Science.gov

Sample records for area southern rail

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of 1100 AREA, Southern Rail Connection and Rolling Stock, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy's proposed action: the transfer of the 1100 Area, southern rail connection and rolling stock to a non-federal entity. Impact information contained herein will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1508.27. This EA was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The following is a description of each section of the EA. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S. Department of Energy is addressing with the proposed action. As necessary, background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. A description with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts is provided. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. Reasonable alternative actions, which would address the Purpose and Need, are described. A no action alternative, as required by 10 CFR 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This provides a brief description of the locale in which the proposed action takes place, and which may be environmentally impacted. (5) Environmental

  2. 77 FR 12366 - JP Rail, Inc. d/b/a Southern Railroad Company of New Jersey-Operation Exemption-Rail Line in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board JP Rail, Inc. d/b/a Southern Railroad Company of New Jersey-- Operation Exemption--Rail Line in Salem County, N.J. JP Rail, Inc. d/b/a Southern Railroad Company of New Jersey (JP Rail), a Class III rail carrier,...

  3. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  4. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. 10. View of Western Rail and Surrounding Area to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Western Rail and Surrounding Area to the West (Lakeside Road was named Roxbury Avenue on the original plat. It was renamed Lakeside Road when a portion of the plat was replatted on August 1, 1925) - North Bridge, Spanning Quarton Lake branch of River Rouge, Birmingham, Oakland County, MI

  6. 10. View of Western Rail and Surrounding Area to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Western Rail and Surrounding Area to the West (Lakeside Road was named Roxbury Avenue on the original plat. It was renamed Lakeside Road when a portion of the plat was replatted on August 1, 1925) - South Bridge, Spanning Quarton Lake branch of River Rouge, Birmingham, Oakland County, MI

  7. 22. TIME CLOCK AREA, WITH LUNCH ROOM IN DISTANCE. RAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TIME CLOCK AREA, WITH LUNCH ROOM IN DISTANCE. RAIL SPUR FOLDING DOORS ARE HIDDEN BEHIND OFFICE AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... on November 16, 2010. Closing of this transaction is scheduled for December 21, 2010 (75 FR 70076-77... Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--Sacramento Valley Railroad... within a corporate family. PRL proposes to restructure its corporate family by converting two of...

  9. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  10. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  11. Characterization of Stormwater Runoff from a Light Rail Transit Area.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Raja Umer; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Memon, Sheeraz; Sukhbaatar, Chinzorig; Paule, Ma Cristina; Lee, Bum-Yeon; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2015-09-01

    The monitoring of stormwater runoff from Light Rail Transit (LRT) facilities is insufficient in many regions around the world. In this study, runoff quality and quantity were monitored during operational and non-operational LRT phases during 2010-2013. The event mean concentration (EMC) of pollutants showed little statistical variability during both phases. The antecedent dry day (ADD) showed a strong to moderate positive correlation with most pollutant EMCs during the non-operational phase. The existence and magnitude of the first flush from LRT runoff was found to be similar to those from other transportation land uses. The comparison of LRT runoff data with an adjacent road bridge site showed that the pollutant EMC and unit load were 2 to 9 times higher from the road bridge. It was suggested that LRT automated operation and the elevated track makes this transportation mode a viable option for the management of non-point source pollution. PMID:26961476

  12. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District--Acquisition Exemption-- In Marin County, Cal. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY: The Board... to Docket No. FD 35732, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street...

  13. Status and habitat use of the California black rail in the Southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Sulzman, C.

    2007-01-01

    California black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) occur in two disjunct regions: the southwestern USA (western Arizona and southern California) and northern California (Sacramento Valley and the San Francisco Bay area). We examined current status of black rails in the southwestern USA by repeating survey efforts first conducted in 1973-1974 and again in 1989, and also examined wetland plant species associated with black rail distribution and abundance. We detected 136 black rails in Arizona and southern California. Black rail numbers detected during past survey efforts were much higher than the numbers detected during our more intensive survey effort, and hence, populations have obviously declined. Plants that were more common at points with black rails included common threesquare (Schoenoplectus pungens), arrowweed (Pluchea sericea), Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia), and mixed shrubs, with common threesquare showing the strongest association with black rail presence. Plant species and non-vegetative communities that were less common at points with black rails included California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), southern cattail (Typha domingensis), upland vegetation, and open water. Black rails were often present at sites that had some saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), but were rarely detected in areas dominated by saltcedar. We recommend that a standardized black rail survey effort be repeated annually to obtain estimates of black rail population trends. Management of existing emergent marshes with black rails is needed to maintain stands of common threesquare in early successional stages. Moreover, wetland restoration efforts that produce diverse wetland vegetation including common threesquare should be implemented to ensure that black rail populations persist in the southwestern USA. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  15. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only.... (2) Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1... installed between a top rail required by paragraph (a) of this section, and the deck so that no open...

  16. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only.... (2) Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1... installed between a top rail required by paragraph (a) of this section, and the deck so that no open...

  17. CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

  18. 76 FR 28847 - Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company-Continuance in Control-Charlotte Southern Railroad Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Southern Railroad Company, Detroit Connecting Railroad Company, and Lapeer Industrial Railroad Company... Company (DCON), and Lapeer Industrial Railroad Company (LIRR). ADBF seeks authorization for its previously..., orders, and notices via the Board's Web site at `` http://www.stb.dot.gov '' under...

  19. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  20. DUMPING COOLED MOLDS FROM THE SHAKE OUT RAILS ONTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DUMPING COOLED MOLDS FROM THE SHAKE OUT RAILS ONTO A VIBRATING CONVEYOR WHICH TRANSPORTS CASTINGS AND SAND TO A SEPARATION SCREEN WHICH SIFTS SAND ONTO BELT CONVEYORS BELOW THAT CARRY IT PAST SWITCH-ACTIVATED WATER INJECTORS TO SIMILAR SWITCH-ACTIVATED FRESH SAND ADDERS BEFORE TRANSPORTING IT TO THE SAND STORAGE BIN WHILE CASTINGS ARE EITHER MANUALLY OR SMALL CRANE LIFTED TO DEGATING AREAS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  1. Hydrologic Evaluation of the Jungo Area, Southern Desert Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    RecologyTM, the primary San Francisco waste-disposal entity, is proposing to develop a Class 1 landfill near Jungo, Nevada. The proposal calls for the landfill to receive by rail about 20,000 tons of waste per week for up to 50 years. On September 22, 2009, the Interior Appropriation (S.A. 2494) was amended to require the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the proposed Jungo landfill site for: (1) potential water-quality impacts on nearby surface-water resources, including Rye Patch Reservoir and the Humboldt River; (2) potential impacts on municipal water resources of Winnemucca, Nevada; (3) locations and altitudes of aquifers; (4) how long it will take waste seepage from the site to contaminate local aquifers; and (5) the direction and distance that contaminated groundwater would travel at 95 and 190 years. This evaluation was based on review of existing data and information. Desert Valley is tributary to the Black Rock Desert via the Quinn River in northern Desert Valley. The Humboldt River and Rye Patch Reservoir would not be affected by surface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site because they are in the Humboldt basin. Winnemucca, on the Humboldt River, is 30 miles east of the Jungo landfill site and in the Humboldt basin. Groundwater-flow directions indicate that subsurface flow near the proposed Jungo landfill site is toward the south-southwest. Therefore, municipal water resources of Winnemucca would not be affected by surface or subsurface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site. Basin-fill aquifers underlie the 680-square-mile valley floor in Desert Valley. Altitudes around the proposed Jungo landfill site range from 4,162 to 4,175 feet. Depth to groundwater is fairly shallow in southern Desert Valley and is about 60 feet below land surface at the proposed Jungo landfill site. A groundwater divide exists about 7 miles north of the proposed Jungo landfill site. Groundwater north of the divide flows north towards the Quinn River. South of

  2. Current Status and Potential Impacts Regarding the Proposed Development of a Rail Line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Lanthrum, G.; Gunnerson, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a description of the current status regarding the proposed development of a rail line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, Southern Nevada, which includes potential impacts analyzed during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and the subsequent creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the rail line. Potential impacts are addressed within the context of impacts to natural and human environmental resources found within the geographic area of the proposed federal project. Potential impacts to these resources have been fully analyzed in the Rail Alignment Draft EIS (DEIS). This paper includes a summary of the potential impacts analyzed in the DEIS. Examples of potential impacts include land use conflicts, air quality, water use, and impacts to biological and cultural resources, among others. In conclusion: Based on its obligations under the NWPA and its decision to select the mostly rail scenario for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, DOE needs to ship these materials by rail in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE prepared the Rail Alignment EIS to provide the background, data, information, and analyses to help decision makers and the public understand the potential environmental impacts that could result from constructing and operating a railroad for shipment of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing rail line in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. This railroad would consist of a rail line, railroad operations support facilities, and other related infrastructure. DOE will use the Rail Alignment EIS to decide whether to construct and operate the proposed railroad, and if so, to: - Select a rail alignment (Caliente rail alignment or Mina rail alignment) in which to construct the railroad; - Select the common segments and alternative segments within either a Caliente rail alignment or a Mina

  3. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  4. Light rail: where the action is

    SciTech Connect

    Kizzia, T.; Middleton, W.D.

    1980-09-29

    Light rail transit provides the operating benefits of fixed guideway transportation without the high capital cost of heavy rapid transit. The basic light rail concept can be modified to meet a particular city's circumstances. Light rail projects in Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Portland, and San Diego are examined. The status of the light rail proposal for the Denver area is discussed. Denver's Regional Transportation District recently demonstrated that a 73 mi at-grade light rail network would satisfy Denver's need for more cost-effective, less polluting transportation. Various light rail vehicles are described. Advantages and limitations, possible variations, and significant advancements in light rail vehicle technology are discussed. (1 drawing, 1 map, 12 photos)

  5. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  6. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Gibson, Steven; Brown, Courtney; Krishnan, Vasaant

    2014-04-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. The survey is answering critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ material caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers of the neutral ISM, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH is also detecting many new OH masers, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. This proposal requests 250 hours to complete Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which is mapping 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre.

  7. Geodetic surveys across the Messina Straits (southern Italy) seismogenetic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Bonini, C.; Casula, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Messina Straits, southern Italy, unfortunately became famous after the occurrence of the great earthquake of December 28, 1908, Ms = 7.5, that caused thousands of deaths and severe destruction over a wide area along the Sicilian and Calabrian coasts. After that time many geophysical and geological studies were performed to evaluate the seismic characteristics of the 1908 earthquake, the seismic risk and the geological evolution of this region in the framework of Mediterranean geodynamics. In 1970, a geodetic network was set up across the Straits and was repeatedly measured with terrestrial techniques until 1980, showing a northward displacement of the Sicilian sites with respect to the Calabrian ones, between 1970 and 1971. In 1987, the old terrestrial network was surveyed again for the first time by the GPS technique, improving the accuracy of the coordinate determinations. Finally, in 1994, a wider network was established and surveyed again to collect additional GPS observations from a larger area across the Straits. In this paper, an analysis of the results obtained from the two GPS surveys with respect to those achieved by the terrestrial surveys (from 1970 to 1980) is given. This analysis shows there has not been significant crustal horizontal deformation across the Straits in the last 15 years. Although this crustal tectonic 'quiescence' corresponds to a low seismic activity level in the Straits area, terrestrial and GPS geodetic results would agree with Straits geophysical models excluding any aseismic deformations acting perpendicular to the Straits axis.

  8. Net Exchange Ecossistem in Subtropical Agriculture Area in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.

  9. SPLASH: A Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joanne; Caswell, James; Gomez, Jose F.; Mcclure-Griffiths, Naomi; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Dickey, John; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Carretti, Ettore; Ellingsen, Simon; Walsh, Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Hennebelle, Patrick; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Gibson, Steven; Jones, Courtney; Krishnan, Vasaant

    2013-10-01

    The OH 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. The survey will answer critical questions on the global distribution of diffuse OH, the degree to which it traces ‘hidden’ material caught between the regimes probed by traditional tracers of the neutral ISM, and its role as a probe of molecular cloud formation. As a blind survey for all four ground-state transitions, SPLASH will also detect many new OH masers, facilitating a broad range of astrophysical studies. This proposal requests 670 hours spread over two semesters to complete Phase 1 of the SPLASH project, which will map 152 square degrees in the inner Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. Following the ongoing success of the project, we request that its pre-graded status be renewed for a final two semesters.

  10. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409

  11. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2012-12-30

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248

  12. Anelastic attenuation structure of the southern Aegean subduction area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouzi, Chrisanthi; Papazachos, Constantinos; Papaioannou, Christos; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    The study of the anelastic attenuation structure plays a very important role for seismic wave propagation and provides not only valuable constraints for the Earth's interior (temperature, relative viscosity, slab dehydration and melt transport) but also significant information for the simulation of strong ground motions. In order to investigate the attenuation structure of the broader Southern Aegean subduction area, acceleration spectra of intermediate depth earthquakes produced from data provided by two local networks which operated in the area were used. More specifically, we employed data from approximately 400 intermediate-depth earthquakes, as these were recorded from the EGELADOS seismic monitoring project which consisted of 65 land stations and 24 OBS recorders and operated during 2005-2007, as well as data from the earlier installed CYCNET local network, which operated during 2002-2005. A frequency-independent path attenuation operator t* was computed for both P and S arrivals for each waveform, using amplitude spectra generated by the recorded data of the aforementioned networks. Initially, estimated P and S traveltimes were examined and modeled as a function of epicentral distance for different groups of focal depths, using data from the CYCNET network in order to obtain the expected arrival information when original arrival times were not available. Two approaches to assess the spectral-decay were adopted for t* determination. Initially, an automated approach was used, where t* was automatically calculated from the slope of the acceleration spectrum, assuming an ω2 source model for frequencies above the corner frequency, fc. Estimation of t* was performed in the frequency band of 0.2 to 25 Hz, using only spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 3 for a frequency range of at least 4Hz for P-waves and 1Hz for S-waves, respectively. In the second approach, the selection of the linearly-decaying part of the spectra where t* was calculated, was

  13. 13. Trestle 18, view looking south, showing the hand rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Trestle 18, view looking south, showing the hand rail in place along the southern edge of the trestle. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  14. The steady-state tangential contact problem for a falling drop type of contact area on corrugated rail by simplified theory of rolling contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Jerzy

    1991-10-01

    Investigation of contact mechanical nonlinearities of a mathematical model of corrugation revealed that the typical shape of contact patch resembles a falling drop of water. A contact patch of that shape was approximated with a figure composed of two parts of ellipses with different eccentricities. The contact pressure distribution was assumed as a smoothing ensemble of two paraboloidal distributions. The description of a general case of double half elliptical contact area was given but a special case of double half elliptical contact is more interesting as it possesses some Hertzian properties. It was shown how three geometrical parameters of double half elliptical contact can be chosen when actual, non-Hertzian contact is known. A linear theory was written which indicates that the lateral vibrations of the rail may be excited only due to shape variation on corrugation even if any other cause for these vibrations does not exist. For nonlinear theory a computer program, based on FASTSIM algorithm by Kalker, was written. The aim is to calculate the creep forces and frictional power density distribution over the contact area. Also, a graphic program visualizing the solution was written. Numerical results are not provided; unattended and unsolved problems relevant for this type of contact are listed.

  15. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Va., naval restricted areas. 334.290 Section 334.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....290 Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) St. Helena Annex Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore...

  16. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Va., naval restricted areas. 334.290 Section 334.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....290 Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) St. Helena Annex Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore...

  17. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  18. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  19. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 to address the occurrence of high groundw...

  20. Adaptation of model parameters of a rail model at measured rail compliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripke, B.

    1992-01-01

    A method for calculation of unknown parameters of a rail model is presented. Measurements were carried out on a test rail of a locomotive factory by means of pulse excitation. Accelerations of the rail head in the vertical and laterial directions were measured with an accelerometer and dilatations were measured as a function of rail flexion with a piezo film. Input and transfer compliances were measured. The obtained data were controlled by means of a fast Fourier transformation analyzer and recorded on magnetic tapes. A model was developed with the finite element method by considering the rail as a Timoshinko beam. Stiffness and damping of bulkhead and tiebar were obtained. A variable threshold mass was introduced for model adaptation to the experiment results in low frequency area.

  1. Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

  2. The Rail Gun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

  3. Performance of pile foundation for the civil infrastructure of high speed rail in severe ground subsidence area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the performance of pile foundation is assessed for the 30 km long viaduct bridge structure seating in the ground subsidence area in the central part of Taiwan. The focus of this paper is placed on the settlement behaviour of a continuous 3-span R. C. viaduct bridge supported on piles adjacent to highway embankment. Monitoring data accumulated over the last 12 years indicate that the observed pace of the settlement of the viaduct structure in other sections matches that of the ground. However, the bridge piers adjacent to the embankment have been suffering an additional approximately 1 cm settlement every year since the completion of the embankment construction. It was believed that the piers may suffer from enormous negative skin friction owing to the surcharge from the embankment and groundwater depression. This paper first summarizes the settlement analysis results to quantify the settlement of pile due to regional ground subsidence and the combined effects from ground water fluctuation and embankment surcharge loading. Accordingly, a loading path on P'-q stress space is formulated to illustrate the loading variation subject to the combined loading effects that can explain why the combined effect becoming significant on settlement control for civil infrastructure in ground subsidence area.

  4. Karstification at Beskonak dam site and reservoir area, southern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Degirmenci, M.

    1993-10-01

    Beskonak dam and hydroelectric power plant are planned to be constructed on the Koepruecay river, 40 km east of the Antalya city. In the dam site and reservoir area, Koepruecay Conglomerates of Miocene age and the Beskonak Formation (sandstone-claystone) alternating with each other crop out vertically. Koepruecay conglomerates, with the components of limestone fragments and carbonate texture, are karstic and permeable, whereas the Beskonak Formation is impermeable. At the northern edge of the reservoir area, the Olukkoeprue karst springs discharge at a minimum of 30 m{sup 3}/s. These springs discharge mainly through vertical and subvertical joint systems. Intensive superficial karstification developed along the joint systems and the terrane reveals columns of rocks, called {open_quotes}fairy chimneys.{close_quotes} Olukkoeprue springs represent the discharge point for a large and continuous system of underground solution cavities. In the Koepruecay basin, there are numerous karstic features within the conglomerates. Within the reservoir area, Kurukoeprue cave, with a length of 530 m, is an example of these caves developed within the conglomerates. In some parts of the reservoir area, where the groundwater level is lower than the surface-river elevation, a highly developed karstification zone is present within the fluctuation range of groundwater between depths of 40 and 50 m. The above-mentioned Kurukoeprue cave is an active cave developed in the dam site and its vicinity. The solution conduits developed along the system of mostly vertical fractures and joints are interconnected, thus giving rise to a three-dimensional conduit network. On the other hand, a majority of these conduits have clay and calcite filling materials. Karstification in the dam site varies with depths exponentially. Data suggest that karstification has a vertical extention as deep as -220 m. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Evidence for population bottlenecks and subtle genetic structure in the yellow rail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popper, Kenneth J.; Miller, Leonard F.; Green, Michael; Haig, Susan M.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracencis) is among the most enigmatic and least studied North American birds. Nesting exclusively in marshes and wetlands, it breeds largely east of the Rocky Mountains in the northern United States and Canada, but there is an isolated population in southern Oregon once believed extirpated. The degree of connectivity of the Oregon population with the main population is unknown. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and six microsatellite loci to characterize the Yellow Rail's genetic structure and diversity patterns in six areas. Our mtDNA-based analyses of genetic structure identified significant population differentiation, but pairwise comparison of regions identified no clear geographic trends. In contrast, microsatellites suggested subtle genetic structure differentiating the Oregon population from those in the five regions sampled in the Yellow Rail's main breeding range. The genetic diversity of the Oregon population was also the lowest of the six regions sampled, and Oregon was one of three regions that demonstrated evidence of recent population bottlenecks. Factors that produced population reductions may include loss of wetlands to development and agricultural conversion, drought, and wildfire. At this time, we are unable to determine if the high percentage (50%) of populations having experienced bottlenecks is representative of the Yellow Rail's entire range. Further genetic data from additional breeding populations will be required for this issue to be addressed.

  6. Stratigraphic assessment of the Arcelia Teloloapan area, southern Mexico: implications for southern Mexico's post-Neocomian tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Lang, H. R.; Harrison, C. G. A.

    2000-10-01

    Stratigraphic assessment of the "Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex" (TCMC) between Arcelia and Teloloapan in southern Mexico, based on photo interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and field mapping at the 1:100,000 scale, tests different tectonic evolution scenarios that bear directly on the evolution of the southern North American plate margin. The regional geology, emphasizing the stratigraphy of a portion of the TCMC within the area between Arcelia and Teloloapan is presented. Stratigraphic relationships with units in adjacent areas are also described. The base of the stratigraphic section is a chlorite grade metamorphic sequence that includes the Taxco Schist, the Roca Verde Taxco Viejo Formation, and the Almoloya Phyllite Formation. These metamorphic units, as thick as 2.7 km, are covered disconformably by a sedimentary sequence, 2.9 km thick, composed of the Cretaceous marine Pochote, Morelos, and Mexcala Formations, as well as undifferentiated Tertiary continental red beds and volcanic rocks. The geology may be explained as the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary environments developed upon attenuated continental crust. Our results do not support accretion of the Guerrero terrane during Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) time.

  7. Understanding haze pollution over the southern Hebei area of China using the CMAQ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Xu, Jing; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Xiujuan; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Dandan; Pan, Xuemei; Su, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Haze has been one of the major air pollution problems in Chinese cities, and the southern Hebei area has attracted particular attention because of its high frequency of haze weather and the rapid deterioration in visibility in recent years. This study is aimed at understanding the characteristics and sources of the serious haze pollution in the southern Hebei area using the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). The haze frequencies in the cities of southern Hebei, including Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and five other urban centers in the surrounding regions, are analyzed for a ten-year period from 2001 to 2010, which shows a very similar and clear seasonal variation. The contributions of the local and regional anthropogenic emissions to the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodiameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm) and the light extinction coefficient (Bext) are estimated by conducting simulations of seven scenarios. The results show that approximately 65% of the PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang and Xingtai originated from the local emissions of the southern Hebei area, followed by Shanxi Province and the northern area of Hebei (13.8% and 7.3% to Shijiazhuang and 10.4% and 5.2% to Xingtai, respectively). The contributions of the emissions from the local area, Shanxi Province and the northern Hebei area to Bext are approximately 59.4%, 13.8% and 6.8% for Shijiazhuang and 58.2%, 10.1% and 5.0% for Xingtai, respectively. Moreover, an analysis of a typical pollution episode indicates that the contributions from the Shandong and Henan provinces are also significant. Further investigations are still required because of the complexity of the haze pollution over the southern Hebei area.

  8. Ozone in remote areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Korfmacher, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) data are sparse for remote, non-urban mountain areas of the western U.S. Ozone was monitored 2007-2011 at high elevation sites in national forests in Colorado and northeastern Utah using a portable battery-powered O3 monitor. The data suggest that many of these remote locations already have O3 concentrations that would contribute to exceedance of the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O3 and most could exceed a proposed more stringent secondary standard. There were significant year-to-year differences in O3 concentration. Ozone was primarily in the mid-concentration range, rarely exceeding 100 ppb or dropping below 30 ppb. The small diel changes in concentration indicate mixing ratios of NOx, VOCs, and O3 that favor stable O3 concentrations. The large number of mid-level O3 concentrations contributed to high W126 O3 values, the metric proposed as a possible new secondary standard. Higher O3 concentrations in springtime and at night suggest that stratospheric intrusion may be contributing to ambient O3 at these sites. Highest nighttime O3 concentrations occurred at the highest elevations, while daytime O3 concentrations did not have a relationship with elevation. These factors favor O3 concentrations at many of our remote locations that may exceed the O3 NAAQS, and suggest that exceedances are likely to occur at other western rural locations.

  9. ORNL RAIL BARGE DB

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P. )

    1991-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  10. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    % improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

  11. Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W.; Bhattacharyya, B.K.

    1981-12-31

    Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.

  12. Effectiveness of capture techniques for rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Linscombe, J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable and effective technique for capturing rails would improve researchers' ability to study these secretive marsh birds. The time effectiveness and capture success of four methods for capturing rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands in southern Louisiana and Texas were evaluated during winter and breeding seasons. Methods were hand and net capture from an airboat at night, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) at night, an ATV during daylight rice harvest and passive capture using drop-door traps with drift fencing. Five hundred and twenty rails were captured (and 21 recaptures): 192 King Rails (Rallus elegans), 74 Clapper Rails (R. longirostris), 110 Virginia Rails (R. limicola), 125 Sora (Porzana Carolina) and 40 Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Methods used at night were effective at capturing rails: capture from airboats yielded 2.13 rails per hour each airboat was operated and capture from ATVs yielded 1.80 rails per hour each ATV was operated. During daylight, captures from ATVs during rice harvest (0.25 rails per hour each ATV was operated) and passive drop-door traps with drift fencing (0.0054 rails per trap hour) were both inefficient.

  13. 75 FR 43611 - U S Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal On August 7, 2008, U S Rail Corporation (U S Rail), an existing class III short line...) of new rail line at a 28-acre site (the Brookhaven Rail Terminal or BRT) located in the Town...

  14. Modeling the Spatial Pattern of Wildfire Ignition and Burned Area in Southern Californian Mediterranean Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, N.; Jin, Y.; Goulden, M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire ignition requires a combination of an ignition source and suitable weather and fuel conditions. Models of fire occurrence and burned area provide a good understanding of the physical and climatic factors that constrain and promote fire spread and recurrence, but information on how humans influence ignition patterns and burned area is still lacking at a scale compatible with integrated fire management. We first investigated the relative importance of the physical, climatic, and human factors regulating ignition probability across Southern California. A 30-year exploratory analysis of one-way relationships indicated that distance to roads, distance to housing, and topographic slope were the major determinants of ignition occurrence and frequency. A logistic regression model explained 70% of spatial variability in ignition occurrence (presence or absence of an ignition in each 3 km grid cell) whereas a Poisson-type regression model explained 45% of the spatial variability in ignition frequency in national forests across Southern California. Predicted ignition probability was a key indicator of the spatial variability of burned area, explaining approximately 9% of the variance for Santa Ana fires and 21% of the variance for non-Santa Ana fires across Southern California. In a second step we combined the previous ignition modeling framework with other data sources to model the spatial distribution of burned area. Preliminary results showed that average wind speed alone explained approximately 30% of the spatial variation in burned area from Santa Ana fires. Further integration of the effects of fuel continuity, moisture, and accumulation and their interaction with wind speed and direction improved our spatial assessment of burned area risk in Southern California. Our results may have implications for strategic fire management in the region.

  15. Holocene relative sea-level changes in the inner Bredefjord area, southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrenbom, Charlotte J.; Bennike, Ole; Fredh, Daniel; Randsalu-Wendrup, Linda; Zwartz, Dan; Ljung, Karl; Björck, Svante; Lambeck, Kurt

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present new relative sea-level data from southern Greenland, a key area for understanding the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) response to climate change. Within fourteen lakes and marine lagoons from the inner part of Bredefjord (Nordre Sermilik) in southern Greenland, isolations revealed by stratigraphic and palaeoecological analyses are dated and relative sea levels reconstructed. Due to coastal emergence caused by the GIS retreat within the area, the relative sea-level fell rapidly in the early Holocene between at least c. 9600 and c. 7300 cal. yrs BP attaining a rate of 2 cm per year between 9600 and 8000 cal. yrs BP. Spatial variability in relative sea-level changes is show for southern Greenland from a comparison with the Nanortalik and the Qaqortoq areas. The regression occurred about 2000 years later in the inner Bredefjord area, compared to the Nanortalik area, and about 1000 years later compared to the Qaqortoq area. This is a consequence of earlier deglaciation in areas located at the outer coast. Between c. 8000 cal. yrs BP and the present day, relative sea level was lower than today. The lowest relative sea level in the Inner Bredefjord area of between -5.4 and -15 m a.h.a.t. (above highest astronomical tide) was reached between 7000 and 1000 cal. yrs BP. The neoglacial readvance together with the collapse of the Laurentide peripheral bulge is probably responsible for the transgression in the Inner Bredefjord area, as has been indicated from the nearby sites Qaqortoq and Nanortalik. Our relative sea-level reconstructions showing spatial variability within southern Greenland have implications for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling and the understanding of the GIS ice sheet dynamics. The early Holocene regression is consistent with the recession of the southern sector of the GIS from the shelf edge at c. 22 000 cal. yrs BP, reaching inland of the present day outer coast by c. 12 000 cal. yrs BP, and its present margin by c. 10 500

  16. Lower Devonian tentaculite bed in the Satun area, southern peninsular Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agematsu, Sachiko; Sashida, Katsuo; Salyapongse, Sirot; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2006-05-01

    A Lower Devonian (Emsian) tentaculite fauna including Nowakia acuaria [Richer, R., 1854. Thüringische Tentaculiten. Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch. 6, 275-290] occurs in black shale in the basal part of a siliciclastic sequence exposed north of Satun, southern peninsular Thailand. Similar tentaculite beds with Nowakia have been reported from several areas in the Fang, Sri Sawat, and Trang areas of Thailand, the Langkawi Islands and the Mahang-Baling areas of Malaysia. The depositional environments in which the tentaculite-bearing black shale accumulated extended from modern northern Thailand to northwestern Malaysia during the Early Devonian (Emsian).

  17. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  18. 9. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING MITRE RAILS WITH RAIL ALIGNMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING MITRE RAILS WITH RAIL ALIGNMENT GUIDES ON MOVABLE SPAN - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River between Groton & Stonington, Groton, New London County, CT

  19. Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of ATSF rail yard with remnant of rail spur and dumping location. Concrete vault foundation in foreground. Stone foundation and wood foundation in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. Characteristics of the Bab al Mandab-Northern Afar area of the southern Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.B. ); Sikander, A.H. ); Abouzakhm, A.G.

    1991-08-01

    The southern Red Sea and adjacent Afar area represent an enigmatic portion of the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden basin system. Although the topographic rift shoulders of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden can be traced through this elbow, and appear to suggest that a similar width for the zone of extension is maintained across the region, the character of the floor of the rift zone changes. The distinctive character of the southern Red Sea-Afar area results in part from a topographically elevated region, possibly associated with the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden-East African rift triple junction. In addition, however, seismic data from offshore Ethiopia suggests that the distinctive character is due a complex pattern of rifting. The central axial trough of the Red Sea decreases in depth to the south toward the strait of Bab al Mandab, suggesting that rifting is dying out southward. Farther to the west at the same latitude, a major but narrow half-graben can be seen on seismic in the Gulf of Zula, bounded to the east by a large west-dipping normal fault. This structure continues south into the Danakil Depression of the Afar area. Between these two en echelon rift trends, the Danakil Alps form a long-lived high. Seismic data from the southern Red Sea of Ethiopia show southward thinning and pinch-out of the Miocene syn-rift evaporite sequence onto the northern Danakil block. Thus, it appears that the Danakil block has largely escaped Red Sea extension and subsidence. Instead, it forms a large unextended terrain located between overlapping en echelon rift trends, and may represent an accommodation zone structure associated with offset in the rift axis of the southern Red Sea.

  1. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR

  2. Development of the Permian-Triassic sequence in the basin Fringe area, southern Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Geluk, M.; Van Doorn, D.; Plomp, A.; Duin, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies in the fringe area of the southern Permian basin led to new insights in the distribution and development of the Permian-Triassic sequence. During the Permian, the fringe area formed a platform, attached to the London-Brabant Massif, while during the Triassic it is characterized by strongly subsiding half grabens. In the southern Netherlands, Rotliegende sandstones and conglomerates have a much wider distribution than previously recognized. The Rotliegende deposits are capped by claystones and carbonates of the Upper Permian Zechstein. In the offshore, an important feeder system of clastics from the London-Brabant Massif was active during deposition of the Rotliegende and the Zechstein. In course of time, the location of major sandstone deposition shifted westward. Deposition of the Triassic Buntsandstein was controlled by the development of a large feeder system, which transported clastics from the Vosges northward, through the Roer Valley Graben and West netherlands Basin into the Off Holland Low. This system was responsible for the deposition of the economically important sheet sandstones of the Volpriehausen, Detfurth, Hardegsen, and Solling formations. A regional unconformity occurs below the Solling Formation. The sandstones are capped by claystones, evaporites, and sandstones of the Rot Formation. During deposition of the Muschelkalk, the differences in subsidence decreased and shallow marine sediments are interbedded with evaporites. Several unconformities occur within the Keuper. In the previous half grabens in the southern Netherlands, the Keuper is incomplete, which may be indicative for a possible reversal of the tectonic movements during this period.

  3. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072...

  6. Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2010-07-01

    Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

  7. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    SciTech Connect

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South`s 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government`s transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960`s. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail.

  8. 14. DETAIL OF INLCINED CONVEYOR RAIL AT HEAD OF SKINNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF INLCINED CONVEYOR RAIL AT HEAD OF SKINNING TABLE; HEADS WERE REMOVED IN OPEN AREA AT LOWER RIGHT; LOOKING TOWARD NORTHWEST - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. A revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M.; Dickerson, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits, Miocene intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain.

  10. SPLASH: the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl - first science from the pilot region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. R.; Walsh, A. J.; Jones, P. A.; Breen, S. L.; Cunningham, M. R.; Lowe, V.; Jones, C.; Purcell, C.; Caswell, J. L.; Carretti, E.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Green, J. A.; Gómez, J. F.; Krishnan, V.; Dickey, J. M.; Imai, H.; Gibson, S. J.; Hennebelle, P.; Lo, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Fukui, Y.; Mizuno, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl (SPLASH) is a sensitive, unbiased, and fully sampled survey of the southern Galactic plane and Galactic Centre in all four ground-state transitions of the hydroxyl (OH) radical. The survey provides a deep census of 1612-, 1665-, 1667-, and 1720-MHz OH absorption and emission from the Galactic interstellar medium, and is also an unbiased search for maser sources in these transitions. We present here first results from the SPLASH pilot region, which covers Galactic longitudes 334° to 344° and latitudes ±2°. Diffuse OH is widely detected in all four transitions, with optical depths that are always small (averaged over the Parkes beam), and with departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium common even in the 1665- and 1667-MHz main lines. To a 3σ sensitivity of ˜30 mK, we find no evidence of OH envelopes extending beyond the CO-bright regions of molecular cloud complexes, and conclude that the similarity of the OH excitation temperature and the level of the continuum background is at least partly responsible for this. We detect masers and maser candidates in all four transitions, approximately 50 per cent of which are new detections. This implies that SPLASH will produce a substantial increase in the known population of ground-state OH masers in the southern Galactic plane.

  11. A revised Litostragraphic Framework for the Southern Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Spengler; F.M. Byers; R.P. Dickerson

    2006-03-24

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits and intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Ionian marine terraces of southern Italy: Insights into the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, R.; Bianca, M.; D'Onofrio, R.

    2010-08-01

    New detailed morphotectonic analyses of a well exposed flight of marine terraces along the Ionian coast of southern Italy has been carried out. The area represents a key transect for investigating the middle-late Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines chain-foredeep-foreland geodynamic system. A major result of the research is the reconstruction of a virtually complete 3D geometry of the marine surfaces along a coastal sector of ca. 70 km, which (1) documents the occurrence of 18 paleo-shorelines and (2) provides evidence for a strong regional uplift affecting the investigated area. Following a systematic critical review of literature relating to geochronological data, integrated with a morphogenetic model based on the interaction between tectonic uplift and eustatic sea level changes, the different terraces are correlated to as many highstand sea level peaks, dating the highest/oldest terrace to ca. 600 ka (MIS 15). The vertical and horizontal distribution of the terraces show a general convergence of the paleo-shorelines toward NNE, which indicates a decreasing trend in differential uplift in that direction ranging from almost 2 mm/a in the southwestern sector to about 0.2 mm/a in the northeastern sector. Detailed mapping and 3D reconstruction also emphasize the partitioning of the area into three distinct sectors characterized by different tilting rates. This behavior is likely caused by the combined role and activity of three major tectonic structures working at different scales and rates including (1) the reactivation of an out-of-sequence thrust, (2) sliding along the basal detachment of the external Apennines wedge and (3) a lithospheric-scale duplexing (crustal or deeper). As a major conclusion, within the external sector of the Southern Apennines chain and its foredeep, regional shortening and a contractional tectonic regime persisted throughout the whole Quaternary and it is probably still active.

  13. Acid deposition sensitivity map of the Southern Appalachian Assessment area; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, John D.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Kress, Thomas H.; Collins, Thomas K.; Kappesser, Gary B.; Huber, Cindy M.; Webb, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Project Summary: The following digital product represents the Acid Deposition Sensitivity of the Southern Appalachian Assessment Area. Areas having various susceptibilities to acid deposition from air pollution are designated on a three tier ranking in the region of the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The assessment is being conducted by Federal agencies that are members of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (SAMAB) Cooperative. Sensitivities to acid deposition, ranked high, medium, and low are assigned on the basis of bedrock compositions and their associated soils, and their capacities to neutralize acid precipitation.

  14. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species. PMID:26240900

  15. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

    1994-06-30

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs.

  16. A hierarchical classification of benthic biodiversity and assessment of protected areas in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Lucinda L; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided. PMID:25032993

  17. A Hierarchical Classification of Benthic Biodiversity and Assessment of Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Lucinda L.; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S.; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided. PMID:25032993

  18. Stray current control for the St. Louis Metrolink rail system

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.H. III

    1995-01-01

    The new 18-mile (11-km) Metrolink light rail transit system, which runs from St. Louis, Missouri, to East St. Louis, Illinois, was constructed in an area devoid of rail transit for decades and thus unprepared for the effects of stray current on newer underground structures. Various steps were taken to control stray current because of the complexity of the underground structures along the right of way. The rail system is now in operation, and the effectiveness of the stray current control program is being evaluated.

  19. Groundwater Modeling for the Southern Sector of A/M Area

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, MARYK.

    2001-11-01

    A plume of TCE contamination in the Southern Sector of A/M Area appears to have resulted from a former release at the A-014 outfall. A numerical groundwater flow and transport modeling analysis is described that addresses this plume, the existing remedial actions, and potential future remedial actions. The numerical flow and transport model is based on an understanding of the site that is formed in part by a recent analysis of hydrostratigraphic, head, and chemical data and by a recent groundwater flow modeling analysis that covers a wider area. The numerical model is calibrated to match observed water level measurements within acceptable criteria. The model is also qualitatively calibrated against the observed/inferred shape of the Southern Sector TCE plume. Though the calibration to the observed TCE plume is not perfect, the model is acceptable for comparing various remedial alternatives. Model simulations indicate that the existing remedial wells, which have been in operation near the A-014 outfall for over ten years, have been effective at removing much of the TCE plume mass. These wells should continue to be effective if operated. The model that is developed and used here can be used in the future to compare remedial alternatives and can be used as a tool to help optimize the operation of various remedial systems. The model may be improved in the future by recalibration following a revised interpretation of the source and/or the TCE plume.

  20. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-feng; Liu, Kang; Wang, Xiao-rong; Huang, Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources of atmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high, reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province. PMID:16465890

  1. Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area: influence of the transport processes.

    PubMed

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2009-05-01

    The troposphere is subject to continuous inputs, production and removal processes of ozone and its precursors from natural processes and human activities acting together within a very complex system. In order to assess the behaviour of background ozone in the Mediterranean area, a description of trends, seasonal and diurnal behaviours of free tropospheric ozone is provided. In the Mediterranean area and southern Europe the background tropospheric ozone concentration appears significantly affected by three main air mass transport processes: (i) transport of polluted air masses on regional and long-range scales, (ii) downward transport of stratospheric air masses, and (iii) transport of mineral dust from the Sahara desert. In this review of the literature of the last two decades, we present an overview of these phenomena, mainly monitored at high baseline mountain stations representative of background atmospheric conditions. PMID:18977575

  2. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): insights from new seismic reflection data.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  3. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  4. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  5. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  6. Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon in limestone Mediterranean mountains areas, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Juan; Jordan, Antonio; Martínez-Zavala, Lorena; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2015-04-01

    Normally, soil organic carbon (SOC) investigations are related to fertility and/or soil quality so refer to surface horizon. In other cases, soil control sections or soil horizons are used to study soil carbon pool, especially in forest areas. In this line, in order to provide quantitative data of organic carbon in soils and sediments in relation to depth, the organic carbon vertical distribution was studied in selected areas of southern Spain. Significant variations in depth of organic carbon may be related with different vegetation and/or land use changes, so it can be used to select sampling points for studying these changes through pollen analysis. For this study, ten sinkholes in hard limestone Mediterranean mountains areas of southern Spain have been selected following scientific interest criteria and/or minimal human influence. Soil and sediment samples extraction was carried out using tensile steel drills up to four meters in deep driven by an electric striking hammer. Once extracted the soil columns, soil control sections are taken every 5 cm, obtaining 470 samples in the ten sinkholes selected and making four replications for each soil control section. The soil and sediments exploration in different sinkholes highlights the karst heterogeneity formations, especially in terms of its depth. Thus, it was possible to take samples of varying depth, ranging between 1 and 5 m, being the limiting factor the hard pan forming which can be soil nature (petrocalcic horizon) or lithological nature (hard limestone). SOC in every sampling point varied between 2.5 and 16.7 g kg-1. In general, SOC concentrations decreases progressively in depth, although in some sampling point 10 g kg-1 were obtained at 200 cm in depths. On the other hand, it had been observed significant increases at 100 cm in deep, sometimes repeating at high deep, which could be related to ancient sedimentary past or with edaphogenic processes past. Definitely more comprehensive studies could shed new

  7. Near-source air quality in rail yard environments – an overview of recent EPA measurement and modeling findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will providing a summary of field measurements conducted in areas surrounding two major rail yards as well as modeling simulations of rail yard emissions dispersion. The Cicero Rail Yard Study (CIRYS) was recently released to the public and includes mobile and ...

  8. 75 FR 12594 - Alaska Railroad Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-A Rail Line Extension to Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Alaska Railroad Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption--A Rail... rail service to the Port MacKenzie area, and would include construction of related structures, such as communications towers and sidings. Because construction and operation of this proposed rail line has...

  9. Fluvial systems response to rift margin tectonics: Makhtesh Ramon area, southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Ram; Eyal, Yehuda; Zilberman, Ezra; Bowman, Dan

    2002-06-01

    The geomorphic evolution of Makhtesh Ramon, a feather-shaped erosional valley, and the Nahal Neqarot drainage system to the south occurred largely in response to tectonic activity along the Dead Sea Rift and its western shoulder. Remnants of Miocene clastic sediments (Hazeva Formation) deposited on an erosional peneplain that formed over this area during the Oligocene epoch provide a datum plane for reconstructing subsequent fluvial evolution. These clastic remnants are presently located on the shoulders of Makhtesh Ramon at various elevations. The peneplain truncating the Makhtesh Ramon block has been tilted 0.7% northeastward since the Pliocene epoch (post-Hazeva Formation), whereas that of the Neqarot syncline, south of the Ramon, has been tilted 1.2%. The elliptical exposure of friable Lower Cretaceous sandstone, exposed in the core of the truncated Ramon structure, governed the development of a new ENE directed (riftward) drainage system through capture of streams that previously drained toward the Mediterranean Sea to the northwest. Incised fluvial gaps in the southern rim of Makhtesh Ramon and alluvial fan relicts within Makhtesh Ramon attest to original drainage into the Makhtesh from the south. Remnants of the Plio-Pleistocene Arava Conglomerate on the eastern end of the Neqarot syncline contain clasts from rocks exposed within Makhtesh Ramon, also indicating that streams flowed into the Makhtesh from the southern Neqarot block through the western gaps, then turning eastward and exiting the Makhtesh via the next (Sha'ar-Ramon) gap to the east. Further down-faulting of the Neqarot block during Mid-Late Pleistocene time led to westward retreat of the Neqarot valley and capture of the last stream flowing northward into the Ramon, leaving the modern Makhtesh Ramon isolated from the southern drainage system.

  10. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  11. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, CENTERVILLE FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, CENTERVILLE FOUNDRY SHOWING MOLD MAKING WITH PNEWMATIC JOLT SQUEEZE COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINES THAT INDIVIDUALLY MADE EITHER A COPE OR DRAG AND A SMALL WHEELED MATCHPLATE JOLT-SQUEEZE MACHINE THAT COMPRESSED AN ENTIRE MOLD AT A SINGLE TIME USING A DOUBLE-SIDED PATTERN (MATCHPLATE). ALSO SHOWN ARE RAILED PALLET CAR CONVEYORS THAT CARRIED COMPLETED MOLDS FROM MOLDING MACHINES TO POURING AREAS WHERE WORKERS USED SMALL OVERHEAD CRANE TO LIFT JACKETS AND WEIGHTS ONTO THE MOLDS TO HOLD THEM TOGETHER WHILE POURING. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  12. The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed women…

  13. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  14. Geological sources of fluoride and acceptable intake of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid; Jacks, Gunnar; Ketabdari, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible source(s) of fluoride in the Dashtestan area, Bushehr Province, southern Iran. In response to reports on the high incidence of dental fluorosis, 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for fluoride. The results indicate that dissolved fluoride in the study area is above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An additional 35 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The results of these analyses show that the most likely source for fluoride in the groundwater is from clay minerals (chlorite) and micas (muscovite, sericite, and biotite) in the soils and rocks in the area. We also note that due to the high average temperatures all year round and excessive water consumption in the area, the optimum fluoride dose level should be lower than that recommended by the WHO. PMID:22426705

  15. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  16. Forest classes and tree cover gradient: tick habitat in encroached areas of southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S

    2016-03-01

    Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient. PMID:26692382

  17. An evaluation of Landsat 3 RBV imagery for an area of complex terrain in Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Williams, D. F.; Justice, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Return Beam Videcon imagery from Landsat 3 was obtained in August, 1978 for part of Southern Italy in the regions of Basilicata and Apulia. The resolution of this imagery for medium contrast objects is approximately 40 meters and is shown to provide significant information concerning land cover and fluvial morphometry. Because of the wide spectral band width which is sensed (0.505-0.750 microns) by the RBV cameras, discrimination is only possible for spectrally distinct cover types, especially oak woodland. Fluvial morphometry can be readily described using the imagery. Because of the intense dissection of the area, the lowest order streams cannot be consistently mapped, but the rank order of the measured values of properties such as drainage density and link frequency for different lithologies corresponds closely to the actual ranking.

  18. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  19. Late Quaternary geomorphology and soils in Crater Flat, Yucca mountain area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, F.F.; Bell, J.W.; Ramelli, A.R.; Dorn, R.I.; Ku, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    Crater Flat is an alluvium-filled structural basin on the west side of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is under consideration for a high-level nuclear waste repository. North-trending, late Quaternary faults offset alluvium in Crater Flat both along the canyons of the western flanks of Yucca Mountain and out on the piedmont slope. We believe the initial lack of young offsets at Yucca Mountain was in part due to unrecognized late Quaternary stratigraphy. We hypothesize that alluviation in the Yucca Mountain region was more active during the late Quaternary than previously thought. Several techniques were tried to test this hypothesis. Results are compared with previous soils and surface-exposure dating studies, and correlated to stratigraphy of other late Quaternary units in the southern Nevada, Death Valley, and Mojave Desert areas, and provide new stratigraphic data relevant to understanding climatic-alluvial processes in the Basin and Range Province during the late Quaternary. 76 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Analysis of pseudocolor transformations of ERTS-1 images of Southern California area. [geological faults and lineaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Stratton, R. H.; Lamar, J. V.; Gazley, C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Representative faults and lineaments, natural features on the Mojave Desert, and cultural features of the southern California area were studied on ERTS-1 images. The relative appearances of the features were compared on a band 4 and 5 subtraction image, its pseudocolor transformation, and pseudocolor images of bands 4, 5, and 7. Selected features were also evaluated in a test given students at the University of California, Los Angeles. Observations and the test revealed no significant improvement in the ability to detect and locate faults and lineaments on the pseudocolor transformations. With the exception of dry lake surfaces, no enhancement of the features studied was observed on the bands 4 and 5 subtraction images. Geologic and geographic features characterized by minor tonal differences on relatively flat surfaces were enhanced on some of the pseudocolor images.

  1. Transpressional regime in southern Arabian Shield: Insights from Wadi Yiba Area, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Kattu, Ghazi; Matsah, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Detailed field-structural mapping of Neoproterozoic basement rocks exposed in the Wadi Yiba area, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia illustrates an important episode of late Neoproterozoic transpression in the southern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This area is dominated by five main basement lithologies: gneisses, metavolcanics, Ablah Group (meta-clastic and marble units) and syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. These rocks were affected by three phases of deformation (D1-D3). D1 formed tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), penetrative foliation (S1), and mineral lineation (L1), which resulted from early E-W (to ENE-WSW) shortening. D2 deformation overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by transpression and top-to-the-W (-WSW) thrusting as shortening progressed. Stretching lineation trajectories, S-C foliations, asymmetric shear fabrics and related mylonitic foliation, and flat-ramp and duplex geometries further indicate the inferred transport direction. The N- to NNW-orientation of both “in-sequence piggy-back thrusts” and axial planes of minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds also indicates the same D2 compressional stress trajectories. The Wadi Yiba Shear Zone (WYSZ) formed during D2 deformation. It is one of several N-S trending brittle-ductile Late Neoproterozoic shear zones in the southern part of the ANS. Shear sense indicators reveal that shearing during D2 regional-scale transpression was dextral and is consistent with the mega-scale sigmoidal patterns recognized on Landsat images. The shearing led to the formation of the WYSZ and consequent F2 shear zone-related folds, as well as other unmappable shear zones in the deformed rocks. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during D2 transpression and occupied space created during thrust propagation. D1 and D2 structures are locally overprinted by mesoscopic- to macroscopic-scale D3 structures (F3 folds, and L3 crenulation lineations and

  2. Microbiological and chemical characterization of hydrothermal fluids at Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area, southern New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John F.

    2000-06-01

    The Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area is part of the larger hydrothermal system of the Rio Grande Rift, southern New Mexico, USA. Chemical and microbial parameters indicate that the sampled hydrothermal water derives from a mixture zone of deep, anaerobic water with meteoric water from an adjacent alluvial, non-thermal groundwater flow system. A microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicates that biomass and diversity of hydrothermal groundwater are very low, whereas hydrothermal surface water is diverse and bacteria are in a rapid growth phase. A nucleic acid (DNA) analysis of the hydrothermal groundwater resulted in the identification of one eubacterium and two Archaea (archaebacteria); the eubacterium and one Archaea were previously unknown. The one Archaea that could be related to a known species is an extreme halophilic methanomicrobacterium. The presence of the halophilic Archaea and the other Archaea species supports the hypothesis of the Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area being the discharge area of deep circulating groundwater within a bedrock-hosted regional groundwater flow system.

  3. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  4. Obstacle-related contourites in the El Arraiche area, southern Gulf of Cádiz.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandorpe, T.; Van Rooij, D.; Martins, I.; Hebbeln, D.

    2014-12-01

    The El Arraiche area is situated in the southern part of the Gulf of Cádiz, roughly between 35° and 35°45' north and 6°30' and 7°15' west. This area contains mud volcanoes, cold-water coral (CWC) mounds, contourite drifts and tectonic ridges (Fig. 1). CWC mounds are present both on top and at the foot of the Pen Duick Escarpment (Van Rooij et al., 2011; Vandorpe et al., 2014), but recent multibeam and seismic data indicate the ubiquitous presence of small mounds both buried and on the seafloor (Fig.1). Information regarding the environmental conditions in which these ecosystems thrived can be derived from the nearby contourite systems, as they contain an oceanographic as well as a climatic imprint. In this area, all of the topographic features interfere with the contourite deposits. The Quaternary Pen Duick drift for example displays pinch-out due to the uplifting Pen Duick Escarpment (Fig. 1), a Christmas-tree structure due to the outflow of mud from the nearby Gemini Mud Volcano and CWC mounds are present in certain parts of the moat (Vandorpe et al., 2014). Increased bottom currents are observed at the foot of the Pen Duick Escarpment, Renard ridge and Vernadsky ridge (up to 10 cm/s). As mounded drift deposits start occurring after the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution in the Pen Duick drift, enhanced bottom currents may be present from then onwards. The presence of (modified) Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is inferred (Vandorpe et al. (2014) and references therein) and likely contributes to the formation of the Pen Duick drift, while Mediterranean Outflow Water is only present at greater water depths (from 900 meter onwards). The formation of the other drift systems is the subject of ongoing research. Van Rooij, D., Blamart, D., De Mol, L., Mienis, F., Pirlet, H., Wehrmann, L.M., Barbieri, R., Maignien, L., Templer, S.P., de Haas, H., Hebbeln, D., Frank, N., Larmagnat, S., Stadnitskaia, A., Stivaletta, N., van Weering, T., Zhang, Y., Hamoumi, N., Cnudde, V

  5. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  6. Geochronology and geochemistry of late Cenozoic basalts from the Leiqiong area, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kung-suan; Chen, Ju-chin; Juang, Wen-shing

    2000-06-01

    The Leiqiong area, which includes the Leizhou Peninsula and the northern part of the Hainan Island, is the largest province of exposed basalts in southern China. Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating indicates that incipient volcanism in the Leiqiong area may have taken place in late Oligocene time and gradually increased in tempo toward the Miocene and Pliocene Epoch. Volcanic activities were most extensive during Pleistocene, and declined and ended in Holocene. Based on radiometric age dating and geographic distribution, Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism in Hainan Island can be grouped into two stages and six eruptive regions. The early volcanism is dominated by flood type fissure eruption of quartz tholeiites and olivine tholeiites whereas the later phase is dominated by central type eruption of alkali olivine basalts and olivine tholeiites. The systematic decrease of MgO, ΣFeO and TiO 2 with increasing SiO 2 content for basalts from Hainan Island indicates that fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene and Ti-bearing opaques may have occurred during magmatic evolution. From coexisting Fe-Ti oxide minerals, it is estimated that the equilibrium temperatures range from 895-986°C and oxygen fugacities range from 10 -13.4 to 10 -10.7 atmospheres in the basaltic magmas. The incompatible element ratios and the chondrite-normalized REE patterns of basalts from the Leiqiong area are generally similar to OIB. The Nb/U ratios (less than 37) in most of the tholeiitic rocks and the negative Nb anomaly observed in the spidergram of some basalts indicated that the influence of a paleo-subduction zone derived component can not be excluded in considering the genesis of the basalts from the Leiqiong area. The tholeiites in the Leiqiong area may have mixed with a more enriched lithospheric mantle component as well as undergone relatively larger percentages of partial melting than the alkali basalts.

  7. Exploring for hydrocarbons in geothermally and hydrothermally complex areas -- a southern Nevada example

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.G.; Repetski, J.E.; Grow, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Time-based isograd maps using conodont color alteration indices (CAI) have been compiled and interpreted for a large area in southern Nevada that includes Yucca Mountain, the Nevada Test Site, and the Nellis Air Force Bombing and Gunnery Range. These maps were produced to evaluate the controversy about possible important mineral and (or) energy resources near Yucca Mountain, the potential burial site for high-level nuclear waste. The hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain area has been likened to that of the Railroad and Pine Valley areas, 200 km to the northeast where 35 million barrels of oil have been produced from Paleozoic and lower Tertiary strata. In 1991, two companies with no previous drilling experience in Nevada drilled three oil exploration wells within 20 km of Yucca Mountain and within or close to the Timber Mountain caldera system. No shows of oil or gas were found in these wells. The deepest well was drilled to 5,000 feet and penetrated 2,200 feet of upper Tertiary valley-fill deposits and volcanic rocks overlying an overturned sequence of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician rocks having conodonts with CAI values of 5. Our new conodont sampling, however, has targeted some thermally favorable areas for hydrocarbons east of Yucca mountain, but their maturation history suggests that the potential for oil is substantially lower than in the Railroad and Pine Valley areas. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high for oil to be preserved, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Most of this zone, however, lies on Federal lands that are, for now, inaccessible for a variety of security and environmental reasons.

  8. Regional deformation analysis in the Sannio-Matese area (Southern Apennines, Italy) by GPS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrizzo, Francesco; Sepe, Vincenzo; Brandi, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Andrea; de Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Tammaro, Umberto; Pingue, Folco

    2010-05-01

    The central-southern Apennines and the Calabrian arc are among the most actively deforming zones of the Mediterranean basin connected with the motion of Africa and Aegean-Anatolian systems with respect to Eurasia. The tectonic stress, caused in this area by the convergence of the confining blocks, is elastically accumulated and periodically released along crustal discontinuities (faults) during earthquakes. A detailed knowledge of the ongoing crustal strain rates is fundamental to constrain geodynamical models of the Italian peninsula and to understand the characteristics of the active tectonic stress release. Given the low deformation rates in the Central Mediterranean area, only a long-term monitoring can yield the necessary data set to model and understand the ongoing tectonic processes. The Matese carbonatic massive occupies a surface of beyond 1000 km2 between the Campania Apennine northernmost part while Monti del Sannio, consisting primarily of quaternary deposits. It is located to the East of massive and represent the area of Apennine chain which degrades to East towards the Bradanica foredeep and it's delimited, in its complex, from Volturno, Biferno, Tammaro and Calore rivers. The area was interested in historical events by several destructive earthquakes with an Intensity I greater or equal than IX MCS (1456, 1688, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1962), besides by seismic sequences of low energy (1885, 1903, 1905, 1990, 1992, 1997). The first studies surveying the area started from 1990-2000 with the definition of geodetic networks, covering all or part of the massive Matese, with the aim of the evaluation of seismogenic sources responsible for the seismicity of the area. A preliminary study from the geological and structural point of view was focused on the area extending among Benevento, Campobasso, Caserta, Isernia and L'Aquila provinces, in order to accurately define the sites in which the vertices of the network could be installed. After a careful inspection of

  9. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Elberink, S.; Khoshelham, K.; Arastounia, M.; Diaz Benito, D.

    2013-10-01

    We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  10. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  11. Influence of climate variability and urban areas on the flood events in Bari (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) can be defined as the occurrence of one or more simultaneous phenomena, such as droughts, windstorms, heat waves, landslides, floods and secondary floods (i.e. rapid accumulation or pounding of surface water with very low flow velocity), causing damages. They represent a serious problem, especially in DHE-prone areas with growing urbanization, where the infiltration capability is limited by buildings and where the vulnerability is higher than other areas. The paper proposes a methodology, based on both historical and time series approaches, used for describing the influence of climatic variability and urban development on the number of phenomena observed. The historical approach is finalised to collect phenomenon historical data, very important for the comprehension of the evolution of a study area. Phenomenon historical data is useful for expanding the historical period of investigation in order to assess the occurrence trend of DHEs. The historical analysis of DHEs can support decision making and land-use planning, ultimately reducing natural risks. The time series approach includes the collection and the statistical analysis of climatic data (monthly rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), useful to characterise the climate variations and trends and to roughly assess the effects of these trends on river discharge and on the triggering of landslides. The time series approach is completed by tools to analyse simultaneously all data types. The study of land use variations, with a special emphasis on the urban areas, is important to understand how the modifications occurred in the territory, especially in terms of vulnerability, could influence the occurrence of DHEs. The methodology can be applied simultaneously to floods and landslides and was tested considering the municipality of Bari (southern Italy), particularly affected by flood events. Since the climate trend (decreasing trend of rainfall and

  12. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang

    2015-11-01

    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  13. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around Manali industrial area, Chennai, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, A. K.; Govil, P. K.

    2008-06-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) were studied in soils to understand metal contamination due to industrialization and urbanization around Manali industrial area in Chennai, Southern India. This area is affected by the industrial activity and saturated by industries like petrochemicals, refineries, and fertilizers generating hazardous wastes. The contamination of the soils was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor and degree of contamination. Soil samples were collected from the industrial area of Manali from the top 10-cm-layer of the soil. Soil samples were analyzed for heavy metals by using Philips MagiX PRO-2440 Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The data revealed elevated concentrations of Chromium (149.8-418.0 mg/kg), Copper (22.4-372.0 mg/kg), Nickel (11.8-78.8 mg/kg), Zinc (63.5-213.6 mg/kg) and Molybdenum (2.3-15.3 mg/kg). The concentrations of other elements were similar to the levels in the earth’s crust or pointed to metal depletion in the soil (EF < 1). The high-EFs for some heavy metals obtained in the soil samples show that there is a considerable heavy metal pollution, which could be correlated with the industries in the area. Contamination sites pose significant environmental hazards for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, groundwater and aquatic ecosystems. In this perspective there is need for a safe dumping of waste disposal in order to minimize environmental pollution.

  14. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  15. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  16. Microzooplankton community associated with phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean).

    PubMed

    Christaki, Urania; Georges, Clément; Genitsaris, Savvas; Monchy, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    The spatial and temporal community composition of microzooplankton (dinoflagellates and ciliates) was assessed in the Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean) during the KEOPS2 cruise in early spring (October-November) 2011. This naturally iron-fertilized region was characterized by a complex mesoscale circulation resulting in a patchy distribution of phytoplankton blooms. Collectively, 97 morphospecies of dinoflagellates and ciliates belonging to 41 genera were identified by microscopy, and 202 Alveolata-related OTUs (operational taxonomical units) were retrieved with tag-pyrosequencing. Microscopy and pyrosequencing data were in accordance, in that diatom-consuming dinoflagellates were the most enhanced taxa in the blooms. Dinoflagellates also showed significant positive relationships with phytoplankton pigments, while no major differences were found in the ciliate abundances inside and outside the blooms. Cluster analysis showed clear differences in the phytoplankton and microzooplankton community structures between the iron-fertilized and HNLC (high nutrient low chlorophyll) waters, and between the blooms, concerning their location and the fertilization mechanisms. These results were combined with the rates of primary production and mesozooplankton consumption determined for the study area. The potential role of dinoflagellates and ciliates as phytoplankton consumers and as prey for mesozooplankton was then evaluated. Overall, heterotrophic dinoflagellates were probably the most important group of phytoplankton grazers, and a potential food source for copepods. PMID:26099964

  17. BOREAS HYD-9 Hourly and Daily Rainfall Maps for the Southern Study Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eley, F. Joe; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Krauss, Terry S.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-9 team collected data on precipitation and streamflow over portions of the Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set contains Cartesian maps of rain accumulation for one-hour and daily periods during the summer of 1994 over the SSA only (not the full view of the radar). A parallel set of one-hour maps for the whole radar view has been prepared and is available upon request from the HYD-09 personnel. An incidental benefit of the areal selection was the elimination of some of the less accurate data, because for various reasons the radar rain estimates degrade considerably outside a range of about 100 km. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-09 hourly and daily radar rainfall maps for the SSA are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  19. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  20. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  1. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  2. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  3. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  4. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  5. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  6. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  7. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  8. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  9. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  10. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  11. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  12. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  13. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND... strength and support equivalent to fixed rails. Deck rails must include a top rail with the minimum height... to the top rail in any direction. The point and uniform loads do not need to be...

  14. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails. 177.900 Section 177.900 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.900 Deck rails. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, rails or equivalent protection must...

  15. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked,...

  16. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked,...

  17. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked,...

  18. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked,...

  19. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  20. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  1. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  2. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  3. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  4. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  5. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  6. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  7. 46 CFR 169.327 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails. 169.327 Section 169.327 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.327 Deck rails. (a) All rails or lifelines must be at least 30 inches...

  8. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  9. 77 FR 12107 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica), Palm Beach Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach), RailAmerica Transportation Corp. (RTC), RailTex, Inc., Fortress Investment Group, LLC (Fortress), and RR Acquisition Holding, LLC (RR Acquisition) (collectively, Petitioners), seek an exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502 from the prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25 to acquire control of Marquette Rail, LLC......

  10. Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.

  11. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  12. HIV Incidence and Spatial Clustering in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Munguambe, Khátia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Pedro, Elpidia N.; Sacoor, Charfudin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Aponte, John J.; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara; Naniche, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring the HIV epidemic in a defined population is critical for planning treatment and preventive strategies. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa, which harbours the highest burden of the disease. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in adults aged 18-47 years old and to investigate spatial variations of HIV prevalence in Manhiça, a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. Methods Two cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2012 to determine HIV prevalence. Individual participants were randomly selected from the demographic surveillance system in place in the area and voluntary HIV counselling and testing was offered at the household level. HIV incidence was calculated using prevalence estimates from the two sero-surveys. Each participant’s household was geocoded using a global information system. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excess in HIV prevalence. Results A total of 1511 adults were tested. The estimated HIV prevalence in the community was 39.9% in 2010 and 39.7% in 2012. The overall HIV incidence was 3.6 new infections per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) [95CI 1.56; 7.88], assuming stable epidemic conditions, and tended to be higher in women (4.9/100 PYAR [95CI 1.74; 11.85]) than in men (3.2/PYAR [95CI 1.36; 9.92]). One cluster with significant excess HIV prevalence was identified at the same geographic location in both surveys. This cluster had an HIV prevalence of 79.0% in 2010 and 52.3% in 2012. Conclusions The findings of these first individually-randomised community-HIV sero-surveys conducted in Mozambique reinforce the need to combine HIV incidence estimates and research on micro geographical infection patterns to guide and consolidate effective prevention strategies. PMID:26147473

  13. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  14. Capture Zone Analyses of Two Airlift Recirculation Wells in the Southern Sector of A/M Area

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.

    1999-09-14

    This report documents a series of capture zone analyses performed to access the expected overall performance of two (of the twelve) vertical airlift recirculation wells (ARWs) (specifically, SSR-011 and SRR-012) located in the Southern Sector of A/M Area.

  15. 76 FR 22749 - Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Camden Area Industrial Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... & Russellville R.R., Ouachita R.R., & Camden & S. R.R., 76 FR 21797-98 (Apr. 18, 2011). The transaction is... Industrial Development Corporation Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc. (C&S), a noncarrier, has filed a verified... Area Industrial Development Corporation (CAIDC), located at Zone JH482, Yard 06, opposite milepost...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 2 Figure...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 2 Figure...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL.... 300, Subpt. G, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300—Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL.... 300, Subpt. G, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300—Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting...

  20. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  1. Ruby on Rails Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    Ruby on Rails is an open source web application framework for the Ruby programming language. The first application I built was a web application to manage and authenticate other applications. One of the main requirements for this application was a single sign-on service. This allowed authentication to be built in one location and be implemented in many different applications. For example, users would be able to login using their existing credentials, and be able to access other NASA applications without authenticating again. The second application I worked on was an internal qualification plan app. Previously, the viewing of employee qualifications was managed through Excel spread sheets. I built a database driven application to streamline the process of managing qualifications. Employees would be able to login securely to view, edit and update their personal qualifications.

  2. Metamorphism and gold mineralization of the Kenticha Katawicha area: Adola belt, southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Lulu

    2006-05-01

    I present geological and mineral chemistry results aiming at understanding the relationship between metamorphism and gold mineralization in the N-trending Neoproterozoic Kenticha-Katawicha area in the Adola belt of southern Ethiopia. The Kenticha-Katawicha area comprises low-grade metamorphic rocks including pelitic schists, marble, graphite schists and Fe-Mn quartzites (Kenticha marine metasedimentary rocks) and serpentinites and talc-tremolite-chlorite schists with podiform chromites (Kenticha ophiolite). Lenses of high-grade amphibolite schist are also locally present within the Kenticha-Katawicha area. These rocks are sandwiched between high-grade para- and ortho-gneisses, migmatites, schists and amphibolites. Post-orogenic granites intrude the metamorphic sequences. Mineral assemblages and textural data obtained from the high-grade rocks indicate that the dominant metamorphic condition is of upper amphibolite facies. Garnet-biotite (garnet-core-matrix-biotite) and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry gave estimates for peak metamorphic temperatures of 630-650 °C and pressure of 7 kbar for the high-grade rocks. On the other hand, the low-grade rocks recrystallized in the greenschist facies conditions. The estimated peak T- P values for the high-grade rocks suggest a burial to ˜25 km depth and a clockwise P- T path is deduced from mineral thermometry and the textural and paragenetic relations. This combined with the geochemistry of the magmatic rocks and clockwise P- T is consistent with a collision setting in which rocks of the calc-alkaline, volcanic-arc, and oceanic fragments are assembled. In the study area, gold occurs in quartz veins and veinlets in lenses of biotite schists within ultramafic rocks that are confined to shear zones. Fluid inclusion studies of gold quartz veins and veinlets indicate a H 2O- and CO 2-rich fluid with low salinity (<5 wt% NaCl equivalent). The gold mineralization in the area is post-peak regional metamorphism and is

  3. Relation between Oceanographic parameters and Optical properties in 5 coastal areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Braga, Federica; Betti, Mattia; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Grilli, Federica; Pascucci, Simone; Marini, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the CLAM-PHYM (Coasts-and-Lake-Assessment-and-Monitoring-by-Prisma-Hyperspectral-Mission) project it was carried out an oceanographic cruise (27/08-13/09/2010) along the coasts of southern Italy in order to analyze the physical, biochemical and optical properties of some coastal areas. The sampling areas are: the Gulf of Taranto, the Policoro area, the Cetraro Bay, the Gulf of Augusta and the Gulf of Gela. CTD profiles and reflectance measurements of the sea surface and along the water column with portable field spectroradiometers were collected. Water samples were also collected for the analysis of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and CDOM. These optically active substances interact with solar radiation along the water column through absorption and scattering phenomena. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between the bio-optical concentrations of optically-active-substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ; this relation, if reversed, can be used to map the concentrations of optically-active-substances from hyperspectral-satellite-data. Results stress high biological activity in the Gulf of Taranto and in the Gulf of Gela showing the highest values of chlorophyll-a and aCDOM440. These areas are characterized by the presence of important industrial and port sites. The Gela's gulf, where we found the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and CDOM, is also characterized by the runoff of the Salso river increasing the biological activity. The correlations found in the Gulf of Taranto between Kd, chlorophyll a and aCDOM440 indicate that the high concentrations of CDOM are primarily due to phytoplankton rather than from terrestrial source. The Gulf of Taranto shows the best site among those investigated where to identify bio-optical relationships between the concentrations of optically active substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ. The preliminary results encourage the combined use of

  4. 13. DETAIL NO. 2. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL NO. 2. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Interior and Exterior Column Details, all at 1:5. Drawing no. SD702, submitted by Biggs Cardosa Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SD702. Stamped by Roy M. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  5. 11. GENERAL PLAN. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, Diridon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL PLAN. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Scale 1:200. Drawing no. SP701, submitted by Biggs Cardoss Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SP701. Stamped by Roy M. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  6. An experimental study of a minette from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37: 1629-1650, 2000) studied the minettes and xenoliths from the Milk River area of southern Alberta, Canada. Based on previous work, they hypothesized that the minettes were derived from a source containing phlogopite + clinopyroxene ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. To test this hypothesis, liquidus experiments were performed on a primitive minette between 1.33 and 2.21 GPa and between 1,300 and 1,400 °C to constrain the mineralogy of its source region. We found a multiple saturation point along the liquidus at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C, where the liquid coexists with orthopyroxene and olivine. Neither phlogopite nor clinopyroxene were found to be liquidus phases, which is inconsistent with Buhlmann et al.'s hypothesis. We suggest that our minette is not primary, but had re-equilibrated with harzburgitic mantle subsequent to formation. In such a scenario, partial melting of a veined source containing mica and clinopyroxene occurred at or near the base of the Wyoming craton (~200 km). Minimal heating or the introduction of hydrous fluids into the source would be required to induce partial melting. Rapid ascent rates, coupled with slow cooling rates, of the "primary minette magma" would preserve the high temperature observed in our experiments. At ~58 km, our "primary minette magma" likely stalled and re-equilibrated with the harzburgite surroundings.

  7. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  8. Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

  9. Performance assessment of separate and combined sewer systems in metropolitan areas in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Cang; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    To assess the performance of urban drainage systems in metropolitan areas in southern China, 12 urban drainage systems, including nine separate sewer systems (SSSs) and three combined sewer systems (CSSs) were monitored from 2008 to 2012 in Shanghai and Hefei. Illicit connection rates of SSS were determined. The results indicate that serious illicit connections exist for most SSSs. Annual volume balance for two SSSs with serious illicit connection was assessed with a hydraulic model to determine the dry weather overflow volume. Although interception facilities have been implemented in SSSs, for some systems with serious illicit connections, a considerable volume of dry weather overflow still existed. Combined with monitoring of dry/wet weather flow quality, the pollutant load caused by wet/dry weather overflow was quantified. The results revealed that there was no obvious advantage of having SSSs over CSSs in terms of pollutant control. The serious pollution caused by illicit connections and insufficient management occurs in many cities in China. The performance assessment of separate and CSSs in Shanghai and Hefei provides important lessons and practical experience that can be applied to the construction and management of urban drainage system in China as well as other developing countries. PMID:24473315

  10. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (<0.5) and COD/BOD5 (>3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. PMID:26837269

  11. [Habitat use of Williamson's Mouse-deer (Tragulus williamsoni) in Mengla area, southern Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Bai, Bing; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Min-Yong

    2010-06-01

    Combining line-transect method and sampling method, the geographic coordinates of footprint links for Williamson's Mouse-deer (Tragulus williamsoni) were collected in Mengman and Longmen regions of Mengla area, southern Yunnan, from June to December 2007. A distribution pattern map of the mouse-deer was produced by GIS software. Eleven ecological factors were measured in collected and available samples. The results indicated that the mouse-deer preferred valleys along banks of rivers or streams in low altitude, and were mainly distributed in Sanchahe of Mengman region and Darongshu of Longmen region. Comparing nominal factors between collected and available samples, the results showed that the mouse-deer tended to inhabit middle and lower slopes and favored the plant species of Ficus hirtal, Baccaurea samiflora, Alpinia kwangsiensis and Phrynium capitatum. These plants occur along banks of rivers or streams, one of the important reasons affecting distribution of the mouse-deer populations. Comparing quantitative factors between collected and available samples, the results showed that four factors including tall tree coverage, shrub coverage and herb coverage, and distance to water, were significantly different. These four factors were key in discriminating collected and available samples and main factors affecting the habitat use of the mouse-deer. The dense shrub with taller trees could form good shady condition for the mouse-deer, and greatly strengthen their security. Due to their preference for areas near water, there were more flourishing tall trees and dense shrubs at valleys in low altitude, which was one of important reasons affecting the distribution of the mouse-deer populations massing in valleys in low altitude. PMID:20672420

  12. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  13. Detailed seismicity analysis revealing the dynamics of the southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2014-10-01

    Within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. During 18 recording months, 648 events were detected. Based on an already published tomography study clustering, focal mechanisms, statistics and the distribution of the microseismicity in relation to the velocity models from the tomography are analysed. The determined b value of 0.74 leads to a relatively high risk of large earthquakes compared to the moderate microseismic activity. The distribution of the seismicity indicates an asymmetric basin with a vertical strike-slip fault forming the eastern boundary of the basin, and an inclined western boundary, made up of strike-slip and normal faults. Furthermore, significant differences between the area north and south of the Bokek fault were observed. South of the Bokek fault, the western boundary is inactive while the entire seismicity occurs on the eastern boundary and below the basin-fill sediments. The largest events occurred here, and their focal mechanisms represent the northwards transform motion of the Arabian plate along the Dead Sea Transform. The vertical extension of the spatial and temporal cluster from February 2007 is interpreted as being related to the locking of the region around the Bokek fault. North of the Bokek fault similar seismic activity occurs on both boundaries most notably within the basin-fill sediments, displaying mainly small events with strike-slip mechanism and normal faulting in EW direction. Therefore, we suggest that the Bokek fault forms the border between the single transform fault and the pull-apart basin with two active border faults.

  14. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  15. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  16. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  17. Geophysical, hydrological, and archaeological investigation in the East Bank area of Luxor-southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed Mahmoud Ali

    The rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater are causing accelerated deterioration of stone foundations of visible temples and monuments at Luxor, southern Egypt. Elevated groundwater is thought to cause a loss of cohesion and breakdown of the stone, while pressure developed within the stone upon salt crystallization and hydration may aid in the stone's disintegration. In addition to the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater, the expansion of urbanization and agriculture are jeopardizing buried monuments that have not been discovered and unearthed. The five main objectives were to: (1) characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units; (2) identify sources responsible for the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater; (3) evaluate geometry and water quality of the shallow aquifer; (4) map the upper limit of capillary water and variations in soil moisture and (5) map yet undiscovered, buried monuments in the vicinity of the Karnak Temples complex. These five objectives were achieved based on the interpretations and results of the integrated geophysical and hydrologic data. (1) The shallow subsurface (<100m) was characterized into seven geoelectric (geologic/hydrologic) units. The second unit (silty clay) is thicker (12--28m) underneath the area of the Karnak and Luxor Temples, which may be a paleo-meander of the River Nile. (2) The source of the rise in groundwater level was determined to be due to the flow of groundwater from the central cultivated land towards the area of the temples. The groundwater salinity increased towards the temples, in the direction of groundwater flow, and may account for the increase in groundwater salinity beneath the temples. (3) The Quaternary aquifer in the study area was found to have a thickness and water quality that makes it usable for anthropogenic purposes. (4) The upper limit of capillary water was determined to be at depths of 0.0--2m. Salt accumulation on the monuments' foundations

  18. Are southern California's fragmented saltmarshes capable of sustaining endemic bird populations?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of coastal saltmarshes in southern California has been estimated at 75-90% since presettlement times. The remaining wetlands are mostly fragmented and degraded, and most frequently have harsh edges adjacent to urban landscapes. Non-migratory Belding's Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi) and Light-footed Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris levipes) are endemic to saltmarshes in southern California and Baja California, Mexico. Population sizes of Belding's Savannah Sparrows show a positive relationship with saltmarsh area, but few large wetland fragments remain within their range in California. Belding's Savannah Sparrows are sensitive to fragmentation and isolation, with small isolated marshes acting as population sinks. In addition, this subspecies shows low genetic variability, limited dispersal, and small effective population sizes. Light-footed Clapper Rails are habitat specialists, found in marshes with good tidal flushing that support California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) habitats. Light-footed Clapper rails also show low genetic variability and limited dispersal and the remnant populations of clapper rails are relatively isolated from one another. Large wetland complexes may serve as population sources for both species, while small, isolated marshes may act as population sinks but more research is needed to estimate and model the dynamics of these two metapopulations. Mitigation for wetland loss and restoration projects should not be evaluated simply by presence of rare bird species alone, but instead efforts should be made to determine population sustainability.

  19. Neogene and Quaternary ignimbrites in the area of Arequipa, Southern Peru: Stratigraphical and petrological correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebti, Perrine Paquereau; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Wörner, Gerhard; Fornari, Michel

    2006-06-01

    This study focuses on the correlation of four newly identified rhyolitic ignimbrites located around Arequipa, which were previously described as a single ignimbrite sheet: (1) The Río Chili Ignimbrite (ca. 13.33 Ma) crops out in the Río Chili canyon and consists of a cooling unit of non-welded to partially welded, massive, crystal-rich lapilli tuff. This ignimbrite represents the base of the Neogene ignimbrite succession in the Arequipa area and may be stratigraphically equivalent to the 14-13 Ma Huaylillas Ignimbrites in southern Peru. (2) The second voluminous (˜ 20 km 3) and widespread La Joya Ignimbrite sheet (ca. 4.87 Ma) filled the Arequipa depression. Its probable source is now buried underneath the Chachani volcanic complex. The La Joya Ignimbrite covers both the Arequipa Batholith toward the Río Vitor piedmont and also part of the Altiplano to the East and North of the Chachani complex. (3) The Arequipa Airport Ignimbrite (AAI) sheet (ca. 1.6 Ma, ˜18 km 3), the third and latest infill of the Arequipa basin, consists of a lower white, columnar jointed, massive lapilli tuff, indurated by vapor-phase recrystallization, and is overlain by an upper, pink, lithic-rich, non-welded, massive lapilli-tuff. The source of this ignimbrite is also buried underneath the Chachani complex, as indicated by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements and component lithology. (4) The Yura non-welded pumice-flow deposits (ca. 1.02 Ma, 1.5 km 3) are restricted to the northern and western flanks of the Chachani complex and may correlate with tuffs of the Capillune Formation on the Altiplano. All ignimbrites are high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline rhyolites, which contain variable amounts of plagioclase, biotite, quartz, sanidine, and Fe-Ti oxides. The modal composition of mineral phases and chemistry of amphiboles and biotites are useful for distinguishing the ignimbrites. Specific geochemical fingerprints, such as Sr, Y, Rb, Ba, Cs, REE, and Sr isotopes were effective

  20. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes. PMID:19527505

  1. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95 ± 0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L) and 8.58 ± 2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL), respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years), work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves), and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch). Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices. PMID:27313961

  2. Biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the area between Sarasota and Lake Okeechobee, southern Florida: An integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wingard, G.L.; Edwards, L.E.; McCartan, L. ); Sugarman, P.J. ); Feigenson, M.D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary analysis of paleontologic and isotopic data from 15 coreholes, integrated with the lithostratigraphic framework, has revealed three chronostratigraphic depositional units in the subsurface of the Arcadia and Sarasota 30 [times] 60-minute quadrangles, in the southern Florida peninsula. (1) An upper Oligocene depositional unit unconformably overlies the lower Oligocene Suwannee Formation and has been dated by using [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr values and molluscs. (2) A lower and middle Miocene depositional unit has been dated on the basis of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr values, molluscs, and dinoflagellates. The upper boundary of this unit is marked by the top of the Venice Clay in the western part of the study area. (3) A Pliocene and Pleistocene depositional unit, dated on the basis of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr values, molluscs, dinoflagellates, foraminifera, ostracodes, and pollen, unconformably overlies the lower and middle Miocene beds; this unconformity represents approximately a 13-million-year gap in the record. The Pliocene and Pleistocene unit is seen in the surficial deposits of the Caloosahatchee, Tamiami, Bermont, and Fort Thompson Formations. The interpretation of Florida's geologic history is hampered by the interfingering of onlap/offlap cycles from two coastlines, a unique situation in southeastern coastal plain geology. In addition, a complex diagenetic history, mixing of carbonate and siliciclastic regimes, and lack of surface exposures make interpretation of the stratigraphic sequences difficult. The chronostratigraphic depositional units identified cut across lithofacies boundaries and allow correlation across the Florida peninsula, thus leading to the development of coherent, well-defined lithostratigraphic units.

  3. Key seabird areas in southern New England identified using a community occupancy model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Flanders, Nicholas P.; Gardner, Beth; Winiarski, Kristopher J.; Paton, Peter W. C.; Allison, Taber

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are of conservation concern, and as new potential risks to seabirds are arising, the need to provide unbiased estimates of species’ distributions is growing. We applied community occupancy models to detection/non-detection data collected from repeated aerial strip-transect surveys conducted in 2 large study plots off southern New England, USA; one off the coast of Rhode Island and the other in Nantucket Sound. A total of 17 seabird species were observed at least once in each study plot. We found that detection varied by survey date and effort for most species and the average detection probability across species was less than 0.4. We estimated the influence of water depth, sea surface temperature, and sea surface chl a concentration on species-specific occupancy. Diving species showed large differences between the 2 study plots in their predicted winter distributions, which were largely explained by water depth acting as a stronger predictor of occupancy in Rhode Island than in Nantucket Sound. Conversely, similarities between the 2 study plots in predicted winter distributions of surface-feeding species were explained by sea surface temperature or chlorophyll a concentration acting as predictors of these species’ occupancy in both study plots. We predicted the number of species at each site using the observed data in order to detect ‘hot-spots’ of seabird diversity and use in the 2 study plots. These results provide new information on detection of species, areas of use, and relationships with environmental variables that will be valuable for biologists and planners interested in seabird conservation in the region.

  4. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  5. An estimate of the area burned in southern Africa during the 2000 dry season using SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, JoãO. M. N.; Pereira, José M. C.; Cabral, Ana I.; Sá, Ana C. L.; Vasconcelos, Maria J. P.; Mota, Bernardo; GréGoire, Jean-Marie

    2003-07-01

    The area burned in southern Africa during the 2000 dry season was mapped on a monthly basis from May to November using SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) satellite imagery at 1 km spatial resolution. Burned areas were identified with a classification tree that relied only on the near-infrared channel of VGT. The classification tree algorithm yielded very accurate results (Kappa = 0.93). However, when compared with burned area maps derived from 30 m resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery, the VGT 1 km burned area maps reveal variable accuracy, dependent on vegetation type and on the spatial pattern of the burned areas. Fire incidence was higher in the northern part of the study area, especially in Wetter Zambezian Miombo Woodland, Mosaic of Guineo-Congolian Lowland Forest and Secondary Grassland, Edaphic and Secondary Grassland on Kalahari Sand, Drier Zambezian Miombo Woodland, and Undifferentiated North-Zambezian Miombo Woodland. Fire incidence was lower in the eastern part of the study area and almost absent from the western and southern semiarid and desert regions. The most extensively burned countries were, in decreasing order, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Mozambique and Zambia. The total area burned was estimated at 959480 km2.

  6. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., including heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic.... This section applies to: (1) Each passenger railroad carrier, including each carrier operating...

  7. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., including heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic.... This section applies to: (1) Each passenger railroad carrier, including each carrier operating...

  8. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  9. 78 FR 10581 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee... Disabilities Act for transportation vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail). We are establishing a Rail Vehicles Access Advisory...

  10. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  11. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  12. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  13. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  14. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  15. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  16. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  17. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  18. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  19. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  20. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2015-03-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  1. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... continuous welded rail track prescribed in this part. (g) No rail shall have a bolt hole which is torch cut... 21, 1999. (h) No joint bar shall be reconfigured by torch cutting in Classes 3 through 5 track....

  2. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... continuous welded rail track prescribed in this part. (g) No rail shall have a bolt hole which is torch cut... 21, 1999. (h) No joint bar shall be reconfigured by torch cutting in Classes 3 through 5 track....

  3. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... continuous welded rail track prescribed in this part. (g) No rail shall have a bolt hole which is torch cut... 21, 1999. (h) No joint bar shall be reconfigured by torch cutting in Classes 3 through 5 track....

  4. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... continuous welded rail track prescribed in this part. (g) No rail shall have a bolt hole which is torch cut... 21, 1999. (h) No joint bar shall be reconfigured by torch cutting in Classes 3 through 5 track....

  5. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continuous welded rail track prescribed in this part. (g) No rail shall have a bolt hole which is torch cut... 21, 1999. (h) No joint bar shall be reconfigured by torch cutting in Classes 3 through 5 track....

  6. 77 FR 17121 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Florida East Coast Railway, LLC, a Class II rail carrier. RailAmerica et al. states that: (1) W&C does not...-0001. In addition, a copy of each pleading must be served on: Louis E. Gitomer, 600 Baltimore...

  7. Incidence of ingested lead shot in sora rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artmann, J.W.; Martin, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Gizzards of 934 sora rails (Porzana carolina) collected in Maryland (767) and Missouri (167) were examined for ingested shot. Ingested shot were found in 12.3 percent of the Maryland sample and 1.8 percent of the Missouri birds. Individual Maryland birds had ingested up to 28 pellets. None of the lead pellets examined was larger than a No. 7 1/2 shot. Maryland ingestion rates did not differ by age or sex, but significant differences between collection areas, groups of years, and collection periods within years were indicated. This exploratory work points out a potential lead poisoning problem among sora rails.

  8. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; Chen, Guangsheng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Caixia

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  9. Rail accelerator technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rail accelerators offer a viable means of launching ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space. The results of two mission studies which indicate that an Earth-to-Space Rail Launcher (ESRL) system is not only technically feasible but also economically beneficial, particularly when large amounts of bulk cago are to be delivered to space are given. An in-house experimental program at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) was conducted in parallel with the mission studies with the objective of examining technical feasibility issues. A 1 m long - 12.5 by 12.5 mm bore rail accelerator as designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to visually observe the plasma armature acceleration. The general character of plasma/projectile dynamics is described for a typical test firing.

  10. Green light on the rails

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-25

    It is speculated that a freight-rail revival may be at hand. The reasons for the optimism stem partly from America's energy imperative, i.e., as part of the effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil, domestic coal is getting more attention. Federal regulators are attempting to apply some economic logic to the freight-rail system. Regulations are now in place for railroads to liquidate or cut service. Congress is considering deregulation bills that would give railroads more freedom in setting freight rates and abandoning little-used routes. The ICC is promoting cost-saving merges and rail stocks are becoming a popular investment. Problems remain and these are discussed.

  11. Non-contact rail flaw detection system: first field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Bartoli, Ivan; Fateh, Mahmood

    2007-04-01

    Researchers at UCSD, with the initial support of NSF and the current support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), have been working on a flaw detection prototype for rails that uses non-contact ultrasonic probing and robust data processing algorithms to provide high speed and high reliability defect detection in these structures. Besides the obvious advantages of non-contact probing, the prototype uses ultrasonic guided waves able to detect and quantify transverse cracks in the rail head, notoriously the most dangerous of all rail track defects. This paper will report on the first field test which was conducted in Gettysburg, PA in March 2006 with the technical support of ENSCO, Inc. Good results were obtained for the detection of both surface-breaking and internal cracks ranging in size from 2% cross-sectional head area (H.A.) reduction to 80% H.A. reduction.

  12. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of two solid rocket booster rail cars is off the track after being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  13. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks, rail cars carrying solid rocket booster segments sit idle. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  14. Stray current control in rehabilitating rail transit facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.H. III; Bosma, R.; Paladines, F.

    1999-05-01

    An old Chicago direct current electrified railway yard and shop are being rehabilitated. Modern stray current control techniques are being introduced. Efficient rail operation and safety for the public and operating personnel are paramount. Metra is Chicago's commuter railroad, serving six counties in the metropolitan area. The Electric District, which was electrified in 1926, is a heavy rail system from downtown, serving the south side and suburbs. Operating on the same tracks from Randolph St., to Kensington is America's last electric interurban line, the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad. All trains operate on 1,500-V direct current (DC) propulsion from an overhead catenary system, with the running rails as the negative return.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IMPACTS IN HEADWATERS STREAMS WITHIN MINERALIZED AREAS OF THE SOUTHERN ROCKIES ECOREGION (REMAP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators conducted pilot work on indicators in 1993 and the full project, including sampling of biological, chemical, and physical parameters in selected headwater streams, was conducted in 1994 and 1995. The population of interest was streams within the Southern Rocky Moun...

  16. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  17. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  18. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  19. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  20. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  1. 77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... grants authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan...

  2. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This guidance... qualifies States to receive grants for high-speed rail only. Response: Operational information about all... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  3. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.351 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated...

  4. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233... joints. Each non-insulated rail joint located within the limits of a highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall be bonded by means other than joint bars and the bonds shall be maintained in...

  5. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233... joints. Each non-insulated rail joint located within the limits of a highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall be bonded by means other than joint bars and the bonds shall be maintained in...

  6. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.233 Rail joints. Each non-insulated rail joint located... than joint bars and the bonds shall be maintained in such condition to ensure electrical conductivity....

  7. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.233 Rail joints. Each non-insulated rail joint located... than joint bars and the bonds shall be maintained in such condition to ensure electrical conductivity....

  8. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233... joints. Each non-insulated rail joint located within the limits of a highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall be bonded by means other than joint bars and the bonds shall be maintained in...

  9. 58. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF 4 RAIL DUAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF 4 RAIL DUAL GUAGE RAILROAD TRACK BETWEEN BUILDING NO. 533 (SOLVENT RECOVERY) and BUILDING NO. 537, DRY HOUSE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. Recent developments in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Southern California offshore area: Implications for earthquake-hazard analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Nicholson, C.; Ryan, H.F.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    During late Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, three main tectonic episodes affected the Southern California offshore area. Each episode imposed its unique structural imprint such that early-formed structures controlled or at least influenced the location and development of later ones. This cascaded structural inheritance greatly complicates analysis of the extent, orientation, and activity of modern faults. These fault attributes play key roles in estimates of earthquake magnitude and recurrence interval. Hence, understanding the earthquake hazard posed by offshore and coastal faults requires an understanding of the history of structural inheritance and modifi-cation. In this report we review recent (mainly since 1987) findings about the tectonic development of the Southern California offshore area and use analog models of fault deformation as guides to comprehend the bewildering variety of offshore structures that developed over time. This report also provides a background in regional tectonics for other chapters in this section that deal with the threat from offshore geologic hazards in Southern California. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  11. A 433-MHz Rail-to-Rail Voltage Amplifier with Carrier Sensing Function for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Mikami, Shinji; Lee, Hyeokjong; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ohta, Chikara; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    In this paper we propose a novel functional amplifier suitable for low-power wireless receivers in a wireless sensor network. This amplifier can change input threshold level as carrier sensing level, since it has a minimum input amplitude to be amplified. A simple rail-to-rail output is suitable for a subsequent digital interface. The target frequency is 433MHz, and the maximum voltage gain is 11dB. The standby power is 39.5nW, and the active power is 352µW. The chip area is 82 × 24µm2.

  12. Digital playback and improved trap design enhance capture of migrant soras and Virginia rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kearns, G.D.; Kwartin, N.B.; Brinker, D.F.; Haramis, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used playback of rail vocalizations and improved trap design to enhance capture of fall migrant Soras (Porzana carolina) and Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola) in marshes bordering the tidal Patuxent River, Maryland. Custom-fabricated microchip message repeating sound systems provided digitally recorded sound for long-life, high-quality playback. A single sound system accompanied each 30-45 m long drift fence trap line fitted with 1-3 cloverleaf traps. Ramped funnel entrances improved retention of captured rails and deterred raccoon (Procyon lotor) predation. Use of playback and improved trap design increased trap success by over an order of magnitude and resulted in capture and banding of 2315 Soras and 276 Virginia Rails during September and October 1993-1997. The Sora captures more than doubled the banding records for the species in North America. This capture success demonstrates the efficacy of banding large numbers of Soras and Virginia Rails on migration and winter concentration areas.

  13. [Use of medication by the elderly in urban and rural areas in southern Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Dal Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Pons, Emilia da Silva; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measure use of medication and polypharmacy among the elderly in Carlos Barbosa, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and to compare socio-demographic, economic, and health characteristics in relation to area of residence (urban versus rural) in a random sample of 811 persons 60 year of age or older. Interviews were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic illnesses, and self-reported use of medications. The association between area of residence and medication or polypharmacy was adjusted for confounders using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence rates for use of medication and polypharmacy were higher among older persons living in the urban area. Living in the urban area was positively and independently associated with use of medication (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02-1.20) and polypharmacy (PR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.27-2.65) in this group of elderly in southern Brazil. PMID:22267070

  14. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  15. Foraging Ranges of Immature African White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus) and Their Use of Protected Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Willis, Stephen G.; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area  = 269,103±197,187 km2) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  16. Phytoplankton and light limitation in the Southern Ocean: Learning from high-nutrient, high-chlorophyll areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, Hugh; Moore, C. Mark

    2010-02-01

    Most of the Southern Ocean is a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area. There are exceptions to this situation downstream of some of the islands, where iron from the islands or surrounding shallow plateau fertilizes the mixed layer and causes a phytoplankton bloom in spring and summer. The main locations where this occurs are downstream of the South Georgia, Crozet, and Kerguelen islands. Data on mixed layer depths from Argo float profiles together with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor chlorophyll a (chl a) and photosynthetically available radiation from these high-nutrient, high-chlorophyll (HNHC) areas are combined to study the effects of mixed layer-averaged light availability on phytoplankton concentrations in areas where iron limitation has been lifted. The results of this analysis are then transferred to HNLC areas to assess the potential importance of light limitation through the year. We conclude that light limitation does not significantly constrain the annual integrated standing stock of chl a in the HNLC Southern Ocean.

  17. Factor analysis of rock, soil and water geochemical data from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area, Salem, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.

  18. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern Branch of Elizabeth River, at latitude 36°49′43″, longitude 76°17′26.5″; thence in a southwesterly...″, longitude 76°17′33″; thence in a southerly direction along the eastern boundary of Norfolk Harbor 40-foot channel to latitude 36°49′28″, longitude 76°17′27″; thence easterly to the shore at latitude...

  19. Rail accelerator research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A rail accelerator was chosen for study as an electromagnetic space propulsion device because of its simplicity and existing technology base. The results of a mission feasibility study using a large rail accelerator for direct launch of ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space, and the results of initial tests with a small, laboratory rail accelerator are presented. The laboratory rail accelerator has a bore of 3 by 3 mm and has accelerated 60 mg projectiles to velocities of 300 to 1000 m/s. Rail materials of Cu, W, and Mo were tested for efficiency and erosion rate.

  20. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  1. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  2. A&M. Outdoor turntable under construction. Well for outer rail is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Outdoor turntable under construction. Well for outer rail is being formed. Motor works on right. Date: August 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 8537 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Scale economies in rail transit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, I.

    1994-06-01

    The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of economies of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and small additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  5. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  6. Swampy area transformations by exploitation of Raphia hookeri (Arecaceae) in southern Benin (West Africa)

    SciTech Connect

    Profizi, J.

    1988-03-01

    The Raphia palms in the southern part of Benin are confined to freshwater swamps, where the natural vegetation consists of a forest rich in Dicotyledons. Human activity has transformed this forest into a raphiale where Raphia hookeri has become the main arborescent species. The influence of this transformation on the vegetation results in a more regular distribution of Raphis hookeri trunks and a gradual disappearing of clumps of ramets. By now, the future of Raphis hookeri species is almost ensured except in situations of over-exploitation.

  7. Tracing back nutrients from Southern North Sea eutrophicated areas up to the watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulière, Valérie; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Luyten, Patrick; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-04-01

    The Southern North Sea faces eutrophication problems. They result from growing anthropogenic pressure in the river watersheds, and subsequent increase in nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading to the sea. Establishing the link between human activities and eutrophication problems requires the identification of the major nutrient sources and the ecological response of the coastal ecosystem to these nutrient alterations. This information is crucial to mitigate eutrophication in coastal zones by applying appropriate dual-nutrient reduction strategies, therefore achieving the Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020. The marine biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO) has been coupled to a newly developed generic watershed model (PyNuts) based on Riverstrahler model. A nutrient tracking approach has been adapted and implemented in MIRO&CO. The transboundary nutrient transport method has been used to track the nutrients in the sea, and trace back their sources (river, ocean, and atmosphere). Here, the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources will be presented. Results show that the nitrogen contribution from atmospheric deposition is not negligible and that the nutrients released by French rivers reach the Southern North Sea in significant proportions. This work has done in the framework of the EMoSEM EU project (http://www.odnature.be/emosem/) that aims at providing support to eutrophication management in the North Atlantic Ocean, using state-of-the-art modelling tools.

  8. Rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.; Villecco, R.A.; Graham, F.R. )

    1991-08-01

    A model is developed to investigate rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun. This model describes the rail motion in response to the transitory Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force from the material which is between the rails and the containment structure. In this model the distance between the rails is found to oscillate with a frequency of {beta}. The magnetic field and the dynamic behavior of the rails induce local electric fields. We investigate the significance of these electric fields in the laboratory frame and in the projectile frame. In the lab frame, rail electrodynamics induces local electric fields which have maximums spaced behind the projectile at locations where {beta}{ital t}{sub {ital p}} is an odd multiple of {pi}, where {ital t}{sub {ital p}} is the time since the projectile has passed an axial location on the rails. When the projectile is accelerating, rail dynamics induce electric fields in the projectile frame which have maximums where {beta}{ital t}{sub {ital p}} is an even multiple of {pi}. As the projectile velocity increases, the locations of the peak voltages move farther behind the projectile. For the CHECMATE railgun, calculations indicate that the rail displacement is on the order of 2 mm, the rail velocity is on the order of 50 m/s, and the voltages induced in the projectile frame are on the order of 20--40 V.

  9. 12. DETAILS NO. 1. Vasona Light Rail Project, Asbuilt Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAILS NO. 1. Vasona Light Rail Project, As-built Plan, Diridon Station Water Tank. Tank Elevation, Foundation Plan, Framing Plan, all at 1:50, and a Section at 1:5. Drawing no. SD701, submitted by Biggs Cardosa Associates, Inc., 1871 The Alameda, Suite 200, San Jose, California. Contract no. C326, CADD file 326SD701. Stamped by Roy. Schnabel, California registered professional engineer no. C46828. - Southern Pacific Depot, Water Tower, 65 Cahill Street, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  10. 40 CFR 201.13 - Standard for rail car operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for rail car operations. 201... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.13 Standard for rail car operations. Effective December 31, 1976, no carrier subject to this regulation shall operate any rail car or combination of rail...