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This digital data release consists of seven data files of soil attributes for the United States and the District of Columbia. The files are derived from National Resources Conservations Service’s (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The data files can be linked to the raster datasets of soil mapping unit identifiers (MUKEY) available through the NRCS’s Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) database (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/geo/?cid=nrcs142p2_053628). The associated files, named DRAINAGECLASS, HYDRATING, HYDGRP, HYDRICCONDITION, LAYER, TEXT, and WTDEP are area- and depth-weighted average values for selected soil characteristics from the SSURGO database for the conterminous United States and the District of Columbia. The SSURGO tables were acquired from the NRCS on March 5, 2014. The soil characteristics in the DRAINAGE table are drainage class (DRNCLASS), which identifies the natural drainage conditions of the soil and refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods. The soil characteristics in the HYDRATING table are hydric rating (HYDRATE), a yes/no field that indicates whether or not a map unit component is classified as a "hydric soil". The soil characteristics in the HYDGRP table are the percentages for each hydrologic group per MUKEY. The soil characteristics in the HYDRICCONDITION table are hydric condition (HYDCON), which describes the natural condition of the soil component. The soil characteristics in the LAYER table are available water capacity (AVG_AWC), bulk density (AVG_BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KSAT), vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KV), soil erodibility factor (AVG_KFACT), porosity (AVG_POR), field capacity (AVG_FC), the soil fraction passing a number 4 sieve (AVG_NO4), the soil fraction passing a number 10 sieve (AVG_NO10), the soil fraction passing a number 200 sieve (AVG_NO200), and organic matter (AVG_OM). The soil characteristics in the TEXT table are percent sand, silt, and clay (AVG_SAND, AVG_SILT, and AVG_CLAY). The soil characteristics in the WTDEP table are the annual minimum water table depth (WTDEP_MIN), available water storage in the 0-25 cm soil horizon (AWS025), the minimum water table depth for the months April, May and June (WTDEPAMJ), the available water storage in the first 25 centimeters of the soil horizon (AWS25), the dominant drainage class (DRCLSD), the wettest drainage class (DRCLSWET), and the hydric classification (HYDCLASS), which is an indication of the proportion of the map unit, expressed as a class, that is "hydric", based on the hydric classification of a given MUKEY. (See Entity_Description for more detail). The tables were created with a set of arc macro language (aml) and awk (awk was created at Bell Labsin the 1970s and its name is derived from the first letters of the last names of its authors – Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan) scripts. Send an email to mewieczo@usgs.gov to obtain copies of the computer code (See Process_Description.) The methods used are outlined in NRCS's "SSURGO Data Packaging and Use" (NRCS, 2011). The tables can be related or joined to the gSSURGO rasters of MUKEYs by the item 'MUKEY.' Joining or relating the tables to a MUKEY grid allows the creation of grids of area- and depth-weighted soil characteristics. A 90-meter raster of MUKEYs is provided which can be used to produce rasters of soil attributes. More detailed resolution rasters are available through NRCS via the link above.

Wieczorek, Michael E.

2014-01-01

2

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

2014-04-01

4

SAS\\/OWA: ordered weighted averaging in SAS optimization

This paper explores the use of the optimization procedures in SAS\\/OR software with application to the ordered weight averaging\\u000a (OWA) operators of decision-making units (DMUs). OWA was originally introduced by Yager (IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 18(1):183–190,\\u000a 1988) has gained much interest among researchers, hence many applications such as in the areas of decision making, expert systems,\\u000a data mining, approximate

Ali Emrouznejad

2010-01-01

5

77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA...regulation to increase the assumed average passenger weight value used for ballasting test buses from the...

2012-12-14

6

Discrepancies between Micellar Molecular Weights by Number-Average and Weight-Average Methods

IN recent years, light-scattering techniques have been widely used for the determination of micellar molecular weights. On the other hand, a few workers1-3 have chosen to make such determinations through measurement of colligative properties, in particular, by measurement of the lowering of the vapour pressure.

Paul Becher

1965-01-01

7

26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1.989(b)-1 Section...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989...the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average...

2010-04-01

8

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period...regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle weights. The purpose of this...

2011-05-19

9

Weighted average finite difference methods for fractional diffusion equations

A class of finite difference methods for solving fractional diffusion equations is considered. These methods are an extension of the weighted average methods for ordinary (non-fractional) diffusion equations. Their accuracy is of order (?x)2 and ?t, except for the fractional version of the Crank–Nicholson method, where the accuracy with respect to the timestep is of order (?t)2 if a second-order

S. B. Yuste

2006-01-01

10

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0625-AA87 Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin...is requesting comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin...comparisons. Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping...

2010-12-28

11

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0625-AA87 Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin...Register requesting comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin...Register requesting comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping...

2011-02-01

12

Geometric-arithmetic averaging of dyadic weights, and multi-parameter Harmonic Analysis.

??This thesis consists of two independent parts:Chapter 1, Geometric-arithmetic averaging of dyadic weights. 'Geometric-arithmetic averaging' is an averaging process which constructs Muckenhoupt weights from dyadic… (more)

Xiao, Xiao

2011-01-01

13

47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital....

2010-10-01

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Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

Warrens, Matthijs J.

2011-01-01

15

76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...time), or (3) declining to test a bus that exceeds its GAWR...determined that declining to test a vehicle whose GVW exceeds...120-27E, ``Aircraft Weight and Balance Control,'' June 10, 2005...structural integrity portions of the test. Grandfathering Similar...

2011-03-14

16

Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C for the different gauges. To test the model, the average water temperature was estimated at the six locations within the Sonoma Valley not used in the calibration. For each water temperature record, the prior area dependent weighting factor was used. Regional maximum and minimum air temperature data were then used to estimate the average stream water temperature over the period of recorded water temperature. The average error between model-estimated and observed water temperature for the additional locations in the Sonoma Valley ranged from 0.7 °C to 3.5 °C. The model estimated water temperature for gauges with upstream drainage area less than 50 km2 had average error between estimated and observed water temperature less than 1.7 °C. When upstream drainage area was greater than 50 km2, the average error increased up to 3.5°C for some gauge locations. The model could also estimate water temperature in streams in other basins using the same area-dependent weighting factor. For eighteen gauges in the Napa Valley to the east , the average error between estimated and observed water temperature ranged from 0.7 °C to 1.9 °C, while for four gauges in the Russian River Valley to the northwest, the average error ranged from 1.2 °C to 3.2 °C. We speculate the area-dependent weighting factor reflects the temperature of groundwater contributions to stream flow.

Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

2012-12-01

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When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cek resolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steven B.

2013-07-23

18

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

2013-01-01

19

Composition of the Atmosphere Average molecular weight = 28.97 g/mole

westerlies in SH less pole-ward flow in SH, cold Antarctic atm #12;3-Cell Model (Hadley, Ferrel, and Polar Cells): Circulation in 3 cells controlled by heating at Eq. cooling at poles Â· Hadley Cell Winds AloftComposition of the Atmosphere Average molecular weight = 28.97 g/mole #12;#12;Global Circulation

Weber, Rodney

20

A Gradient Based Weighted Averaging Method for Estimation of Fingerprint Orientation Fields

A Gradient Based Weighted Averaging Method for Estimation of Fingerprint Orientation Fields Yi Wang of orientation fields is an essential module in a fingerprint recognition system. Conventional gradient based with other gradient based methods. 1. Introduction Fingerprints are constructed by ridges and furrows

Hu, Jiankun

21

Estimation of the global average temperature with optimally weighted point gauges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the minimum mean squared error (MSE) incurred in estimating an idealized Earth's global average temperature with a finite network of point gauges located over the globe. We follow the spectral MSE formalism given by North et al. (1992) and derive the optimal weights for N gauges in the problem of estimating the Earth's global average temperature. Our results suggest that for commonly used configurations the variance of the estimate due to sampling error can be reduced by as much as 50%.

Hardin, James W.; Upson, Robert B.

1993-01-01

22

Model Averaging Methods for Weight Trimming in Generalized Linear Regression Models

In sample surveys where units have unequal probabilities of inclusion, associations between the inclusion probability and the statistic of interest can induce bias in unweighted estimates. This is true even in regression models, where the estimates of the population slope may be biased if the underlying mean model is misspecified or the sampling is nonignorable. Weights equal to the inverse of the probability of inclusion are often used to counteract this bias. Highly disproportional sample designs have highly variable weights; weight trimming reduces large weights to a maximum value, reducing variability but introducing bias. Most standard approaches are ad hoc in that they do not use the data to optimize bias-variance trade-offs. This article uses Bayesian model averaging to create “data driven” weight trimming estimators. We extend previous results for linear regression models (Elliott 2008) to generalized linear regression models, developing robust models that approximate fully-weighted estimators when bias correction is of greatest importance, and approximate unweighted estimators when variance reduction is critical. PMID:23275683

Elliott, Michael R.

2012-01-01

23

A simple, easy-to-use graphical method is presented for use in determining if there is any statistically significant trend or pattern over time in an underlying Poisson event rate of occurrence or binomial failure on demand probability. The method is based on the combined use of both an exponentially weighted moving-average (EWMA) and a Shewhart chart. Two nuclear power plant examples

Harry F. Martz; Paul H. Kvam

1996-01-01

24

High prolificacy of sows and increased fetal survival lead to greater incidence of intrauterine crowding (IUC), which may then affect pre- and postnatal development of the progeny. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of IUC, using unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized gilts (UHO), on organ and muscle development of their progeny at birth. In the study, 7 UHO and 7 intact control (Con) Swiss Large White gilts were used. At farrowing, if available, 3 male and 3 female progeny with a low (>0.8 and <1.2 kg), medium (>1.2 and <1.4 kg), and high (>1.6 kg) birth weight (BtW) were killed. Internal organs and brain were weighed, and semitendinosus (STN), psoas major (PM), and rhomboideus (RH) muscles were collected. Histological analyses were performed in PM, RH, and STN (dark and light portion) using myofibrillar ATPase staining after preincubation at pH 10.3. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) polymorphism was determined in the PM using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Despite that only one-half of the uterine space was available, litter size was smaller (P < 0.01) only by 35% in UHO compared with Con gilts. However, UHO progeny tended (P = 0.06) to be lighter than Con progeny. The average BtW of the selected piglets did not differ (P = 0.17) between the 2 sow groups, whereas PM and kidneys tended to be lighter (P < 0.07) in UHO than in Con progeny. Compared with Con progeny, the PM and the STN(dark) of UHO progeny had fewer (P ? 0.05) secondary and total myofibers as well as fewer (P = 0.10) primary myofibers in the PM. In the RH, the secondary-to-primary myofiber ratio was smaller (P < 0.01) in UHO than in Con progeny, whereas the total number of myofibers did not (P = 0.96) differ. The relative abundance of fetal MyHC was less (P = 0.02) and that of type I MyHC tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in UHO than in Con offspring. With increasing BtW, organ and brain weights increased (P < 0.01). Muscle cross-sectional area and total number of myofibers in the light portion of the STN were greater (P < 0.05) in high and medium than in low piglets. In conclusion, IUC reduced hyperplasia of secondary and total myofibers in the STN(dark) and PM. These effects were independent of the BtW and sex. PMID:20562364

Bérard, J; Pardo, C E; Béthaz, S; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

2010-10-01

25

Depth perception involves combining multiple, possibly conflicting, sensory measurements to estimate the 3D structure of the viewed scene. Previous work has shown that the perceptual system combines measurements using a statistically optimal weighted average. However, the system should only combine measurements when they come from the same source. We asked whether the brain avoids combining measurements when they differ from one another: that is, whether the system is robust to outliers. To do this, we investigated how two slant cues—binocular disparity and texture gradients—influence perceived slant as a function of the size of the conflict between the cues. When the conflict was small, we observed weighted averaging. When the conflict was large, we observed robust behavior: perceived slant was dictated solely by one cue, the other being rejected. Interestingly, the rejected cue was either disparity or texture, and was not necessarily the more variable cue. We modeled the data in a probabilistic framework, and showed that weighted averaging and robustness are predicted if the underlying likelihoods have heavier tails than Gaussians. We also asked whether observers had conscious access to the single-cue estimates when they exhibited robustness and found they did not, i.e. they completely fused despite the robust percepts. PMID:19761341

Girshick, Ahna R.; Banks, Martin S.

2010-01-01

26

Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined

A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly including the graph itself. In the case of phylogenetic trees, distances between extant species are frequently used to infer the phylogenetic trees by methods such as neighbor-joining. This paper proposes a tree-average distance for networks more general than trees. The notion requires a weight on each arc measuring the genetic change along the arc. For each displayed tree the distance between two leaves is the sum of the weights along the path joining them. At a hybrid vertex, each character is inherited from one of its parents. We will assume that for each hybrid there is a probability that the inheritance of a character is from a specified parent. Assume that the inheritance events at different hybrids are independent. Then for each displayed tree there will be a probability that the inheritance of a given character follows the tree; this probability may be interpreted as the probability of the tree. The tree-average distance between the leaves is defined to be the expected value of their distance in the displayed trees. For a class of rooted networks that includes rooted trees, it is shown that the weights and the probabilities at each hybrid vertex can be calculated given the network and the tree-average distances between the leaves. Hence these weights and probabilities are uniquely determined. The hypotheses on the networks include that hybrid vertices have indegree exactly 2 and that vertices that are not leaves have a tree-child. PMID:22587565

2012-01-01

27

Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents. PMID:19200083

Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

2009-01-01

28

Purpose Multiexponential decay parameters are estimated from diffusion-weighted-imaging that generally have inherently low signal-to-noise ratio and non-normal noise distributions, especially at high b-values. Conventional nonlinear regression algorithms assume normally distributed noise, introducing bias into the calculated decay parameters and potentially affecting their ability to classify tumors. This study aims to accurately estimate noise of averaged diffusion-weighted-imaging, to correct the noise induced bias, and to assess the effect upon cancer classification. Methods A new adaptation of the median-absolute-deviation technique in the wavelet-domain, using a closed form approximation of convolved probability-distribution-functions, is proposed to estimate noise. Nonlinear regression algorithms that account for the underlying noise (maximum probability) fit the biexponential/stretched exponential decay models to the diffusion-weighted signal. A logistic-regression model was built from the decay parameters to discriminate benign from metastatic neck lymph nodes in 40 patients. Results The adapted median-absolute-deviation method accurately predicted the noise of simulated (R2?=?0.96) and neck diffusion-weighted-imaging (averaged once or four times). Maximum probability recovers the true apparent-diffusion-coefficient of the simulated data better than nonlinear regression (up to 40%), whereas no apparent differences were found for the other decay parameters. Conclusions Perfusion-related parameters were best at cancer classification. Noise-corrected decay parameters did not significantly improve classification for the clinical data set though simulations show benefit for lower signal-to-noise ratio acquisitions. PMID:23913479

Dikaios, Nikolaos; Punwani, Shonit; Hamy, Valentin; Purpura, Pierpaolo; Rice, Scott; Forster, Martin; Mendes, Ruheena; Taylor, Stuart; Atkinson, David

2014-01-01

29

Calculation of weighted averages approach for the estimation of ping tolerance values

A biotic index was created and proposed as a tool to assess water quality in the Upper Mae Ping sub-watersheds. The Ping biotic index was calculated by utilizing Ping tolerance values. This paper presents the calculation of Ping tolerance values of the collected macroinvertebrates. Ping tolerance values were estimated by a weighted averages approach based on the abundance of macroinvertebrates and six chemical constituents that include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate. Ping tolerance values range from 0 to 10. Macroinvertebrates assigned a 0 are very sensitive to organic pollution while macroinvertebrates assigned 10 are highly tolerant to pollution.

Silalom, S.; Carter, J.L.; Chantaramongkol, P.

2010-01-01

30

Equating of Subscores and Weighted Averages under the NEAT Design. Research Report. ETS RR-11-01

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the literature has seen increasing interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic values; for example, one study suggested the report of weighted averages of a subscore and the total score, whereas others showed, for various operational and simulated data sets, that weighted averages, as compared to subscores, lead to more accurate…

Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby

2011-01-01

31

Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.

Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal

2013-04-01

32

-weighted average exposure to 85 decibels or greater can have unfavorable effects on hearing. The Hearing Conservation Program has been designed to reduce hearing loss at the College of Agricultural Sciences about hearing and its loss are likely to use hearing protection. Prior to working in a noisy area

33

Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. PMID:25136677

Merigó, José M.

2014-01-01

34

A Weight-Averaged Interpolation Method for Coupling Time-Accurate Rarefied and Continuum Flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach to coupling rarefied and continuum flow regimes as a single, hybrid model is introduced. The method borrows from techniques used in the simulation of spray flows to interpolate Lagrangian point-particles onto an Eulerian grid in a weight-averaged sense. A brief overview of traditional methods for modeling both rarefied and continuum domains is given, and a review of the literature regarding rarefied/continuum flow coupling is presented. Details of the theoretical development of the method of weighted interpolation are then described. The method evaluates macroscopic properties at the nodes of a CFD grid via the weighted interpolation of all simulated molecules in a set surrounding the node. The weight factor applied to each simulated molecule is the inverse of the linear distance between it and the given node. During development, the method was applied to several preliminary cases, including supersonic flow over an airfoil, subsonic flow over tandem airfoils, and supersonic flow over a backward facing step; all at low Knudsen numbers. The main thrust of the research centered on the time-accurate expansion of a rocket plume into a near-vacuum. The method proves flexible enough to be used with various flow solvers, demonstrated by the use of Fluent as the continuum solver for the preliminary cases and a NASA-developed Large Eddy Simulation research code, WRLES, for the full lunar model. The method is applicable to a wide range of Mach numbers and is completely grid independent, allowing the rarefied and continuum solvers to be optimized for their respective domains without consideration of the other. The work presented demonstrates the validity, and flexibility of the method of weighted interpolation as a novel concept in the field of hybrid flow coupling. The method marks a significant divergence from current practices in the coupling of rarefied and continuum flow domains and offers a kernel on which to base an ongoing field of research. It has the potential to significantly increase the flexibility of hybrid rarefied/continuum flow analyses.

Diaz, Steven William

35

Conductivity image enhancement in MREIT using adaptively weighted spatial averaging filter

Background In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we reconstruct conductivity images using magnetic flux density data induced by externally injected currents. Since we extract magnetic flux density data from acquired MR phase images, the amount of measurement noise increases in regions of weak MR signals. Especially for local regions of MR signal void, there may occur excessive amounts of noise to deteriorate the quality of reconstructed conductivity images. In this paper, we propose a new conductivity image enhancement method as a postprocessing technique to improve the image quality. Methods Within a magnetic flux density image, the amount of noise varies depending on the position-dependent MR signal intensity. Using the MR magnitude image which is always available in MREIT, we estimate noise levels of measured magnetic flux density data in local regions. Based on the noise estimates, we adjust the window size and weights of a spatial averaging filter, which is applied to reconstructed conductivity images. Without relying on a partial differential equation, the new method is fast and can be easily implemented. Results Applying the novel conductivity image enhancement method to experimental data, we could improve the image quality to better distinguish local regions with different conductivity contrasts. From phantom experiments, the estimated conductivity values had 80% less variations inside regions of homogeneous objects. Reconstructed conductivity images from upper and lower abdominal regions of animals showed much less artifacts in local regions of weak MR signals. Conclusion We developed the fast and simple method to enhance the conductivity image quality by adaptively adjusting the weights and window size of the spatial averaging filter using MR magnitude images. Since the new method is implemented as a postprocessing step, we suggest adopting it without or with other preprocessing methods for application studies where conductivity contrast is of primary concern. PMID:24970640

2014-01-01

36

Fusion of pan-tropical biomass maps using weighted averaging and regional calibration data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass is a key environmental variable that influences many biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Recently, a number of biomass maps at national, regional and global scales have been produced using different approaches with a variety of input data, such as from field observations, remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets. However, the accuracy of these maps varies regionally and is largely unknown. This research proposes a fusion method to increase the accuracy of regional biomass estimates by using higher-quality calibration data. In this fusion method, the biases in the source maps were first adjusted to correct for over- and underestimation by comparison with the calibration data. Next, the biomass maps were combined linearly using weights derived from the variance-covariance matrix associated with the accuracies of the source maps. Because each map may have different biases and accuracies for different land use types, the biases and fusion weights were computed for each of the main land cover types separately. The conceptual arguments are substantiated by a case study conducted in East Africa. Evaluation analysis shows that fusing multiple source biomass maps may produce a more accurate map than when only one biomass map or unweighted averaging is used.

Ge, Yong; Avitabile, Valerio; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Wang, Jianghao; Herold, Martin

2014-09-01

37

Fine-mapping using the weighted average method for a case-control study.

We present a new method for fine-mapping a disease susceptibility locus using a case-control design. The new method, termed the weighted average (WA) statistic, averages the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test statistic and the difference between the Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium test statistic for cases and controls (the HWD trend). The main characteristics of the WA statistic are that it improves on the weaknesses, and maintains the strengths, of both the CA trend test and the HWD trend test. Data from three different populations in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW14) simulated dataset (Aipotu, Karangar, and Danacaa) were first subjected to model-free linkage analysis to find regions exhibiting linkage. Then, for fine-scale mapping, 140 SNPs within the significant linkage regions were analyzed with the WA test statistic on replicates of the three populations, both separately and combined. The regions that were significant in the multipoint linkage analysis were also significant in this fine-scale mapping. The most significant regions that were obtained using the WA statistic were regions in chromosome 3 (B03T3056-B03T3058, p-value < 1 x 10(-10)) and chromosome 9 (B09T8332-B09T8334, p-value 1 x 10(-6)). Based on the results of the simulated GAW14 data, the WA test statistic showed good performance and could narrow down the region containing the susceptibility locus. However, the strength of the signal depends on both the strength of the linkage disequilibrium and the heterozygosity of the linked marker. PMID:16451680

Song, Kijoung; Orloff, Mohammed S; Lu, Qing; Elston, Robert C

2005-01-01

38

Theoretical and empirical analysis of the average cross-sectional areas of breakup fragments

This paper compares two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional area of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second approach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University

T. Hanada; J.-C. Liou

2011-01-01

39

A molluscan analogue dataset is presented in conjunction with a weighted-averaging technique as a tool for estimating past salinity patterns in south Florida’s estuaries and developing targets for restoration based on these reconstructions. The method, here referred to as cumulative weighted percent (CWP), was tested using modern surficial samples collected in Florida Bay from sites located near fixed water monitoring stations that record salinity. The results were calibrated using species weighting factors derived from examining species occurrence patterns. A comparison of the resulting calibrated species-weighted CWP (SW-CWP) to the observed salinity at the water monitoring stations averaged over a 3-year time period indicates, on average, the SW-CWP comes within less than two salinity units of estimating the observed salinity. The SW-CWP reconstructions were conducted on a core from near the mouth of Taylor Slough to illustrate the application of the method.

Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.

2012-01-01

40

Uncertainty and variability in historical time-weighted average exposure data.

Beginning around 1940, private companies began processing of uranium and thorium ore, compounds, and metals for the Manhattan Engineer District and later the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Personnel from the AEC's Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL) visited many of the plants to assess worker exposures to radiation and radioactive materials. They developed a time-and-task approach to estimating "daily weighted average" (DWA) concentrations of airborne uranium, thorium, radon, and radon decay products. While short-term exposures greater than 10(5) dpm m(-3) of uranium and greater than 10(5) pCi L(-1) of radon were observed, DWA concentrations were much lower. The HASL-reported DWA values may be used as inputs for dose reconstruction in support of compensation decisions, but they have no numerical uncertainties associated with them. In this work, Monte Carlo methods are used retrospectively to assess the uncertainty and variability in the DWA values for 63 job titles from five different facilities that processed U, U ore, Th, or 226Ra-222Rn between 1948 and 1955. Most groups of repeated air samples are well described by lognormal distributions. Combining samples associated with different tasks often results in a reduction of the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the DWA to less than those GSD values typical of individual tasks. Results support the assumption of a GSD value of 5 when information on uncertainty in DWA exposures is unavailable. Blunders involving arithmetic, transposition, and transcription are found in many of the HASL reports. In 5 out of the 63 cases, these mistakes result in overestimates of DWA values by a factor of 2 to 2.5, and in 2 cases DWA values are underestimated by factors of 3 to 10. PMID:18188049

Davis, Adam J; Strom, Daniel J

2008-02-01

41

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain×Large White and Duroc×Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as "negative or low" (<10(4.3) PCV2 genome copies/ml of serum), "medium" (?10(4.3) to ?10(5.3)) and "high" (>10(5.3)). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean±typical error) for "negative or low", "medium" and "high" AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672±9, 650±12 and 603±16g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia. PMID:25448444

López-Soria, S; Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; Calsamiglia, M; Manzanilla, E G; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Mínguez, A; Serrano, J M; Marín, O; Joisel, F; Charreyre, C; Segalés, J

2014-12-01

42

Weighted averaging regression and calibration form a simple, yet powerful method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages. Based on the concepts of niche-space partitioning and ecological optima of species (indicator values), it performs well with noisy, species-rich data that cover a long ecological gradient (>3 SD units). Partial least squares regression is a linear method for multivariate calibration that

Cajo J. F. Braak; Steve Juggins

1993-01-01

43

Objective The state of Florida has some of the most dangerous highways in the USA. In 2006, Florida averaged 1.65 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled (VMT) compared with the national average of 1.42. A study was undertaken to find a method of identifying counties that contributed to the most driver fatalities after a motor vehicle collision (MVC). By regionalising interventions unique to this subset of counties, the use of resources would have the greatest potential of improving statewide driver death. Methods The Florida Highway Safety Motor Vehicle database 2000–2006 was used to calculate driver VMT-weighted deaths by county. A total of 3 468 326 motor vehicle crashes were evaluated. Counties that had driver death rates higher than the state average were sorted by a weighted averages method. Multivariate regression was used to calculate the likelihood of death for various risk factors. Results VMT-weighted death rates identified 12 out of 67 counties that contributed up to 50% of overall driver fatalities. These counties were primarily clustered in central and south Florida. The strongest independent risk factors for driver death attributable to MVC in these high-risk counties were alcohol/drug use, rural roads, speed limit ?45 mph, adverse weather conditions, divided highways, vehicle type, vehicle defects and roadway location. Conclusions Using the weighted averages method, a small subset of counties contributing to the majority of statewide driver fatalities was identified. Regionalised interventions on specific risk factors in these counties may have the greatest impact on reducing driver-related MVC fatalities. PMID:21685144

Kim, Tad; Rivara, Frederick P; Mozingo, David W; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Harris, Zachary B; Casella, George; Liu, Huazhi; Moldawer, Lyle L; Efron, Philip A; Ang, Darwin N

2015-01-01

44

Quantum Black Hole Wave Packet: Average Area Entropy and Temperature Dependent Width

A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the average mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's area entropy is formulated using the $\\langle \\text{mass}^2 \\rangle$ average, leaving the $\\langle \\text{mass} \\rangle$ average to set the Hawking temperature. The width function peaks at the Planck scale for an elementary (zero entropy, zero free energy) micro black hole of finite rms size, and decreases Doppler-like towards the classical limit.

Aharon Davidson; Ben Yellin

2014-06-26

45

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify area-average evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in area-average evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and area-average evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on average, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.

Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.

2009-12-01

46

High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

1993-01-01

47

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is involved in numerous environmental processes, and its molecular size is important in many of these processes, such as DOM bioavailability, DOM sorptive capacity, and the formation of disinfection byproducts during water treatment. The size and size distribution of the molecules composing DOM remains an open question. In this contribution, an indirect method to assess the average size of DOM is described, which is based on the reaction of hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) quenching by DOM. HO(•) is often assumed to be relatively unselective, reacting with nearly all organic molecules with similar rate constants. Literature values for HO(•) reaction with organic molecules were surveyed to assess the unselectivity of DOM and to determine a representative quenching rate constant (k(rep) = 5.6 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). This value was used to assess the average molecular weight of various humic and fulvic acid isolates as model DOM, using literature HO(•) quenching constants, kC,DOM. The results obtained by this method were compared with previous estimates of average molecular weight. The average molecular weight (Mn) values obtained with this approach are lower than the Mn measured by other techniques such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), and flow field fractionation (FFF). This suggests that DOM is an especially good quencher for HO(•), reacting at rates close to the diffusion-control limit. It was further observed that humic acids generally react faster than fulvic acids. The high reactivity of humic acids toward HO(•) is in line with the antioxidant properties of DOM. The benefit of this method is that it provides a firm upper bound on the average molecular weight of DOM, based on the kinetic limits of the HO(•) reaction. The results indicate low average molecular weight values, which is most consistent with the recent understanding of DOM. A possible DOM size distribution is discussed to reconcile the small nature of DOM with the large-molecule behavior observed in other studies. PMID:25222517

Appiani, Elena; Page, Sarah E; McNeill, Kristopher

2014-10-21

48

Average coherence image derived observations over an urban area: the case of Athens city

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study coherence observations, in relation to the land-cover type, obtained using 20 C-band ERS SAR Single Look Complex (SLC) VV-polarization images acquired in descending mode over the metropolitan area of Athens covering the period 1992-1999 are presented. A straightforward approach using a single master SAR image on which the other images are mapped was adopted ensuring perfect registration of the interferometric results. After generating single coherence images, with temporal separation varying between 138 and 1335 days, an averaging procedure followed leading to the average coherence image. In order to identify and statistically interpret the properties of selected land cover types in terms of average degree of coherence, very high resolution QuickBird imagery was downloaded from Google Earth environment. The final geocoding of the average coherence image has been improved using common features in the coherence image and the very high-resolution QuickBird image. Overlay of coherence product on the QuickBird image allows correlating the level of coherence with characteristics and properties of the urban shell. As urban areas are considered of high coherence, observations of this type permit to investigate and evaluate their phase stability in details.

Parcharidis, I.; Foumelis, M.; Kourkouli, P.

2007-10-01

49

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

2006-10-01

50

Time-weighted average sampling of airborne n-valeraldehyde by a solid-phase microextration device.

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a time-weighted average sampler for n-valeraldehyde. The SPME device was first modified to improve the wearer's acceptance as a passive sampler. Then a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-divinylbenzene fiber was used and O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) was loaded onto the fiber. Vapors of known concentrations around the threshold limit values time-weighted average of n-valeraldehyde and specific relative humidities (RHs) were generated by syringe pumps in a dynamic generation system. n-Valeraldehyde vapors in gas bags were also generated. An exposure chamber was designed to allow measurement of face velocities, temperatures, exposing vapor concentrations, and RHs. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was used for sample analysis. The appropriate adsorption time for SPME coating PFBHA was determined to be 2 min and the desorption time for oxime formed after sampling was optimized to be 2 min. The experimental sampling constant was found to be (3.86+/-0.13) x 10(-2) cm3/min and face velocity was not expect to have effect on the sampler. PMID:12058903

Tsai, S W; Chang, T A

2002-04-19

51

Quantum black hole wave packet: Average area entropy and temperature dependent width

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the average mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's area entropy is formulated using the

Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

2014-09-01

52

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of determination of cross-link density ( ?e) of hydrogels by using swelling tests and mechanical measurements has been made. Poly(acrylamide/methacrylamide) P(AAm/MAAm) and poly(acrylamide/hydroxyethyl methacrylate) P(AAm/HEMA) hydrogels were prepared by using gamma rays and used as model hydrogel systems. The uniaxial compression test was applied to cylindrical gel samples in the swollen state at pH 7. Stress-strain curves of hydrogels were evaluated to calculate the shear modulus values. The average molecular weight between cross-links (M) and ?e obtained from mechanical measurements were significantly different than the values obtained from swelling experiments. Large differences were attributed to the uncertainty on the value of the ? parameter used in the Flory-Rehner equation. ±1% change in this parameter doubled or reduced the M value of hydrogel to half value.

Mahmudi, Naim; ?en, Murat; Rendevski, Stojan; Güven, Olgun

2007-12-01

53

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-dimensional flow field generated by the passage of a shock wave in a rigid, thermoelastic porous foam has been simulated using a two-phase mathematical model. The work presented here makes use of the weighted average flux method to solve the system of six equations that govern the problem. Spurious oscillations are eliminated through the application of total variation diminishing limiting methods. Four different limiters were tested: van Leer, SuperA, MinA and van Albada. Numerical tests were carried out to verify the performance of each flux limiter in terms of accuracy. The results were compared to analytical and previously obtained data to assess the performance of the mathematical model. Excellent agreement was obtained.

Torrens, R.; Wrobel, L. C.

2002-11-01

54

Sapwood Area as an Estimator of Leaf Area and Foliar Weight in Cherrybark Oak and Green Ash

The relationships between foliar weight\\/leaf area and four stem dimensions (dbh, total stem cross-sectional area, total sapwood area, and current sapwood area at breast height) were investigated in two important bottomland tree species of the southern United States, cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodifolia EN.) and green ash (fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.). In all models tested and for both species, total

James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

55

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximize the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimizing the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio, we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide greater constraint on changes in the oscillation spectrum with solar activity. In addition, the analysis of the low-frequency region suggests that we have achieved a noise level that may allow us to improve estimates of the upper limit of g-mode amplitudes.

Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Hale, S. J.

2014-07-01

56

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

methodology used to estimate the percentage of wastewater effluent in an otherwise pristine water site is proposed on the basis of the weighted mean of the level of a consortium of indicator pollutants. This method considers the levels of uncertainty in the evaluation of each of the indicators in the site, potential effluent sources, and uncontaminated surroundings. A detailed demonstrative study was conducted on a site that is potentially subject to wastewater leakage. The research concentrated on several perched springs that are influenced to an unknown extent by agricultural communities. A comparison was made to a heavily contaminated site receiving wastewater effluent and surface water runoff. We investigated six springs in two nearby ridges where fecal contamination was detected in the past; the major sources of pollution in the area have since been diverted to a wastewater treatment system. We used chloride, acesulfame, and carbamazepine as domestic pollution tracers. Good correlation (R2 > 0.86) was observed between the mixing ratio predictions based on the two organic tracers (the slope of the linear regression was 1.05), whereas the chloride predictions differed considerably. This methodology is potentially useful, particularly for cases in which detailed hydrological modeling is unavailable but in which quantification of wastewater penetration is required. We demonstrate that the use of more than one tracer for estimation of the mixing ratio reduces the combined uncertainty level associated with the estimate and can also help to disqualify biased tracers.

Gasser, Guy; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Glazman, Hillel; Lev, Ovadia

2014-05-01

57

A computer program for reconstructing environmental variables (e.g. lake-water pH) from fossil assemblages (e.g. diatoms) by weighted averaging regression and calibration is described. The estimation of sample-specific errors of prediction by bootstrapping is outlined. The program runs on IBM-compatible personal computers.

J. M. Line; Cajo J. E ter Braak; H. J. B. Birks

1994-01-01

58

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

59

Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

60

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

2007-01-01

61

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While research has shown the statistical significance of high school grade point averages (HSGPAs) in predicting future academic outcomes, the systems with which HSGPAs are calculated vary drastically across schools. Some schools employ unweighted grades that carry the same point value regardless of the course in which they are earned; other…

Warne, Russell T.; Nagaishi, Chanel; Slade, Michael K.; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Peck, Elizabeth Kimberli

2014-01-01

62

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Honors and advanced placement (AP) courses are commonly viewed as more demanding than standard high school offerings. Schools employ a range of methods to account for such differences when calculating grade point average and the associated rank in class for graduating students. In turn, these statistics have a sizeable impact on college admission…

Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

2007-01-01

63

The U. S. residential landscape is increasingly multi-racial and multi-ethnic, giving rise to the question of how to compare dichotomous segregation among multiple groups living in the same area. To address the problem in the existing dichotomous approach, which offers no common basis for comparing dichotomous segregation among multiple groups, this paper develops a weighted segregation ratio approach based on Theil's segregation index and its additive decomposability. This approach can be used to bridge information obtained from dichotomous segregation between specific groups (such as black-white and black-Hispanic), and dichotomous segregation between group and non-group (such as white-non-white and black-non-black) in previous studies. We apply both dichotomous and weighted segregation ratio approaches to 1990 and 2000 U. S. census data. Results are interpreted for five selected metropolitan areas as well as for the weighted national average. This new approach yields distinctive findings that portray the complicated process of residential segregation, including the increasing significance of Hispanic segregation and Asian segregation in the decade from 1990 to 2000.

Hao, Lingxin; Fong, Eric

2014-01-01

64

Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

Young, Beverly S.

65

Area-Averaged Fluxes from Field to Kilometer Scale with Optical and Microwave Scintillometers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometry has proven to be a suitable method to obtain surface fluxes over heterogeneous areas over spatial scales of up to 10 km. We will present two of many field-studies conducted by the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of Wageningen University to illustrate this point. Different scintillometer types have been tested. Optical scintillometers yield the structure parameter of temperature, CT2, for long-path Large Aperture Scintillometers (LAS) and both CT2 and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, e, for short-path laser scintillometers. CT2 and e are related to the surface fluxes of heat, H, and momentum, t, by virtue of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. For the LAS - that provides CT2 only - t is obtained from additional wind speed measurements and an estimate of the roughness length. An optical scintillometer in combination with a millimeter-wave scintillometer (MWS) yields both CT2 and Cq2, the structure parameter of humidity, from which the sensible and the latent heat flux can be determined. The following two scintillometer field experiments will be discussed: EVAGRIPS, Lindenberg, Germany 2003. This study deals with a LAS and a MWS (94 GHz) installed over path length of 5 km at 45 m height over a heterogeneous flat agricultural terrain consisting of a mix of lakes, forest and agriculture fields over undulating terrain. The concept of an effective scintillometer height will be introduced, which needs to be applied when the scintillometer height is not constant over the path. RAPID, Idaho, USA, 1999. This study deals with the estimation of evapotranspiration using a LAS and laser scintillometer installed at field scale (~500m) over irrigated alfalfa in an area affected by advection of warm and dry desert air. In these conditions the sensible heat becomes negative and the water vapor deficit is increased, both enhancing evapotranspiration. References: De Bruin, H.A.R.: 2002, 'Introduction, renaissance of scintillometry', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 105, 1-4. De Bruin, H.A.R., Hartogensis, O.K., Allen, R.G., and Kramer, J.W.J.L., 2004: 'Note on the Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment', Theor. Appl. Climatol. 80, 143-152. Hartogensis, O.K., De Bruin, H.A.R., Van De Wiel, B.J.H.: 2002, 'Displaced-Beam Small Aperture Scintillometer Test. Part II: Cases-99 Stable Boundary-Layer Experiment', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 105, 149-176. Meijninger, W.M.L.; Beyrich, F.; Lüdi, A.; Kohsiek, W.; De Bruin, H.A.R.: 2005, 'Scintillometer-Based Turbulent Fluxes of Sensible and Latent Heat Over a Heterogeneous Land Surface : a Contribution to Litfass-2003 Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 121, 89-110.

Hartogensis, O. K.; de Bruin, H. A.; Meijninger, W. M.; Kohsiek, W.; Beyrich, F.; Moene, A. F.

2007-12-01

66

The field efficacy and safety of a single-dose inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine, Suvaxyn MH-One, was evaluated in 4-5-day-old piglets on a commercial farm with a history of Mycoplasma disease in Southern Germany. The piglets were injected intramuscularly with the vaccine or saline (control group) and raised under commercial conditions to slaughter weight. The efficacy of the vaccine was determined by comparing the lung lesions associated with infection by M. hyopneumoniae in control and vaccinated pigs post mortem. In this analysis the vaccinated pigs had the lower mean percentage lung lesion at 5% compared to 9% in controls. Of the vaccinated pigs 52.3% were shown to have low levels of lung lesions between 0% and 5% and no more than 5.4% were shown to have levels above 20%. In contrast, the pigs administered saline showed 36.5% in the lower category (0-5%), while 18.3% showed lesions greater than 20%. There were significant differences in the mean body weight of pigs at the final two weight measurements at approximately 21 weeks and 26 weeks of age, with those receiving Suvaxyn MH-One being on average 5 kg heavier at each time point. There was also a significant increase in average daily gain in the vaccinated animals compared to the control group, particularly in the period from vaccination to the final two body weight measurements on day 138 and 166, from weaning at day 28 to the final two body measurements and from mid-way during finishing at day 84 to the final two body weight measurements. Vaccination had no adverse impact on appetite, although small numbers of vaccinated and control pigs did show mild signs of coughing, sneezing, respiratory distress or depression. There was no adverse impact on rectal temperatures and no signs of injection site reactions during the course of the study. We can conclude that vaccination with Suvaxyn MH-One to pigs at less than 1 week of age is effective in reducing lung lesions resulting from M. hyopneumoniae and also aids growth performance by reducing weight losses and improving average daily gain. PMID:23084853

Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Taylor, Lucas; Zimmermann, Lisa; Heinritzi, Karl; Ritzmann, Mathias; Banholzer, Elisabeth; Eddicks, Matthias

2012-12-14

67

This paper presents a GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approach for evaluating the suitability for landfill site selection in the Polog Region, Macedonia. The multi-criteria decision framework considers environmental and economic factors which are standardized by fuzzy membership functions and combined by integration of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and ordered weighted average (OWA) techniques. The AHP is used for the elicitation of attribute weights while the OWA operator function is used to generate a wide range of decision alternatives for addressing uncertainty associated with interaction between multiple criteria. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by different OWA scenarios that report landfill suitability on a scale between 0 and 1. The OWA scenarios are intended to quantify the level of risk taking (i.e., optimistic, pessimistic, and neutral) and to facilitate a better understanding of patterns that emerge from decision alternatives involved in the decision making process. PMID:22030279

Gorsevski, Pece V; Donevska, Katerina R; Mitrovski, Cvetko D; Frizado, Joseph P

2012-02-01

68

Mapping Human Cortical Areas in vivo Based on Myelin Content as Revealed by T1- and T2-weighted MRI

Non-invasively mapping the layout of cortical areas in humans is a continuing challenge for neuroscience. We present a new method of mapping cortical areas based on myelin content as revealed by T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. The method is generalizable across different 3T scanners and pulse sequences. We use the ratio of T1w/T2w image intensities to eliminate the MR-related image intensity bias and enhance the contrast to noise ratio for myelin. Data from each subject was mapped to the cortical surface and aligned across individuals using surface-based registration. The spatial gradient of the group average myelin map provides an observer-independent measure of sharp transitions in myelin content across the surface—i.e. putative cortical areal borders. We found excellent agreement between the gradients of the myelin maps and the gradients of published probabilistic cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas that were registered to the same surface-based atlas. For other cortical regions, we used published anatomical and functional information to make putative identifications of dozens of cortical areas or candidate areas. In general, primary and early unimodal association cortices are heavily myelinated and higher, multi-modal, association cortices are more lightly myelinated, but there are notable exceptions in the literature that are confirmed by our results. The overall pattern in the myelin maps also has important correlations with the developmental onset of subcortical white matter myelination, evolutionary cortical areal expansion in humans compared to macaques, postnatal cortical expansion in humans, and maps of neuronal density in non-human primates. PMID:21832190

Glasser, Matthew F.; Van Essen, David C.

2011-01-01

69

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the applicability of the scintillation method over a heterogeneous area an experiment was carried out in the summer of 1998 in Flevoland (The Netherlands). In the patchy area only four crops were grown namely sugar beet, potatoes, wheat and onions. From eddy covariance measurements it was found that the heterogeneity was mainly caused by differences in thermal properties. No variations in the aerodynamics roughness length were observed. Two large aperture scintillometers were installed at a height of 11.6 and 20.4 m. A good resemblance was found between the sensible heat fluxes derived from both LAS instruments and the area-averaged fluxes obtained from the in-situ eddy covariance measurements. The slight underestimation of the lower LAS could be assessed using a blending height model and an analytical footprint model. The results also indicated that when scintillometer measurements are made below the blending height the violation to Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory is small and that reasonable fluxes can be obtained from path-averaged structure parameters.

Meijninger, W. M. L.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Kohsiek, W.; et al.

70

integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average for detecting episodic or short-term pollution events (e.g. increased herbicide concentrations during a flood

Boyer, Edmond

71

Comparison of muscle cross-sectional areas between weight lifters and wrestlers.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscular development between Olympic weight lifters and wrestlers through the measurements of fat-free mass (FFM) and limb muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Subjects were college Olympic weight lifters (N = 34, age = 20.0 +/- 1.3 years, stature = 1.67 +/- 0.07 m, body mass = 70.1 +/- 10.2 kg, X +/- SD) and wrestlers (N = 33,20.3 +/- 1.2 years, 1.69 +/- 0.06 m, 71.0 +/- 1.8 kg) who had identical range of body mass. Body density and the CSAs of reciprocal muscle groups in the forearm, upper arm, lower leg and thigh were measured by underwater weighing and B-mode ultrasound methods, respectively. No significant difference was found in body density between the weight lifters (1.077 +/- 0.007 g x ml(-3)) and wrestlers (1.076 +/- 0.008 g x ml(-3)). Moreover, FFM and the CSA values of all muscle groups tested were similar in the two groups of weight-classified athletes, with an exception that the wrist flexor CSA was significantly larger in wrestlers than in weight lifters, and the knee extensor and thigh (extensors + flexors) CSAs were larger in weight lifters than in wrestlers. The total muscle CSA of every site was significantly correlated to FFM2/3 in the separate groups; r = 0.714 to 0.815 (p < 0.05) in weight lifters and r = 0.769 to 0.919 (p < 0.05) in wrestlers. While the CSA-to-FFM2/3 ratios of the upper arm and wrist flexor muscles were significantly higher in wrestlers than in weight lifters, those of the thigh and knee extensor muscles were higher in weight lifters than in wrestlers. Thus, the present results suggest that an event-related difference exists in the magnitude of limb muscle CSA between competitive weight lifters and wrestlers of similar FFM. PMID:9657367

Kanehisa, H; Ikegawa, S; Fukunaga, T

1998-05-01

72

Boosting with Averaged Weight Vectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the previous base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. Some researchers have pointed out the intuition that it is probably better to construct a distribution that is orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous base models, but that this is not always possible. We present an algorithm that attempts to come as close as possible to this goal in an efficient manner. We present experimental results demonstrating significant improvement over AdaBoost and the Totally Corrective boosting algorithm, which also attempts to satisfy this goal.

Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

73

Costs Associated with Low Birth Weight in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is prevalent in low-income countries. Even though the economic evaluation of interventions to reduce this burden is essential to guide health policies, data on costs associated with LBW are scarce. This study aims to estimate the costs to the health system and to the household and the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) arising from infant deaths associated with LBW in Southern Mozambique. Methods and Findings Costs incurred by the households were collected through exit surveys. Health system costs were gathered from data obtained onsite and from published information. DALYs due to death of LBW babies were based on local estimates of prevalence of LBW (12%), very low birth weight (VLBW) (1%) and of case fatality rates compared to non-LBW weight babies [for LBW (12%) and VLBW (80%)]. Costs associated with LBW excess morbidity were calculated on the incremental number of hospital admissions in LBW babies compared to non-LBW weight babies. Direct and indirect household costs for routine health care were 24.12 US$ (CI 95% 21.51; 26.26). An increase in birth weight of 100 grams would lead to a 53% decrease in these costs. Direct and indirect household costs for hospital admissions were 8.50 US$ (CI 95% 6.33; 10.72). Of the 3,322 live births that occurred in one year in the study area, health system costs associated to LBW (routine health care and excess morbidity) and DALYs were 169,957.61 US$ (CI 95% 144,900.00; 195,500.00) and 2,746.06, respectively. Conclusions This first cost evaluation of LBW in a low-income country shows that reducing the prevalence of LBW would translate into important cost savings to the health system and the household. These results are of relevance for similar settings and should serve to promote interventions aimed at improving maternal care. PMID:22174885

Sicuri, Elisa; Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Macete, Eusebio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara

2011-01-01

74

MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (super)computing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

2013-12-01

75

A comparison of spatial smoothing methods for small area estimation with sampling weights.

Small area estimation (SAE) is an important endeavor in many fields and is used for resource allocation by both public health and government organizations. Often, complex surveys are carried out within areas, in which case it is common for the data to consist only of the response of interest and an associated sampling weight, reflecting the design. While it is appealing to use spatial smoothing models, and many approaches have been suggested for this endeavor, it is rare for spatial models to incorporate the weighting scheme, leaving the analysis potentially subject to bias. To examine the properties of various approaches to estimation we carry out a simulation study, looking at bias due to both non-response and non-random sampling. We also carry out SAE of smoking prevalence in Washington State, at the zip code level, using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The computation times for the methods we compare are short, and all approaches are implemented in R using currently available packages. PMID:24959396

Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Chen, Cici; Lumley, Thomas

2014-05-01

76

Looking after children means caring for very small infants up to adult-sized adolescents, with weights ranging from 500 g to more than 100 kg and heights ranging from 25 to more than 200 cm. The available echocardiographic reference data were drawn from a small sample, which did not include preterm infants. Most authors have used body weight or body surface area to predict left ventricular dimensions. The current authors had the impression that body length would be a better surrogate parameter than body weight or body surface area. They analyzed their echocardiographic database retrospectively. The analysis included all available echocardiographic data from 6 June 2001 to 15 December 2011 from their echocardiographic database. The authors included 12,086 of 26,325 subjects documented as patients with normal hearts in their analysis by the examining the pediatric cardiologist. For their analysis, they selected body weight, length, age, and aortic and pulmonary valve diameter in two-dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular dimension in M-mode. They found good correlation between echocardiographic dimensions and body surface area, body weight, and body length. The analysis showed a complex relationship between echocardiographic measurements and body weight and body surface area, whereas body length showed a linear relationship. This makes prediction of echo parameters more reliable. According to this retrospective analysis, body length is a better parameter for evaluating echocardiographic measurements than body weight or body surface area and should therefore be used in daily practice. PMID:24894894

Motz, R; Schumacher, M; Nürnberg, J; Viemann, M; Grafmüller, S; Fiedler, K; Claus, M; Kronberg, K

2014-12-01

77

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is an ongoing and complicated problem for both residents and policy makers. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the geographic source and fate of organic pollutants in a dynamic urban environment. Natural and artificial hydrophobic substrates were employed for the passive monitoring and mapping of ground-level organic pollutants in the San Francisco Bay area. We focused specifically on volatile and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds are proxies for a broad range of combustion related air pollutants derived from local, regional, and global combustion sources. PAHs include several well-studied carcinogens and can be measured easily and accurately across a broad range of concentrations. Estimates of time-integrated vapor phase and particle deposition were made from measuring accumulated PAHs in the leaves of several widely distributed tree species (including the Quercus agrifolia and Sequoia sempervirens) and an artificial wax film. Samples were designed to represent pollutant exposure over a period of one to several months. The selective sampling and analysis of hydrophobic substrates providess insight into the average geographic distribution of ground-level air pollutants in a simple and inexpensive way. However, accumulated organics do not directly correlated with human exposure and the source signature of PAHs may be obscured by transport, deposition, and flux processes. We attempted to address some of these complications by studying 1) PAH accumulation rates within substrates in a controlled microcosm, 2) differences in PAH abundance in different substrate types at the same locality, and 3) samples near long-term high volume air sampling stations. We also set out to create a map of PAH concentrations based on our measurements. This map can be directly compared with interpolated data from high-volume sampling stations and used to address questions concerning atmospheric heterogeneity of these pollutants (i.e. due to both source localization and dominant wind patterns). Our initial results indicate that exposure to PAHs in the bay area is geographically heterogeneous and individual exposure may vary by more than two orders of magnitude. The signatures of PAH contamination also varies considerably, indicating different sources and differing transportation mechanisms may be important at different sites and times.

Yu, C.; Zinniker, D. A.; Moldowan, J.

2010-12-01

78

A random sampling scheme is employed to obtain stereological estimates of disk membrane surface area in the entire retina and in the average photoreceptor cell. The scheme involves the use of vertical sections with combined light and electron microscopy at several magnification levels. Left and right retinas from six albino animals were analysed. There were no significant lateral differences. On average, the retina had a volume of 16 mm3, thickness of 200 microns and surface area of 80 mm2 (representing about 56% of the external surface of the eyeball). Photoreceptor disk membranes within outer segments amplified total retinal surface by almost 1000-fold (final surface 770 cm2 per retina). The retina contained 3 x 10(7) photoreceptors (packing density 374,000 mm-2) with an average disk membrane surface area of 2600 microns2. Mean nuclear volume in photoreceptor cells was 59 microns3 and the coefficient of variation for the distribution of nuclear volumes was 57%. The data are consistent with an average of 700 disks per photoreceptor cell, a membrane area of 4 microns2 per disk and a convergence ratio of approximately 260 photoreceptors per optic nerve fibre. The basic scheme could be modified for other species and for direct cell counts conducted on rods and cones separately. PMID:9154529

Mayhew, T M; Astle, D

1997-01-01

79

A random sampling scheme is employed to obtain stereological estimates of disk membrane surface area in the entire retina and in the average photoreceptor cell. The scheme involves the use of vertical sections with combined light and electron microscopy at several magnification levels. Left and right retinas from six albino animals were analysed. There were no significant lateral differences. On

T. M Mayhew; D Astle

1997-01-01

80

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated the effects of the average signed area (ASA) between the item characteristic curves of the reference and focal groups and three test purification procedures on the uniform differential item functioning (DIF) detection via the Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) method through Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that ASA,…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Ya-Hui

2004-01-01

81

Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085

Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru

2014-01-01

82

The phase separation of fractionated poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 was determined by silicone oil addition. Polymer fractionation by preparative size exclusion chromatography afforded five different microsphere batches. Average molecular weight determined the existence, width, and displacement of the "stability window" inside the phase diagrams, and also microsphere characteristics such as core loading and amount released over 6 hr. Further, the gyration and hydrodynamic radii were measured by light scattering. It is concluded that the polymer-solvent affinity is largely modified by the variation of average molecular weights owing to different levels of solubility. The lower the average molecular weight is, the better methylene chloride serves as a solvent for the coating material. However, a paradoxical effect due to an increase in free carboxyl and hydroxyl groups is noticed for polymers of 18,130 and 31,030 SEC (size exclusion chromatography) Mw. For microencapsulation, polymers having an intermediate molecular weight (47,250) were the most appropriate in terms of core loading and release purposes. PMID:2235892

Ruiz, J M; Busnel, J P; Benoît, J P

1990-09-01

83

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research using NASA Ames AH-1 and OH-58C helicopters, and NASA Glenn test rigs, has shown that in-flight vibration data are typically non-stationary [l-4]. The nature and extent of this non-stationarity is most likely produced by several factors operating simultaneously. The aerodynamic flight environment and pilot commands provide continuously changing inputs, with a complex dynamic response that includes automatic feedback control from the engine regulator. It would appear that the combined effects operate primarily through an induced torque profile, which causes concomitant stress modulation at the individual internal gear meshes in the transmission. This notion is supported by several analyses, which show that upwards of 93% of the vibration signal s variance can be explained by knowledge of torque alone. That this relationship is stronger in an AH-1 than an OH-58, where measured non-stationarity is greater, suggests that the overall mass of the vehicle is an important consideration. In the lighter aircraft, the unsteady aerodynamic influences transmit relatively greater unsteady dynamic forces on the mechanical components, quite possibly contributing to its greater non-stationarity . In a recent paper using OH-58C pinion data [5], the authors have shown that in computing a time synchronous average (TSA) for various single-value metric computations, an effective trade-off can be obtained between sample size and measured stationarity by using data from only a single mesh cycle. A mesh cycle, which is defined as the number of rotations required for the gear teeth to return to their original mating position, has the property of representing all of the discrete phase angles of the opposing gears exactly once in the average. Measured stationarity is probably maximized because a single mesh cycle of the pinion gear occurs over a very short span of time, during which time-dependent non-stationary effects are kept to a minimum. Clearly, the advantage of local stationarity diminishes as the temporal duration of the cycle increases. This is most evident for a planetary mesh cycle, which can take several minutes to complete.

Huff, Edward M.; Mosher, Marianne; Barszcz, Eric

2002-01-01

84

THE RELATION OF BODY WEIGHT TO BODY SURFACE AREA IN MARINE FISHES

In the course of attempting to establish a satisfactory basis for comparison of gill areas of certain marine fishes, considerable information about the body surface area has accumulated. Much has been written on the value of knowing the area of the body surface in metabolism studies and the difficulties in obtaining it. The formula most commonly used for determining surface

I. E. GRAY

85

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoseismic excavations at Mill Canyon and Arano Flat, two sites 0.6 km apart on the San Andreas fault near Watsonville, California, provide the first high-resolution chronology of large earthquakes on the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the fault. At Mill Canyon, a 2-m-wide zone of faulting has deformed latest Holocene deposits consisting of well-sorted sand and gravel interbedded with poorly sorted, commonly organic-rich debris flows ponded behind a small shutter ridge. We found evidence for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and three additional ground-rupturing earthquakes since about 1500 A.D.. Radiocarbon ages and pollen analyses indicate that the penultimate earthquake at this site occurred about 1700-1790 A.D.. This indicates that the 1838 San Francisco peninsula earthquake did not rupture this portion of the fault. At Arano Flat, faulting is expressed as a 1 to 2-m-wide zone that deforms alluvial fan deposits overlying well-bedded overbank deposits. We found evidence at this location for at least nine earthquakes since about 1000 A.D. We constrain earthquake ages using a chronological model incorporating AMS radiocarbon ages of 113 samples of detrital charcoal from 19 layers and stratigraphic ordering. The mean recurrence interval is about 105 years, while individual intervals range from about 10-310 years. Two offset features at Arano Flat provide slip-per-event and slip rate data. A partially buried channel containing bottles from 1887-1890 is offset 3.5 m. Given that we found no evidence at either site for the 1890 M 6.3 earthquake, which produced surface rupture on the San Andreas fault southeast of Parajo Gap, this entire slip may have occurred during the 1906 earthquake. This value is unexpectedly high compared to the geodetic estimate of 2.3-3.1 m for the slip at depth (Thatcher et al., 1997) or the geologic estimate of 1.7-1.8 m of surface slip at Wright's tunnel (Prentice and Ponti, 1997), about 33 km northwest of Arano Flat. A fold that formed during two earthquakes, most recently about 1400-1470 A.D., is offset about 10.5 m during the past five earthquakes. This yields a slip rate of 22.5 +/- 2 mm/yr, significantly higher than values previously used for this segment. Average slip for the four earthquakes prior to 1906 is 1.2-1.8m indicating M?7. Thus the mean recurrence interval is half the value used by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WG 03) for earthquakes of this magnitude on the Santa Cruz Mountains segment.

Fumal, T. E.; Heingartner, G. F.; Dawson, T. E.; Flowers, R.; Hamilton, J. C.; Kessler, J.; Reidy, L. M.; Samrad, L.; Seitz, G. G.; Southon, J.

2003-12-01

86

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on

Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka

2004-01-01

87

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 60995,...

2010-10-01

88

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) ER01OC10.006 ER01OC10.007...

2010-10-01

89

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 60995,...

2010-10-01

90

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) ER01OC10.000 ER01OC10.001...

2010-10-01

91

Optimal average of regional temperature with sampling error estimation

This paper presents an optimal averaging scheme that yields the area average of a climate field over a region. The scheme consists of two steps: fitting the observation data to a priori covariance functions and computing the weights for each of the observation stations. A surface air temperature dataset of 23 stations in Northeast China from 1961 to 1990 is

Samuel S. Shen; Xiaochun Wang

1997-01-01

92

In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the “sprawling” nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs. PMID:23814454

Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M.

2013-01-01

93

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

2014-10-01

94

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux-weighted average cross-sections of the natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction with the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 45, 50, 55, and 60 MeV were determined by activation and the off-line ?-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL). The natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction cross-sections as a function of the photon energy were estimated from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS 1.6 computer code. The flux-weighted average cross-sections at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 45-60MeV were obtained from the literature data and the theoretical data based on the mono-energetic photons. We found that the present data and the flux-weighted theoretical values for the natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction increase sharply from their threshold values to certain energies where other reaction channels are opened. Then, the first reaction remains constant until the second one reaches its maximum. Thereafter, the first reaction decreases slowly with an increase in the end-point bremsstrahlung energy due to the opening of different reaction channels.

Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Kwangsoo; Yang, Sung-Chul; Shahid, Muhammad; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun

2015-01-01

95

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is not an inquiry activity but will help students understand the meaning of average velocity. Students do not easily understand from a textbook that an object's velocity changes over a period of acceleration. They have difficulty understanding wh

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

96

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

1973-01-01

97

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

1973-01-01

98

Nevada's reliance on ground-water resources has increased because of increased development and surface-water resources being fully appropriated. The need to accurately quantify Nevada's water resources and water use is more critical than ever to meet future demands. Estimated ground-water pumpage, artificial and natural recharge, and interbasin flow can be used to help evaluate stresses on aquifer systems. In this report, estimates of ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge during calendar year 2000 were made using data from a variety of sources, such as reported estimates and estimates made using Landsat satellite imagery. Average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow were compiled from published reports. An estimated 1,427,100 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in Nevada during calendar year 2000. This total was calculated by summing six categories of ground-water pumpage, based on water use. Total artificial recharge during 2000 was about 145,970 acre-feet. At least one estimate of natural recharge was available for 209 of the 232 hydrographic areas (HAs). Natural recharge for the 209 HAs ranges from 1,793,420 to 2,583,150 acre-feet. Estimates of interbasin flow were available for 151 HAs. The categories and their percentage of the total ground-water pumpage are irrigation and stock watering (47 percent), mining (26 percent), water systems (14 percent), geothermal production (8 percent), self-supplied domestic (4 percent), and miscellaneous (less than 1 percent). Pumpage in the top 10 HAs accounted for about 49 percent of the total ground-water pumpage. The most ground-water pumpage in an HA was due to mining in Pumpernickel Valley (HA 65), Boulder Flat (HA 61), and Lower Reese River Valley (HA 59). Pumpage by water systems in Las Vegas Valley (HA 212) and Truckee Meadows (HA 87) were the fourth and fifth highest pumpage in 2000, respectively. Irrigation and stock watering pumpage accounted for most ground-water withdrawals in the HAs with the sixth through ninth highest pumpage. Geothermal production accounted for most pumpage in the Carson Desert (HA 101). Reinjection of ground water pumped for geothermal energy production accounted for about 64 percent (93,310 acre-feet) of the total artificial recharge. The only artificial recharge by water systems was in Las Vegas Valley, where 29,790 acre-feet of water from the Colorado River was injected into the aquifer system. Artificial recharge by mining totaled 22,870 acre-feet. Net ground-water flow was estimated only for the 143 HAs with available estimates of both natural recharge and interbasin flow. Of the 143 estimates, 58 have negative net ground-water flow, indicating that ground-water storage could be depleted if pumpage continues at the same rate. The State has designated HAs where permitted ground-water rights approach or exceed the estimated average annual recharge. Ten HAs were identified that are not designated and have a net ground-water flow between -1,000 to -35,000 acre-feet. Due to uncertainties in recharge, the water budgets for these HAs may need refining to determine if ground-water storage is being depleted.

Lopes, Thomas J.; Evetts, David M.

2004-01-01

99

Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted regression results suggest spatial variability in effects, and also indicate that some rural communities may be impacted by upstream urban discharges. Conclusions There is evidence that permitted surface water chemical discharges are related to population mortality. Toxicity weights and upstream discharges are important for understanding some mortality effects. Chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may nevertheless play a role in contributing to cancer mortality risk. Spatial models allow for the examination of geographic variability not captured through the regression models. PMID:22471926

2012-01-01

100

200 Area population weighted X/Q for the public within 10 miles of the site boundary

An overall population weighted atmospheric dispersion coefficient (X/Q) has been calculated for the public within 10 miles of the Hanford Site boundary. The Columbia river was assumed as the Hanford site boundary to the north and the east. The GXQ code was used for the calculation. The value calculated is 1.88 x 10-8 s/m 3.

Van Keuren, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-09

101

Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P??0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

2014-01-01

102

40 CFR 63.7522 - Can I use emission averaging to comply with this subpart?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this subpart. ER06DE06.001 Where: Ave Weighted Emissions = Average weighted emissions...this subpart. ER06DE06.002 Where: Ave Weighted Emissions = Average weighted emission...averaging option. ER06DE06.003 Where: Ave Weighted Emissions = monthly average...

2010-07-01

103

The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

Schoeller, Dale A

2014-07-01

104

Background\\/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) is an accepted treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of this analysis was to compare the growth response to GH in children with low birth weight born SGA or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Methods: This retrospective observational study is from one center. Of all the children with a birth

M. B. Ranke; D. D. Martin; S. Ehehalt; C. P. Schwarze; F. Serra; H. A. Wollmann; R. Schweizer

2011-01-01

105

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

Francis, Richard L.

1992-01-01

106

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

107

Kriging without negative weights

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

108

SRM is formulated: Daily average discharge (Qn+1) is the sum of

runoff coefficient (cR) Â· Discharge on the preceding day (Qn) weightedMethods SRM is formulated: Daily average discharge (Qn+1) is the sum to the total basin area and the snowmelt runoff coefficient (cS) Â· Precipita>on (P

109

Approximately 1 year after rats were seized as young adults with lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) and given acepromazine or ketamine, 18 blood measures, wet tissue weights, and detailed damage scores for 107 brain structures were completed. Compared with normal and ketamine-treated rats, acepromazine-treated seized rats (total n=54) had lighter pancreata and spleens and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase blood levels. Even though average damage did not differ, the mosaic of brain damage completely discriminated the two seized groups. Differential effects of postseizure treatment on functions of the thyroid, pancreas, and spleen were indicated. Ketamine-treated seized rats were healthier than acepromazine-treated seized rats or normal rats. This experiment demonstrates the importance of whole-organism assessment and that the single administration of a specific drug after onset of status epilepticus can produce marked differences in the evolution of brain damage and its influence on specific organs for the rest of the animal's life. PMID:19258049

George, Katherine R; Rico, Timothy; St-Pierre, Linda S; Dupont, Mathieu J; Dupont, Matthew J; Blomme, Christopher G; Mazzuchin, Angelo; Stewart, Lee S; Persinger, Michael A

2009-06-01

110

The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Chrien, R.E.

1986-10-01

111

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None; )

2005-12-11

112

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2006-06-01

113

Temperature: Decadal Averages Map

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map allows students to experiment with decadal average temperature projections. Overall temperatures are expected to rise throughout the century and this tool demonstrates those projected measurements.

Commission, California E.

114

Aggregation operators for linguistic weighted information

The aim of this paper is to model the processes of the aggregation of weighted information in a linguistic framework. Three aggregation operators of weighted linguistic information are presented: linguistic weighted disjunction operator, linguistic weighted conjunction operator, and linguistic weighted averaging operator. A study of their axiomatics is presented to demonstrate their rational aggregation

Francisco Herrera; Enrique Herrera-Viedma

1997-01-01

115

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2006-11-01

116

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on weighted Newman-Watts (NW) networks. In weighted NW networks, the link weight wij is assigned to the link between the nodes i and j as: wij = (?i · ?j)?, where ?i(?j) is the degree of node i(j) and ? represents the strength of the correlations. Obviously, the link weight can be tuned by only one parameter ?. We focus on the cooperative behavior and wealth distribution in the system. Simulation results show that the cooperator frequency is promoted by a large range of ? and there is a minimal cooperation frequency around ? = - 1. Moreover, we also employ the Gini coefficient to study the wealth distribution in the population. Numerical results show that the Gini coefficient reaches its minimum when ? approx - 1. Our work may be helpful in understanding the emergence of cooperation and unequal wealth distribution in society.

Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Hong

2009-05-01

117

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.

2005-04-21

118

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

Young, Vershawn Ashanti

2004-01-01

119

Combining remotely sensed and other measurements for hydrologic areal averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for combining measurements of hydrologic variables of various sampling geometries and measurement accuracies to produce an estimated mean areal value over a watershed and a measure of the accuracy of the mean areal value. The method provides a means to integrate measurements from conventional hydrological networks and remote sensing. The resulting areal averages can be used to enhance a wide variety of hydrological applications including basin modeling. The correlation area method assigns weights to each available measurement (point, line, or areal) based on the area of the basin most accurately represented by the measurement. The statistical characteristics of the accuracy of the various measurement technologies and of the random fields of the hydrologic variables used in the study (water equivalent of the snow cover and soil moisture) required to implement the method are discussed.

Johnson, E. R.; Peck, E. L.; Keefer, T. N.

1982-01-01

120

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

1973-01-01

121

Covariant approximation averaging

We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

Eigo Shintani; Rudy Arthur; Thomas Blum; Taku Izubuchi; Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner

2014-02-02

122

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This statistics activity requires students to find the mean using their TI-10 or TI-15 Explorer calculators. The task asks students to read part of Sideways Stories of Wayside School by Louis Sachar and find different combinations of lunches that would give an average price of $1.85. This resource includes a three-page PDF lesson plan with guiding questions, data collection page, and calculator instructions.

2008-06-09

123

The effect of Eimeria Spp. and gastrointestinal nematode infections on the live weight gain of cross bred goats managed extensively in the dry zone of Sri Lanka was studied during a rainy season (November 1997 to April 1998). Goats were divided into four groups (15 per group). Group 1 was the untreated control; Group 2 treated for Eimeria Spp. with

A. C. M. Faizal; R. P. V. J. Rajapakse; S. R. Jayasinghe; V. Rupasinghe

1999-01-01

124

Keeping a healthy weight is crucial. If you are underweight, overweight, or obese, you may have a higher risk of certain health problems. ... U.S. are overweight or obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure ...

125

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weights and measures may not be the first thing that most people wake up in the morning thinking about, but such matters are terribly important. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has created this site to provide information to concerned stakeholders about the work of their Office of Weights and Measures. The mission of the Office is to promote "uniformity in U.S. weights and measures laws, regulations, and standards to achieve equity between buyers and sellers in the marketplaces." On the right hand side of the page, visitors can look over a Resources area. Here they will find educational materials, information on the National Conference on Weights and Measures, past newsletters, and a rather fine digital exhibit that traces "the struggle to achieve weights and measures standardization" in the United States. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can learn more about price verification, packaging and labeling, and the metric system.

2012-05-18

126

Objective:To estimate variation between small areas in adult body mass index (BMI), and assess the importance of area level socioeconomic disadvantage in predicting BMI.Methods:We identified all census collector districts (CCDs) in the 20 innermost Local Government Areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, and ranked them by the percentage of low income households (<$400\\/week). In all, 50 CCDs were randomly selected from

T King; A M Kavanagh; D Jolley; G Turrell; D Crawford

2006-01-01

127

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

128

Metro Area WWTP #1 1800 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #1 DUP 1700 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #2 1870 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #2 DUP 1840 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #3 2000 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #3 DUP 1774 Average

Hall, Sharon J.

129

Improved averaging for non-null interferometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

2013-09-01

130

Weight gain after childbirth: A women’s health concern?

Changes in health care delivery call for an integrative science of women’s health care. A neglected area of such a science\\u000a is the interrelationship between childbearing and chronic health conditions, such as obesity. Recent increases in guidelines\\u000a for gestational weight gain (GWG) have raised concerns that these guidelines may contribute inadvertently to later obesity\\u000a in women. On average, existing research

Lorraine O. Walker

1995-01-01

131

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

Ustino, Eugene A.

2006-01-01

132

The incidence of obesity has soared in recent years, as has the availability of online health information targeting this problem. This article identifies reliable Internet resources for health information about weight management for the overweight and obese. These sources have been evaluated as being useful for both consumers and health care professionals. The reviewed Web sites fall into three categories:

Lin Wu

2006-01-01

133

Lorcaserin for weight management.

Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m(2) or ?27 kg/m(2) with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

2013-01-01

134

Lorcaserin for weight management

Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m2 or ?27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

2013-01-01

135

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the effects of land-surface heterogeneity and the interactions between the land-surface and the planetary boundary layer at different scales, we develop a multiscale data set. This data set, based on the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES97) observations, includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface observations obtained from a dense observation network covering a large region on the order of 100 km. We use this data set to drive three land-surface models (LSMs) to generate multi-scale (with three resolutions of 1, 5, and 10 kilometers) gridded surface heat flux maps for the CASES area. Upon validating these flux maps with measurements from surface station and aircraft, we utilize them to investigate several approaches for estimating the area-integrated surface heat flux for the CASES97 domain of 71x74 square kilometers, which is crucial for land surface model development/validation and area water and energy budget studies. This research is aimed at understanding the relative contribution of random turbulence versus organized mesoscale circulations to the area-integrated surface flux at the scale of 100 kilometers, and identifying the most important effective parameters for characterizing the subgrid-scale variability for large-scale atmosphere-hydrology models.

Chen, Fei; Yates, David; LeMone, Margaret

2001-01-01

136

Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

2012-09-01

137

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Tom Bridgman

2001-06-20

138

Generalized averaging and noise levels in evoked responses

A formal relationship between the mean square noise level in an evoked potential experiment, the number of averages and the autocorrelation function of the noise is derived. The generalized averaging process is recast as a filter applied to the noise signal. This filter is computed for a number of different types of evoked potential experiments in which various weighting factors

Mark M. Stecker

2000-01-01

139

Ultrahigh molecular weight aromatic siloxane polymers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The condensation of a diol with a silane in toluene yields a silphenylene-siloxane polymer. The reaction of stiochiometric amounts of the diol and silane produced products with molecular weights in the range 2.0 - 6.0 x 10 to the 5th power. The molecular weight of the product was greatly increased by a multistep technique. The methodology for synthesis of high molecular weight polymers using a two step procedure was refined. Polymers with weight average molecular weights in excess of 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power produced by this method. Two more reactive silanes, bis(pyrrolidinyl)dimethylsilane and bis(gamma butyrolactam)dimethylsilane, are compared with the dimethyleminodimethylsilane in ability to advance the molecular weight of the prepolymer. The polymers produced are characterized by intrinsic viscosity in tetrahydrofuran. Weight and number average molecular weights and polydispersity are determined by gel permeation chromatography.

Ludwick, L. M.

1982-01-01

140

milk replacer at 6 weeks of age (Group I). Kids of groupI were fed at a similar schedule as kids of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the weight gain and the carcass fattening of kids was studied and compared to kids. The thickness of the small and large intestine estimated by the weight (g)/length(m) ratio was largest in the M

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

141

The influence of aquariums on weight in individuals with dementia.

This study assessed whether individuals with dementia who observe aquariums increase the amount of food they consume and maintain body weight. The sample included 70 residents in dementia units within 3 extended care facilities in 2 states. The intervention included the introduction of an aquarium into each common dining area. A total increase of 196.9 g of daily food intake (25.0%) was noted from baseline to the end of the 10-week study. Resident body weight increased an average of 2.2 pounds during the study. Eight of 70 residents experienced a weight loss ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=1.89 lbs). People with advanced dementia responded to aquariums in their environment documenting that attraction to the natural environment is so innate that it survives dementia. PMID:23138175

Edwards, Nancy E; Beck, Alan M

2013-01-01

142

Modular Approach to Physics: Average Speed versus Average Velocity

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an interactive demonstration of average speed and velocity. The user can move the object, while average speed and velocity is calculated and available through the Data panel. A full lesson plan is available through the Help menu. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-05-24

143

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

144

Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and several radiative forcing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Ultimately, the goal of the framework is to advise better methods for ensemble averaging models and create better climate predictions.

Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick

2014-05-01

145

Spacetime Averaged Null Energy Condition

The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even if one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

Douglas Urban; Ken D. Olum

2010-02-25

146

Average Speed and Unit Conversion

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

2009-01-01

147

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

148

Exponential Moving Average Stock Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A primary application of econophysics is using digital signal processing techniques to filter and predict market data, which is theorized to exhibit random walk motion. An exponential moving average is one tool that physicists use to smooth data from an input signal to identify its trends. The Exponential Moving Average Stock Model implements three types of exponential moving averages and allows the user to change the parameters of each. The model allows the user to view the results of exponential moving averages computed on the New York Stock Exchange daily closing price of six familiar companies. It demonstrates one way that traders use causal filters to smooth market data and forecast the next day's price.

Mohorn, Matthew

2013-02-14

149

High average power pockels cell

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01

150

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

151

20 overweight Ss (aged 20–65 yrs) who participated in a behavioral weight control program that included 2 wks on the Scarsdale diet lost more weight during that period than did 19 Ss in a behavioral group without the diet. The experimental manipulation of initial weight loss did not significantly affect subsequent or overall weight loss. At 1 yr, the average

Rena R. Wing; Leonard H. Epstein; Barbara Shapira

1982-01-01

152

Evaluations of average level spacings

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01

153

Importance of preventing weight gain in adulthood

In the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic upsurge in the average weight of Australian adults. In this period, on average, Australian women have gained 4.8 kg, whilst Australian men have gained 3.6 kg. Consequently, the prevalence of obesity in men has increased from 8% to 19% and in women from 7% to 21%. This threatens to wipe

Tim Gill

2002-01-01

154

Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniël

2015-01-01

155

New applications for high average power beams

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL's, and ICF drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E. L.; Turman, B. N.; Patterson, E. L.

1993-06-01

156

High average power excimer laser

An excimer laser developed at Los Alamos produces an ultraviolet (308 nm) output power of 200 W average at a repetition rate of 500 Hz. This electrical-discharge-pumped XeCl laser uses x-ray preionization and active gas cleanup.

Butcher, R.R.; Tennant, R.A.; Erickson, G.F.; Swisher, S.L.; Willis, W.L.

1983-01-01

157

Optimal Average of Régional Température with Sampling Error Estimation

This paper présents an optimal averaging scheme that yields thé area average of a climate field over a région. The scheme consists oftwo steps: fitting thé observation data to a priori covariance functions and Computing thé weightsfor each ofthe observation stations. A surface air température dataset of23 stations in Northeast China from 1961 to 1990 is used to demonstrate thé

Samuel S. Shen; Xiaochun Wang

158

Effect of clothing weight on body weight

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

159

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between the transactions, and the weighted association rule mining does not work on databases with only binary attributes

Bai, Fengshan

160

Informed Test Component Weighting.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

Rudner, Lawrence M.

2001-01-01

161

Averaging in the presence of sliding errors

In many cases the precision with which an experiment can measure a physical quantity depends on the value of that quantity. Not having access to the true value, experimental groups are forced to assign their errors based on their own measured value. Procedures which attempt to derive an improved estimate of the true value by a suitable average of such measurements usually weight each experiment`s measurement according to the reported variance. However, one is in a position to derive improved error estimates for each experiment from the average itself, provided an approximate idea of the functional dependence of the error on the central value is known. Failing to do so can lead to substantial biases. Techniques which avoid these biases without loss of precision are proposed and their performance is analyzed with examples. These techniques are quite general and can bring about an improvement even when the behavior of the errors is not well understood. Perhaps the most important application of the technique is in fitting curves to histograms.

Yost, G.P. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-08-01

162

76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...prior to a change in the assumed average weight per person standard that will become...

2011-05-19

163

Placental Morphometry Determines the Birth Weight

Background: Placental morphometry determines the foetal development and adulthood disease pattern. Hence, in the present study the influence of placental weight, volume, surface area, and thickness were studied in different groups of birth weight by sex of the newborn. Material and Methods: Present study was conducted on 164 consecutive singleton deliveries from a teaching hospital of Northern Karnataka, India. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed by maximum likelihood method after checking the linearity. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of regression models were computed to exhibit their utility for physicians. Results: Gestational age exhibited positive relationship with birth weight. Placental parameters showed a positive and significant relationship (p<0.001) with birth weight and higher values in males. The birth weight was estimated by regression models using sex of the newborn and placental morphometry; weight (R2=0.474), surface area (R2=0.420), and volume (R2=0.477) at 95% confidence interval. Low birth weight babies in the study were correctly identified by placental weight, surface area, volume and sex of the newborn. Their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values have been specified. Conclusion: Placental morphometry: weight, surface area, volume and sex of the baby determined the birth weight efficiently to initiate the corrective measures for planning better maternal care and to pacify mothers and their relatives. PMID:24392363

Balihallimath, Rupa L; Shirol, Veereshkumar S; Gan, Anita M; Tyagi, Naresh Kumar; Bandankar, Manisha R

2013-01-01

164

Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

BACKGROUND: Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. METHODS: We estimated average ambient

Rachel Morello-Frosch; Bill M Jesdale; James L Sadd; Manuel Pastor

2010-01-01

165

... and drink Other ways to maintian a healthy weight? Limit portion size to control calorie intake. Add ... Go4Life Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall health and well-being. ...

166

Averaging procedures for flow within vegetation canopies

Most one-dimensional models of flow within vegetation canopies are based on horizontally averaged flow variables. This paper formalizes the horizontal averaging operation. Two averaging schemes are considered: pure horizontal averaging at a single instant, and time averaging followed by horizontal averaging. These schemes produce different forms for the mean and turbulent kinetic energy balances, and especially for the ‘wake production’

M. R. Raupach; R. H. Shaw

1982-01-01

167

Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

Johnston, Caitlin E; Herschel, Daniel J; Lasek, Amy W; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

2015-02-01

168

Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

2014-01-01

169

Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Behrend, Juliane, E-mail: I.Brown@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: Juliane.Behrend@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2009-04-15

170

Ensemble averaging of acoustic data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

Stefanski, P. K.

1982-01-01

171

40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forces for the vehicle at speeds between 15 km/hr...level road, during calm winds, with no precipitation...Road load force for low speed may be extrapolated...road load force at all speeds. (3) The 10 percent...the test weight is the average of the curb weight...

2010-07-01

172

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

173

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

174

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

175

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

176

Pregnancy and body weight development are intertwined in complicated patterns. Of the obese patients at our Obesity Unit, 73% had retained >10 kg in connection with a pregnancy. For the general population the effect of a preg- nancy on future weight development is surpris- ingly difficult to predict. In the Stockholm pregnancy and weight development study the estimated mean weight

Stephan Rossner

177

76 FR 19275 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2007-0030] RIN 1625-AB20 Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements...its regulations governing the maximum weight and number of passengers that may safely...including increasing the Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP) to 185 lb. The...

2011-04-07

178

Molecular weight and antitumour activity of Zymomonas mobilis levans

Levans produced by several Zymomonas mobilis strains were classified by their viscosity average molecular weight and tested against sarcoma 180. Measurements of the samples’ polydispersity were carried out to characterise the molecular weight distribution. The antitumour activities of levan samples were plotted against the viscosity average molecular weight and a maximum value of this activity was found at Mv=210?000 (Mw=456?900

Gl??cia M. T Calazans; Rosália C Lima; Francisca P de França; Carlos Edison Lopes

2000-01-01

179

Criticality and Averaging in Cosmology

We propose comparing cosmological solutions in terms of their total spatial volumes $V(\\tau)$ as functions of proper time $\\tau$, assuming synchronous gauge, and with this intention evaluate the variations of $V(\\tau)$ about the Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solutions for dust. This can be done successfully in a simple manner without solving perturbation equations. In particular, we find that first variations vanish with respect to all directions which do not possess homogeneity and isotropy preserving components; in other words, every FLRW solution is a {\\it critical point} for $V(\\tau)$ in the properly restricted subspace of the space of solutions. This property may support a validity of the interpretation of the FLRW solutions as constituting an averaged model. We also briefly investigate the second variations of $V(\\tau)$.

Masayuki Tanimoto

1999-07-29

180

Optimal birth weight and outcome are influenced by maternal weight gain. Low gestational weight gain is associated with poor\\u000a fetal growth and risk of preterm delivery. Excessive weight gain affects infant growth, body fatness in childhood, and the\\u000a potential for postpartum weight retention and future obesity. Guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommend that a woman\\u000a with a normal body

Grace A. Falciglia; Kristin H. Coppage

181

PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

182

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

183

Monthly Average Temperature for Boston, MA

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is monthly average temperature data for Boston, MA from March 1872 until September 2000. In addition to monthly averages, the National Weather Service table also shows the yearly average temperature.

184

Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.

Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

185

An analysis of beef cattle weights and gains measured at varying intervals

by Kincaid (1953), Koch et al. (1958), and Ellis et al. (1962) for evaluating individual animals. Kincaid (1953) concluded that an average of three weights taken at 14-day intervals gave approximately twice the precision in terms of absolute weights... days since these weights would be more independent than consecutive daily weights. Comparing three weights taken at weekly intervals with weights taken on two consecutive days, Ellis et al. (1962) concluded that the use of the weekly weights would...

Fox, James David

2012-06-07

186

Scaling of Organic Weight and Energy Content of Arthropod Eggs

Among echinoderm species the average energy content (Ee) and organic weight (OW) of eggs scale in direct proportion with average egg volume (Jaeckle, 1995). The scaling of OW and Ee was evaluated for decapod crustacean and arachnid arthropods (26 species) using average values taken from the literature. This data set includes taxa that exhibit a variety of life history strategies

Kimberly Nielsen

1999-01-01

187

During 1976-81 we weighed several thousands of wild Mallard, Gadwall, and Blue-winged Teal in central North Dakota to examine duckling growth patterns, adult weights, and the factors influencing them. One-day-old Mallard and Gadwall averaged 32.4 and 30.4 g, respectively, a reduction of 34% and 29% from fresh egg weights. In all three species, the logistic growth curve provided a good fit for duckling growth patterns. Except for the asymptote, there was no difference in growth curves between males and females of a species. Mallard and Gadwall ducklings were heavier in years when wetland area was extensive or had increased from the previous year. Weights of after-second-year females were greater than yearlings for Mallard but not for Gadwall or Blue-winged Teal. Adult Mallard females lost weight continuously from late March to early July. Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal females, which nest later than Mallard, gained weight after spring arrival, lost weight from the onset of nesting until early July, and then regained some weight. Females of all species captured on nests were lighter than those captured off nests at the same time. Male Mallard weights decreased from spring arrival until late May. Male Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal weights increased after spring arrival, then declined until early June. Males of all three species then gained weight until the end of June. Among adults, female Gadwall and male Mallard and Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years when wetland area had increased from the previous year; female Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years with more wetland area.

Lokemoen, J.T.; Johnson, D.H.; Sharp, D.E.

1990-01-01

188

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17

189

... still feel full. FACT SHEET Proven Weight loss Methods the diabetes prevention program (dpp) In this large ... 2 diabetes. www.hormone.org proven Weight loss methods fact sheet What other strategies can help you ...

190

... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Weight gain during pregnancy When you’re pregnant, you ... in sight! Be careful about the amount of weight you gain during your pregnancy. Gaining too much ...

191

... Media Resources Selected Profiles & Interviews Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood ...

192

... a difference in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has ... keep their blood sugar levels under control. Continue Weight and Type 2 Diabetes Most people are overweight ...

193

Weight Management and Calories

USDA Choose MyPlate.gov United States Department of Agriculture MyPlate What is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils Weight & Calories Weight Management Calories Physical Activity What Is ...

194

... weight, you should still follow healthy eating and physical activity habits to help prevent weight gain and keep you healthy over the years. ... (interrupted breathing during sleep) 2 Body Mass Index BMI is a tool that is often used ...

195

Weighted Watson-Crick automata

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

2014-07-01

196

Weighted Watson-Crick automata

There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-07-10

197

Insensible weight loss in children under one year of age.

A selected group of 12 breast-fed infants were studied for insensible weight loss over the first year life. The method used to determine the insensible weight loss was non-invasive and based on a computerized weighing system. Findings indicate that the insensible weight loss in a one-year-old child reaches 36% of the average insensible weight loss reached in adulthood (360 g/day). Furthermore, the insensible weight loss (g/h/kg) was constant at about 1.9 g per kilogram per hour over the first year of life. Insensible weight loss contains two components, insensible water loss (92%) and metabolic losses (8%). PMID:4050414

Hendrikson, E C; Seacat, J M; Neville, M C

1985-09-01

198

BACKGROUND: Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and

Catherine Lombard; Amanda Deeks; Damien Jolley; Helena J Teede

2009-01-01

199

Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates distort estimated costs of climate change. We overlay the IPCC’s 20 GCM simulations on the global population distribution to estimate local climatic changes experienced by the world population in the 21st century. The A1B scenario leads to a well-known rise in global average surface temperature of +2.0°C between the periods 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Projected on the global population distribution in 2000, the median human will experience an annual average rise of +2.3°C (4.1°F) and the average human will experience a rise of +2.4°C (4.3°F). Less than 1% of the population will experience changes smaller than +1.0°C (1.8°F), while 25% and 10% of the population will experience changes greater than +2.9°C (5.2°F) and +3.5°C (6.2°F) respectively. 67% of the world population experiences temperature changes greater than the area-weighted average change of +2.0°C (3.6°F). Using two approaches to characterize the spatial distribution of income, we show that the wealthiest, middle and poorest thirds of the global population experience similar changes, with no group dominating the global average. Calculations for precipitation indicate that there is little change in average precipitation, but redistributions of precipitation occur in all income groups. These results suggest that economists and policy-makers using spatially averaged estimates of climate change to approximate local changes will systematically and significantly underestimate the impacts of climate change on the 21st century population. Top: The distribution of temperature changes experienced by the world population between 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Lower 3 panels: Temperatures experienced 2011-2030 (dashed, circle = mean) and 2080-2099 (solid, cross = mean) by income tercile. The poor do not experience larger changes than the wealthy. However, the poor begin the 21st century at higher temperatures.

Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

2009-12-01

200

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

201

Demystifying Weight Loss Diets

For virtually every letter of the alphabet there is a diet book and the numbers are growing. It is becoming increasingly difficult for consumers to make sound choices among the various weight loss books with conflicting weight loss approaches. Embattled by the burden of escalating rates of obesity and limited successes with achieving long term weight loss in a slimness-revered

Jenice Rankins; Michelle S. Williams; Dykibra J. Montgomery; David B. Wilton

2006-01-01

202

Birth Weight Statistical Models

Birth Weight Statistical Models -Generalized Linear Models- November, 2008 This exercise concerns the analysis of low birth weight data. This is of interest due to the fact that infant mortality rates and birth defect rates are very high for low birth weight babies. A woman's behavior during pregnancy

203

Jackson-type inequalities for spherical neural networks with doubling weights.

Recently, the spherical data processing has emerged in many applications and attracted a lot of attention. Among all the methods for dealing with the spherical data, the spherical neural networks (SNNs) method has been recognized as a very efficient tool due to SNNs possess both good approximation capability and spacial localization property. For better localized approximant, weighted approximation should be considered since different areas of the sphere may play different roles in the approximation process. In this paper, using the minimal Riesz energy points and the spherical cap average operator, we first construct a class of well-localized SNNs with a bounded sigmoidal activation function, and then study their approximation capabilities. More specifically, we establish a Jackson-type error estimate for the weighted SNNs approximation in the metric of L(p) space for the well developed doubling weights. PMID:25481671

Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Zongben

2015-03-01

204

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to study T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image texture features and diffusionweighted (DW) MR image features in distinguishing prostate cancer (PCa) from normal tissue. We collected two image datasets: 23 PCa patients (25 PCa and 23 normal tissue regions of interest [ROIs]) imaged with Philips MR scanners, and 30 PCa patients (41 PCa and 26 normal tissue ROIs) imaged with GE MR scanners. A radiologist drew ROIs manually via consensus histology-MR correlation conference with a pathologist. A number of T2-weighted texture features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features were investigated, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to combine select strong image features. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to characterize feature effectiveness in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue ROIs. Of the features studied, ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average yielded AUC values (+/-standard error) of 0.95+/-0.03, 0.94+/-0.03, and 0.85+/-0.05 on the Phillips images, and 0.91+/-0.04, 0.89+/-0.04, and 0.70+/-0.06 on the GE images, respectively. The three-feature combination yielded AUC values of 0.94+/-0.03 and 0.89+/-0.04 on the Phillips and GE images, respectively. ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average, are effective in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue, and appear robust in images acquired from Phillips and GE MR scanners.

Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Antic, Tatjana; Giger, Maryellen L.; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

2013-02-01

205

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual museum presents the role of the United States government in the development and standardization of weights and measures. Produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the exhibit displays objects in eight virtual rooms: America Before Standard Weights and Measures; Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler; The Office of Weights and Measures in the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1836-1901; The Mendenhall Order; The Founding of the National Bureau of Standards in 1901; From Artifacts to Physical Constants; The Dissemination of Standard Weights and Measures; and A Social History of Weights and Measures. Text as well as images relate the history.

Lisa Greenhouse

2001-01-01

206

Theory of optimal weighting of data to detect climatic change

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for climatic change predicted by climate models can easily yield unconvincing results because of 'climatic noise,' the inherent, unpredictable variability of time-average atmospheric data. A weighted average of data that maximizes the probability of detecting predicted climatic change is presented. To obtain the optimal weights, an estimate of the covariance matrix of the data from a prior data set is needed. This introduces additional sampling error into the method. This is presently taken into account. A form of the weighted average is found whose probability distribution is independent of the true (but unknown) covariance statistics of the data and of the climate model prediction.

Bell, T. L.

1986-01-01

207

Comparing Bayes Model Averaging and Stacking When Model Approximation Error Cannot be Ignored

We compare Bayes Model Averaging, BMA, to a non-Bayes form of model averaging called stacking. In stacking, the weights are no longer posterior probabilities of models; they are obtained by a technique based on cross-validation. When the correct data generating model (DGM) is on the list of models under consideration BMA is never worse than stacking and often is demonstrably

Bertrand Clarke

2003-01-01

208

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

209

WINDINGS OF PLANAR RANDOM WALKS AND AVERAGED DEHN FUNCTION

WINDINGS OF PLANAR RANDOM WALKS AND AVERAGED DEHN FUNCTION BRUNO SCHAPIRA AND ROBERT YOUNG Abstract. We prove sharp estimates on the expected number of windings of a simple random walk on the square area needed to fill a random curve with a disc. 1. Introduction The winding numbers of random curves

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

210

Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

2015-02-01

211

Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

212

Average Annual Pay by State and Industry, 1997

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Average annual pay levels by industry varied widely across the nation according to this BLS release for 1997, with high average incomes of $49,995 recorded in mining areas and a low average pay of $15,877 recorded in retail trade, an industry largely populated by part-time workers. Regionally, The District of Columbia held the greatest annual pay level at $46,775 in 1997, while South and North Dakota, Montana, Mississippi, and Arkansas retained low annual salaries of $21,645, $22,047, $21,947, $22,772, and $23,268 respectively. Additional comparisons of annual incomes by state and industry for 1996 and 1997 are available at this Average Annual Pay by State and Industry page with four detailed statistical tables.

213

Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

2012-01-01

214

Psychological effects of weight retained after pregnancy.

This study is a prospective investigation of the effect of weight retained after pregnancy on weight satisfaction, self-esteem and depressive affect, utilising the framework provided by expectancy-value theory. Self-report data were obtained from 115 women who were in the last month of their first pregnancy, and then again a month following the birth. On average women were heavier four weeks after having their baby than they were prior to becoming pregnant, and were less satisfied with their post-natal weight and shape. They were also slightly heavier than they had anticipated, particularly in the case of the younger women. Actual post-natal weight proved the most important predictor of psychological well-being following birth. PMID:9253140

Jenkin, W; Tiggemann, M

1997-01-01

215

Importance Ratings and Weighting: Old Concerns and New Perspectives

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes key concepts, reviews empirical findings, and discusses important issues related to the use of subjective importance ratings and importance weighting. The review of empirical findings focuses on weighting achieved via the multiplicative model and on 3 areas in which weighting is commonly used: quality of life, self-esteem,…

Russell, Lara B.; Hubley, Anita M.

2005-01-01

216

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

Manura, David

2002-10-18

217

Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined

-child. Key words: digraph, distance, metric, hybrid, network, tree-child, normal network, phylogeny, 1 #12]. See also the recent book [5]. There are many methods to reconstruct phylogenetic trees from

Willson, Stephen J.

218

Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ?12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that heterogeneity of variances in ADG is prevalent in feedlot performance and indicate potential sources of heteroskedasticity. Further investigation of factors associated with heteroskedasticity in feedlot performance is warranted to increase consistency and uniformity in commercial beef cattle production and subsequent profitability. PMID:23482583

Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

2013-06-01

219

Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01

220

Weight Stigmatization in Children

This study was designed to examine weight stigmatization among Hispanic American children. Fifty-five fifth grade students from a large, urban school district in Southern California were asked to rank six same- sex drawings of children with various physical characteristics (related to weight or disability) in order of friend preference (1 = the most preferred, and 6 = the least preferred

Melissa L. Wigginton; Lenny D. Wiersma; Clay P. Sherman; Daniela Rubin

2009-01-01

221

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

222

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

223

Given a set of m coins out of a collection of coins of k unknown distinct weights, we wish to decide if all the m given coins have the same weight or not using the minimum possible number of weighings in a regular balance beam. Let m(n;k) denote the maximum possible number of coins for which the above problem can

Noga Alon; Dmitry N. Kozlov

1997-01-01

224

Weight discrimination and bullying.

Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

2013-04-01

225

Characteristics of BDNF-induced weight loss

There is evidence that central infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces weight loss in rats. We have begun to investigate the physiological basis for BDNF-induced weight loss by assessing its relationship to (a) appetite, (b) serum indices of metabolic and renal toxicity, and (c) brain monoamine activity in areas associated with feeding or motor function. BDNF (0–6 ?g\\/day) was

Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Cara L. Wellman

1995-01-01

226

On the Weighted Mean Value Theorem for Integrals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals is a powerful tool, which can be used to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and to obtain the average value of a function on an interval. On the other hand, its weighted version is very useful for evaluating inequalities for definite integrals. This article shows the solutions on applying the weighted…

Polezzi, M.

2006-01-01

227

Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

Mathias, Lon J.

1983-01-01

228

Analysis on traffic accessibility of worst-hit areas in Sichuan by the May 12th Wenchuan Earthquake

Accessibility of regional traffic in the worst-hit areas of Sichuan should be viewed with some concern. The difficulty of disaster relief work in May 12th Earthquake had showed unsubstantial traffic condition of the disaster area. Approach of weighted average travel time is adopted in this paper to calculate accessibility of 3 main traffic manners, i.e. highway, railway and aviation, and

Shen Xing-ju; Su Chun-jiang; Yang Zhong-xian

2009-01-01

229

A Stochastic Model of Space-Time Variability of Mesoscale Rainfall: Statistics of Spatial Averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. A previously developed spectral model of rain statistics that is designed to capture this property, predicts power law scaling behavior for the second moment statistics of area-averaged rain rate on the averaging length scale L as L right arrow 0. In the present work a more efficient method of estimating the model parameters is presented, and used to fit the model to the statistics of area-averaged rain rate derived from gridded radar precipitation data from TOGA COARE. Statistical properties of the data and the model predictions are compared over a wide range of averaging scales. An extension of the spectral model scaling relations to describe the dependence of the average fraction of grid boxes within an area containing nonzero rain (the "rainy area fraction") on the grid scale L is also explored.

Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, Thomas L.

2003-01-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminiferal shell weight can be impacted by environmental factors both during initial shell formation and as the result of post mortem preservation. An improved understanding of what determines this relationship can lead to both an understanding of foraminiferal calcite production in modern oceans and proxy development for past environmental conditions. Significantly, foraminiferal shell weight has been linked to carbonate ion concentration in both laboratory culture (of both planktic and benthic species) and in the modern and fossil record (in planktic foraminifera). This study explores the relationship between shell weight and changes in oxygenation and carbonate saturation in fossil benthic foraminifera from a high-resolution sedimentary record (MV0811-15JC; 34°36.930' N, 119°12.920' W; 418m water depth; 16.1-3.4 ka; sedimentation rate 44-100 cm kyr-1) from Santa Barbara Basin, CA (SBB). Ongoing work in SBB has described rapid biotic reorganization through the recent deglaciation in response to changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations, which are used here to create a semi quantitative oxygenation history for site MV0811-15JC. In modern Oxygen Minimum Zones, decreases in oxygen closely covary with increases in Total Carbon (with a corresponding decrease in the carbonate saturation state). We interpret that records from SBB of the average size-normalized test weight of Uvigerinid and Bolivinid foraminifera show that shell weight responds to these changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Multiple metrics of 'size normalization' including by length, geometric estimation of surface area and volume, and tracing of individual silhouettes are tested. Regardless of method utilized, the size normalized shell weight of all species fluctuates with abrupt changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Although all species respond to large-scale environmental changes, the weight records of Bolivinids and Uvigerinids reveal distinct differences, indicating that processes governing shell weight may vary across taxonomic groups.

Davis, C. V.; Hill, T. M.; Moffitt, S. E.

2013-12-01

231

Average-cost based robust structural control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

Hagood, Nesbitt W.

1993-01-01

232

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

233

Sample size bias in judgments of perceptual averages.

Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative, positive, and neutral events (Price, 2001; Price, Smith, & Lench, 2006) and also for estimates of the mean of sets of numbers (Smith & Price, 2010). The present research focuses on whether this effect is observed for judgments of average on a perceptual dimension. In 5 experiments we show that people's judgments of the average size of the squares in a set increase as the number of squares in the set increases. This effect occurs regardless of whether the squares in each set are presented simultaneously or sequentially; whether the squares in each set are different sizes or all the same size; and whether the response is a rating of size, an estimate of area, or a comparative judgment. These results are consistent with a priming account of the sample size bias, in which the sample size activates a representation of magnitude that directly biases the judgment of average. PMID:24749965

Price, Paul C; Kimura, Nicole M; Smith, Andrew R; Marshall, Lindsay D

2014-09-01

234

Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1–3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

2006-01-01

235

... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese. Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

236

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to look at the difference between mass and weight, and to move students from a misconception of objects in space being weightless to objects in space being in free fall, and experiencing microgravity.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

237

... see About Adult BMI About Adult BMI . Waist Circumference Another way to assess your weight is to ... conditions if you are: A man whose waist circumference is more than 40 inches A non-pregnant ...

238

... 2 Standard Handouts • S01 Version 5.0 The Basics of Weight Control A calorie is a unit ... beverages you drink provide energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are: water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary ...

239

Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions

Fisher’s concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178

Álvarez-Castro, José M.; Yang, Rong-Cai

2012-01-01

240

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

241

Averaging with B-series Ander Murua

, ^q2 = cos()q2 - -1 sin()p2, (note that at stroboscopic times n = 2n, that change of variables reduces possibly a (2)-periodic -dependent change of variables that is the identity map at stroboscopic times n = 2 is called stroboscopic averaging. High order averaging There exists a formal (2)-periodic change

Murua, Ander

242

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

243

Average brightness temperature of antenna aperture

This paper presented an idea for the average brightness temperature of lossless antenna aperture, gave its expression for\\u000a matched and dismatched noise source. This expression showed that the average brightness temperature of antenna aperture related\\u000a with three factors: the noise temperature of noise source, the reflection coefficient of noise source, and the aperture efficiency.

Li Zongqian

1997-01-01

244

Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

Bailey, Paul Dean

2012-01-01

245

40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary TF monthly average emissions with...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary POM quarterly average emissions...

2013-07-01

246

40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary TF monthly average emissions with...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary POM quarterly average emissions...

2010-07-01

247

40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary TF monthly average emissions with...in §§ 63.847 and 63.849. The owner or operator shall combine the results of secondary POM quarterly average emissions...

2011-07-01

248

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10

249

Representation of object weight in human ventral visual cortex.

Skilled manipulation requires the ability to predict the weights of viewed objects based on learned associations linking object weight to object visual appearance. However, the neural mechanisms involved in extracting weight information from viewed object properties are unknown. Given that ventral visual pathway areas represent a wide variety of object features, one intriguing but as yet untested possibility is that these areas also represent object weight, a nonvisual motor-relevant object property. Here, using event-related fMRI and pattern classification techniques, we tested the novel hypothesis that object-sensitive regions in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), in addition to traditional motor-related brain areas, represent object weight when preparing to lift that object. In two studies, the same participants prepared and then executed lifting actions with objects of varying weight. In the first study, we show that when lifting visually identical objects, where predicted weight is based solely on sensorimotor memory, weight is represented in object-sensitive OTC. In the second study, we show that when object weight is associated with a particular surface texture, that texture-sensitive OTC areas also come to represent object weight. Notably, these texture-sensitive areas failed to carry information about weight in the first study, when object surface properties did not specify weight. Our results indicate that the integration of visual and motor-relevant object information occurs at the level of single OTC areas and provide evidence that the ventral visual pathway is actively and flexibly engaged in processing object weight, an object property critical for action planning and control. PMID:25065755

Gallivan, Jason P; Cant, Jonathan S; Goodale, Melvyn A; Flanagan, J Randall

2014-08-18

250

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

251

Self-averaging in complex brain neuron signals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear statistical properties of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of limbic brain are studied in vivo. VTA plays key role in generation of pleasure and in development of psychological drug addiction. It is shown that spiking time-series of the VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit long-range correlations with self-averaging behavior. This specific VTA phenomenon has no relation to VTA rewarding function. Last result reveals complex role of VTA in limbic brain.

Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Fukayama, D.; Yadid, G.

2002-12-01

252

Birth weight: nature or nurture?

Objective: To investigate the relative role of environmental and genetic factors in the determination of birth weight following ovum donation. Methods: Data from 62 cases of ovum donation were used to examine the relative influence of donor and recipient on birth weight. Results: The only discernible factors that significantly influenced birth weight were gestational age and recipient's weight. Donor weight,

A. A. Brooks; M. R. Johnson; P. J. Steer; M. E. Pawson; H. I. Abdalla

1995-01-01

253

Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

1986-01-01

254

Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics

By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale [lambda] a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when [lambda] is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time [tau] but not for less than [tau]. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits.

Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))

1994-08-01

255

Unbiased Average Age-Appropriate Atlases for Pediatric Studies

Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard template. However, when studying pediatric populations, variation from the adult brain makes the MNI305 suboptimal for processing brain images of children. Morphological changes occurring during development render the use of age-appropriate templates desirable to reduce potential errors and minimize bias during processing of pediatric data. This paper presents the methods used to create unbiased, age-appropriate MRI atlas templates for pediatric studies that represent the average anatomy for the age range of 4.5–18.5 years, while maintaining a high level of anatomical detail and contrast. The creation of anatomical T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted templates for specific developmentally important age-ranges, used data derived from the largest epidemiological, representative (healthy and normal) sample of the U.S. population, where each subject was carefully screened for medical and psychiatric factors and characterized using established neuropsychological and behavioral assessments. . Use of these age-specific templates was evaluated by computing average tissue maps for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid for each specific age range, and by conducting an exemplar voxel-wise deformation-based morphometry study using 66 young (4.5–6.9 years) participants to demonstrate the benefits of using the age-appropriate templates. The public availability of these atlases/templates will facilitate analysis of pediatric MRI data and enable comparison of results between studies in a common standardized space specific to pediatric research. PMID:20656036

Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; McKinstry, Robert C.; Collins, D. Louis

2010-01-01

256

Unbiased average age-appropriate atlases for pediatric studies.

Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard template. However, when studying pediatric populations, variation from the adult brain makes the MNI305 suboptimal for processing brain images of children. Morphological changes occurring during development render the use of age-appropriate templates desirable to reduce potential errors and minimize bias during processing of pediatric data. This paper presents the methods used to create unbiased, age-appropriate MRI atlas templates for pediatric studies that represent the average anatomy for the age range of 4.5-18.5 years, while maintaining a high level of anatomical detail and contrast. The creation of anatomical T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted templates for specific developmentally important age-ranges, used data derived from the largest epidemiological, representative (healthy and normal) sample of the U.S. population, where each subject was carefully screened for medical and psychiatric factors and characterized using established neuropsychological and behavioral assessments. Use of these age-specific templates was evaluated by computing average tissue maps for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid for each specific age range, and by conducting an exemplar voxel-wise deformation-based morphometry study using 66 young (4.5-6.9 years) participants to demonstrate the benefits of using the age-appropriate templates. The public availability of these atlases/templates will facilitate analysis of pediatric MRI data and enable comparison of results between studies in a common standardized space specific to pediatric research. PMID:20656036

Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C Robert; McKinstry, Robert C; Collins, D Louis

2011-01-01

257

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Impact of Gestational Weight Gain on Interconception Weight Change.

Describe the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interconception weight change within race/ethnic groups, and differences across them. Data are from linked New York City birth certificates 1994-2004. The sample comprised nulliparous women ages ?18 with two consecutive singleton births (N = 115,651). The dependent variable was interconception weight change. Adjusted analyses were from ordinary least squares regression model fully interacted by race/ethnic group, controlling for covariates. Within race/ethnic groups, adjusted interconception weight change was calculated for each GWG level compared with GWG 20-24 pounds; across groups, weight change was calculated for each group compared with white non-Hispanics. GWG ?40 pounds was 18 % for Asian Pacific Islanders, and 27-29 % for other race/ethnic groups. Interconception weight change >15 pounds was highest for black non-Hispanics (34 %) and lowest for Asian Pacific Islanders (17 %). In the multivariable analysis, mean interconception weight change increased with increasing GWG in all race/ethnic groups, an average of 1.5-1.6 pounds for each 5-pound GWG interval. Compared with white non-Hispanics, adjusted mean interconception weight change was higher at every GWG level for black non-Hispanics (3.5-5.1 pounds), and at every level except <15 pounds for Hispanics (1.6-3.0 pounds). GWG ?40 pounds was prevalent in all groups. GWG contributes to long-term interconception weight change, and non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics are at risk of greater weight change. Interventions at many levels, during and after pregnancy, are needed to support women to achieve healthy GWG and postpartum weight loss. PMID:25424453

Sackoff, Judith E; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

2014-11-26

258

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been widely used to estimate concentration of chemicals in groundwater systems. However, estimation uncertainty is rarely discussed in the literature. Uncertainty in ANN output stems from three sources: ANN inputs, ANN parameters (weights and biases), and ANN structures. Uncertainty in ANN inputs may come from input data selection and/or input data error. ANN parameters are naturally uncertain because they are maximum-likelihood estimated. ANN structure is also uncertain because there is no unique ANN model given a specific case. Therefore, multiple plausible AI models are generally resulted for a study. One might ask why good models have to be ignored in favor of the best model in traditional estimation. What is the ANN estimation variance? How do the variances from different ANN models accumulate to the total estimation variance? To answer these questions we propose a Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging (HBMA) framework. Instead of choosing one ANN model (the best ANN model) for estimation, HBMA averages outputs of all plausible ANN models. The model weights are based on the evidence of data. Therefore, the HBMA avoids overconfidence on the single best ANN model. In addition, HBMA is able to analyze uncertainty propagation through aggregation of ANN models in a hierarchy framework. This method is applied for estimation of fluoride concentration in the Poldasht plain and the Bazargan plain in Iran. Unusually high fluoride concentration in the Poldasht and Bazargan plains has caused negative effects on the public health. Management of this anomaly requires estimation of fluoride concentration distribution in the area. The results show that the HBMA provides a knowledge-decision-based framework that facilitates analyzing and quantifying ANN estimation uncertainties from different sources. In addition HBMA allows comparative evaluation of the realizations for each source of uncertainty by segregating the uncertainty sources in a hierarchical framework. Fluoride concentration estimation using the HBMA method shows better agreement to the observation data in the test step because they are not based on a single model with a non-dominate weights.

Fijani, E.; Chitsazan, N.; Nadiri, A.; Tsai, F. T.; Asghari Moghaddam, A.

2012-12-01

259

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

260

Average-passage flow model development

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

1989-04-01

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a percolation problem on lattices (graphs, networks), with edge weights drawn from disorder distributions that allow for weights (or distances) of either sign, i.e. including negative weights. We are interested in whether there are spanning paths or loops of total negative weight. This kind of percolation problem is fundamentally different from conventional percolation problems, e.g. it does not exhibit transitivity, hence, no simple definition of clusters, and several spanning paths/loops might coexist in the percolation regime at the same time. Furthermore, to study this percolation problem numerically, one has to perform a non-trivial transformation of the original graph and apply sophisticated matching algorithms. Using this approach, we study the corresponding percolation transitions on large square, hexagonal and cubic lattices for two types of disorder distributions and determine the critical exponents. The results show that negative-weight percolation (NWP) is in a different universality class compared to conventional bond/site percolation. On the other hand, NWP seems to be related to the ferromagnet/spin-glass transition of random-bond Ising systems, at least in two dimensions.

Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

2008-04-01

262

Ensemble Weight Enumerators for Protograph LDPC Codes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently LDPC codes with projected graph, or protograph structures have been proposed. In this paper, finite length ensemble weight enumerators for LDPC codes with protograph structures are obtained. Asymptotic results are derived as the block size goes to infinity. In particular we are interested in obtaining ensemble average weight enumerators for protograph LDPC codes which have minimum distance that grows linearly with block size. As with irregular ensembles, linear minimum distance property is sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. In this paper the derived results on ensemble weight enumerators show that linear minimum distance condition on degree distribution of unstructured irregular LDPC codes is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for protograph LDPC codes.

Divsalar, Dariush

2006-01-01

263

Low birth weight and residential proximity to PCB-contaminated waste sites.

Previous investigations have shown that women exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are at increased risk of giving birth to an infant with low birth weight (< 2,500 g), and that this relationship is stronger for male than for female infants. We have tested the hypothesis that residents in a zip code that contains a PCB hazardous waste site or abuts a body of water contaminated with PCBs are at increased risk of giving birth to a low-birth-weight baby. We used the birth registry of the New York State Vital Statistics to identify all births between 1994 and 2000 in New York State except for New York City. This registry provides information on the infant, mother, and father together with the zip code of the mother's residence. The 865 state Superfund sites, the 86 National Priority List sites, and the six Areas of Concern in New York were characterized regarding whether or not they contain PCBs as a major contaminant. We identified 187 zip codes containing or abutting PCB-contaminated sites, and these zip codes were the residences of 24.5% of the 945,077 births. The birth weight in the PCB zip codes was on average 21.6 g less than in other zip codes (p < 0.001). Because there are many other risk factors for low birth weight, we have adjusted for these using a logistic regression model for these confounders. After adjusting for sex of the infant, mother's age, race, weight, height, education, income, marital status, and smoking, there was still a statistically significant 6% increased risk of giving birth to a male infant of low birth weight. These observations support the hypothesis that living in a zip code near a PCB-contaminated site poses a risk of exposure and giving birth to an infant of low birth weight. PMID:12896858

Baibergenova, Akerke; Kudyakov, Rustam; Zdeb, Michael; Carpenter, David O

2003-01-01

264

Generalized constructive tree weights

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

2014-04-15

265

We investigate how suitable a weighted network is for gossip spreading. The proposed model is based on the gossip spreading model introduced by Lind et.al. on unweighted networks. Weight represents "friendship." Potential spreader prefers not to spread if the victim of gossip is a "close friend". Gossip spreading is related to the triangles and cascades of triangles. It gives more insight about the structure of a network. We analyze gossip spreading on real weighted networks of human interactions. 6 co-occurrence and 7 social pattern networks are investigated. Gossip propagation is found to be a good parameter to distinguish co-occurrence and social pattern networks. As a comparison some miscellaneous networks and computer generated networks based on ER, BA, WS models are also investigated. They are found to be quite different than the human interaction networks.

Tasgin, Mursel

2012-01-01

266

Light weight phosphate cements

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

267

Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging

We propose three new algorithms for the distributed averaging and consensus problems: two for the fixed-graph case, and one for the dynamic-topology case. The convergence times of our fixed-graph algorithms compare favorably ...

Olshevsky, Alexander

2006-01-01

268

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

Don N. Page

2014-06-02

269

Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor Â· History of sales procedures Â· Manufacturer Driven Procedures Â· What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." Â· It should

270

271

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2012-07-01

272

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2010-07-01

273

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2011-07-01

274

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

275

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

276

Total pressure averaging in pulsating flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a non-steady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles. The experiments were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach number up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz.

Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

277

Total-pressure averaging in pulsating flows.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a nonsteady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered with the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles.

Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

278

... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

279

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

280

Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

281

Changes in weight bias following weight loss: the impact of weight-loss method

Background:Many obese individuals lose weight to reduce weight stigma; however, little is known about whether other people's attitudes actually improve towards obese individuals after they have lost weight, and whether changes in attitudes depend on the method of weight loss. This study examined changes in people's perceptions of an obese target who had lost weight through diet and exercise or

J Fardouly; L R Vartanian

2012-01-01

282

Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1995-01-01

283

Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.

The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

Fernando, K Vince

2008-10-01

284

Model-Based Average Reward Reinforcement Learning

Abstract: Reinforcement Learning (RL) is the study of programs that improve their performanceby receiving rewards and punishments from the environment. Most RL methodsoptimize the discounted total reward received by an agent, while, in many domains,the natural criterion is to optimize the average reward per time step. In this paper,we introduce a model-based Average-reward Reinforcement Learning method calledH-learning and show that

Prasad Tadepalli

1998-01-01

285

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a new method of digital terrain model (DTM) estimation based on modified moving average interpolation. There are many methods that can be employed in DTM creation, such as kriging, inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbour and moving average. The moving average method is not as precise as the others; hence, it is not commonly comprised in scientific work. Considering the high accuracy, the relatively low time costs, and the huge amount of measurement data collected by multibeam echosounder, however, the moving average method is definitely one of the most promising approaches. In this study, several variants of this method are analysed. An optimization of the moving average method is proposed based on a new module of selecting neighbouring points during the interpolation process—the "growing radius" approach. Tests experiments performed on various multibeam echosounder datasets demonstrate the high potential of this modified moving average method for improved DTM generation.

Maleika, Wojciech

2015-02-01

286

Weight knowledge and weight magnitude: impact on lumbosacral loading.

Several factors can impact lumbosacral loads during lifting, including weight knowledge and weight magnitude. However, interaction between them has never been tested. This study investigated the interaction effect of these variables on lumbosacral forces and moments. Participants performed symmetrical lifts using three different weights. Weight knowledge involved known and unknown weight conditions. A biologically assisted dynamic model was used to calculate spinal loading parameters. Weight impacted all variables, while knowledge impacted only compression, by a moderate amount (5%), and spinal moments. Lifting a lightweight resulted in a difference of 16% and 7.2% between knowledge conditions for compression and anterior-posterior shear forces, respectively, compared with a negligible difference of < 1% when lifting a heavy weight. Increased spinal loading with light unknown weight can be attributed to increased muscular co-contraction. Weight knowledge is important to consider at low weight levels as it can increase tissue loading to values equivalent to lifting a heavier weight. PMID:25329859

Farrag, Ahmed T; Elsayed, Walaa H; El-Sayyad, Mohsen M; Marras, William S

2015-02-01

287

Reagents, Compositions, Weight Loss

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short experimental study of what happens to aluminum hydroxide, silicic acid, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate (or reagents of instructors choice) when they are heated to 110 and 1200 degrees. Students determine the formula and calculate the mole percent and weight percent of each element and oxide in each reagent. They heat the samples and calculate percentage weight loss or gain. Finally, they write a lab report summarizing their results. Be sure to have students save their samples for later use in a lab that introduces X-ray diffraction.

Perkins, Dexter

288

Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

2014-10-20

289

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

290

Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

2012-01-01

291

Nonsymmetric Shapley values for coalitional form games with transferable utility are studied. The nonsymmetries are modeled through nonsymmetric weight systems defined on the players of the games. It is shown axiomatically that two families of solutions of this type are possible. These families are strongly related to each other through the duality relationship on games. While the first family lends

E. Kalai; D. Samet

1987-01-01

292

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will recognize that the mass of an object is a measure that is independent of gravity. If they can effectively complete the guided inquiry activity as well as the short writing summary to reinforce what they learned, they will gain a foundation for understanding the difference between mass and weight.

King, Lance

2011-07-26

293

MINIMUM WEIGHT SHIELD SYNTHESIS

A simple model for radiation production and attenuation in a spherical ; multilayer reactor-shield assembly is introduced. Variational methods are ; applied to this model to minimize the weight subject to given specifications on ; the dose at the outside of the shield and on the properties of shielding ; materials. The method provides guidance in the choice of the

Troubetzkoy

1962-01-01

294

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... prevent weight retention and the potential long-term health risks to women. I'm Dr. Cindy Haines of HealthDay TV, with the news that your doctors are reading, health news that matters to you. Mobile version Get ...

295

Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ? and Kendall's ? correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

2012-06-01

296

Weight 0 1 2 3 1. Leadership 33% Has not demonstrated impact through a leadership role Has held a leadership role in one or more organizations and demonstrated impact Has held an organization-wide leadership role in one or more

ProdiÃ¦, Aleksandar

297

... healthy weight for me? • can you recommend a diet plan for me? • should i see a registered dietitian? • should i see a diabetes educator? • What kind of exercise is best for me? • how long will it take to reach my ... of Nutrition and Dietetics): www.eatright.org/programs/rdfinder • Find ...

298

Testing +/- 1-Weight Halfspaces

We consider the problem of testing whether a Boolean function f:{???1,1} [superscript n] ?{???1,1} is a ±1-weight halfspace, i.e. a function of the form f(x)?=?sgn(w [subscript 1] x [subscript 1]?+?w [subscript 2] x ...

Matulef, Kevin M.

2009-01-01

299

Â· Healthy Diet Â· Weight Control Diet and Obesity #12;Maintaining a Healthy Diet, hypertension Â Diabetes Â Cancer Â· Low SES #12;Why Maintain a Healthy Diet? Â· Dietary factors contribute death, salt and HTN Â Estimates of degree to which diet contributes to cancer range between 30

Meagher, Mary

300

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

Cosi

2009-01-01

301

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

Sherman, Rachel M.

1997-01-01

302

Ideal Weight and Weight Satisfaction: Association With Health Practices

Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P?weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

Ardern, Chris I.; Church, Timothy S.; Hebert, James R.; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

2009-01-01

303

process. Nevertheless, the MWL leaves two open questions: 1) How to design the weights so that an MWL__________________________________________________________________________________________ On Weight Design of Maximum Weighted Likelihood and an Extended EM Algorithm Zhenyue Zhang and Yiu-ming Cheung, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The recent Maximum Weighted Likelihood (MWL) [18], [19] has

Cheung, Yiu-ming

304

Average lung volumes for K-12 students

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on height and weight charts, I have calculated the lung volumes for K-5 and high school students. Since the normal values used in spirometry are generally based on adult sizes, these data can be useful in comparing lung volumes in K-12 students to other normal healthy K-12 students.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2008-04-14

305

Neutron average cross sections of Np237

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports Np237 neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the Np237 neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width =39.3±1.0 meV, a neutron strength function 104S0=1.02±0.14, a mean level spacing D0=0.60±0.03 eV, and a potential scattering length R'=9.8±0.1 fm.

Noguere, G.

2010-04-01

306

Books average previous decade of economic misery.

For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

307

Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

2008-11-01

308

Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

1996-01-01

309

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy E is the number of the common preys of x and y

310

Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2010-01-01

311

Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

2014-09-01

312

Television Situation Comedies: Female Weight, Male Negative Comments, and Audience Reactions.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of prime time television situation comedies examined body weights of female central characters, negative comments made by male characters about their weight or bodies, and audience reactions. Below-average weight females were over-represented in the programs. The heavier the females, the more negative comments made to or about…

Fouts, Gregory; Burggraf, Kimberley

2000-01-01

313

Maternal influences on birth weight.

The birth weight of 2,848 singleton babies delivered Al-Medina District hospitals was studied. The mean birth weight of Al-Medina babies was 3.26 Kg. (SD 0.44), the males with mean birth weight of 3.32 Kg. (SD 0.45), and were significantly heavier than females with a mean birth weight of 3.20 Kg. (SD 0.42). The incidence of low birth weight was 7.0 per cent. The birth weight was found to increase consistently with maternal age, parity, and height. Birth weight was significantly higher for babies of non-consanguineous parents. PMID:2500524

al-Sekait, M A

1989-04-01

314

Weighted Guided Image Filtering.

It is known that local filtering-based edge-preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

2015-01-01

315

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01

316

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the same method for measuring friction that was used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction), students design and conduct experiments to determine if weight added incrementally to objects affects the amount of friction encountered when they slide across flat surfaces. After graphing the data from their experiments, students calculate the coefficients of friction between the objects and the surfaces they moved upon, for both static and kinetic friction.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

317

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below are the 25 birth weights, in ounces, of all the Labrador Retriever puppies born at Kingston Kennels in the last six months. 131415151616161617171...

318

Experimental The average size of the silver nanoparticles, prepared by the method of Kor-

Experimental The average size of the silver nanoparticles, prepared by the method of Kor- gel, with approximate molecular weight of 900 000, was then added to 0.5 mg of these silver nanocrystals in a vial, and radically improved photochemical reactors.[1Â±6] Colloidal self-assembly has been suggested as an efficient

Braun, Paul

319

The determination of the average molecular parameters of bitumens represents an important step in describing the skeletons of asphalt cements. A new investigation method is presented, based only on the analysis of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) data and molecular weights. This method is proved to be an efficient procedure to give independent parameters and to try to define a

Laurent Michon; Didier Martin; Jean-Pascal Planche; Bernard Hanquet

1997-01-01

320

Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

2008-01-01

321

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Manufacturing Standards for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations § 63.5710...Weighted-average MACT model point value for production resin used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MR = Mass of production resin used in the past 12 months,...

2010-07-01

322

Average Annual Rainfall Over the Globe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74×1017 J of solar radiation per second and it is divided over various channels as given in Table 1. It keeps our planet warm and maintains its average temperature2 of 288 K with the help of the atmosphere in such a way that life can survive. It also recycles the water in the oceans/rivers/ lakes by initial evaporation and subsequent precipitation; the average annual rainfall over the globe is around one meter. According to M. King Hubbert the amount of solar power going into the evaporation and precipitation channel is 4.0×1016 W. Students can verify the value of average annual rainfall over the globe by utilizing this part of solar energy. This activity is described in the next section.

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-12-01

323

Error estimates on averages of correlated data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe how the true statistical error on an average of correlated data can be obtained with ease and efficiency by a renormalization group method. The method is illustrated with numerical and analytical examples, having finite as well as infinite range correlations.

Flyvbjerg, H.; Petersen, H. G.

1989-07-01

324

Average Rate Speed Scaling Nikhil Bansal

is to minimize the energy used. They proposed an online speed scaling algorithm Average Rate (AVR) that runs each of AVR is at most (2) /2 if a processor running at speed s uses power s . We show the competitive ratio of AVR is at least ((2 - )) /2, where is a function of that approaches zero as approaches infinity

Bunde, David

325

Average Rate Speed Scaling Nikhil Bansal1

is to minimize the energy used. They proposed an online speed scaling algorithm Average Rate (AVR) that runs each of AVR is at most (2) /2 if a processor running at speed s uses power s . We show the competitive ratio of AVR is at least ((2-)) /2, where is a function of that approaches zero as approaches infinity

Bunde, David

326

A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

2014-01-01

327

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

328

Average formation length in string model

The space-time scales of the hadronization process in the framework of string model are investigated. It is shown that the average formation lengths of pseudoscalar mesons, produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of leptons on different targets, depend from their electrical charges. In particular the average formation lengths of positively charged hadrons are larger than of negatively charged ones. This statement is fulfiled for all using scaling functions, for $z$ (the fraction of the virtual photon energy transferred to the detected hadron) larger than 0.15, for all nuclear targets and any value of the Bjorken scaling variable $x_{Bj}$. In all cases, the main mechanism is direct production of pseudoscalar mesons. Including in consideration additional mechanism of production in result of decay of resonances, leads to decrease of average formation lengths. It is shown that the average formation lengths of positively (negatively) charged mesons are slowly rising (decreasing) functions of $x_{Bj}$. The obtained results can be important, in particular, for the understanding of the hadronization process in nuclear environment.

L. Grigoryan

2010-02-04

329

Distributed Averaging via Lifted Markov Chains

Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algo- rithms for computing the average of numbers in a network. Speciflcally, our interest is in designing such an algorithm with the fastest rate of convergence given the topological constraints of the network. As the main result of this paper,

Kyomin Jung; Devavrat Shah; Jinwoo Shin

2009-01-01

330

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

331

Quiet-time average auroral configuration

The spatial pattern of auroral electron precipitation during magnetically quiet intervals was studied. The result is compared with the Feldstein (1963) auroral oval and other reported configurations of auroral optical emission. The precipitation of auroral electrons takes place in an irregularly shaped annular belt encircling the pole. The belt is composed of two parts: the equatorial part (average energy greater

K. Lassen; C. Danielsen; C.-I. Meng

1988-01-01

332

Credibilistic Markov decision processes: The average case

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a concept of random fuzzy variables in credibility theory, we formulate a credibilistic model for unichain Markov decision processes under average criteria. And a credibilistically optimal policy is defined and obtained by solving the corresponding non-linear mathematical programming. Also we give a computational example to illustrate the effectiveness of our new model.

Kageyama, Masayuki

2009-02-01

333

The Longitudinal Development of Understanding of Average.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the development of understanding of the concept of average with students from grades 3 to 9 through interviews. Observed six levels of response based on an hierarchical model of cognitive functioning. Documents usage of ideas associated with the three standard measures of central tendency and representation as strategies for problem…

Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

2000-01-01

334

Some interrelationships of weights of beef calves from birth to weaning and to maturity

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5p S UM6gI ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ LITERATURE CITED ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 57 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 59 Page 1. Numbers of Calves by Breed, Sex and Location, 1937...-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9 2 ~ Average Adjusted Weights of Calves by Breed and Sex at Lufkin, 195'7-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 14 3~ Average Adjusted Weights of Calves by Breed and Sex at College Station, 1955-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 4, Average Birth and Adjusted...

Jones, John Willoughby

2012-06-07

335

Watershed area and discharge relationships

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use USGS WaterData website to find data on area, average annual discharge and response to high-precip events in small watersheds in southern New England. Data for the class are compiled to generate graphs showing the regional relationships between (1) area and discharge, and (2) area and time-lag between precip and maximum discharge. terms: discharge, watershed, flood

Petsch, Steven

336

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area

Richard D Feinman; Eugene J Fine

2007-01-01

337

Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

Edeling, W. N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R. P.

2014-10-01

338

Background: Because pregnant African American women and teensareatriskoflowbirthweight,theyarefrequentlycounseledto strive for gestational weight gains at the upper limits of the Institute of Medicine's recommended ranges. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminewhethersuchweightgains improvebirthoutcomesinacohortofdisadvantagedAfricanAmer- ican adolescents of low (19.8), average (19.8 to26.0), or high (26) prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Design: Data were extracted from the medical charts of 1120 Afri- can American adolescents who received

Jennifer Notkin Nielsen; Frank R. Witter; Shih-Chen Chang; Jeri Mancini; Maureen Schulman Nathanson; Laura E. Caulfield

2006-01-01

339

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2013-11-07

340

Slater Averaged Pseudopotential and Its Inprovements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the optimized effective potential method(OEP), which can be viewed as a way for constructing orbital independent potential from the known orbital dependent potentials, is valid for pseudopotentials. It is further on proved that for most group I and II elements as well as the elements with large radius, the Slater averaged pseudopotential, which is local and orbital independent, is applicable with very good transferability. A Heine-Abarenkov(HA) correction is proposed to make the pseudopotential workable for other elements, especially the first row atoms. Further on, the combination of the Slater averaged potential and the Bachelet-Hamman-Schluter(BHS) construction produces a new family of first principle norm-conserving pseudopotentials.

Miao, Maosheng

2001-03-01

341

Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats

Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time midway between those for stimulus A and B. These results suggest that when provided with discrepant information regarding the temporal predictability of reinforcement, rats compute an average of the scheduled reinforcement times for the A and B stimuli and use this average to generate an expectation of reward for the compound stimuli. PMID:19594288

Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

342

Cosmological backreaction and spatially averaged spatial curvature

It has been suggested that the accelerated expansion of the Universe is due to backreaction of small scale density perturbations on the large scale spacetime geometry. While evidence against this suggestion has accumulated, it has not yet been definitively ruled out. Many investigations of this issue have focused on the Buchert formalism, which computes spatial averages of quantities in synchronous comoving gauge. We argue that, for the deceleration parameter of this formalism to agree with observations, the spatial average of the three dimensional Ricci scalar (spatial curvature) must be large today, with an $\\Omega_k$ in the range of $1 \\le \\Omega_k \\le 1.3$. We argue that this constraint is difficult to reconcile with observations of the location of the first Doppler peak of the CMBR. We illustrate the argument with a simple toy model for the effect of backreaction, which we show is generically incompatible with observations.

Eran Rosenthal; Éanna É. Flanagan

2008-09-11

343

Models of space averaged energetics of plates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of high frequency vibrations in plates is of particular interest in the study of structure borne noise in aircrafts. The current methods of analysis are either too expensive (finite element method) or may have a confidence band wider than desirable (Statistical Energy Analysis). An alternative technique to model the space and time averaged response of structural acoustics problems with enough detail to include all significant mechanisms of energy generation, transmission, and absorption is highly desirable. The focus of this paper is the development of a set of equations which govern the space and time averaged energy density in plates. To solve this equation, a new type of boundary value problem must be treated in terms of energy density variables using energy and intensity boundary conditions. A computer simulation verification study of the energy governing equation is performed. A finite element formulation of the new equations is also implemented and several test cases are analyzed and compared to analytical solutions.

Bouthier, O. M.; Bernhard, R. J.

1990-01-01

344

jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

Posada, David

2008-07-01

345

High average power free-electron lasers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the first free-electron laser (FEL) was both conceived and demonstrated in the 1970s at Stanford, it has attracted much attention as a promising foundation for a high average power light source. Since its light is produced from free electrons, an FEL can be designed to lase at virtually any wavelength. Furthermore, since its light is generated from a relativistic beam that is continually replenished, its gain medium cannot be damaged by any conventional means. Accordingly, as there have been several ambitious attempts to design and construct high average power FELs over the past several decades, we chronicle some of these efforts. Additionally, we provide an overview of FEL technology and theory, discuss some of the obstacles that remain in the construction of a high-power FEL, and provide a road map toward a megawatt-class device.

Blau, Joseph; Cohn, Keith; Colson, William B.

2013-02-01

346

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

347

Piezoelectrically actuated time-averaged atomic microtraps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme for creating tight and adiabatic time-averaged atom-traps through the piezoelectric actuation of nanomagnetic structures. We show that potentials formed by the circular translation of magnetic structures have several advantages over conventional rotating-field techniques, particularly for high trap frequencies. As the magnitude of the actuation is changed, the trapping potential can be changed adiabatically between harmonic 3D confinement and a toroidal trap.

West, A. D.; Wade, C. G.; Weatherill, K. J.; Hughes, I. G.

2012-07-01

348

Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 3-average spectral properties

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented of the average spectral properties of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR) derived from observations made by radio astronomy experiments onboard the IMP-6 and RAE-2 spacecraft. As viewed from near the equatorial plane, TKR is most intense and most often observed in the 21-24 hr local time zone and is rarely seen in the 09-12 hr zone. The peak flux density usually occurs near 240 kHz, but there is evidence that the peak occurs at a somewhat lower frequency on the dayside. The frequency of the peak in the average flux spectrum varies inversely with increasing substorm activity as inferred from the auroral electrojet index (AE) from a maximum near 300 kHz during very quiet times to a minimum below 200 kHz during very disturbed times. The absolute flux levels in the 100-600 kHz TKR band increase significantly with increasing AE. The average power associated with a particular source region seems to decrease rapidly with increasing source altitude.

Kaiser, M. L.; Alexander, J. K.

1976-01-01

349

Modern average global sea-surface temperature

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

350

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20-30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

2013-05-01

351

Smoking status and weight loss in three weight loss programs

The purpose of the study was to examine differences in current, former, and never smokers' weight loss in three comprehensive weight loss programs. Archival data from 389 overweight participants enrolled in three comprehensive weight loss programs were analyzed. The programs differed in length and by type of diet (food-based low calorie diet, partial meal replacement low calorie diet, and supplement-based

Jennifer D. Lundgren; Patrick M. O'Neil; Corby K. Martin; Martin Binks

2006-01-01

352

Determination of intact splenic weight based on morcellated weight

Background: Comparisons of splenic size based on splenic weight are difficult after laparoscopic splenectomy, which results in a morcellated specimen. We report the results of a direct comparison between morcellated and intact splenic weights. Methods: Porcine spleens were harvested via a midline laparotomy, and an intact splenic weight was obtained, which served as the control. The spleen then was placed

R. M. Walsh; B. Chand; J. Brodsky; B. T. Heniford

2003-01-01

353

Background Dietary components effective in weight maintenance efforts have not been adequately identified. Objective To determine impact of changes in dietary consumption on weight loss and maintenance during the Weight Loss Maintenance (WLM) clinical trial. Design WLM was a randomized controlled trial. Successful weight loss participants who completed Phase I of the trial and lost 4kg were randomized to one of three maintenance intervention arms in Phase II and followed for an additional 30 months. Participants/setting The multicenter trial was conducted from 2003–2007. This substudy included 828 successful weight loss participants. Methods Dietary Measures The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess nutrient intake levels and food group servings. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber and fruit/vegetable and dairy servings were utilized as predictor variables. Data collection The FFQ was collected on all participants at study entry (beginning of Phase I). Those randomized to Phase II completed the FFQ at three additional time points; randomization (beginning of Phase II), 12 and 30 months. Intervention The main intervention focused on long term maintenance of weight loss using the Dietary Approaches to Hypertension (DASH) diet. This substudy examined whether changes to specific dietary variables were associated with weight loss and maintenance. Statistical analyses performed Linear regression models that adjusted for change in total energy examined the relationship between changes in dietary intake and weight for each time period. Site, age, race, sex, and a race-sex interaction were included as covariates. Results Participants who substituted protein for fat lost, on average, 0.33 kg per 6-months during Phase I (p<0.0001) and 0.07 kg per 6-months during Phase II (p<0.0001) per 1% increase in protein. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with weight loss in Phases I and II: 0.29 kg per 6-months (p<0.0001) and 0.04 kg per 6-months (p=0.0062), respectively, per 1-serving increase. Substitution of carbohydrates for fat and protein for carbohydrates were associated with weight loss during both phases. Increasing dairy intake was associated with significant weight loss during Phase II (?0.17 kg per 6-months per 1-serving increase, p=0.0002), but not in Phase I. Dietary fiber revealed no significant findings. Conclusion Increasing fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy may help achieve weight loss and maintenance. PMID:22117658

Champagne, Catherine M.; Broyles, Stephanie T; Moran, Laura D.; Cash, Katherine C.; Levy, Erma J.; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C.; Lien, Lillian F.; Funk, Kristine L.; Dalcin, Arlene; Loria, Catherine; Myers, Valerie H.

2011-01-01

354

20 CFR 654.5 - Classification of labor surplus areas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labor Statistics, the average unemployment rate for all civilian workers in...percent of the national average unemployment rate for civilian workers or higher...surplus area if the average unemployment rate for all civilian workers...

2010-04-01

355

Combination approach of highly conflicting evidence based on weighted distance of evidence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fuse highly conflicting evidence effectively, a novel combination method based on weighted distance of evidence is proposed by taking the ideas of Murphy's averaging method and Deng's weighted averaging method. Firstly, the essentiality of each element in the frame of discernment is given by Murphy's idea. Secondly, the weighted averaging distance between any two bodies of evidence(BOEs) is calculated under the modified City Block distance norm, further the support degree of each evidence supported by other evidences can be obtained. Thirdly, the normalized total support degree of each evidence is considered as the weights of BOEs, and a new weighted averaging BOE will be gained. Finally, the information fusion process can be realized by using the Dempster's rule of combination. Simulation results show that the proposed method can deal with the highly conflicting evidence with better performance of convergence, and it also can recognize the target more effectively and fleetly.

Liu, Zhicheng; He, Jiazhou; Qiao, Hui

2013-10-01

356

Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure – which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system) a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?–carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in “point” average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

357

358

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

359

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

360

... Tools & Resources Stroke More Eating Well and Losing Weight Updated:May 20,2014 Eating the right foods ... risk of future heart problems. Good nutrition and weight control are a crucial part of your treatment ...

361

Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

... who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type ... can have trouble controlling their blood sugar levels . Weight and Type 2 Diabetes Most people are overweight ...

362

Weight-Control Information Network

... Facebook Welcome to WIN The Weight-control Information Network provides the general public, health professionals, the media, ... niddk.nih.gov ; or write Weight-control Information Network, 1 WIN Way, Bethesda, MD 20892–3665. Last ...

363

(continued) ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Fitness + Weight Management How can I lose weight? It’s easy to start a diet. Staying on one is harder! Prepare yourself by setting goals, thinking ahead ...

364

Holistic Weight-Loss Strategies

... the weight-loss strategies psychologists often recommend include: Self-monitoring. One of the most effective tactics for reducing or managing weight is self-monitoring. That means systematically observing and recording what you ...

365

Weighted pebbling numbers on graphs

We expand the theory of pebbling to graphs with weighted edges. In a weighted pebbling game, one player distributes a set amount of weight on the edges of a graph and his opponent chooses a target vertex and places a configuration of pebbles on the vertices. Player one wins if, through a series of pebbling moves, he can move at least one pebble to the target. A pebbling move of p pebbles across an edge with weight w leaves the floor of pw pebbles on the next vertex. We find the weighted pebbling numbers of stars, graphs with at least 2|V|-1 edges, and trees with given targets. We give an explicit formula for the minimum total weight required on the edges of a length-2 path, solvable with p pebbles and exhibit a graph which requires an edge with weight 1/3 in order to achieve its weighted pebbling number.

Jones, Stephanie; McLeman, Cameron; Nyman, Kathryn

2011-01-01

366

STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHT VALUES FOR THE MONONUCLIDIC ELEMENTS - 2005.

When the policy for determining the atomic weight values for the mononuclidic elements was changed some decades ago, it was argued that new atomic mass tables would only be produced about once a decade. Since 1977, the average has been once every nine years, which is consistent with that early estimate. This report summarizes the changes over the years for the atomic weight values of the mononuclidic elements. It applies the Commission's technical rules to the latest atomic mass table and recommends changes in the values of the Standard Atomic Weights for eleven of the twenty-two for the TSAW.

HOLDEN, N.E.

2005-08-13

367

Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

Ahumada, Albert J Jr

2002-01-01

368

Molecular weight, chain profile of rice amylopectin and starch pasting properties.

Differences in fine structure, average molecular size of amylopectin (AP) as well as clarity of the AP solution from indica waxy rice and high amylose (HAM) rice were examined. Despite similar amylose content (AM), rice starches displayed different pasting properties. Waxy APs had higher values of both number-average and weight-average molecular weight (Mn¯ and Mw¯) but lower values of intrinsic viscosity [?], compared to HAM APs. HAM APs had higher values of average chain length (CL¯), average external chain length (ECL¯), and a proportion of DP ? 37. Statistical correlations of mol proportions of debranched AP, branching parameters, and molecular weight of AP were calculated. The study showed that starch pasting properties and clarity of AP solutions were influenced by molecular weight and branching characteristics of AP. PMID:24751267

Kowittaya, Chutarat; Lumdubwong, Namfone

2014-08-01

369

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of annual precipitation is important for many applications in hydrology, climatology, agronomy, ecology and other environmental sciences. In this study, we compared five different statistical methods to predict spatially the average annual precipitation of Turkey using point observations of annual precipitation at meteorological stations and spatially exhaustive covariate data (i.e. elevation, aspect, surface roughness, distance to coast, land use and eco-region). The methods compared were multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), universal kriging (UK), and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Average annual precipitation of Turkey from 1970 to 2006 was measured at 225 meteorological stations that are fairly uniformly distributed across the country, with a somewhat higher spatial density along the coastline. The observed annual precipitation varied between 255 mm and 2209 mm with an average of 628 mm. The annual precipitation was highest along the southern and northern coasts and low in the centre of the country, except for the area near the Van Lake, Keban and Ataturk Dams. To compare the performance of the interpolation techniques the total dataset was first randomly split in ten equally sized test datasets. Next, for each test data set the remaining 90% of the data comprised the training dataset. Each training dataset was then used to calibrate and apply the spatial prediction model. Predictions at the test dataset locations were compared with the observed test data. Validation was done by calculating the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-square and Standardized MSE (SMSE) values. According to these criteria, universal kriging is the most accurate with an RMSE of 178 mm, an R-square of 0.61 and an SMSE of 1.06, whilst multiple linear regression performed worst (RMSE of 222 mm, R-square of 0.39, and SMSE of 1.44). Ordinary kriging, UK using only elevation and geographically weighted regression are intermediate with RMSE values of 201 mm, 212 mm and 211 mm, and an R-square of 0.50, 0.44 and 0.45, respectively. The RK results are close to those of UK with an RMSE of 186 mm and R-square of 0.57. The spatial extrapolation performance of each method was also evaluated. This was done by predicting the annual precipitation in the eastern part of Turkey using observations from the western part. Results showed that MLR, GWR and RK performed best with little differences between these methods. The large prediction error variances confirmed that extrapolation is more difficult than interpolation. Whilst spatial extrapolation benefits most from covariate information as shown by an RMSE reduction of about 60 mm, in this study covariate information was also valuable for spatial interpolation because it reduced the RMSE with on average 30 mm.

Bostan, P. A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Akyurek, S. Z.

2012-10-01

370

The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and BMI were assessed at baseline, 1 year later and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or obese chose to enroll in the weight management program. Participants attended an average of 6.7 treatment sessions, lost an average of 2.4 pounds and had an average BMI decrease of 0.3. There was no significant change in weight or BMI compared to the control group. Intervention strategies that both improve utilization and yield greater weight loss need to be developed. PMID:22430566

Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N.; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

371

Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

1986-01-01

372

Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

2008-01-01

373

Weight Gain Prevention among Women

Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention.Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N

Michele D. Levine; Mary Lou Klem; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Rena R. Wing; Lisa Weissfeld; Li Qin; Marsha D. Marcus

2007-01-01

374

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

375

Spectral compression: Weighted principal component analysis versus weighted least squares

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two weighted compression schemes, Weighted Least Squares (wLS) and Weighted Principal Component Analysis (wPCA), are compared by considering their performance in minimizing both spectral and colorimetric errors of reconstructed reflectance spectra. A comparison is also made among seven different weighting functions incorporated into ordinary PCA/LS to give selectively more importance to the wavelengths that correspond to higher sensitivity in the human visual system. Weighted compression is performed on reflectance spectra of 3219 colored samples (including Munsell and NCS data) and spectral and colorimetric errors are calculated in terms of CIEDE2000 and root mean square errors. The results obtained indicate that wLS outperforms wPCA in weighted compression with more than three basis vectors. Weighting functions based on the diagonal of Cohen's R matrix lead to the best reproduction of color information under both A and D65 illuminants particularly when using a low number of basis vectors.

Agahian, Farnaz; Funt, Brian; Amirshahi, Seyed Hossein

2014-02-01

376

Molecular Weight Effects on the Viscoelastic Response of a Polyimide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC -SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of each material with different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of approximately 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

2000-01-01

377

Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

2009-02-19

378

Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

Caponi, Sandra

2013-08-14

379

[Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:24141918

Caponi, Sandra

2013-01-01

380

Averaging Spherically Symmetric Spacetimes in General Relativity

We discuss the averaging problem in general relativity, using the form of the macroscopic gravity equations in the case of spherical symmetry in volume preserving coordinates. In particular, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. On cosmological scales, the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background is found to be of the form of a spatial curvature. On astrophysical scales the correlation tensor can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. We briefly discuss the physical implications of these results.

A. A. Coley; N. Pelavas

2006-06-21

381

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

Schatten, Kenneth

1984-04-01

382

The Impact of Weight Changes on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adult Men with Normal Weight

Background Although it is known that losing weight has an effect on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the studies that show how losing weight affects the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for the normal weight male adults are limited so far. In this study, we set body mass index as criteria and investigated how the weight changes for 4 years makes an impact on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for the male adults who have the normal body mass index. Methods From January to December of 2004, among the normal weight male adults who had general check-up at the Health Promotion Center of Ulsan University Hospital, 180 people (average age, 47.4 ± 4.61 years) who were diagnosed with fatty liver through abdominal ultrasonography were included in this study and were observed according to the variety of data and ultrasonography after 4 years (2008). People who had a history of drinking more than 140 g of alcohol per week or who had a past medical history were excluded from the analysis. The weight change of subjects was calculated using the formula 'weight change = weight of 2008 (kg) - weight of 2004 (kg)' and classified into three groups, loss group (?-3.0 kg), stable group (-2.9 to 2.9 kg), and gain group (?3.0 kg). The odds for disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in those three different groups were compared. Results Among 180 subjects, compared with stable group (67.2%, 121 subjects), loss group (11.7%, 21 subjects) showed 18.37-fold increase in the odds of disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.34 to 77.80) and gain group (21.1%, 38 subjects) showed 0.28-fold decrease in the odds of disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.83). Conclusion Even for the normal weight people, losing weight has an effect on the improvement of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25309705

Cho, Ji-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Hee-Jin; Jang, Jung-Mi

2014-01-01

383

Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.

The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

2015-02-01

384

Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

1987-01-01

385

Motional averaging in a superconducting qubit.

Superconducting circuits with Josephson junctions are promising candidates for developing future quantum technologies. Of particular interest is to use these circuits to study effects that typically occur in complex condensed-matter systems. Here we employ a superconducting quantum bit--a transmon--to perform an analogue simulation of motional averaging, a phenomenon initially observed in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By modulating the flux bias of a transmon with controllable pseudo-random telegraph noise we create a stochastic jump of its energy level separation between two discrete values. When the jumping is faster than a dynamical threshold set by the frequency displacement of the levels, the initially separate spectral lines merge into a single, narrow, motional-averaged line. With sinusoidal modulation a complex pattern of additional sidebands is observed. We show that the modulated system remains quantum coherent, with modified transition frequencies, Rabi couplings, and dephasing rates. These results represent the first steps towards more advanced quantum simulations using artificial atoms. PMID:23361011

Li, Jian; Silveri, M P; Kumar, K S; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Vepsäläinen, A; Chien, W C; Tuorila, J; Sillanpää, M A; Hakonen, P J; Thuneberg, E V; Paraoanu, G S

2013-01-01

386

The 2009 World Average of $?_s$

Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha_s (Q)$, covering energy scales from $Q \\equiv \\mtau = 1.78$ GeV to 209 GeV, exactly follow the energy dependence predicted by QCD and therefore significantly test the concept af Asymptotic Freedom.

Siegfried Bethke

2009-08-10

387

Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl{sub 2} distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the predicted weights and IOM weights was less than 5 percentage points. Similarly, the difference in femoral head V54.3 Gy values between the two dose distributions was less than 5 percentage points for all but one patient. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a proof of concept that patient anatomy can be used to predict appropriate objective function weights for treatment planning. In the long term, such geometry-driven weights may serve as a starting point for iterative treatment plan design or may provide information about the most clinically relevant region of the Pareto surface to explore.

Lee, Taewoo, E-mail: taewoo.lee@utoronto.ca; Hammad, Muhannad [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada)] [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

2013-12-15

388

Birth Weight and Infant Growth: Optimal Infant Weight Gain versus Optimal Infant Weight

Objective: Infant growth assessment often focuses on “optimal” infant weights and lengths at specific ages, while de-emphasizing infant\\u000a weight gain. Objective of this study was to examine infant growth patterns by measuring infant weight gain relative to birth\\u000a weight. Methods: We conducted this study based on data collected in a prospective cohort study including 3,302 births with follow up examinations

Xu Xiong; Joan Wightkin; Jeanette H. Magnus; Gabriella Pridjian; Juan M. Acuna; Pierre Buekens

2007-01-01

389

Molecular Weight Dependence of Polymersome Membrane Structure, Elasticity, and Stability

permeation chromatography with polystyrene standards was used to determine number-average molecular weights by evaporation of the chloroform under vacuum. Addition of sucrose solution (250- 300 mM), to give a final with temperature and humidity control. The sample assembly was rapidly vitrified with liquid ethane at its melting

390

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

391

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01

392

Influence of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Performance of a Thermoplastic Glassy Polyimide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical Testing of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-TM-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength were all determined as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight (Mc) was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approx. 22000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Furthermore, inelastic analysis showed that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microstructural images supported these findings.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

393

PARAMETRIC DISTANCE WEIGHTING OF LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON STREAMS

We present a parametric model for estimating the areas within watersheds whose land use best predicts indicators of stream ecological condition. We regress a stream response variable on the distance-weighted proportion of watershed area that has a specific land use, such as agric...

394

Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

1989-01-01

395

Weight reduction, fertility and contraception.

The significance of weight and body composition with regard to the fertile menstrual cycle has excited much interest. There is global imbalance of resources and problems of widespread chronic malnutrition in many 3rd world countries. This emphasizes the great importance of the possible effects of diet, body weight, and body composition on fecundity (ability to reproduce), fertility (reproductive performance), and pregnancy outcome. Frisch and Revelle suggested that a critical body weight is required for a girl to progress through puberty, menstruate, and finally develop ovulatory cycles. They postulated a direct relationship between weight and menarche and suggested that before menarche will occur at least 17% of the body weight needs to be made up of fat. The Frisch hypothesis is not universally accepted, and it seems highly unlikely that a single age unrelated body weight is always the trigger for menarche. Many of the data used in Frische's original studies were derived rather than directly observed. It seems likely that both body weight and composition are important and that the peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens in fat plays a role in pubertal development, but the actual signal whcih triggers the hypothalamic events leading eventually through puberty to menstruation and ovulation remains unkown. Acute malnutrition, as seen during famine, is assoicated with a dramatic decrease in fertility. It is usually secondary to amenorrhea and annovulation. In developing countries weight related amenorrhea and delayed menarche are largely the result of nutritonal deprivation and the demands of lactation on women of boderline body weight, but a different pattern is seen in Western countries. The outstanding example of weight reduction resulting in infertility is seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. These women have extreme self imposed weight loss, a distorted perception of their body image, and disturbance in their attitude towards their feelings of hunger and satiety. Self imposed weight loss is the most common single cause of secondary amenorrhea seen in the Western world. While diagnosis of the gross anoretic is perhaps rarely missed, the more subtle degrees of weight loss and their effect on the menstrual cycle are often overlooked. Simple weight loss of more than 30% of body fat will cause menstrual dysfunction and ultimately amenorrhea. There is no clearly defined threshold between infertility and normal reproductive health, and there will always be women who become pregnant despite suboptimal weight. Patients with simple weight loss may be sufficiently motivated to restore their weight to normal levels, with resultant spontaneous resumption of ovulation. PMID:12266243

Van Der Spuy, Z M; Jacobs, H S

1983-10-01

396

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2013-04-01

398

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2012-04-01

399

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

2011-04-01

400

Molecular weight, polydispersity, and spectroscopic properties of aquatic humic substances

The number- and weight-averaged molecular weights of a number of aquatic fulvic acids, a commercial humic acid, and unfractionated organic matter from four natural water samples were measured by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Molecular weights determined in this manner compared favorably with those values reported in the literature. Both recent literature values and our data indicate that these substances are smaller and less polydisperse than previously believed. Moreover, the molecular weights of the organic matter from three of the four natural water samples compared favorably to the fulvic acid samples extracted from similar environments. Bulk spectroscopic properties of the fulvic substances such as molar absorptivity at 280 nm and the E4/E6 ratio were also measured. A strong correlation was observed between molar absorptivity, total aromaticity, and the weight average molecular weights of all the humic substances. This observation suggests that bulk spectroscopic properties can be used to quickly estimate the size of humic substances and their aromatic contents. Both parameters are important with respect to understanding humic substance mobility and their propensity to react with both organic and inorganic pollutants. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.; O'Loughlin, E.

1994-01-01

401

TOP ALUMNI AREAS METRO AREAS ALUMNI LOCATIONS States/NC counties STUDENT RECRUITING EVENTS 1000 The purple circles denote the metro areas with the greatest concentrations of NC State engineering alumni, large metro areas and North Carolina counties that nearly 50,000 living NC State engineering graduates

Velev, Orlin D.

402

The weighted random graph model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the weighted random graph (WRG) model, which represents the weighted counterpart of the Erdos-Renyi random graph and provides fundamental insights into more complicated weighted networks. We find analytically that the WRG is characterized by a geometric weight distribution, a binomial degree distribution and a negative binomial strength distribution. We also characterize exactly the percolation phase transitions associated with edge removal and with the appearance of weighted subgraphs of any order and intensity. We find that even this completely null model displays a percolation behaviour similar to what is observed in real weighted networks, implying that edge removal cannot be used to detect community structure empirically. By contrast, the analysis of clustering successfully reveals different patterns between the WRG and real networks.

Garlaschelli, Diego

2009-07-01

403

The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101

Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

2014-12-01

404

Weight loss in neurodegenerative disorders

Unintended weight loss frequently complicates the course of many neurodegenerative disorders and can contribute substantially\\u000a to both morbidity and mortality. This will be illustrated here by reviewing the characteristics of unintended weight loss\\u000a in the three major neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. A common\\u000a denominator of weight loss in these neurodegenerative disorders is its typically complex

N. Ahmad Aziz; Marjolein A. van der Marck; Hanno Pijl; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert; Bastiaan R. Bloem; Raymund A. C. Roos

2008-01-01

405

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids are major fraction of water soluble organic compounds in the atmospheric aerosols. Recently, economy of East Asia grows up remarkably, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this area have been transported to Japan. In this study, we collected aerosol at Cape Hedo (CH) and University of the Ryukyus(UR), and studied the distribution and origin of low molecule dicarboxylic acid. Aerosols were collected on a quartz filter with a high volume air sampler. Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids extracted by pure water were derivatized to dibutyl esters by reactions with BF3/butanol and were measured by GC-FID. In many samples, oxalic acid showed the highest concentration. Concentration of oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and malic acid were strongly correlated between the two sampling sites. Oxalic acid occupied on the average 83% and 76% of all the dicarboxylic acid measured for CH samples and UR samples. It is suggested that the aerosols in Okinawa were affected by secondary photochemical reactions, not by the primary emissions from local sources. The seasonal variation of the dicarboxylic acids concentrations in CH and UR showed higher in spring and fall, and a lower in summer. From the back trajectory analysis, dicarboxylic acids concentrations showed higher when an air mass came from East Asia area, and showed lower when it came from Pacific Ocean.

Nakaema, F.; Handa, D.; Tanahara, A.; Arakaki, T.

2009-04-01

406

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consequences of a simple integral definition of electron charge bound to an ion are examined for Thomas-Fermi (TF) and Debye-Huckel-Thomas-Fermi (DHTF) average atom statistical potentials used to describe high temperature high density plasmas. A self-consistent scheme for calculating average degree of ionization within the DHTF approach is described. With the simple integral definition of bound charge the DHTF model, unlike the TF model, exhibits the anomalous behavior that degree of ionization can decrease as temperature increases. It is shown that this results from inclusion in the integration of electron charge density too extended and too near continuum energies to be physically considered as bound.

Zakowicz, W.; Feng, I. J.; Pratt, R. H.

1982-03-01

407

Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

408

Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

2012-01-01

409

Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

Ward, Thomas Carl

1981-01-01

410

Averaging techniques for steady and unsteady calculations of a transonic fan stage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is often desirable to characterize a turbomachinery flow field with a few lumped parameters such as total pressure ratio or stage efficiency. Various averaging schemes may be used to compute these parameters. The momentum, energy, and area averaging schemes are described and compared. The schemes were compared for two computed solutions of the midspan section of a transonic fan stage: a steady averaging-plane solution in which average rotor outflow conditions were used as stator inflow conditions, and an unsteady rotor-stator interaction solution. The solutions were computed on identical grids using similar Navier-Stokes codes and an algebraic turbulence model. The unsteady solution is described, some unsteady flow phenomena are discussed, and the steady pressure distributions are compared. Despite large unsteady pressure fluctuations on the stator surface, the steady pressure distribution matched the average unsteady distribution almost exactly. Stator wake profiles, stator loss coefficient, and stage efficiency were computed for the two solutions with the three averaging schemes and are compared. In general, the energy averaging scheme gave good agreement between the averaging-plane solution and the time-averaged unsteady solution, even though certain phenomena due to unsteady wake migration were neglected.

Wyss, M. L.; Chima, R. V.; Tweedt, D. L.

1993-01-01

411

Use of Averaged Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire Scores

Background. Averaged Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ) support scores remove the influence of network size variability but may unduly lower scores for participants with large networks. Objectives. To evaluate the use of averaged NSSQ scores. Method. Pearson correlations determined if averaged scores decreased as network size increased across three samples. Then, Pearson correlations between a criterion variable and both averaged and raw support scores were computed along with the resultant power to detect a true effect. Results. Neither averaged total functional support nor averaged affect and affirmation scores decreased as sample size increased. However, averaged aid scores did decrease as network size increased. Power also increased markedly in all averaged versus raw scores except in averaged aid scores. Discussion and Conclusions. Use of averaged aid scores is not recommended. Use of all other averaged scores appears acceptable. PMID:22007323

Gigliotti, Eileen; Samuels, William Ellery

2011-01-01

412

Homology-based prediction of interactions between proteins using Averaged One-Dependence Estimators

Background Identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is essential for a better understanding of biological processes, pathways and functions. However, experimental identification of the complete set of PPIs in a cell/organism (“an interactome”) is still a difficult task. To circumvent limitations of current high-throughput experimental techniques, it is necessary to develop high-performance computational methods for predicting PPIs. Results In this article, we propose a new computational method to predict interaction between a given pair of protein sequences using features derived from known homologous PPIs. The proposed method is capable of predicting interaction between two proteins (of unknown structure) using Averaged One-Dependence Estimators (AODE) and three features calculated for the protein pair: (a) sequence similarities to a known interacting protein pair (FSeq), (b) statistical propensities of domain pairs observed in interacting proteins (FDom) and (c) a sum of edge weights along the shortest path between homologous proteins in a PPI network (FNet). Feature vectors were defined to lie in a half-space of the symmetrical high-dimensional feature space to make them independent of the protein order. The predictability of the method was assessed by a 10-fold cross validation on a recently created human PPI dataset with randomly sampled negative data, and the best model achieved an Area Under the Curve of 0.79 (pAUC0.5%?=?0.16). In addition, the AODE trained on all three features (named PSOPIA) showed better prediction performance on a separate independent data set than a recently reported homology-based method. Conclusions Our results suggest that FNet, a feature representing proximity in a known PPI network between two proteins that are homologous to a target protein pair, contributes to the prediction of whether the target proteins interact or not. PSOPIA will help identify novel PPIs and estimate complete PPI networks. The method proposed in this article is freely available on the web at http://mizuguchilab.org/PSOPIA. PMID:24953126

2014-01-01

413

A finite volume MUSCL scheme for the numerical integration of 2D shallow water equations is presented. In the framework of the SLIC scheme, the proposed weighted surface-depth gradient method (WSDGM) computes intercell water depths through a weighted average of DGM and SGM reconstructions, in which the weight function depends on the local Froude number. This combination makes the scheme capable

F. Aureli; A. Maranzoni; P. Mignosa; C. Ziveri

2008-01-01

414

APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data

Oregon, University of

415

Bayesian Weighting of Statistical Potentials in NMR Structure Calculation

The use of statistical potentials in NMR structure calculation improves the accuracy of the final structure but also raises issues of double counting and possible bias. Because statistical potentials are averaged over a large set of structures, they may not reflect the preferences of a particular structure or data set. We propose a Bayesian method to incorporate a knowledge-based backbone dihedral angle potential into an NMR structure calculation. To avoid bias exerted through the backbone potential, we adjust its weight by inferring it from the experimental data. We demonstrate that an optimally weighted potential leads to an improvement in the accuracy and quality of the final structure, especially with sparse and noisy data. Our findings suggest that no universally optimal weight exists, and that the weight should be determined based on the experimental data. Other knowledge-based potentials can be incorporated using the same approach. PMID:24956116

Mechelke, Martin; Habeck, Michael

2014-01-01

416

An Efficient Weighted Routing Strategy for Scale-Free Networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the link congestion based traffic model, which can more accurately model the traffic diffusing process of many real complex systems such as the Internet, we propose an efficient weighted routing strategy in which each link's weight is assigned with the edge betweenness of the original un-weighted network with a tunable parameter ?. As the links with the highest edge betweenness are susceptible to traffic congestion, our routing strategy efficiently redistribute the heavy traffic load from central links to noncentral links. The highest traffic capacity under this new routing strategy is achieved when compared with the shortest path routing strategy and the efficient routing strategy. Moreover, the average path length of our routing strategy is much smaller than that of the efficient routing strategy. Therefore, our weighted routing strategy is preferable to other routing strategies and can be easily implemented through software method.

Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Huang, Jian-Ling; Li, Qian

2012-11-01

417

Create the ensemble sea surface temperature using the Bayesian model averaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring accurately Sea Surface temperature is important for many marine applications and monitoring the global climate system. Many instruments are used for the measuring the SST. The SST delivered from satellite have the advantages that are a broad scope and consistent detection. But SST products show the different value because of different of retrieval algorithm and sensor. To reduce the uncertain, SST data ensemble is carried out using the Bayesian model averaging(BMA). BMA is method of the weighted average using the posterior probability distribution. And the means and variances of the posterior probabilities are estimated using Expectation-Maximization(EM) algorithm. The estimated mean of the posterior probability is used as the weight for the weighted average. SST data of Aqua/MODIS, Terra/MODIS and NOAA/AVHRR was used as ensemble member. SST data Envisat/AATSR was used as reference data for calculating the posterior probability and validation data. To make the monthly ensemble SST, their provided monthly SST data was used. one-leave-out-cross validation that is one of the statistical validation method is used for validating the ensemble SST. The 12 cases, except for the data of one month per the case, was made and excepted month was used validation period. And we compared with the ensemble mean and median. As the result, ensemble BMA showed the lowest RMSE.

Kim, Kwangjin; Lee, Yang-Won

2014-10-01

418

Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

419

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Exploratorium provides a comparison of the force of gravity on the Earth, moon, planets, and stars. The site automatically calculates your weight on these objects. It also contains an explanation of the difference between mass and weight and of the relationship between gravity, mass, and distance.

Hipschman, Ron

420

Keeping That Weight Loss Resolution

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Keeping That Weight Loss Resolution Start with selecting a diet you can stick with, expert says (*this news item will not be available after 03/28/2015) By Robert Preidt Sunday, December 28, 2014 ... Diets Weight Control SUNDAY, Dec. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- If ...

421

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel weight. 981.9 Section 981.9 Agriculture Regulations...Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.9 Kernel weight. Kernel weight means the weight of kernels, including pieces...

2010-01-01

422

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Weight. 658.17 Section 658.17 Highways...ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.17 Weight....

2011-04-01

423

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weight. 658.17 Section 658.17 Highways...ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.17 Weight....

2010-04-01

424

Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a surgical procedure that includes a longitudinal lateral gastrectomy to reduce food intake by reducing the capacity of the stomach. The technique of SG as a primary procedure has evolved since it was first introduced in 2001. Some perform the SG over smaller bougie sizes (30-40 Fr) or an NG tube. Some begin the SG near the pylorus (2 cm) while others avoid the antral/pyloric area. Establishing the mass or volume of stomach remaining is subject to limitations associated with the in vivo status. However, quantifying the amount (mass) of stomach removed is definitively an objective measure. The study was conducted to determine the relationship between the amount of stomach excised and the patient's gender and preoperative weight and height. Data was collected prospectively and was compiled in a review of 165 (136 Female and 29 Male) patients who underwent laparoscopic SG from December 7, 2001 to March 18, 2004 by a single surgeon at three institutions using the same technique for performance and measurement. The empty weight and capacity of resected stomach specimens were measured intra-operatively and subsequently correlated with the patient's gender, preoperative weight, and height. The mean height of male patients was 179.7+/-7.1 (CM) and the mean height of female patients was 165.1+/-7.1(CM). The mean weight of stomach tissue removed from male patients was 160.3±29.4 (G) and from female patients was 123.5±40.4 (G). The difference in height and weight between men and women was statistically significant (P-value<0.0001). The empty stomach weight and capacity both are linearly related to each other (R-square=0.9292, P-value<.0001). There is evidence showing the statistically significant correlation among preoperative height, gender, and preoperative weight and amount of stomach removed. For the average height patient, removal of gastric tissue weighing less than 160 grams in males and 120 grams in females may indicate an inadequate resection. This removes a stomach capacity of approximately 1600 cc's and 1200 cc's respectively. PMID:21082564

Baraki, Yaqub M; Traverso, Purnel; Elariny, Hazem A; Fang, Yun

2010-10-01

425

Purpose: To investigate if opposed-phase T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted liver signal intensity (SI) loss and visceral fat measurement at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and body mass index (BMI) are correlated with grade of liver steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–related liver disease. Materials and Methods: Committee on Human Research approval and patient consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Fifty-two patients (15 men, 37 women) with NAFLD (n = 29) or HCV and HIV–related liver disease (n = 23) underwent prospective contemporaneous MR imaging and liver biopsy. Liver SI loss was measured on opposed-phase T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images. Visceral fat area was measured at three levels on water-suppressed T1-weighted MR images (n = 44). Spearman rank correlation coefficients and recursive partitioning were used to examine correlations. Results: Histopathologic liver steatosis correlated well with liver SI loss on opposed-phase T1-weighted MR images (? = 0.78), fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images (? = 0.75), and average visceral fat area (? = 0.77) (all P < .01) but poorly with BMI (? = 0.53, P < .01). Liver SI losses on opposed-phase T1-weighted MR imaging of less than 3%, at least 3% but less than 35%, at least 35% but less than 49%, and at least 49% corresponded to histopathologic steatosis grades of 0 (n = 16 of 17), 1 (n = 11 of 16), 2 (n = 7 of 13), and 3 (n = 5 of 6), respectively. A visceral fat area of greater than or equal to 73.8 cm2 was associated with the presence of histopathologic steatosis in 41 of 44 patients. Conclusion: Liver SI loss on opposed-phase T1-weighted MR images and visceral fat area may be used as biomarkers for the presence of liver steatosis and appear to be superior to BMI. © RSNA, 2008 PMID:18796674

Bahl, Manisha; Qayyum, Aliya; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Noworolski, Susan M.; Chu, Philip W.; Ferrell, Linda; Tien, Phyllis C.; Bass, Nathan M.; Merriman, Raphael B.

2008-01-01

426

Weight Status and Weight-Management Behaviors Among Philadelphia High School Students, 2007–2011

Introduction The prevalence of obesity among youth may be stabilizing and even declining in some areas of the United States. The objective of our study was to examine whether the stabilization in obesity prevalence among Philadelphia high school students was accompanied by changes in weight-management behaviors. Methods We evaluated changes in self-reported weight status and weight-management behaviors by using data collected by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2007, 2009, and 2011. We used multivariable regression models controlling for race/ethnicity and age to estimate prevalence. Results Although the proportion of overweight and obese students did not change significantly during the study period, we found that approximately half of female students and 30% of male students reported trying to lose weight. Among female students, we observed significant increases in the proportion engaging in 5 or more days of physical activity per week (26.0% in 2007 to 31.9% in 2011; P = .003) and significant decreases in the proportion consuming at least 1 soda per day (31.1% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2011, P = .001). The proportion of female students who fasted for weight loss also increased significantly during the study period (12.2% in 2007 to 17.0% in 2011, P = .02). We found no significant changes in behavior among male students. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity and overweight may have reached a plateau among Philadelphia high school students, most students still failed to meet recommendations for healthful weight-management behaviors. Continued public health initiatives are necessary to promote participation in healthful weight-management behaviors. PMID:24070036

Lenhart, Clare M.; Bauer, Katherine W.

2013-01-01

427

Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

Bauer, Ben

2009-01-01

428

Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation of global 21-cm signal measurements are detections of Lyman Alpha Emitters at high redshifts and constraints on the midpoint of reionization, both of which are among the primary science objectives of ongoing or near-future experiments.

Mirocha, Jordan

2015-01-01

429

Bite weight prediction from acoustic recognition of chewing.

Automatic dietary monitoring (ADM) offers new perspectives to reduce the self-reporting burden for participants in diet coaching programs. This paper presents an approach to predict weight of individual bites taken. We utilize a pattern recognition procedure to spot chewing cycles and food type in continuous data from an ear-pad chewing sound sensor. The recognized information is used to predict bite weight. We present our recognition procedure and demonstrate its operation on a set of three selected foods of different bite weights. Our evaluation is based on chewing sensor data of eight healthy study participants performing 504 habitual bites in total. The sound-based chewing recognition achieved recalls of 80% at 60%-70% precision. Food classification of chewing sequences resulted in an average accuracy of 94%. In total, 50 variables were derived from the chewing microstructure, and were analyzed for correlations between chewing behavior and bite weight. A subset of four variables was selected to predict bite weight using linear food-specific models. Mean weight prediction error was lowest for apples (19.4%) and largest for lettuce (31%) using the sound-based recognition. We conclude that bite weight prediction using acoustic chewing recordings is a feasible approach for solid foods, and should be further investigated. PMID:19272978

Amft, Oliver; Kusserow, Martin; Tröster, Gerhard

2009-06-01

430

Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

1984-09-25

431

Finally It Is Possible To Measure Area-Average Soil Moisture!

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a hitherto impossible measurement becomes possible, there are transformational changes in understanding. Measuring soil moisture using cosmic rays sounds like 1950s science fiction. But the non-invasive measurement of soil moisture at a horizontal scale of ~700m and depths of 15-70 cm is now feasible, by counting cosmic-ray neutrons that are generated within soil, moderated mainly by the hydrogen atoms, and emitted back to the atmosphere. The number of neutrons counted is sensitive to water content changes, only weakly sensitive to soil chemistry, and their intensity is inversely correlated with the hydrogen (i.e., water) content of the soil. Neither the basis of this measurement method nor the sensor technology used is new, they have been around for decades. However, the systematic understanding of cosmic-ray interactions at the ground-atmosphere interface and resulting knowledge of the source "footprint" of above ground neutron detectors and recognition of their limited of sensitivity to soil type in selected neutron energy bands is new, as is the low power electronics used for remote signal conditioning, counting and data capture. The measurement with a portable neutron detector placed above the ground takes minutes to hours, permitting high-resolution, long-term monitoring of undisturbed soil moisture. The large footprint makes the method suitable for weather and short-term climate forecast initialization and satellite validation, while the measurement depth makes the probe ideal for studying plant/soil/atmosphere interactions. Inclusion of a second detector that is sensitive to neutrons with lower energy shows promise as a means for detecting snow cover. This talk briefly overviews evidence that soil moisture status can potentially influence weather and seasonal climate and describe the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), which observing program will install initially a network of 50 probes (to provide a proof of concept) and subsequently 500 probes distributed across the contiguous USA. The nature, scope, and scientific focus of the COSMOS program is described together with deployment strategies and potential probe locations. Proposed redevelopment of the cosmic ray method to allow calibration of upcoming remote sensing missions is also discussed, and some early results obtained at COSMOS probe sites presented.

Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zreda, M. G.; Zeng, X.; Zweck, C.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

2011-12-01

432

Power dissipation and time-averaged pressure in oscillating flow through a sudden area change

is dissipated in pipe bends, valves, expansions, entrances, or anything other than a length of straight pipe G. W. Swift Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos expansion for the outward flow and through an entrance for the inward flow . Currently, at least three other

Smith, Barton L.

433

Average properties of nuclear test areas and media at the USERDA Nevada Test Site

Data have gradually been accumulated on the physical properties of ; nuclear test sites at the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration ; (USERDA) Nevada Test Site (NTS) since underground testing began there in 1957. ; These data have been stored in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) K-Division ; Test Effects Data Bank. This report briefly describes the principal

L. D. Ramspott; N. W. Howard

1975-01-01

434

A PTAS for Minimizing Weighted Completion Time on Uniformly Related Machines

A PTAS for Minimizing Weighted Completion Time on Uniformly Related Machines (Extended Abstract of scheduling jobs with release dates to minimize their average weighted completion time. When multiple machines are available, the machine environment may range from identical machines (the processing time required by a job

Pennsylvania, University of

435

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), with either 50 mM LiBr, 10% water or both, was used as solvent for multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) batch mode analysis of rice starch, and amylopectin and amylose weight-average molecular weight (Mw). DMSO/50 mM LiBr was a better solvent for these measurements ...

436

Length-weight relationships for 13 species of sharks from the

by the Apex Predator Investigation (API) of NMFS over a 29-year period. Materials and methods LengthLength-weight relationships for 13 species of sharks from the western North Atlantic Nancy E, maximum, and average sizes, as well as length-to-weight and length-to-Iength relationships. These data

437

Arithmetic averaging: A versatile technique for smoothing and trend removal

Arithmetic averaging is simple, stable, and can be very effective in attenuating the undesirable components in a complex signal, thereby providing smoothing or trend removal. An arithmetic average is easy to calculate. However, the resulting modifications to the data, in both the time and frequency domains, are not well understood by many experimentalists. This paper discusses the following aspects of averaging: (1) types of averages -- simple, cumulative, and moving; and (2) time and frequency domain effects of the averaging process.

Clark, E.L.

1993-12-31

438

Constrained Semi-Markov decision processes with average rewards

This paper deals with constrained average reward Semi-Markov Decision Processes (SMDPs) with finite state and action sets. We consider two average reward criteria. The first criterion is time-average rewards, which equal the lower limits of the expected average rewards per unit time, as the horizon tends to infinity. The second criterion is ratio-average rewards, which equal the lower limits of

Eugene A. Feinberg; W. A. Harriman

1994-01-01

439

New empirical formulae for calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated and reviewed in a table form the average bulk M-shell fluorescence yield previously measured by different groups covering the period from 1955 to 2005. We have interpolated the weighted and unweighted mean values of the experimental data by using the analytical function ( as a function of the atomic number (Z) to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. Also, we used the famous formula ?barM=A( to generalize the average M-shell fluorescence yield for elements with 19?Z?100. The results have been compared with other theoretical, experimental and empirical values reported in the literature and a reasonable agreement has been obtained.

Kahoul, A.; Aylikci, V.; Deghfel, B.; Küp Aylikci, N.; Nekkab, M.

2014-09-01

440

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general analytic expression for the temporal spectrum of atmospheric scintillation under weak turbulence condition is derived. It was employed to study the characteristics of the temporal spectra for horizontal uniform path and whole layer atmospheric non-uniform path. In the non-uniform path, the H-V turbulence model and the Gaussian wind speed model are utilized. It has been found that when the receiver diameter is larger than Fresnel scale (?L)1/2, the temporal spectrum of the plane wave have a power law behavior with a scaling index - 17/3 in high-frequency range. The change of the turbulence strength has little influence on the shape of the temporal spectrum. Based on the characteristics of the temporal spectrum, the aperture-averaging and time-averaging effects on scintillation were analyzed in the frequency domain.

Shen, Hong; Yu, Longkun; Fan, Chengyu

2014-11-01

441

To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

2007-01-15

442

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

443

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59). The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98) and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%). The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight), the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study.

Santo, Marco Aurelio; Riccioppo, Daniel; Pajecki, Denis; de Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

2014-01-01

444

parameters. Also tree dry weight (DW) relationships with tree parameters were determined and dry weight tables calculated. Average specific gravity values of cores and disks at breast height and tree specific gravities respectively were 0. 457, 0. 493.... Juvenile and Mature Core Wood Relationships. Dry Weight Relationships 10 14 14 14 15 18 21 21 26 31 36 v i i 1 Chapter Page V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS. Specific Gravity Relationships Tree Specific Gravity as a Function of Core Specific...

King, Anthony Laurence

1974-01-01

445

Two equivalent measures on weighted hypergraphs

Let H=(N,E,w) be a hypergraph with a node set N={0,1,…,n-1}, a hyperedge set E?2N, and real edge-weights w(e) for e?E. Given a convex n-gon P in the plane with vertices x0,x1,…,xn-1 which are arranged in this order clockwisely, let each node i?N correspond to the vertex xi and define the area AP(H) of H on P by the sum of

Hiro Ito; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2006-01-01

446

A process is described for the production of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons from lower molecular hydrocarbons comprising the steps of: (a) introducing into a reaction zone a lower molecular weight hydrocarbon-containing gas and contacting the gas in the zone with a metal compound-containing catalyst having a surface area in the range 0.1 to 10 m/sup 2//gram and containing a carbide, nitride, boride or oxide of a Group I-A metal, under C/sub 2/ + hydrocarbon synthesis conditions such that at least 15 mole percent of the lower molecular weight hydrocarbons in the gas are converted to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, the conditions including a temperature of greater than 1000/sup 0/C and a gas hourly space velocity of greater than 3200 hr/sup -1/; (b) withdrawing from the reaction zone a higher molecular weight hydrocarbon-containing stream.

Devries, L.; Ryason, P.R.

1987-11-24

447

How to Define Average Class Size (and Deviations from the Average Class Size) in a Way Which Is

of the important parameters is the average class size. This average is usually estimated as an arithmetic average size. However, if we want to describe the effect of deviations from the average class size on the teaching effectiveness, then, instead of the standard deviation of the class size, a more complex

Kreinovich, Vladik

448

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concept of area and ability to find area of irregular shapes constructed of squares on a grid. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the resource does not include student reading material.

2010-01-01

449

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore area and perimeter, the difference between them, and how to calculate them. As an introductory activity, students are given 12 tiles and asked to design a rectangle from them and uncover the definitions of area and perimeter. Then, students are given 36 tiles and asked to create as many rectangles as possible, observing the dimensions, area, and perimeter of each. A worksheet is provided, along with centimeter and half-centimeter grid paper.

Van De Walle, John; Lovin, Lou A.

2006-01-01

450

Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada.

Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ?4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6 % geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ?3 % of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon. PMID:24748485

Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

2015-02-01

451

Ensemble average TIRM for imaging amperometry.

Colloidal particles can function as probes of local electrochemical current density if a functional relationship between the response of the particles and the electric field in the vicinity of the particles can be established. The nanometer scale movement of a single colloidal particle during cyclic voltammetry can be observed with the aid of total internal reflection microscopy. The intensity of scattered light can be related back to the current density local to that particle, and hence the method is called imaging amperometry. Data acquisition and optical constraints, however, make a single-particle method impractical for analysis of macro-scale (~1 cm(2)) surfaces covered by several hundred thousand particles. Subdivision of the electrode into small patches, each containing an ensemble of particles, solves this problem if the scattering from the ensembles can be related to the local electric field. For example, a 100×100 array of square 100 ?m patches each containing approximately two dozen particles would form a mosaic of electrochemical activity with 0.01% area resolution on a 1cm(2) electrode having location-dependent electrocatalytic properties. The focus of this contribution, therefore, is adaptation of the method from single particles to particle ensembles. The algebraic relationship between current density and scattering intensity for single particles holds for ensembles if the mean scattering intensity is corrected to its mode. Currents calculated from particle light scattering at different locations on a single ITO/gold patterned electrode agree well with currents measured on these two electrode materials, which have quite different electrocatalytic properties. PMID:23683956

Rock, Reza M; Sides, Paul J; Prieve, Dennis C

2013-08-01

452

Clinical versus sonographic estimation of foetal weight in southwest Nigeria.

A prospective study was conducted at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 3 January and 31May 2004, to compare the accuracy of clinical and ultrasonographic estimation of foetal weight at term. One hundred pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had their foetal weight estimated independently using clinical and ultrasonographic methods. Accuracy was determined by percentage error, absolute percentage error, and proportion of estimates within 10% of actual birth-weight (birth-weight of +10%). Statistical analysis was done using the paired t-test, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the chi-square test. The study sample had an actual average birth-weight of 3,255+622 (range 2,150-4,950) g. Overall, the clinical method overestimated birth-weight, while ultrasound underestimated it. The mean absolute percentage error of the clinical method was smaller than that of the sonographic method, and the number of estimates within 10% of actual birth-weight for the clinical method (70%) was greater than for the sonographic method (68%); the difference was not statistically significant. In the low birth-weight (<2,500 g) group, the mean errors of sonographic estimates were significantly smaller, and significantly more sonographic estimates (66.7%) were within 10% of actual birth-weight than those of the clinical method (41.7%). No statistically significant difference was observed in all the measures of accuracy for the normal birth-weight range of 2,500-<4,000 g and in the macrosonic group (> or =4,000 g), except that, while the ultrasonographic method underestimated birth-weight, the clinical method overestimated it. Clinical estimation of birth-weight is as accurate as routine ultrasonographic estimation, except in low-birth-weight babies. Therefore, when the clinical method suggests weight smaller than 2,500 g, subsequent sonographic estimation is recommended to yield a better prediction and to further evaluate foetal well-being. PMID:17615900

Shittu, Akinola S; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Orji, Ernest O; Makinde, Niyi O; Ogunniy, Solomon O; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga O; Sule, Salami S

2007-03-01

453

A 48-square-mile area in the southeastern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was studied to determine if generalized information obtained from geologic maps, water-level maps, and drillers' logs could be used to estimate hydraulic conduc- tivity, porosity, and slope of the potentiometric surface: the three properties needed to calculate average linear velocity of ground water. Estimated values of these properties could be used by water- management and regulatory agencies to compute values of average linear velocity, which could be further used to estimate travel time of ground water along selected flow lines, and thus to determine wellhead protection areas around public- supply wells. The methods used to estimate the three properties are based on assumptions about the drillers' descriptions, the depositional history of the sediments, and the boundary con- ditions of the hydrologic system. These assump- tions were based on geologic and hydrologic infor- mation determined from previous investigations. The reliability of the estimated values for hydro- logic properties and average linear velocity depends on the accuracy of these assumptions. Hydraulic conductivity of the principal aquifer was estimated by calculating the thickness- weighted average of values assigned to different drillers' descriptions of material penetrated during the construction of 98 wells. Using these 98 control points, the study area was divided into zones representing approximate hydraulic- conductivity values of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 250 feet per day. This range of values is about the same range of values used in developing a ground-water flow model of the principal aquifer in the early 1980s. Porosity of the principal aquifer was estimated by compiling the range of porosity values determined or estimated during previous investigations of basin-fill sediments, and then using five different values ranging from 15 to 35 percent to delineate zones in the study area that were assumed to be underlain by similar deposits. Delineation of the zones was based on depositional history of the area and the distri- bution of sediments shown on a surficial geologic map. Water levels in wells were measured twice in 1990: during late winter when ground-water with- drawals were the least and water levels the highest, and again in late summer, when ground- water withdrawals were the greatest and water levels the lowest. These water levels were used to construct potentiometric-contour maps and subsequently to determine the variability of the slope in the potentiometric surface in the area. Values for the three properties, derived from the described sources of information, were used to produce a map showing the general distribution of average linear velocity of ground water moving through the principal aquifer of the study area. Velocity derived ranged from 0.06 to 144 feet per day with a median of about 3 feet per day. Values were slightly faster for late summer 1990 than for late winter 1990, mainly because increased with- drawal of water during the summer created slightly steeper hydraulic-head gradients between the recharge area near the mountain front and the well fields farther to the west. The fastest average linear-velocity values were located at the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon and south of Dry Creek near the mountain front, where the hydraulic con- ductivity was estimated to be the largest because the drillers described the sediments to be pre- dominantly clean and coarse grained. Both of these areas also had steep slopes in the potentiometric surface. Other areas where average linear velocity was fast included small areas near pumping wells where the slope in the potentiometric surface was locally steepened. No apparent relation between average linear velocity and porosity could be seen in the mapped distributions of these two properties. Calculation of travel time along a flow line to a well in the southwestern part of the study area during the sum

Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.; Monheiser, W.J.

1994-01-01

454

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and <1.3 kg) or heavy (H; >1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (P<0.01) and feed efficiency was lower (P<0.01) in L than H barrows. Regardless of the birth weight group, AA and RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than RR barrows. During the compensatory growth period, RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than AA or RR barrows. Growth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (P<0.05) compared with AA barrows. Carcasses of L barrows were fatter as indicated by the lower (P??0.05) lean meat and greater (P?0.02) omental and subcutaneous fat percentage. Lean meat percentage was lower (P?0.05) in AA and RA than RR barrows. These differences caused by ad libitum feed access tended to be greater (feeding regime × birth weight group interaction; P<0.08) in L than H barrows. In L barrows, slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic and overall average myofibre size of the LM and the fast glycolytic myofibres and overall average myofibre size of the dark portion of the STM were larger (P?0.03) than in H barrows. The study revealed that the compensatory growth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight. PMID:25385171

Madsen, J G; Bee, G

2014-11-11

455

To compare classification of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight versus weight measured at the first prenatal visit. Retrospective cohort of 307 women receiving prenatal care at the faculty and resident obstetric clinics at a Massachusetts tertiary-care center. Eligible women initiated prenatal care prior to 14 weeks gestation and delivered singleton infants between April 2007 and March 2008. On average, self-reported weight was 4 pounds lighter than measured weight at the first prenatal visit (SD 7.2 pounds; range: 19 pounds lighter to 35 pounds heavier). Using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight to calculate pre-pregnancy BMI, 4.2 % of women were underweight, 48.9 % were normal weight, 25.4 % were overweight, and 21.5 % were obese. Using weight measured at first prenatal visit, these were 3.6, 45.3, 26.4, and 24.8 %, respectively. Classification of pre-pregnancy BMI was concordant for 87 % of women (weighted kappa = 0.86; 95 % CI 0.81-0.90). Women gained an average of 32.1 pounds (SD 18.0 pounds) during pregnancy. Of the 13 % of the sample with discrepant BMI classification, 74 % gained within the same adherence category when comparing weight gain to Institute of Medicine recommendations. For the vast majority of women, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured weight at first prenatal visit resulted in identical classification of pre-pregnancy BMI. In absence of measured pre-pregnancy weight, we recommend that providers calculate both values and discuss discrepancies with their pregnant patients, as significant weight loss or gain during the first trimester may indicate a need for additional oversight with potential intervention. PMID:23247668

Holland, Erica; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Doyle Curiale, Darrah K; Liao, Xun; Waring, Molly E

2013-12-01

456

Identification and estimation of survivor average causal effects

In longitudinal studies, outcomes ascertained at follow-up are typically undefined for individuals who die prior to the follow-up visit. In such settings, outcomes are said to be truncated by death and inference about the effects of a point treatment or exposure, restricted to individuals alive at the follow-up visit, could be biased even if as in experimental studies, treatment assignment were randomized. To account for truncation by death, the survivor average causal effect (SACE) defines the effect of treatment on the outcome for the subset of individuals who would have survived regardless of exposure status. In this paper, the author nonparametrically identifies SACE by leveraging post-exposure longitudinal correlates of survival and outcome that may also mediate the exposure effects on survival and outcome. Nonparametric identification is achieved by supposing that the longitudinal data arise from a certain nonparametric structural equations model and by making the monotonicity assumption that the effect of exposure on survival agrees in its direction across individuals. A novel weighted analysis involving a consistent estimate of the survival process is shown to produce consistent estimates of SACE. A data illustration is given, and the methods are extended to the context of time-varying exposures. We discuss a sensitivity analysis framework that relaxes assumptions about independent errors in the nonparametric structural equations model and may be used to assess the extent to which inference may be altered by a violation of key identifying assumptions. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24889022

Tchetgen, Eric J Tchetgen

2014-01-01

457

Brain responses to food and weight loss.

In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition. PMID:25210111

Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

2014-09-01

458

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This minds-on analysis and discussion activity helps students to understand the relationships between food molecules as a source of energy, cellular respiration, physical activity, and changes in body weight.

Waldron, Ingrid

459

Apparatus for molecular weight separation

The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Haverhill, MA)

2001-01-01

460

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING...Secretary will apply the de minimis standard in effect at the time that the investigation was...

2010-04-01

461

energies can be accurately modeled using Born-Mayer-like potential functions. However, the bonding University of New York, Flushing NY 11367, USA. 3. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New York, Flushing NY 11367, USA. Page 1 of 22 ACS Paragon Plus Environment The Journal of Physical

Hanusa, Christopher

462

In an effort to develop indicators for Great Lakes near-shore conditions, diatom-based transfer functions to infer water quality variables were developed from 155 samples collected from coastal Great Lakes wetlands, embayments and high-energy shoreline sites. Over 2,000 diatom taxa were identified, and 352 taxa were sufficiently abundant to include in transfer function development. Multivariate data exploration revealed strong responses of

Euan D. Reavie; Richard P. Axler; Gerald V. Sgro; Nicholas P. Danz; John C. Kingston; Amy R. Kireta; Terry N. Brown; Thomas P. Hollenhorst; Michael J. Ferguson

2006-01-01

463

Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case. PMID:22780580

Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

2013-01-01

464

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of the Learning Ability Profile (LAP) by correlating the results obtained on the LAP with grade point average (GPA). Scores on LAP, both weighted and nonweighted, were correlated .30 and .31, respectively, with GPA. (Author/BW)

Fabi, Bruno

1983-01-01

465

Financial incentives and weight control.

This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

Jeffery, Robert W

2012-11-01