beds. Average bed thicknesses, in descending order, are 5, 5, 9, and 8 feet. In the area between Stony Creek and Crazy Man Coulee, the lignite beds are unsaturated, and between Stony Creek and Little Muddy River, only the two lowest beds are saturated. Aquifers in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and the Hell Creek Formation probably would yield as much as 50 gallons per minute of sodium bicarbonate type water. However, the aquifers are from 1,100 to 1,800 feet below land surface. Individual sand beds in the Tongue River and Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation are the shallowest aquifers below the minable lignite beds. Properly constructed wells completed in these sand beds could yield as much as 40 gallons per minute. The water generally is a sodium bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from about 500 to 4,200 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  1. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

    Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

    Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

    The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

    The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much broader, topographically distinct pathway of former glaciation that narrows to about 190 km (120 miles) wide. South of Fargo this narrowed pathway splits into two distinct paths (broad dark swaths on the image) that were carved by the southward flowing glaciers. Arcuate glacial moraines (deposits of rocks that were carried by glaciers) can be seen near this split, near what is now the approximate boundary between the Hudson Bay and Gulf of Mexico drainage basins (the latter via the Mississippi River).

    This glacial landscape has features that were favorable for the transport of ice but are not now so favorable for the transport of water. As measured in the digital elevation data, the Red River decreases in elevation only 40 meters (130 feet) from Fargo to the Canadian border (top of image) over a straight-line distance of 235 kilometers (145 miles) along the glacial trough. This is a gradient of only 17 centimeters per kilometer (11 inches per mile), and the actual river gradient is much lower as it follows a longer curvilinear path. Areas surrounding the trough (more rugged and bright in the image) have variable but generally much steeper gradients. In simple terms, this is a fundamental cause of flooding in Fargo. The speed of drainage of the rainfall and snowmelt is greatly related to topographic slope. The steeper slopes and merging streams concentrate water runoff into the glacial trough at Fargo, while the lower gradients within the trough allow the water to spread (and flood) but not drain quickly away.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission was a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies, and was managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

    Size: 440x380 kilometers; 270x235 miles Location:

  2. South Carolina Department of Archives and History Archives and Records Management Service Area

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    South Carolina Department of Archives and History Archives and Records Management Service Area 1919 Blanding Street, Columbia South Carolina 29201 General Records Retention Schedules for Data Processing

  3. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project, western South Dakota, 1988-89. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, W.R.; Greene, E.A.; Sowards, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior initiated nine reconnaissance investigations during 1986-87 in response to nationwide concern about harmful effects of irrigation drainage on human health, fish, and wildlife. The investigation of the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project in western South Dakota is one of ten additional reconnaissance investigations conducted during 1988-89. The U.S. Geological Survey collected a total of thirty surface-water-quality samples during April, June, August, and October 1988. Six to ten sites were sampled during each sampling period. An additional 40 surface-water-quality samples were collected at three of the sites during October 1987 through April 1989, and these results are included in the discussion. Bottom sediment was collected at eight of the ten water-sampling sites. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected fish samples at three sites during the spring and fall; samples of bird livers and bird eggs were collected at five sites during the summer; and samples of benthic invertebrates and aquatic plants were collected at six sites during the summer.

  4. Apollo 10 spacecraft approaches touchdown in South Pacific recovery area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 10 spacecraft approaches touchdown in the South Pacific recovery area to conclude an eight-day lunar orbit mission. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the capsules parachutes are fully deployed.

  5. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. 67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  7. Britain, South African Gold and Sterling Area, 1945-51

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rooth

    2000-01-01

    The ability to tap South African gold was regarded as vital for the restoration of sterling as an international currency after World War Two. Economic relations between Britain and the Union were dominated by the extreme volatility of capital movements within the sterling area.

  8. 9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  9. Swainson's hawk nesting ecology in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were studied at 270 occupied nest sites in south-central North Dakota on a 1,259-km2 intensive study block and on a surrounding study area (16,519 km2) during three breeding seasons. On the intensive study block the number of occupied nests ranged from 46 in 1977 to 100 in 1979. Average nest densities were highest on ground moraine (0.119 nest/km2) and on eolian sand deposit (0.102 nest/km2 landforms. Pasture and haylands made up 75% of the land-use within 1.0 km of a sample of 27 nests. Some pairs nested successfully in sites characterized by intensive agriculture and human activity; about 75% of all nests were in sites attributable to human activities. The most common nesting sites (43%) were in shelterbelts. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) were the most frequently used (44%) nest trees. At least 50% of the pairs constructed new nests each year. Mean nest success was 64% and mean number of young fledged per occupied nest was 1.5. Wind and hail caused over 30% of the nest failures each of the three years. Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) were the most frequent prey, accounting for 44% of all animal remains found at nests. Man-made changes in central North Dakota during the last century have provided many nesting sites in areas previously sparsely populated by Swainson's Hawks.

  10. Geology of the South Mason-Llano River area, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Duvall, Victor Martin

    1953-01-01

    Geological Survey, E, T. Dumble (1891) described Pennsylvanian rocks on the Colorado River and appliegl the name Bend to the exposures. Comstock (1891) suggested the existence of limited areas of Devonian rocks in the Llano region. The report as a whole... and Fredricks- burg, to approximately 650 feet where the Colorado River flows out of the area, giving the region a maximum relief of about 1600 feet/ The highest elevation in the South Mason-Llano River area is in the extreme northwest corner and is about...

  11. Awareness of Accessibility Barriers in Computer-Based Instructional Materials and Faculty Demographics at South Dakota Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology and course delivery methods have enabled persons with disabilities to enroll in higher education at an increasing rate. Federal regulations state persons with disabilities must be granted equal access to the information contained in computer-based instructional materials, but faculty at the six public universities in South

  12. Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Dahl, Ann L.

    2005-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data were collected. To evaluate the validity of the drainage-area ratio method and to determine if an improved method could be developed to estimate streamflow, a multiple-regression technique was used to determine if drainage area, main channel slope, and precipitation were significant variables for estimating streamflow in the Red River of the North Basin. A separate regression analysis was performed for streamflow for each of three seasons-- winter, spring, and summer. Drainage area and summer precipitation were the most significant variables. However, the regression equations generally overestimated streamflows for North Dakota stations and underestimated streamflows for Minnesota stations. To correct the bias in the residuals for the two groups of stations, indicator variables were included to allow both the intercept and the coefficient for the logarithm of drainage area to depend on the group. Drainage area was the only significant variable in the revised regression equations. The exponents for the drainage-area ratio were 0.85 for the winter season, 0.91 for the spring season, and 1.02 for the summer season.

  13. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  14. Upward lightning observations from towers in Rapid City, South Dakota and comparison with National Lightning Detection Network data, 2004-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Tom A.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Orville, Richard E.

    2012-10-01

    We report on upward lightning observations from ten tall towers (91-191 m) in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA and compare with National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data. A total of 81 upward flashes were observed from 2004-2010 using GPS time-stamped optical sensors, and in all but one case, visible flash activity preceded the development of the upward leaders. Time-correlated analysis showed that the NLDN recorded an event within 50 km of towers and within 500 ms prior to upward leader development from the tower(s) for 83% (67/81) of the upward flashes. A preceding positive cloud-to-ground stroke (+CG) was detected in 57% (46/81) of the cases, and a preceding positive intracloud flash (+IC) in 23% (19/81) of the cases. However, 8 of the 19 NLDN-indicated +IC events were actually +CG strokes based on optical observations. Preceding negative intracloud flashes (-IC) were recorded for 2% (2/81) of the cases. Analysis also showed that for 44% (36/81) of the upward flashes, the NLDN reported subsequent negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) strokes and/or -IC events at one or more tower locations. Of the 151 subsequent events, 70% (105/151) were -CG reports and 30% (46/151) were listed as -IC events. The geometric mean/median location accuracy and peak current for subsequent events were 194 m/206 m and -12.9 kA/-12.4 kA respectively. These correlated observations suggest that a majority of the upward lightning flashes were triggered by a preceding flash with the dominant triggering type being the +CG flash.

  15. Isolation and characterization of cellulose-degrading bacteria from the deep subsurface of the Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Muppidi, Geetha L; Gurram, Raghu N; Adhikari, Akash; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hughes, Stephen R; Apel, William A; Bang, Sookie S; Dixon, David J; Sani, Rajesh K

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (60 degrees C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Molecular community structures were determined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from enrichment cultures growing in presence of microcrystalline cellulose as the sole source of carbon. All phylotypes retrieved from enrichment cultures were affiliated to Firmicutes. Cellulose-degrading mesophilic and thermophilic pure cultures belonging to the genera Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus, and Geobacillus were isolated from enrichment cultures, and selected cultures were studied for enzyme activities. For a mesophilic isolate (DUSELG12), the optimum pH and temperature for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) were 5.5 and 55 degrees C, while for a thermophilic isolate (DUSELR7) they were 5.0 and 75 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, DUSELG12 retained about 40% CMCase activity after incubation at 60 degrees C for 8 h. Most remarkably, thermophilic isolate, DUSELR7 retained 26% CMCase activity at 60 degrees C up to a period of 300 h. Overall, the present work revealed the presence of different cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages in the unique deep subsurface environment of the mine. The results also have strong implications for biological conversion of cellulosic agricultural and forestry wastes to commodity chemicals including sugars. PMID:19189143

  16. The Role of Wildfire, Prescribed Fire, and Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations on the Population Dynamics of Black-Backed Woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  17. Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; DeFelice, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 have orbits that are offset from each other by 8 days. During the time that the sensors on both satellites are operational, there is an opportunity for conducting analyses that incorporate multiple intra-annual high spatial resolution data sets for characterizing the Earth's land surface. In the current study, nine Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data sets, covering the same path and row on different dates, were acquired during a 1-year time interval for a region in southeastern South Dakota and analyzed. Scenes were normalized using pseudoinvariant objects, and digital data from a series of test sites were extracted from the imagery and converted to surface reflectance. Sunphotometer data acquired on site were used to atmospherically correct the data. Ground observations that were made throughout the growing season by a large group of volunteers were used to help interpret spectroradiometric patterns and trends. Normalized images were found to be very effective in portraying the seasonal patterns of reflectance change that occurred throughout the region. Many of the radiometric patterns related to plant growth and development, but some also related to different background properties. The different kinds of land cover in the region were spectrally and radiometrically characterized and were found to have different seasonal patterns of reflectance. The degree to which the land cover classes could be separated spectrally and radiometrically, however, depended on the time of year during which the data sets were acquired, and no single data set appeared to be adequate for separating all types of land cover. This has practical implications for classification studies because known patterns of seasonal reflectance properties for the different types of land cover within a region will facilitate selection of the most appropriate data sets for producing land cover classifications.

  18. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the different units, with medians that range from about 2.4 to 4.0 mg/L. Median whole-water phosphorus concentrations for the different Lake Andes units range from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/L, and decrease downstream through Lake Andes. Median selenium concentrations are substantially lower for Andes Creek (3 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)) than for the other tributary stations (34, 18, and 7 ?g/L). Median selenium concentrations for the lake stations (ranging from less than 1 to 2 ?g/L) are substantially lower than tributary stations. The pesticides 2,4-D and atrazine were the most commonly detected pesticides in Lake Andes. Median concentrations for 2,4-D for Lake Andes range from 0.07 to 0.11 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is 0.04 ?g/L. Median concentrations for atrazine for Lake Andes range from 0.2 to 0.4 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is less than 0.1 ?g/L. Concentrations of both 2,4-D and atrazine are largest for the most upstream part of Lake Andes that is most influenced by tributary inflow. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for Lake Andes tributaries range from 22 to 56 mg/L. Most of the suspended sediment transported in the Lake Andes tributaries consists of particles less than 63 ?m (micrometers) in diameter. Concentrations of most constituents in bottom sediments generally had similar ranges and medians for the Lake Andes tributaries. However, Andes Creek generally had lower concentrations of several metals. For Lake Andes, medians and ranges for most constituents generally were similar among the different units. However, selenium concentrations tended to be higher in the upstream part of the lake, and generally decreased downstream. Results of vertical sediment cores collected from a single site in the South Unit of Lake Andes in October 2000 indicate that selenium loading to Lake Andes increased during the period 1952 through 2000. Choteau Creek has a drainage area of 619 mi2. In the upstream part of the basin, Chotea

  19. Territorial disputes simmer in areas of South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-13

    This paper reports that China's award of an exploration cooperation contact in the Nansha area of the South China Sea has revived territorial disputes in the area centering ton the Spratly and Paracel islands. The key dispute is between China and Viet Nam, which earlier engaged in military action over ownership of the islands, believed to have world class potential for hydrocarbon discoveries. Those two nations, as well as Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, lay claim to overlapping boundaries of the Spratly Islands. Separately, China and Viet Nam dispute territorial claims in the Paracels. Tensions continue to mount, and regional governments are trying to negotiate compromises to avoid a repeat of warfare.

  20. Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer in northwest Iowa consists of sandstones in the Dakota Formation. Sandstone beds are from less than 10 to more than 150 feet thick and cumulatively total more than 200 feet throughout much of the area. The aquifer is confined by shale, carbonate rocks, till and loess. Water flows from the north-central part of the area to the south and southwest. Recharge is through leakage from above. Discharge is to underlying aquifers and alluvium along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers. An average hydraulic conductivity of 300 gallons per day per foot squared was used to estimate potential yield to wells. Yields of more than 350 gallons per minute can be commonly expected and more than 1000 gallons per minute can be produced in some areas. The quality of water from the Dakota is a calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is generally suitable for irrigation. Water quality may be locally altered by leakage from the underlying Paleozoic aquifers if withdrawals reverse the natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic. Such a reversal may exist around the City of LeMars. The presence of radionuclides exceeds recommended limits at several sites. (USGS)

  1. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Sparrows of North Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grondahl, Chris.

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted several new biological resources on the Web. "Sparrows of North Dakota," by Chris Grondahl (North Dakota Game and Fish Department), is intended as a field guide for the nineteen species of native sparrows that occupy grasslands and other important habitats in North Dakota. All resources may be downloaded as .zip files.

  3. Reaching North Dakota’s food insecure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For 1 in 12 North Dakotans the charitable feeding network is the difference between having food on the table and going hungry. The goal of this research was to determine needs, barriers to, and facilitators of optimal access to North Dakota’s charitable feeding programs. Focus groups and interviews ...

  4. 75 FR 71023 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; State of North Dakota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...to interstate transport of certain emissions. Section 110...Dakota Interstate Transport SIP portions...determination that emissions from North Dakota...of Colorado emissions on the areas...Colorado interstate transport SIP...

  5. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Brian C.; McGuire, Virginia L.

    1999-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created from 5,429 wells measured in both 1980 and 1996. The water-level-change contours were drawn manually on mylar. The contours were converted into a digital map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  6. USING SEMIOCHEMICAL-BAITS TO SUPPRESS ADULT CORN ROOTWORM POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTH DAKOTA AREAWIDE MANAGEMENT SITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Corn Rootworm Areawide Management Program was conducted from 1997 – 2001 in five states. The site in Brookings County, SD was organized into an areawide unit encompassing 41.4 km2. This area contained both northern and western corn rootworms, which are serious pests of corn in the U.S. Corn Belt...

  7. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  8. Simulation of a semi-permanent wetland basin in the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.W.H.; Pohll, G.M.; Tracy, J.C.; Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    A coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model was developed to examine the effects of climatic conditions on stage fluctuations within a semi-permanent wetland located in the Prairie Pothole region of east-central North Dakota. Model calibration was accomplished using data collected from 1981 to 1996 to encompass extreme climatic conditions. Results show that the processes of precipitation largely control wetland stage. Surface runoff produces short duration, high magnitude flows typically associated with spring thaw. On the other hand, groundwater contribution provides flows smaller in magnitude but higher in duration and these become increasingly important with respect to wetland stage during extended periods of drought and flood. Peak groundwater fluxes lag one-to-two months behind peak recharge rates and therefore occur predominantly during the month of June. Groundwater fluxes then attenuate slowly for the remainder of the year to the point where water may move out of the wetland and into the underlying aquifer during the fall and winter months. Despite an over simplification of the complex groundwater component of the wetland system it was found that this modeling approach was able to predict system response over 15 years, under extreme climatic conditions and with relatively easily attainable data input.

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Sioux Falls quadrangle, South Dakota. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Computer printer maps of the magnetic total intensity and the six radiometric parameters have been prepared in addition to the radiometric anomaly maps for this area. The magnetic total intensity map displays a rather subdued response pattern of broad low amplitude anomalies over much of the area with an average magnetic intensity of approximately 58,900 gammas. The radiometric response over much of the area is relatively low. Equivalent concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium only rarely exceed 3.2 ppM, 7.5 ppM and 1.4% respectively. A number of these zones of increased concentrations show corresponding anomalous responses on the uranium/potassium and/or uranium/thorium pseudo-contour maps. Based on this set of computer printer maps alone however, it is, at times, difficult to discern the contribution of coinciding local decreases in the potassium and thorium parameters to these ratio anomalies. Based on the criteria stated in the general section on interpretation, a total of seven uranium and seven thorium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. All of these features, described in Appendix B, exhibit only weakly to moderately anomalous responses. Due to the generally low radiometric levels encountered throughout the quadrangle along with the lack of any favorable indications for enriched accumulation of either uranium or thorium as seen in their radioelement distributions when correlated with the mapped geology and the weak, at best, evidence of preferential accumulations of either parameter, no follow-up work is recommended.

  10. Holocene environmental and climatic change in the Northern Great Plains as recorded in the geochemistry of sediments in Pickerel Lake, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Schwalb, A.

    2000-01-01

    The sediments in Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, provide a continuous record of climatic and environmental change for the last 12000 yr. Sediments deposited between 12 and 6 ka (radiocarbon) show extreme variations in composition, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of bulk carbonate, carbon isotopic composition of organic matter, and magnetic susceptibility. These variations reflect changes in sources of moisture, regional vegetation types, precipitation-evaporation balance, ground- and surface-water influx, water residence time, erosion, lake productivity, water level, and water temperature. The total carbonate content of late Pleistocene sediments steadily increased from <20% at the base of the core to as much as 80% in sediments deposited between 11 and 9 ka. By about 8 ka, the total carbonate content of the sediments had declined to about 40% where it remained with little variation for the past 8 kyr, suggesting relatively stable conditions. There are marked increases in values of ??13C and ??18O in bulk carbonate, and ??13C of organic matter, in sediments deposited between 10 and 6 ka as evaporation increased, and the vegetation in the watershed changed from forest to prairie. This shift toward more 18O-enriched carbonate may also reflect a change in source or seasonality of precipitation. During this early Holocene interval the organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments remained relatively low (2-3%), but then increased rapidly to 4.5% between 7 and 6 ka, reflecting the rapid transition to a prairie lake. The OC content fluctuates slightly between 4 and 6% in sediments deposited over the past 6 kyr. Like OC and total carbonate, most variables measured show little variation in the 13 m of sediment deposited over the past 6 kyr, particularly when compared with early Holocene variations. Although the magnetic susceptibility of this upper 13 m of sediment is generally low (<10 SI units), the upper six meters of the section is marked by striking 1 m cycles (ca. 400-500 yr periodicity) in susceptibility. These cycles are interpreted as being due to variations in the influx of eolian detrital-clastic material. Century-scale cyclic variations in different proxy variables for aridity and eolian activity from sediments deposited over the past 2000 yr in other lakes in the northern Great Plains, as well as in sand dune activity, suggest that aridity cycles were the dominant feature of late Holocene climate of the northern Great Plains. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  11. HYBRIDIZATION IN GROSBEAKS (PHEUCTZCUS) IN NORTH DAKOTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROGER L. KROODSMA

    Rose-breasted and Black-headed grosbeaks (Pheucticus ludovicianus and P. melanocephalus) are complementary species that breed in eastern and western North America, respectively. Their breeding ranges overlap in the Great Plains where hybridization occurs. West (1962) described the hybrid- ization mainly in Nebraska, and Anderson and Daugherty (1974) in South Dakota. Because very little work had been done in the more northern

  12. Orientation Patterns of Chalcedony Veins and Clastic Dikes in Tertiary strata of NW Nebraska and SW South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, H. D.

    2008-12-01

    Stratiform bound arrays of subvertical chalcedony veins occur in distinct patches of varying size in White River Group strata in the study area. At Toadstool Geologic Park in Nebraska they are associated with normal faults, and within a patch display orthogonal patterns with one direction dominant. Junctures and tip interactions indicate the orthogonal veins formed together. Two different patches at Toadstool show different orientations. At three separate study sites in Badlands National Park patches of chalcedony vein patches are not associated with faults, but are associated with clastic dike systems. Field relations indicate clastic dike formation preceded vein formation, but common orientation patterns, composite dike-vein features and a spatial association suggest similar timing and a genetic linkage. While vein strikes for two sites appear polygonal and are statistically random, within each site subareas are organized, and do not display a simple polygonal triple junction geometry. Whether strike distributions are random or organized is partly scale dependent. The third site shows a strong preferred direction. At all localities chalcedony veins exhibit vertical shortening, explained most simply by compaction. The vein arrays are similar to polygonal faults, and are interpreted to be the result of stratigraphically controlled diagenetic driven deformation. Clastic dikes can traverse most of the Tertiary section, but are concentrated in the Sharps Formation, and taper downwards into the Chadron Formation, where some merge with veins. Clastic dike orientations have been studied at three localities, two of which show different preferred directions, and one of which appears random. A provisional model includes basal high fluid pressures in silt/mudstones rich in volcanic ash that aids overlying clastic dike formation, producing fracture drainage paths that trigger diagenetically driven deformation, and associated compaction, forming chalcedony veins. An initial local vein-fracture may organize the area around it, but the larger array of initial features was random. Whether a regional stress field contributed to the orientation patterns is yet unclear. A long list of undergraduate students participated in this research and are thanked for their contributions.

  13. Appraisal of the water resources of the Big Sioux aquifer, Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Neil C.

    1980-01-01

    A finite-difference method digital model was used to simulate steady-state conditions of the Big Sioux aquifer in Brookings, Deuel, and Hamlin Counties, S. Dak. Average annual water levels in the Big Sioux aquifer and average base flow discharge 58 cubic feet per second on the Big Sioux River near Brookings were based on the period 1970 through 1976. The computer model was used to model transient conditions by simulating monthly periods from April through August 1976. Evapotranspiration and pumpage changes were made for each month. A computer simulation was made without irrigation pumpage which resulted in an increase in the base flow from 0.66 to 9 cubic feet per second for August 1976 in the Big Sioux River near Brookings. Two transient simulations , one with the drought conditions of 1976 and one using all the pumpage allowed by irrigation permits approved by the State as of February 1979 showed, as a result of pumpage, that there was a decrease in evapotranspiration and a decrease in discharge to streams which amounts to 26 and 31% of the total groundwater pumped. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are primarily calcium bicarbonate types and are chemically suitable for irrigation with respect to sodium hazard. Sepcific conductance of groundwater ranged from 407 to 1,790 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius. (USGS)

  14. Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer in northwest Iowa consists of sandstones in the Dakota Formation. It underlies most of the study area and is the most extensive source of ground water in the area. Individual sandstone beds are from less than 10 to more than 150 feet thick. The cumulative thickness of sandstone is more than 200 feet throughout much of the area. The aquifer is confined by overlying Cretaceous limestone and shale, Quaternary glacial deposits and loess. The underlying confining material is shale of the Dakota Formation, undifferentiated Paleozoic age rocks, or Precambrian crystalline rock. Water flows through the aquifer from the north-central part of the study area to the east, south and southwest. Recharge is dominantly by infiltration from the land surface through the confining materials. Discharge is to underlying Paleozoic aquifers and to the alluvium and glacial outwash deposits along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers in the southwest part of the area. Flow components toward bedrock valleys may reflect discharge to Quaternary sand and gravel deposits in these valleys. Pumping tests conducted in the study area indicate a narrow range of hydraulic conductivities of the Dakota aquifer, from 37 to 50 feet per day. Consequently, an average hydraulic conductivity of 40 feet per day was used to estimate the potential yield to wells completed in the aquifer. Yields of more than 250 gallons per minute can be expected throughout much of the study area and more than 1,000 gallons per minute could be produced in some areas. The quality of water from the Dakota is a calcium, magnesium, sulfate type. It is generally suitable for irrigation purposes, based on comparisons of sodium adsorption ratios and electrical conductivities. In some areas the aquifer has water with high salinity hazard that may restrict its use to irrigation of only well-drained types of soil. The concentration of radium-226 and other radionuclides exceeds recommended limits at several sites. The quality of water pumped from the aquifer may be altered by induced leakage from the underlying aquifers in Paleozoic age rocks if withdrawals reverse the pattern of natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic aquifers. Evidence for such a reversal exists in the area around the city of LeMars.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), South Dakota, 1991 and 1992 (in Lotus 1-2-3) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  16. Late Quaternary stream piracy and strath terrace formation along the Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers, South Dakota and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, John F.; Hendricks, Robert R.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Mahan, Shannon A.; Zaprowski, Brent J.; Geibel, Nicholas M.; Azzolini, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Stream piracy substantially affected the geomorphic evolution of the Missouri River watershed and drainages within, including the Little Missouri, Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, Bad, and White Rivers. The ancestral Cheyenne River eroded headward in an annular pattern around the eastern and southern Black Hills and pirated the headwaters of the ancestral Bad and White Rivers after ~ 660 ka. The headwaters of the ancestral Little Missouri River were pirated by the ancestral Belle Fourche River, a tributary to the Cheyenne River that currently drains much of the northern Black Hills. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques were used to estimate the timing of this piracy event at ~ 22–21 ka. The geomorphic evolution of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers is also expressed by regionally recognized strath terraces that include (from oldest to youngest) the Sturgis, Bear Butte, and Farmingdale terraces. Radiocarbon and OSL dates from fluvial deposits on these terraces indicate incision to the level of the Bear Butte terrace by ~ 63 ka, incision to the level of the Farmingdale terrace at ~ 40 ka, and incision to the level of the modern channel after ~ 12–9 ka. Similar dates of terrace incision have been reported for the Laramie and Wind River Ranges. Hypothesized causes of incision are the onset of colder climate during the middle Wisconsinan and the transition to the full-glacial climate of the late-Wisconsinan/Pinedale glaciation. Incision during the Holocene of the lower Cheyenne River is as much as ~ 80 m and is 3 to 4 times the magnitude of incision at ~ 63 ka and ~ 40 ka. The magnitude of incision during the Holocene might be due to a combined effect of three geomorphic processes acting in concert: glacial isostatic rebound in lower reaches (~ 40 m), a change from glacial to interglacial climate, and adjustments to increased watershed area resulting from piracy of the ancestral headwaters of the Little Missouri River.

  17. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake and retention ponds during May and September also contained cyanobacteria. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol concentrations were less than detection limits (0.005 ug/L) in all five of the Rapid Creek samples collected in May. Actinomycetes bacteria were present at the water treatment plant intake in May 2007, at a concentration of 6 colonies per milliliter. During this study, no taste-and-odor problems with the drinking water within the study area were reported. However, the presence of cyanobacterial taxa known to contain taste-and-odor producing strains (such as Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, and Anabaena) indicates the potential for taste-and-odor problems under certain physical and chemical conditions.

  18. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood deposits in conjunction with hydraulic calculations based on modern channel and valley geometry. Reach-scale paleoflood chronologies were interpreted for each study reach, which generally entailed correlation of flood evidence among multiple sites, chiefly based on relative position within stratigraphic sequences, unique textural characteristics, or results of age dating and flow estimation. The FLDFRQ3 and PeakfqSA analytical models (assuming log-Pearson Type III frequency distributions) were used for flood-frequency analyses for as many as four scenarios: (1) analysis of gaged records only; (2) gaged records with historical information; (3) all available data including gaged records, historical flows, paleofloods, and perception thresholds; and (4) the same as the third scenario, but ?top fitting? the distribution using only the largest 50 percent of gaged peak flows. The PeakfqSA model is most consistent with procedures adopted by most Federal agencies for flood-frequency analysis and thus was (1) used for comparisons among results for study reaches, and (2) considered by the authors as most appropriate for general applications of estimating low-probability flood recurrence. The detailed paleoflood investigations indicated that in the last 2,000 years all study reaches have had multiple large floods substantially larger than in gaged records. For Spring Creek, stratigraphic records preserved a chronology of at least five paleofloods in approximately (~) 1,000 years approaching or exceeding the 1972 flow of 21,800 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The largest was ~700 years ago with a flow range of 29,300-58,600 ft3/s, which reflects the uncertainty regarding flood-magnitude estimates that was incorporated in the flood-frequency analyses. In the lower reach of Rapid Creek (downstream from Pactola Dam), two paleofloods in ~1,000 years exceeded the 1972 flow of 31,200 ft3/s. Those occurred ~440 and 1,000 years ago, with flows of 128,000-256,000 and 64,000-128,000 ft3/s, respectively. Five smaller paleofloods of 9,500-19,000 ft3/s occurred between ~200 and 400 year

  19. 9 CFR 78.41 - State/area classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota...Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, West...

  20. 9 CFR 78.41 - State/area classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota...Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, West...

  1. 9 CFR 78.41 - State/area classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota...Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, West...

  2. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

  3. Stroke Research at USC South Carolina's midlands area leads the world in the number of strokes.

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Stroke Research at USC South Carolina's midlands area leads the world in the number of strokes. Exciting research is taking place at the University of South Carolina to help us understand and treat stroke. At the University of South Carolina, a team of investigators is working towards understanding

  4. View of Parking Area No. 21 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 21 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 17, 18, 19, 33, 34, 22, and 20, from left to right. Note boulder placement as designed landscape feature. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  6. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  7. South Dakota After 3PM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each afternoon across the U.S., 15 million children--more than a quarter of children--are alone and unsupervised after school. The parents of 18 million would enroll their children in an afterschool program, if one were available. These are some of the key findings from the nation's most in-depth study of how America's children spend their…

  8. South Dakota North Platte R.

    E-print Network

    ) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), were found in ground water 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Lincoln, Nebraska. 2 The effects of irrigation canals and the North Platte River on ground-water movement and quality indicated that most of the ground water in the alluvium was derived from the North Platte River

  9. Belle Fourche folio, South Dakota 

    E-print Network

    Darton, Nelson Horatio, 1865-1948.

    1909-01-01

    . 1 17. 9 17. 8 17. 4 18. 1 23. 5 23. 8 23. 1 23. 3 0:100 5:100 2. 5:100 5:100 I:100 5:100 0:100 5N2:100 44-52 23-27 48-52 50-55 45-54 44-56 46-55 50 145-155 135-150 148-158 147-149 159-161 157-162 162-166 163-164... injection rate (steam injection rate = 5. 0 cc/min) for run 4 (5: 100 propane:steam). 55 4. 20 Comparison of oil rate. , water rate and steam front location for run 4 4. 21 (5: 100 propane:steam). Cumulative oil and water volumes for nin 5 56 (1...

  10. The systematics of trace-element partitioning between coexisting muscovite and biotite in metamorphic rocks from the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Peter S.; Wehn, David C.; Feldmann, Steven G.

    1993-06-01

    Coexisting muscovite and biotite in forty-nine staurolite- and sillimanite-zone schists from the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, have been analyzed by ICP spectrometry for major and selected trace elements. This study represents the first comprehensive effort to document and explain trace-element partitioning behavior between coexisting micas in metamorphic rocks. Overall, the data reveal systematic element distributions across a wide thermal-compositional range. Mean Henry's Law partition coefficients [ K ?D (bio/mus)] are as follows: Mn (14 ± 6 (1 ?)), Ni (14 ± 6), Zn (13 ± 8), Li (4.0 ± 1.1), Ti(2.9 ± 0.7), Co (2.6 ± 1.6), Yb (2.0 ± 1.7), Cu (1.9 ± 1.2), Y (1.5 ± 1.5), Be (1.1 ± 1.5), Cr (1.0 ± 0.2), La (0.8 ± 0.7), V (0.7 ± 0.1), Zr (0.6 ± 0.2), Ba (0.5 ± 0.3), Sc (0.4 ± 0.1), Sr (0.4 ± 0.4), and Na (0.2 ± 0.1). This sequence is governed largely by the crystal structure of the micas and their major-element compositions. Several structural effects on K ?D have been identified. First, the observed Kast; D sequences Cr 3+ > V 3+ > Sc 3+ and Ni 2+ > Co 2+ > Cu 2+ are just as predicted from relative octahedral site preference energies, indicating that crystal-field effects influence the partitioning behavior of transition-metal cations. Second, the presence of smaller (i.e., more collapsed) interlayer sites in muscovite (relative to biotite) favors substitution in muscovite of cations smaller than K +, namely, Na +, Sr 2+, Ba 2+, and La 3+. Likewise, interlayer cations larger than K + (e.g., H 3O +, Rb +, and Cs +) are predicted to substitute preferentially into biotite. Third, tetrahedral Fe 3+ is predicted to favor biotite over muscovite because of larger tetrahedral sheets in biotite (due, in turn, to more Al and less Si). Fourth, the occurrence of heterovalent interlayer cations in micas suggests that their partitioning behavior is partly governed by charge-balance reactions. As a general compositional effect on K ?D, the preferences exhibited by biotite for Li + and divalent cations of first-row transition elements reflect its high abundance of comparably sized vi(Mg, Fe 2+) relative to coexisting muscovite. Likewise, relatively strong affinities of muscovite for Cr 3+, V 3+, and Sc 3+ reflect its high stoichiometric vi(Al, Fe 3+) abundance. Element-specific compositional effects on K ?D are less evident; but there are indications that Mg 2+ partitioning affects that of Li +, Ni 2+, and Mn 2+. Temperatures inferred from Mg-Tschermak (MgSiAL 2) exchange between coexisting muscovite and biotite ( HOISCH, 1989) provide a convenient datum by which to evaluate the thermal behavior of analogous vector components involving trace elements. Several of these components appear to possess exchange potentials ( ?Grxn) sufficiently large so that respective equilibrium constants approach unity with temperature increase. These components include the following: NiSiAl -2, MgSiCr -1Al -1, MgSiV -1Al -1, MgSiSc -1Al -1, CrAl -1, VAl -1, and Li 2 Si viAl -1, vi? -1, ivAl -1. In contrast, any thermal sensitivity of other such components is masked by analytical scatter.

  11. Coefficients of Conservatism for the Vascular Flora of the Dakotas and Adjacent Grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    The Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel

    2001-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment can be used to identity natural areas, to facilitate comparisons among different sites, to provide long-term monitoring of natural area quality, and to evaluate habitat management and restoration efforts. To facilitate the use of floristic quality assessment in North Dakota, South Dakota (excluding the Black Hills), and adjacent grasslands, we developed a species list and assigned coefficients of conservatism (C values; range 0 to 10) to each plant species in the region's flora. The C values we assigned represented our collective knowledge of the patterns of occurrence of each plant species in the Dakotas and our confidence that a particular taxon is natural-area dependent. Because state boundaries usually do not follow ecological boundaries, the C values we assigned should be equally valid in nearby areas with the same vegetation types. Of the 1,584 taxa we recognized in this effort, 275 (17%) were determined to be nonnative to the region. We assigned C values of 4 or higher to 77% of our taxa, and the entire native flora had a mean C value (C) of 6.l. A floristic quality index (FQI) can be calculated to rank sites in order of their floristic quality. By applying the coefficients of conservatism supplied here and calculating C and FQI, an effective means of evaluating the quality of plant communities can be obtained. Additionally, by repeating plant surveys and calculations of C and FQI over time, temporal changes in floristic quality can be identified.

  12. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E., III; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  13. Structural styles and depositional history of North and South Padre Island, OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    North and South Padre Island OCS areas were studied using 2-D seismic reflection data, check shot data, well logs and paleontological reports. Six salt structures occur beneath the present shelf edge. Shale occurs in over-pressured ridges beneath fault footwalls. We found that growth faults in the study area are similar in style to that of growth faults in the Brazos OCS area. However, they differ in maximum expansion periods. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above an over-pressured shale ridge. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) formed due to a large sediment influx that forced salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene due to further salt withdrawal We defined five depositional sequences from the Miocene (18.0, 16.3, 13.4, 10.5, and 6.2 Ma). Nine mini-basins are in the study area and they are connected by three main sediments pathways. Mechanism of the basin formation is controlled by the nature of depocenter shift. Depocenters formed by salt withdrawal and sediment influx do not shift. On the other hand, depocenters shift is controlled by fault expansion and sediment influx. We generated five stratigraphic cross-sections using detailed well log correlation to show the sand and shale sequences. Discontinuities in these sequences are common due to subsidence and the large number of faults in the study area. Presence of faults and shale bodies may cause formation of structural traps.

  14. Preliminary report on the coal resources of the Dickenson area, Billings, Dunn, and Stark counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menge, Michael L.

    1977-01-01

    The Dickinson area is underlain by the coal-bearing Fort Union Formation (Paleocene). The Fort Union in this area contains nine potentially economic coal beds. Five of these beds are, either all or in part, shallow enough to be economically extracted by conventional strip-mining methods, while the remaining four deeper beds represent future possible strip-mining, in situ, or shaft-mining coal resources. The Fort Union coal beds in the Dickinson area are relatively flat lying (dips are less than 1??) and only slightly influenced by faulting and both depositional and post-depositional channeling. Topography, coal thickness, and minimum overburden all combine to give the Dickinson area an excellent future coal resource development potential.

  15. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

  16. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

  17. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

  18. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

  19. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S. 122...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.23 Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S....

  20. Oceanographic design data for South Pass Area Block 47

    SciTech Connect

    Suhayda, J.N. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The paper summarizes the methods and results of work to determine the operational and extreme oceanographic design data for the platform in South Pass Block 47. Site specific design data are required for mud slide/soft bottom areas. The objective of the work was to develop site specific wind, water level, wave and current values for average return periods of 1, 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 years as part of the geotechnical and reliability analyses. The paper shows how oceanographic design data for a wide range of return periods can be developed in a consistent manner. The extreme data were generated using two hydrodynamic models; a hurricane storm surge and transport model, and a hurricane wave model. The wave model explicitly involves wave/sea floor interactions in the study area. The results of the study gave the simultaneous occurring values of the design data. Wave heights for the site were 26.7 ft, 50.8 ft, 66.7 ft, 77.8 ft and 83.9 ft for average return periods of 1, 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 years. The simultaneous wind speeds (1 sec average) associated with these same average return periods were 137 ft/s, 144 ft/s, 226 ft/s, 240 ft/s and 259 ft/s. Current speeds at the surface were 3.0 ft/s, 4.3 ft/s, 6.3 ft/s, 6.6 ft/s and 7.1 ft/s for the same return periods.

  1. Climatic and lake temperature data for Wetland P1, Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, Renee S.; Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Wetland P1 and the Cottonwood Lake Area includes the study of evaporation. Presented here in a graphical format are those data collected during the open-water seasons of 1982-87 that were needed for energy- budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies. The data include air temperatures, water surface and lake-bottom temperatures, windspeed, radiation, humidity, and precipitation. Data were collected at a raft station and two land stations.

  2. Summary and Trend Analysis of Water-Quality Data for the Oakes Test Area, Southeastern North Dakota, 1984-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2007-01-01

    The Oakes Test Area is operated and maintained by the Garrison Diversion Conservancy District, under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation, to evaluate the effectiveness and environmental consequences of irrigation. As part of the evaluation, the Bureau of Reclamation collected water-quality samples from seven sites on the James River and the Oakes Test Area. The data were summarized and examined for trends in concentration. A nonparametric statistical test was used to test whether each concentration was increasing or decreasing with time for selected physical properties and constituents, and a trend slope was estimated for each constituent at each site. Trends were examined for two time periods, 1988-2004 and 1994-2004. Results varied by site and by constituent. All sites and all constituents tested had at least one statistically significant trend in the period 1988-2004. Sulfate, total dissolved solids, nitrate, and orthophosphate have significant positive trends at multiple sites with no significant negative trend at any site. Alkalinity and arsenic have single significant positive trends. Hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, potassium, and chloride have both significant positive and negative trends. Ammonia has a single significant negative trend. Fewer significant trends were identified in 1994-2004, and all but one were positive. The contribution to the James River from Oakes Test Area drainage appears to have little effect on water quality in the James River.

  3. Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

  4. Subsidence history of Williston basin in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lefever, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    The tectonic subsidence history of the Williston basin in North Dakota has been estimated through the examination of wireline logs from 30 wells that penetrated to Precambrian basement. The initial subsidence of the basin in North Dakota began at a time not later than during deposition of the middle portion of the Deadwood Formation (earliest Ordovician; about 495-490 Ma), significantly earlier than had been estimated by most workers. The initial subsidence was centered in a north-south-trending elongate area in western North Dakota; the maximum calculated tectonic subsidence rate for this event is about 15 m/m.y. Since the Early Ordovician, exclusive of the basin initiation event, the basin has undergone at least five distinct episodes of tectonic subsidence: (1) from about 450-420 Ma, (2) from 420-355 Ma, (3) from 355-315 Ma, (4) from 270-245 Ma, and (5) beginning in the interval between about 90 and 70 Ma. Each of the subsidence episodes was characterized by a rapid initial subsidence, followed by a decline to very low subsidence rates. The maximum calculated initial subsidence rates for these episodes are 26, 32, 16, 9, and 15 m/m.y, respectively. The time between episodes 4 and 5 seems to have been one of relative quiescence; the few rocks preserved from that time interval were deposited during highstands of sea level. The subsidence history curves for episodes 1-4 are consistent with a thermal expansion model; however, with the exception of episode 3 and possibly episode 4, none of the first four subsidence events appears to be temporally coincident with major tectonic events elsewhere in North America.

  5. GREATER SAGE GROUSE ON THE EDGE OF THEIR RANGE: LEKS AND SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES IN THE DAKOTAS

    E-print Network

    GREATER SAGE GROUSE ON THE EDGE OF THEIR RANGE: LEKS AND SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES IN THE DAKOTAS the study for his knowledge and experience with sage grouse, his lek count data, and his willingness to take, and the history of sage grouse management in South Dakota. I also would like to thank Charles Berdan, Kenneth Parr

  6. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660...of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The...

  8. 19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

  9. 19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

  10. 19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

  11. 19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

  12. 19 CFR 122.24 - Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.24 Landing requirements for certain aircraft arriving from areas south of U.S....

  13. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    McMahon, P B; Caldwell, R R; Galloway, J M; Valder, J F; Hunt, A G

    2015-04-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from <1000 to >30,000?years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5?km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6?km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur. PMID:25392910

  14. CHANGES IN WATERFOWL, WETLANDS, DEMOGRAPHICS, AND LAND USE ON THE WAUBAY STUDY AREA, DAY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    found in 1992 and 64 in 1993. Redheads (Avthya americana) were the most abundant over-water nester.6% in 1993. Forty upland nests were incidentally found with blue-winged teal (Anas discors) being the most

  15. Dunn-Nokota Methanol Project, Dunn County, North Dakota. Volume IV. Product transportation analysis. [Proposed methanol project near Dunn Center, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this portion of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of transportation of methanol and by-products to predefined marketing areas by various modes of transportation including pipeline, rail, truck, and water. The study included a review of codes, standards and regulations; product characteristics in relation to transportation, tentative corridor route selections, permitting requirements, use of existing transportation systems, preliminary engineering costs for the pipeline section and transportation costs for available common carrier modes. The market areas considered in this part of the study were established in the Market Analysis Study (Volume III). The primary market area includes North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. The secondary market area includes Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, Missouri, and Ohio. The West Coast market area consists of California, Oregon, and Washington. The study included investigation of use of existing pipeline systems and tentative selection of routings for eleven system alternatives, in corridors adjacent to existing or proposed pipelines. The eleven alternative pipeline routes are identified in Table 2-1 and include new dedicated systems and use of existing systems by batching. A generalized map showing the geographic relationship of the alternative routes is shown in Figure 2-1 and Figure 2-2 indicates possible terminal locations for the Minneapolis and Chicago areas.

  16. Western North Dakota High School Senior Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, David; Markell, Clark

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the attitudes of high school seniors in North Dakota toward isolationism and toward lignite coal development, and (2) to determine the future occupational and educational plans of high school seniors in the sampled area. A survey instrument was sent early in 1974 to all high school seniors in a…

  17. DAKOTA 101: Wrap-Up http://dakota.sandia.gov

    E-print Network

    -AC04-94AL85000. SAND2012-7388P #12;DAKOTA 101: Wrap-Up Topics · Review of DAKOTA's scope and relevance voltage drop, peak current Abaqus, Sierra, CM/ CFD Model material props, boundary, initial conditions

  18. VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, TylerMcconnell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge middleground, and Henry Clay Village and Walkers Mill in upper background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation area is necessary to promote maritime safety, and protect mariners and the environment from the hazards associated with ice conditions. The regulated...

  1. 78 FR 58266 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South Coast Air Basin, Coachella Valley, and Sacramento Metro Ozone Nonattainment Areas; Reclassification AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of...

  2. Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina hills of northeastern North Dakota. Resource pub

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Faanes; J. M. Andrew

    1983-01-01

    North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value.

  3. Relationship between surface, free tropospheric and total column ozone in two contrasting areas in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Combrink; R. D. Diab; F. Sokolic; E. G. BRUNKET

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of surface ozone in two contrasting areas of South Africa are compared with free tropospherc and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total column ozone data. Cape Point is representative; of a background monitoring station which is remote from pollution impacts, whereas the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) stations of Elandsfontein and Verkykkop are situated in an area of intense urban

  4. Hydrogeology and structure of the Bluewater Springs area south central Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Padilla; T. J. Osborne

    1996-01-01

    The Bluewater springs area in south central Montana was the site of oil and gas exploration in the first half of this century. Though no significant oil was found, artesian water wells produced over 3,000 gallons per minute. Artesian springs in the area produce tufa deposits over faulted, northwest dipping Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sediments. Two new faults were mapped

  5. Sequence stratigraphy of the Galveston South area of the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Sandra E

    1990-01-01

    probable transport directions. Sediment path&vays exist in the &vestern part of the area. These features are sintilar in architecture to those leading to depocent&rs in the ca~tern part of the area. 4 salt cored high lies in south&vestern part &&f...

  6. Land Claims and Comanagement of Protected Areas in South Africa: Exploring the Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thembela Kepe

    2008-01-01

    Comanagement has recently become the most popular approach for reconciling land claims and biodiversity conservation in South\\u000a Africa and beyond. Following the resolution of land claims on protected areas in South Africa, comanagement arrangements have\\u000a been created between the relevant conservation authorities and the land claimant communities who are legally awarded tenure\\u000a rights to the land. However, it is doubtful

  7. From Dakota Territory to Today: How Much Has Education Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reetz, Linda J.

    This paper presents a historical study of three issues in education: (1) the teaching of morals; (2) teacher retraining; and (3) practices in language arts. It demonstrates that recent actions by the South Dakota legislature to ensure that children are given moral and character instruction are similar to efforts undertaken in the 1890s in North…

  8. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.T.; Flake, L.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Kobriger, G.D.; Homer, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  9. Contrasting styles of fault control on position of pre-Dakota unconformity and on depositional environments of Dakota sandstone, northern San Juan basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, J.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Detailed subsurface analyses of depositional environments and sandstone geometry of rocks from the upper part of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation through the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone indicate that faulting was a major control on distribution and preservation of lithofacies in the northern San Juan basin. The faults have a predominant northwest trend and were episodically active from Late Jurassic through early Late Cretaceous time. The main effect of faulting on the Morrison Formation and Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation was in the preservation and/or erosion of rock. These formations were uniformly deposited across the study area and then locally removed across horsts. Although depositional thinning of the Morrison occurs from west to east across the northern part of the basin, thickness differences (as much as 200 ft) between the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Mancos Shale and the Todilto Limestone of the Wanakah Formation cannot be solely attributed to regional thinning. Among closely spaced drill holes (1-3 mi apart) erosion is evidenced by thinning or local absence of the Burro Canyon and/or loss of section at the top of the underlying Morrison. The unconformity below the Dakota is not a simple regionally inclined surface from north to south across the San Juan basin. Rather, its development in the northern part of the basin is more intense on uplifted areas among a series of parallel northwest-trending vertical faults.

  10. Evolution of late Pleistocene and Holocene climates in the circum-South Pacific land areas

    SciTech Connect

    Markgraf, V. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Dodson, J.R. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Kershaw, A.P. [Monash Univ., Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    1992-01-01

    Paleovegetation maps were reconstructed based on a network of pollen records from Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America for 18000, 12000, 9000, 6000, and 3000 BP and interpreted in terms of paleoclimatic patterns. These patterns permitted us to speculate on past atmospheric circulation in the South Pacific and the underlying forcing missing line mechanisms. During full glacial times, with vastly extended Australasian land area and circum-Antarctic ice-shelves, arid and cold conditions characterized all circum-South Pacific land areas, except for a narrow band in southern South America (43{degrees} to 45{degrees}S) that might have been even wetter and moister than today. This implies that ridging at subtropical and mid-latitudes must have been greatly increased and that the storm tracks were located farther south than today. At 12000 BP when precipitation had increased in southern Australia, New Zealand, and the mid-latitudes of South America, ridging was probably still as strong as before but has shifted into the eastern Pacific, leading to weaker westerlies in the western Pacific and more southerly located westerlies in the eastern Pacific. At 9000 BP when, except for northernmost Australia, precipitation reached near modern levels, the south Pacific ridges and the westerlies must have weakened. Because of the continuing land connection between New Guinea and Australia, and reduced seasonality, the monsoon pattern had still not developed. By 6000 BP, moisture levels in Australia and New Zealand reached their maximum, indicating that the monsoon pattern had become established. Ridging in the South Pacific was probably weaker than today, and the seasonal shift of the westerlies was stronger than before. By 3000 BP essentially modern conditions had been achieved, characterized by patterns of high seasonal variability. 93 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Andean Basins Morphometry: Assesing South American Large Rivers' Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, R. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presently there are no regional-scale morphometric analyses of Andean fluvial basins. Therefore, we created a continental-scale database of these basins. Our data covers over an area 1,000,000 km2 of the Andes, from Venezuela to Argentina. These basins are the source of some of the largest rivers in the world including the Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, and Magdalena. Morphometric parameters including shape factor, relief ratio, longitudinal profiles and different indices of basin elevation were calculated based on the CGIAR SRTM 4.1 DEM (~90 m resolution). FAO Hydrosheds were used to segment the DEM by major catchment and then manually cut at the Andean zone. In the North and Central Andes, this produced over 500,000 subcatchments, which we reduced to 619 by setting minimum catchment area to 100 km2. We then integrate lithologic data from DNPM geologic data. Our results indicate that sedimentary lithologies dominate Central Andean catchments (n=268,k=4), which cover an area 767,00 km2, while the Northern Andean catchments (covering 350,000 km2) are more varied, dominated by volcanics in the Pacific (n=78), a sedimentary (48%) dominant mix in the Caribbean (n=138) and 60% sedimentary in the Amazon-Orinoco subregion catchments (n=138). Elevation averages are smallest in the north Andes and average maximum elevations (6,026 m) in the Argentinian catchments (n=65) of the Central Andes are the highest. Shape factors range from 0.49 to 0.58 in the North and 0.52 to 0.58 in the Central Andes. There are clear differences in all categories between region and subregion, but that difference does not hinge on a single morphometric or geologic parameter. Morphometric parameters at a watershed scale (listed in Table) are analyzed and hydrologic data from gauging stations throughout the Andes (n=100) are used to compare morphometric parameters with lithology and characteristics from the basin hydrograph (peak discharge timing, minimum and maximum discharge, and runoff).

  12. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  13. Impacts of selective logging on frogs in a forested area of northern New South Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Lemckert

    1999-01-01

    Counts of frogs were performed at 52 streams and 33 ponds in the Dorrigo area of northern New South Wales, Australia. Three measures of logging disturbance and seven other environmental features were recorded for each site to determine if any of these factors significantly influenced species richness (number of species) or abundance of individuals breeding at either streams or ponds.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature. PMID:25660421

  15. Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas

    E-print Network

    Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas butterflies to change direction and move away from the pine edge. Only four species crossed the grassland/pine edge, and of these, only two flew farther than 20 m into the pine forest. The adjacent grassland

  16. The establishment of area schools in South Australia, 1941-1947

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. John Halsey

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to trace the establishment of area schools from two vantage points. The first vantage point is those who were legislatively responsible for public education in South Australia from the mid 1930s through to the end of World War 2. The second is the local community, with references to Karoonda (and districts) in

  17. Geology Fieldnotes: Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Kentucky/Tennesee

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The free-flowing Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries pass through 90 miles of scenic gorges and valleys containing a wide range of natural and historic features. This National Park Service site includes a brief history of the area, visitor information, and links to sites pertaining to the geology of the region.

  18. Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifang Zhu; Suqin Xu; Pinpin Shao; Hui Zhang; Donseng Wu; Wenjia Yang; Jia Feng; Lei Feng

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas\\u000a in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea,\\u000a abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests\\u000a were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live

  19. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  20. North Dakota Geological Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

  1. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section...REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger...

  2. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section...REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger...

  3. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section...REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger...

  4. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section...REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger...

  5. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section...REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger...

  6. Geologic map of the South Sierra Wilderness and South Sierra Roadless area, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Carter, K.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The study area is underlain predominantly by granitoid rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Metamorphic rocks are present in roof pendants mainly in the southwest corner of the study area and consist of quartz-biotite schist, phyllite, quartzite, marble, calc-silicate hornfels, and meta-dacite. Among the seven Triassic and (or) Jurassic plutons are three newly described units that consist of the gabbro of Deer Mountain, the tonalite of Falls Creek, and the quartz diorite of Round Mountain. The map shows one newly described unit that intrudes Triassic rocks: the granodiorite of Monache Creek which is a leucocratic, medium-grained, equi-granular, locally porphyritic biotite hornblende granodiorite. Among the seven Cretaceous plutons are two newly described units. The Cretaceous rocks are generally medium- to coarse-grained, potassium-feldspar porphyritic granite with biotite and minor hornblende; it includes abundant pods of alaskite. The granite of Haiwee Creek is similar but only locally potassium-feldspar porphyritic and with only minor hornblende. Major-element data plotted on Harker diagrams show the older rocks to be higher in iron and magnesium and lower in silica than the younger rocks. There are abundant local pods of alaskite throughout the study area that consist of medium- to coarse-grained, leucocratic granite, alkali-feldspar granite and associated aplite and pegmatite bodies occurring as small pods and highly leucocratic border phases of nearby plutons. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rock include the rhyolite of Monache Mountain and Quaternary surficial deposits: fan, stream-channel, colluvium, talus, meadow-filling, rock-glacier, and glacial-moraine deposits. Important structures include the Sierran front fault and a possible extensional feature along which Bacon (1978) suggests Monache Mountain erupted.

  7. Estimating 1980 ground-water pumpage for irrigation on the High Plains in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimes, F.J.; Luckey, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Current ground-water use is required for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. In response to this need, a sampling approach was developed to estimate water pumped for irrigation on the High Plains during 1980. Pumpage was computed by combining application estimates with mapped irrigated-acreage information. Irrigation application (inches of water applied) was measured at 480 sites in 15 counties in the High Plains during the 1980 growing season. The relationship between calculated Blaney-Criddle irrigation demand and measured application was used to estimate application for unsampled areas of the High Plains. Application estimates multiplied by irrigated-acreate estimates, compiled from Landsat-satellite imagery, yielded the volume of ground water pumped for irrigation. The estimate of ground water pumped for irrigation in the High Plains during 1980 and 18,902,000 acre-feet for 13 ,715,000 irrigated areas. The sampled application data were evaluated for significant trends. The application was greater for crops requiring more water such as corn and hay and less for crops such as sorghum, grain, and cotton. The data showed greater application for flood-irrigated systems than for sprinkler-irrigation systems. Areas of the High Plains with thin saturated thickness tended to have a smaller average discharge per well, fewer irrigated acres per well, and a predominance of crops requiring less water crops. (USGS).

  8. COMANCHE-BIG SOUTH, NEOTA-FLAT TOP, AND NEVER SUMMER WILDERNESS STUDY AREAS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource assessment was made of three wilderness study areas adjacent to the north and west sides of Rocky Mountain National Park in north-central Colorado. Gold, silver, and uranium prospects in major faults near the Comanche-Big South wilderness study area suggest the possibility that these commodities may also occur along numerous similar faults within the study area, but the lack of evidence for mineralized rock at the surface suggests little chance for deposits along these structures. The Neota-Flat Top wilderness study area shows no evidence of being mineralized and little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. The Never Summer wilderness study area has strong geologic, geochemical, and geophysical evidence indicating probable resource potential for molydenum deposits. The nature of the geologic terrain precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  9. The geology and geophysics of the High Island South Area, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Silver, Kenneth Edward

    1991-01-01

    ACTIVITY. SALT RIDGE SYSTEMS. BASIN EVOLUTION. Page 1 . . 2 . . . . . 6 12 12 . . . . 12 15 18 23 25 . . . . . 25 . . . . . . 27 . . 28 33 . . . , . . 34 36 38 . . 40 . . 42 . . . . . 44 . . . . . 50 51 . . . . . . 55 . . . . . 62... evolution of the High Island South Area (HISA). Information generated from the data set include structure, isochron, seismic facies, net sand, and paleobathymetric maps keyed to five seismic intervals. These intervals are bounded by the acoustic basement...

  10. Geological And Structural Setting Of Wadi Hodein Area South Eastern Egypt With Application Of Remote Sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Abdeen; M. F. Sadek; R. O. Greiling

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatin at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (from oldest to youngest; D1, D2, D3 and D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is represented by ENE-WSW oriented

  11. Mineralogy and radioactivity of pegmatites from South Wadi Khuda area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed F. Raslan; Mohamed A. Ali; Mohamed G. El-Feky

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive minerals in pegmatites associated with granitic rocks are commonly encountered in the south of the Wadi Khuda\\u000a area and found as dyke-like and small bodies. They are observed within garnet-muscovite granites near the contact with older\\u000a granitoids. Field surveys indicated that the studied pegmatites vary in dimensions ranging from 2 to 10 m in width and from\\u000a 10 to

  12. Environmental evolution in the salt-water intrusion area south of Laizhou Bay since late Pleistocene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulu Zhang; Enfeng Liu; Yan Zhang; Liangjie Xin

    2008-01-01

    The south coastal plain of Laizhou Bay is one of the typical salt-water intrusion areas in China, the occurrence and development\\u000a of which was closely related with the palaeoenvironment evolution. Systematic analyses of pollen, foraminifera and grain size\\u000a com-position based on 14C and luminescence dating from two sediment cores were performed for the purpose of understanding the salt-water intrusion\\u000a in

  13. Relation between relative permeability and hydrate saturation in Shenhu area, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Hui; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Hong-Jun; Feng, Kai; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in hydrate-bearing sandstone samples from the Shenhu area, South China Sea were used to study the effect of gas hydrates on the sandstone permeability. The hydrate-bearing samples contain pore-filling hydrates. The data show that the pore-filling hydrates greatly affect the formation permeability while depending on many factors that also bear on permeability; furthermore, with increasing hydrate saturation, the formation permeability decreases. We used the Masuda model and an exponent N = 7.9718 to formulate the empirical equation that describes the relation between relative permeability and hydrate saturation for the Shenhu area samples.

  14. A preliminary report on the bentonite beds of the lower Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shale, Stanley County, South Dakota ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Virgin Creek Member of the Pierre Shales has been divided by earlier workers into lower and upper zones based on weathering and shale differences. Of the 49 bentonite beds of the lower Virgin Creek, the Government Draw Bentonite Beds, and bentonite bed 20 are the best markers for correlation from stream valley to stream valley. The variation of number and thickness of shale and bentonite beds is due to bioturbation, current activity, differential compaction, basin subsidence, and merging and splitting of bentonite beds. Three distinctive concretion horizons have the potential of also being used as stratigraphic markers within the study area. They include a nodule zone between two bentonite beds, barite(?) concretions that locally mark the lower contact of the Virgin Crrek, and a set of concretions at the contact between the upper and lower Virgin Creek. -from Author

  15. Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

  16. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources, and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present a new synthesis of three field studies combining household surveys, participatory research approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews in Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. The results of our synthesis suggests that survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  17. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Heart River irrigation project and the Dickinson area, North Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of waters of the Heart River project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tychsen, Paul C.; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    The Heart River irrigation project, in southwestern North Dakota, lies in the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province, which extends from the Missouri escarpment to and beyond the western border of the State. The area ranges in altitude from 1,620 to 2,275 feet and locally has strong relief. The floor of the Heart River Valley is underlain by alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. In the westernmost part of the areas the Fort Union formation of Paleocene (Tertiary) age forms the valley sides, but in a downstream direction the Cannonball and Ludlow formations, here undifferentiated, also of Paleocene age, crop out in the valley sides and underlie progressively broader areas of the upland surface. The Hell Creek formation of Upper Cretaceous age appears above stream level only in the stretch of the valley between the center of T. 136 N., R. 85 W., and the northeastern part of T.. 137 N., R. 84 W. Glacial Drift, which once covered the whole area, now has been almost entirely removed by erosion except for .scattered boulders on the uplands. The Cannonball and Ludlow unit and the Fort Union formation yield, moderate supplies of ground water, and the river alluvium yields more abundant supplies. At the present rate of withdrawal and with normal precipitation there is little danger of seriously depleting the supply. In 1946 the average depth to water in observation wells in the Heart River Valley was 19 feet, whereas the depth to water in observation wells in the upland averaged 30 feet. The Dickinson area is small and is about 45 miles upstream from the Heart River irrigation project. Ground-water levels in the Dickinson municipal well field have declined considerably within recent years, but the impounding of Heart River water is expected to insure a more adequate water supply for the town. Samples of ground water from four wells in the lower Heart River Valley were analyzed to determine the present mineral character of the waters in this region. Waters from shallow and deep wells in the Dickinson area were analyzed to assist in determining the practicability of further utilization of ground water as a public supply. A map showing areas of the least-mineralized ground water in the Dickinson area is presented and the need of further exploratory work is discussed.

  18. Flooding near Sherwood, North Dakota

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Souris River flooding a road near Sherwood, North Dakota.On June 23, 2011, USGS personnel were there to measure the streamflow. Streamflow was approximately 27,100 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 27.98 feet....

  19. Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifang; Xu, Suqin; Shao, Pinpin; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Donseng; Yang, Wenjia; Feng, Jia; Feng, Lei

    2005-04-01

    The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live in a heavy rare earth (HREE) area, 62 in a light rare earth (LREE) area, and 49 in the control area. Test results showed that serum total protein and globulin from both HREE and LREE areas, as well as albumin from the LREE area, were significantly lower (p < 0.01 - 0.01) compared to the results from the control area, whereas albumin from the HREE area showed no significant variance (p > 0.05). The chi-square test showed that Serum-glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) in both areas were not significant (p > 0.05), whereas the IgM in the HREE area was significantly elevated. It is our conclusion that long-term ingestion of REE affected activities of some digestive enzymes, causing malabsorption and indigestion, and might further lead to a low-protein effect for the villagers in the LREE area. However, the damage to the liver was rather mild. The elevation of IgM was probably the result of stimulation induced by the formation of a large amount of granules as a result of direct binding of REEs to globulin or albumin (combination of REEs with globulin or albumin). PMID:15851827

  20. Miocene sand distribution of the South Marsh Island and the Vermillion area, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jingoo

    1997-01-01

    MIOCENE SAND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SOUTH MARSH ISLAND AND THE VERMILION AREA, OFFSHORE LOUISIANA, GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by JINGOO KIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... 1997 Major Subject: Oceanography ABSTRACT Miocene Sand Distribution of the South Marsh Island and the Vermilion Area, Offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico. (August 1997) Jingoo Kim, B. S. , Yonsei University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joel S...