Science.gov

Sample records for area weighted average

  1. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  2. Global Rotation Estimation Using Weighted Iterative Lie Algebraic Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, M.; Heipke, C.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present an approach for a weighted rotation averaging to estimate absolute rotations from relative rotations between two images for a set of multiple overlapping images. The solution does not depend on initial values for the unknown parameters and is robust against outliers. Our approach is one part of a solution for a global image orientation. Often relative rotations are not free from outliers, thus we use the redundancy in available pairwise relative rotations and present a novel graph-based algorithm to detect and eliminate inconsistent rotations. The remaining relative rotations are input to a weighted least squares adjustment performed in the Lie algebra of the rotation manifold SO(3) to obtain absolute orientation parameters for each image. Weights are determined using the prior information we derived from the estimation of the relative rotations. Because we use the Lie algebra of SO(3) for averaging no subsequent adaptation of the results has to be performed but the lossless projection to the manifold. We evaluate our approach on synthetic and real data. Our approach often is able to detect and eliminate all outliers from the relative rotations even if very high outlier rates are present. We show that we improve the quality of the estimated absolute rotations by introducing individual weights for the relative rotations based on various indicators. In comparison with the state-of-the-art in recent publications to global image orientation we achieve best results in the examined datasets.

  3. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ...No. FTA-2011-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger...Transit Administration's (FTA's) bus testing regulation to increase the assumed...passenger weight value used for ballasting test buses from the current value of 150 pounds...

  4. Time-weighted averaging for nitrous oxide: an automated method.

    PubMed

    McGill, W A; Rivera, O; Howard, R

    1980-11-01

    An automated method of obtaining a time-weighted average of nitrous oxide levels in an operating room was compared with a standard method. The automated method consisted of electronic integration of the voltage output of a nitrous oxide analyzer using a multimeter-microprocessor. The standard method utilized a bag and pump to collect a room air sample, which was subsequently analyzed with a nitrous oxide analyzer. There was a high degree of correlation (r = 0.99) between the two methods. It is concluded that the automated method is an accurate alternative and offers institutions a simple, cost-effective method of monitoring and documenting results of pollution control programs in anesthetizing locations. PMID:7425378

  5. Modified box dimension and average weighted receiving time on the weighted fractal networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Shao, Shuxiang; Xi, Lifeng; Su, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a family of weighted fractal networks, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale, are studied. For the case of the weighted fractal networks the definition of modified box dimension is introduced, and a rigorous proof for its existence is given. Then, the modified box dimension depending on the weighted factor and the number of copies is deduced. Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its nearest neighbors. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the weight connecting the two nodes. Then the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) is a corresponding definition. The obtained remarkable result displays that in the large network, when the weight factor is larger than the number of copies, the AWRT grows as a power law function of the network order with the exponent, being the reciprocal of modified box dimension. This result shows that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the modified box dimension: the larger the value of modified box dimension, the more efficient the trapping process is. PMID:26666355

  6. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to...

  7. Average areal sulphur dioxide concentration estimation by percentage weighting polygon method in Erzurum urban centre, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, Hanefi; Sezer Turalioglu, F.

    The percentage weighting polygon (PWP) method is proposed as an alternative to the classical arithmetic average (AA) method for calculating the average areal concentration (AAC) over an urban centre. The basis of the method is to divide the study area into a set of sub-areas by considering three adjacent air pollutants concentration percentages at a time. This method is more reliable and flexible than the AA method where the subareas remain the same independent of the measured air pollutants concentrations. In this paper, the PWP method is applied to the urban centre of Erzurum in Turkey for the first time, at six air quality monitoring stations. In the PWP method, higher air pollutant concentration values are represented with the smaller sub-areas than in the case of the AA method. It is observed that the PWP method yields a 16.5% smaller AAC value than the classical AA method.

  8. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1.989(b)-1 Section 1.989(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.989(b)-1 Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes...

  9. Average Weight of Seminal Vesicles: An Adjustment Factor for Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Weighed With Seminal Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tjionas, George A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Williamson, Sean R; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Gupta, Nilesh S; Parekh, Dipen J; Cote, Richard J; Jorda, Merce; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2015-12-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology in 2010 recommended weighing prostates without seminal vesicles (SV) to include only prostate weight in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) calculation, because SV do not produce PSA. Large retrospective cohorts exist with combined weight recorded that needs to be modified for retrospective analysis. Weights of prostates and SV were separately recorded in 172 consecutive prostatectomies. The average weight of SV and proportion of prostate weight from combined weight were calculated. The adjustment factors were then validated on databases of 2 other institutions. The average weight of bilateral SV was 6.4 g (range = 1-17.3 g). The prostate constituted on average 87% (range = 66% to 98%) of the total specimen weight. There was no correlation between patient age and prostate weight with SV weight. The best performing correction method was to subtract 6.4 g from total radical prostatectomy weight and to use this weight for PSAD calculation. The average weights of retrospective specimens weighed with SV were not significantly different between the 3 institutions. Using our data allowed calibration of the weights and PSAD between the cohorts weighed with and without SV. Thus, prostate weight in specimens including SV weight can be adjusted by subtracting 6.4 g, resulting in significant change of PSAD. Some institution-specific variations may exist, which could further increase the precision of retrospective analysis involving prostate weight and PSAD. However, unless institution-specific adjustment parameters are developed, we recommend that this correction factor be used for retrospective cohorts or in institutions where combined weight is still recorded. PMID:26306700

  10. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies. (b) Unless the... capital. 65.305 Section 65.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted...

  11. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 51083) that incorporated brake performance and emissions tests into FTA's bus... Weight Per Person (See, ``Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements: Final Rule, 75 FR... Transportation (44 FR 11032). Executive Order 12866 requires agencies to regulate in the ``most...

  12. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Ordered Weighted Averaging Operator in Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Moshiri, B.

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this research is to find the extent to which the minimal variability Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) model of seismic vulnerability assessment is sensitive to variation of optimism degree. There are a variety of models proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment. In order to examine the efficiency of seismic vulnerability assessment models, the stability of results could be analysed. Seismic vulnerability assessment is done to estimate the probable losses in the future earthquake. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been applied by a number of researchers to estimate the human, physical and financial losses in urban areas. The study area of this research is Tehran Metropolitan Area (TMA) which has more than eight million inhabitants. In addition, this paper assumes that North Tehran Fault (NTF) is activated and caused an earthquake in TMA. 1996 census data is used to extract the attribute values for six effective criteria in seismic vulnerability assessment. The results demonstrate that minimal variability OWA model of Seismic Loss Estimation (SLE) is more stable where the aggregated seismic vulnerability degree has a lower value. Moreover, minimal variability OWA is very sensitive to optimism degree in northern areas of Tehran. A number of statistical units in southern areas of the city also indicate considerable sensitivity to optimism degree due to numerous non-standard buildings. In addition, the change of seismic vulnerability degree caused by variation of optimism degree does not exceed 25 % of the original value which means that the overall accuracy of the model is acceptable.

  14. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... (GVWR) (74 FR 51083, October 5, 2009). The testing procedure simulated a 150 lb. weight for each seated... square feet (76 FR 13850, March 14, 2011). Subsequent to the NPRM, on July 6, 2012, Congress passed the..., Executive Order 13563, the Regulatory Flexibility Act, or the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  15. An Inequality between the Weighted Average and the Rowwise Correlation Coefficient for Proximity Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess association between rows of proximity matrices, H. de Vries (1993) introduces weighted average and row-wise average variants for Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank correlation. For all three, the absolute value of the first variant is greater than or equal to the second. (SLD)

  16. SIMPLE AND WEIGHTED AVERAGING APPROACHES TO SCALING: WHEN CAN SPATIAL CONTEXT BE IGNORED?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scaling from plots to landscapes, landscapes to regions, and regions to the globe based on simple or weighted averaging techniques can be accurate when applied to the appropriate problems. Simple averaging approaches work well when conditions are homogeneous spatially and temporally. For example, ...

  17. Effects of error covariance structure on estimation of model averaging weights and predictive performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-01-01

    When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

  18. An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG

    E-print Network

    Young, William R.

    An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG forcing by the divergence of three-dimensional Eliassen­Palm (EP) vectors in the two horizontal momentum is represented as an eddy-induced (or bolus) velocity (Rhines 1982; Gent and McWilliams 1990; Gent et al. 1995

  19. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as... and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the...

  20. 75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Dumping Margin During an Antidumping Investigation; Final Modification, 71 FR 77,722 (December 27, 2006... Measures Concerning Certain Softwood Lumber Products From Canada, 70 FR 22,636 (May 2, 2005). The above... Weighted- Average Dumping Margin During an Antidumping Investigation; Final Modification, 71 FR...

  1. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...unions. For capital stock in mixed-ownership Government corporations, as defined in 31 U.S.C. 9101(2), and perpetual and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the weighted-average life is...

  2. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as... and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the...

  3. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as... and nonperpetual capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2, the...

  4. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C for the different gauges. To test the model, the average water temperature was estimated at the six locations within the Sonoma Valley not used in the calibration. For each water temperature record, the prior area dependent weighting factor was used. Regional maximum and minimum air temperature data were then used to estimate the average stream water temperature over the period of recorded water temperature. The average error between model-estimated and observed water temperature for the additional locations in the Sonoma Valley ranged from 0.7 °C to 3.5 °C. The model estimated water temperature for gauges with upstream drainage area less than 50 km2 had average error between estimated and observed water temperature less than 1.7 °C. When upstream drainage area was greater than 50 km2, the average error increased up to 3.5°C for some gauge locations. The model could also estimate water temperature in streams in other basins using the same area-dependent weighting factor. For eighteen gauges in the Napa Valley to the east , the average error between estimated and observed water temperature ranged from 0.7 °C to 1.9 °C, while for four gauges in the Russian River Valley to the northwest, the average error ranged from 1.2 °C to 3.2 °C. We speculate the area-dependent weighting factor reflects the temperature of groundwater contributions to stream flow.

  5. Predicting annual average particulate concentration in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Progiou, Athena G; Ziomas, Ioannis C

    2015-11-01

    Particulate matter concentrations are in most cities a major environmental problem. This is also the case in Greece where, despite the various measures taken in the past, the problem still persists. In this aspect, a cost efficient, comprehensive method was developed in order to help decision makers to take the most appropriate measures towards particulates pollution abatement. The method is based on the source apportionment estimation from the application of 3D meteorological and dispersion modeling and is validated with the use of 10 years (2002-2012) PM10 monitoring data, in Athens, Greece, as well as using PM10 emission data for the same area and time period. It appears that the methodology can be used for estimating yearly average PM10 concentrations in a quite realistic manner, giving thus the decision makers the possibility to evaluate ex ante the effectiveness of specific abatement measures. PMID:26081738

  6. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as...-in capital and membership capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2,...

  7. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as defined in 17 CFR 270.2a-7, and collective investment funds operated in accordance with short-term investment fund rules set forth in 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B)(1)-(3), the weighted-average life is defined as...-in capital and membership capital in corporate credit unions, as defined in 12 CFR 704.2,...

  8. Probabilistic combination of slant information: Weighted averaging and robustness as optimal percepts

    PubMed Central

    Girshick, Ahna R.; Banks, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    Depth perception involves combining multiple, possibly conflicting, sensory measurements to estimate the 3D structure of the viewed scene. Previous work has shown that the perceptual system combines measurements using a statistically optimal weighted average. However, the system should only combine measurements when they come from the same source. We asked whether the brain avoids combining measurements when they differ from one another: that is, whether the system is robust to outliers. To do this, we investigated how two slant cues—binocular disparity and texture gradients—influence perceived slant as a function of the size of the conflict between the cues. When the conflict was small, we observed weighted averaging. When the conflict was large, we observed robust behavior: perceived slant was dictated solely by one cue, the other being rejected. Interestingly, the rejected cue was either disparity or texture, and was not necessarily the more variable cue. We modeled the data in a probabilistic framework, and showed that weighted averaging and robustness are predicted if the underlying likelihoods have heavier tails than Gaussians. We also asked whether observers had conscious access to the single-cue estimates when they exhibited robustness and found they did not, i.e. they completely fused despite the robust percepts. PMID:19761341

  9. Real diffusion-weighted MRI enabling true signal averaging and increased diffusion contrast.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Cornelius; Cauley, Stephen F; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Möller, Harald E; Turner, Robert; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-11-15

    This project aims to characterize the impact of underlying noise distributions on diffusion-weighted imaging. The noise floor is a well-known problem for traditional magnitude-based diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) data, leading to biased diffusion model fits and inaccurate signal averaging. Here, we introduce a total-variation-based algorithm to eliminate shot-to-shot phase variations of complex-valued diffusion data with the intention to extract real-valued dMRI datasets. The obtained real-valued diffusion data are no longer superimposed by a noise floor but instead by a zero-mean Gaussian noise distribution, yielding dMRI data without signal bias. We acquired high-resolution dMRI data with strong diffusion weighting and, thus, low signal-to-noise ratio. Both the extracted real-valued and traditional magnitude data were compared regarding signal averaging, diffusion model fitting and accuracy in resolving crossing fibers. Our results clearly indicate that real-valued diffusion data enables idealized conditions for signal averaging. Furthermore, the proposed method enables unbiased use of widely employed linear least squares estimators for model fitting and demonstrates an increased sensitivity to detect secondary fiber directions with reduced angular error. The use of phase-corrected, real-valued data for dMRI will therefore help to clear the way for more detailed and accurate studies of white matter microstructure and structural connectivity on a fine scale. PMID:26241680

  10. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Change Detection Around the Country (and the World)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E.; Wynne, R. H.; Thomas, V. A.; Blinn, C. E.; Coulston, J.

    2014-12-01

    With continuous, freely available moderate-resolution imagery of the Earth's surface available, and with the promise of more imagery to come, change detection based on continuous process models continues to be a major area of research. One such method, exponentially weighted moving average change detection (EWMACD), is based on a mixture of harmonic regression (HR) and statistical quality control, a branch of statistics commonly used to detect aberrations in industrial and medical processes. By using HR to approximate per-pixel seasonal curves, the resulting residuals characterize information about the pixels which stands outside of the periodic structure imposed by HR. Under stable pixels, these residuals behave as might be expected, but in the presence of changes (growth, stress, removal), the residuals clearly show these changes when they are used as inputs into an EWMA chart. In prior work in Alabama, USA, EWMACD yielded an overall accuracy of 85% on a random sample of known thinned stands, in some cases detecting thinnings as sparse as 25% removal. It was also shown to correctly identify the timing of the thinning activity, typically within a single image date of the change. The net result of the algorithm was to produce date-by-date maps of afforestation and deforestation on a variable scale of severity. In other research, EWMACD has also been applied to detect land use and land cover changes in central Java, Indonesia, despite the heavy incidence of clouds and a monsoonal climate. Preliminary results show that EWMACD accurately identifies land use conversion (agricultural to residential, for example) and also identifies neighborhoods where the building density has increased, removing neighborhood vegetation. In both cases, initial results indicate the potential utility of EWMACD to detect both gross and subtle ecosystem disturbance, but further testing across a range of ecosystems and disturbances is clearly warranted.

  11. Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry.

    PubMed

    Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

    2009-01-01

    Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents. PMID:19200083

  12. Calculation of weighted averages approach for the estimation of ping tolerance values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silalom, S.; Carter, J.L.; Chantaramongkol, P.

    2010-01-01

    A biotic index was created and proposed as a tool to assess water quality in the Upper Mae Ping sub-watersheds. The Ping biotic index was calculated by utilizing Ping tolerance values. This paper presents the calculation of Ping tolerance values of the collected macroinvertebrates. Ping tolerance values were estimated by a weighted averages approach based on the abundance of macroinvertebrates and six chemical constituents that include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate. Ping tolerance values range from 0 to 10. Macroinvertebrates assigned a 0 are very sensitive to organic pollution while macroinvertebrates assigned 10 are highly tolerant to pollution.

  13. Soil contaminant and exposure point concentration computation using Voronoi tessellation weighted averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.A.; LaVelle, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Estimating average soil contaminant concentrations is a routine site investigation, risk assessment and remediation verification activity. Some techniques however fail to adequately consider the spatial distribution of contaminants and may result in erroneous estimates. Kriging may provides the best linear unbiased estimator of soil contaminant levels for sites when concentrations are spatially correlated. When variogram models show limited relationships, or when sampling density is limited, the application of geostatistical techniques may, not be appropriate. In these situations the geographic distribution of contaminants is often discounted when developing estimates of soil contaminant concentrations. In this poster presentation we describe the use of a Voronoi tessellation weighted averaging approach for estimating soil lead and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that in turn were used in performing risk assessment computations. The exposure point concentrations estimated using this approach provided a more realistic assessment of the risks actually posed by soil contaminants at this site.

  14. Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal

    2013-04-01

    Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.

  15. Induced Unbalanced Linguistic Ordered Weighted Average and Its Application in Multiperson Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Merigó, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. PMID:25136677

  16. Weighted averages of magnetization from magnetic field measurements: A fast interpretation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, Maurizio

    2003-08-01

    Magnetic anomalies may be interpreted in terms of weighted averages of magnetization (WAM) by a simple transformation. The WAM transformation consists of dividing at each measurement point the experimental magnetic field by a normalizing field, computed from a source volume with a homogeneous unit-magnetization. The transformation yields a straightforward link among source and field position vectors. A main WAM outcome is that sources at different depths appear well discriminated. Due to the symmetry of the problem, the higher the considered field altitude, the deeper the sources outlined by the transformation. This is shown for single and multi-source synthetic cases as well as for real data. We analyze the real case of Mt. Vulture volcano (Southern Italy), where the related anomaly strongly interferes with that from deep intrusive sources. The volcanic edifice is well identified. The deep source is estimated at about 9 km depth, in agreement with other results.

  17. Multi-criteria, personalized route planning using quantifier-guided ordered weighted averaging operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadi, S.; Delavar, M. R.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a generic model for using different decision strategies in multi-criteria, personalized route planning. Some researchers have considered user preferences in navigation systems. However, these prior studies typically employed a high tradeoff decision strategy, which used a weighted linear aggregation rule, and neglected other decision strategies. The proposed model integrates a pairwise comparison method and quantifier-guided ordered weighted averaging (OWA) aggregation operators to form a personalized route planning method that incorporates different decision strategies. The model can be used to calculate the impedance of each link regarding user preferences in terms of the route criteria, criteria importance and the selected decision strategy. Regarding the decision strategy, the calculated impedance lies between aggregations that use a logical "and" (which requires all the criteria to be satisfied) and a logical "or" (which requires at least one criterion to be satisfied). The calculated impedance also includes taking the average of the criteria scores. The model results in multiple alternative routes, which apply different decision strategies and provide users with the flexibility to select one of them en-route based on the real world situation. The model also defines the robust personalized route under different decision strategies. The influence of different decision strategies on the results are investigated in an illustrative example. This model is implemented in a web-based geographical information system (GIS) for Isfahan in Iran and verified in a tourist routing scenario. The results demonstrated, in real world situations, the validity of the route planning carried out in the model.

  18. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 13580). Furthermore, due to the complexity of the issues proposed in the NPRM, FTA is..., FTA published an NPRM in the Federal Register (76 FR 13850) proposing to amend its bus testing... Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  19. Application of a weighted-averaging method for determining paleosalinity: a tool for restoration of south Florida's estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    A molluscan analogue dataset is presented in conjunction with a weighted-averaging technique as a tool for estimating past salinity patterns in south Florida’s estuaries and developing targets for restoration based on these reconstructions. The method, here referred to as cumulative weighted percent (CWP), was tested using modern surficial samples collected in Florida Bay from sites located near fixed water monitoring stations that record salinity. The results were calibrated using species weighting factors derived from examining species occurrence patterns. A comparison of the resulting calibrated species-weighted CWP (SW-CWP) to the observed salinity at the water monitoring stations averaged over a 3-year time period indicates, on average, the SW-CWP comes within less than two salinity units of estimating the observed salinity. The SW-CWP reconstructions were conducted on a core from near the mouth of Taylor Slough to illustrate the application of the method.

  20. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...No. FTA-2011-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger...technical information, Gregory Rymarz, Bus Testing Program Manager, Office of Research...Register (76 FR 13850) proposing to amend its bus testing procedures to more accurately...

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2008 1 Aggregation Using the Fuzzy Weighted Average as

    E-print Network

    Mendle, Jerry M.

    restrictive, especially when are no longer crisp numbers [as in items 3)­5) below]; so, such a requirement where the FWA stands in this hierarchy. 1) and are crisp numbers: In this case, is a crisp number, the commonly used arithmetic weighted average, a number that is easily computed using arithmetic. 2) are crisp

  2. Full-custom design of split-set data weighted averaging with output register for jitter suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubay, M. C.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    A full-custom design of an element selection algorithm, named as Split-set Data Weighted Averaging (SDWA) is implemented in 90nm CMOS Technology Synopsys Library. SDWA is applied in seven unit elements (3-bit) using a thermometer-coded input. Split-set DWA is an improved DWA algorithm which caters the requirement for randomization along with long-term equal element usage. Randomization and equal element-usage improve the spectral response of the unit elements due to higher Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and without significantly degrading signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since a full-custom, the design is brought to transistor-level and the chip custom layout is also provided, having a total area of 0.3mm2, a power consumption of 0.566 mW, and simulated at 50MHz clock frequency. On this implementation, SDWA is successfully derived and improved by introducing a register at the output that suppresses the jitter introduced at the final stage due to switching loops and successive delays.

  3. Area-averaged profiles over the mock urban setting test array

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M. A.; Brown, M. J.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    Urban areas have a large effect on the local climate and meteorology. Efforts have been made to incorporate the bulk dynamic and thermodynamic effects of urban areas into mesoscale models (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt et al., 2002; Lacser and Otte, 2002). At this scale buildings cannot be resolved individually, but parameterizations have been developed to capture their aggregate effect. These urban canopy parameterizations have been designed to account for the area-average drag, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, and surface energy balance modifications due to buildings (e.g., Sorbjan and Uliasz, 1982; Ca, 1999; Brown, 2000; Martilli et al., 2002). These models compute an area-averaged mean profile that is representative of the bulk flow characteristics over the entire mesoscale grid cell. One difficulty has been testing of these parameterizations due to lack of area-averaged data. In this paper, area-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived from data collected at the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST). The MUST experiment was designed to be a near full-scale model of an idealized urban area imbedded in the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL). It's purpose was to study airflow and plume transport in urban areas and to provide a test case for model validation. A large number of velocity measurements were taken at the test site so that it was possible to derive area-averaged velocity and TKE profiles.

  4. Bacillus subtilis 168 levansucrase (SacB) activity affects average levan molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Ávila-Fernández, Ángela; Miranda-Molina, Afonso; Rodríguez-Alegría, María Elena; Munguía, Agustín López

    2015-11-01

    Levan is a fructan polymer that offers a variety of applications in the chemical, health, cosmetic and food industries. Most of the levan applications depend on levan molecular weight, which in turn depends on the source of the synthesizing enzyme and/or on reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate that in the particular case of levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis 168, enzyme concentration is also a factor defining the molecular weight levan distribution. While a bimodal distribution has been reported at the usual enzyme concentrations (1 U/ml equivalent to 0.1 ?M levansucrase) we found that a low molecular weight normal distribution is solely obtained al high enzyme concentrations (>5 U/ml equivalent to 0.5 ?M levansucrase) while a high normal molecular weight distribution is synthesized at low enzyme doses (0.1 U/ml equivalent to 0.01 ?M of levansucrase). PMID:26256357

  5. A new leveling method without the direct use of crossover data and its application in marine magnetic surveys: weighted spatial averaging and temporal filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Takemi

    2015-12-01

    The author has developed a new leveling method for use with magnetic survey data, which consists of adjusting each measurement using the weighted spatial average of its neighboring data and subsequent temporal filtering. There are two key parameters in the method: the `weight distance' represents the characteristic distance of the weight function and the `filtering width' represents the full width of the Gaussian filtering function on the time series. This new method was applied to three examples of actual marine survey data. Leveling using optimum values of these two parameters for each example was found to significantly reduce the standard deviations of crossover differences by one third to one fifth of the values before leveling. The obtained time series of correction values for each example had a good correlation with the magnetic observatory data obtained relatively close to the survey areas, thus validating this new leveling method.

  6. The effect of capsule-filling machine vibrations on average fill weight.

    PubMed

    Llusa, Marcos; Faulhammer, Eva; Biserni, Stefano; Calzolari, Vittorio; Lawrence, Simon; Bresciani, Massimo; Khinast, Johannes

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the speed of capsule filling and the inherent machine vibrations on fill weight for a dosator-nozzle machine. The results show that increasing speed of capsule filling amplifies the vibration intensity (as measured by Laser Doppler vibrometer) of the machine frame, which leads to powder densification. The mass of the powder (fill weight) collected via the nozzle is significantly larger at a higher capsule filling speed. Therefore, there is a correlation between powder densification under more intense vibrations and larger fill weights. Quality-by Design of powder based products should evaluate the effect of environmental vibrations on material attributes, which in turn may affect product quality. PMID:23872302

  7. “Whatever average is:” understanding African-American mothers’ perceptions of infant weight, growth, and health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical researchers have raised concerns that mothers’ inability to recognize infant and toddler overweight poses a barrier to stemming increasing rates of overweight and obesity, particularly among low-income or minority mothers. Little anthropological research has examined the sociocultural, economic or structural factors shaping maternal perceptions of infant and toddler size or addressed biomedical depictions of maternal misperception as a “socio-cultural problem.” We use qualitative and quantitative data from 237 low-income, African-American mothers to explore how they define ‘normal’ infant growth and infant overweight. Our quantitative results document that mothers’ perceptions of infant size change with infant age, are sensitive to the size of other infants in the community, and are associated with concerns over health and appetite. Qualitative analysis documents that mothers are concerned with their children’s weight status and assess size in relation to their infants’ cues, local and societal norms of appropriate size, interactions with biomedicine, and concerns about infant health and sufficiency. These findings suggest that mothers use multiple models to interpret and respond to child weight. An anthropological focus on the complex social and structural factors shaping what is considered ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ infant weight is critical for shaping appropriate and successful interventions. PMID:25684782

  8. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  9. Improving optical transmission and image contrast in medium and high performance optical systems using weighted average angle of incidence techniques to optimize coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, James A.; Sprague, Michaelene

    2008-10-01

    Designers of medium and high performance optical systems often overlook a very simple technique that can improve the system transmission and image contrast, as well as reduce scattering within the system. The resulting improvement in the optical collection efficiency can be used to increase performance or be traded off to realize improvements in other areas (i.e. aperture size, weight, etc.). The technique is based on the observation that many (if not most) anti-reflection coatings specified for lens surfaces, are specified at a normal angle of incidence. Since most of the energy incident on a typical lens impinges at angles other than the normal, the efficiency of an anti-reflection coating at any surface might be improved by using an approach based on weighted average angles of the incident radiation. This paper describes one approach to calculate weighted average coating angles for a optical systems. The optical transmissions are estimated, when the respective coatings are specified at the normal angle of incidence and at an angle based on the incident ray geometry. The measured transmission of two (otherwise identical) aspheric lenses, one coated using a standard SLAR coating specified at a normal incidence angle and the other coated using a standard SLAR coating specified at optimized incidence angles are presented.

  10. Time-weighted average sampling of airborne propylene glycol ethers by a solid-phase microextraction device.

    PubMed

    Shih, H C; Tsai, S W; Kuo, C H

    2012-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a diffusive sampler for airborne propylene glycol ethers (PGEs), including propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME). Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) SPME fiber was selected for this study. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing was used as the holder, and the SPME fiber assembly was inserted into the tubing as a diffusive sampler. The diffusion path length and area of the sampler were 0.3 cm and 0.00086 cm(2), respectively. The theoretical sampling constants at 30°C and 1 atm for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME were 1.50 × 10(-2), 1.23 × 10(-2) and 1.14 × 10(-2) cm(3) min(-1), respectively. For evaluations, known concentrations of PGEs around the threshold limit values/time-weighted average with specific relative humidities (10% and 80%) were generated both by the air bag method and the dynamic generation system, while 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min were selected as the time periods for vapor exposures. Comparisons of the SPME diffusive sampling method to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) organic Method 99 were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 30°C for PGME. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used for sample analysis. The experimental sampling constants of the sampler at 30°C were (6.93 ± 0.12) × 10(-1), (4.72 ± 0.03) × 10(-1), and (3.29 ± 0.20) × 10(-1) cm(3) min(-1) for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME, respectively. The adsorption of chemicals on the stainless steel needle of the SPME fiber was suspected to be one of the reasons why significant differences between theoretical and experimental sampling rates were observed. Correlations between the results for PGME from both SPME device and OSHA organic Method 99 were linear (r = 0.9984) and consistent (slope = 0.97 ± 0.03). Face velocity (0-0.18 m/s) also proved to have no effects on the sampler. However, the effects of temperature and humidity have been observed. Therefore, adjustments of experimental sampling constants at different environmental conditions will be necessary. PMID:22651222

  11. Time-weighted average sampling of airborne n-valeraldehyde by a solid-phase microextration device.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S W; Chang, T A

    2002-04-19

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a time-weighted average sampler for n-valeraldehyde. The SPME device was first modified to improve the wearer's acceptance as a passive sampler. Then a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-divinylbenzene fiber was used and O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) was loaded onto the fiber. Vapors of known concentrations around the threshold limit values time-weighted average of n-valeraldehyde and specific relative humidities (RHs) were generated by syringe pumps in a dynamic generation system. n-Valeraldehyde vapors in gas bags were also generated. An exposure chamber was designed to allow measurement of face velocities, temperatures, exposing vapor concentrations, and RHs. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was used for sample analysis. The appropriate adsorption time for SPME coating PFBHA was determined to be 2 min and the desorption time for oxime formed after sampling was optimized to be 2 min. The experimental sampling constant was found to be (3.86+/-0.13) x 10(-2) cm3/min and face velocity was not expect to have effect on the sampler. PMID:12058903

  12. An analysis of the threshold method for measuring area-average rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedem, Benjamin; Chiu, Long S.; Karni, Zvi

    1990-01-01

    Experimental evidence shows that the area-average rain rate and the fractional area covered by rain rate exceeding a fixed threshold are highly correlated; that is, are highly linearly related. A precise theoretical explanation of this fact is given. The explanation is based on the observation that rain rate has a mixed distribution, one that is a mixture of a discrete distribution and a continuous distribution. Under a homogeneity assumption, the slope of the linear relationship depends only on the continuous part of the distribution and as such is found to be markedly immune to parameter changes. This is illustrated by certain slope surfaces obtained from three specific distributions. The threshold level can be chosen in an optimal way by minimizing a certain distance function defined over the threshold range. In general, the threshold level should be not too far from the mean rain rate conditional on rain. The so-called threshold method advocates measuring rainfall from fractional area exploiting the observed linear relationship of the later with the area average rain rate. The method is potentially useful for the estimation of rainfall from space via satellites.

  13. A New Class of Probability Distributions for Describing the Spatial Statistics of Area-averaged Rainfall

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Prasun K

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall exhibits extreme variability at many space and time scales and calls for a statistical description. Based on an analysis of radar measurements of precipitation over the tropical oceans, we introduce a new probability law for the area-averaged rain rate constructed from the class of log-infinitely divisible distributions that accurately describes the frequency of the most intense rain events. The dependence of its parameters on the spatial averaging length L allows one to relate spatial statistics at different scales. In particular, it enables us to explain the observed power law scaling of the moments of the data and successfully predicts the continuous spectrum of scaling exponents expressing multiscaling characteristics of the rain intensity field.

  14. Weighted Score Tests Implementing Model-Averaging Schemes in Detection of Rare Variants in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Brandon; Basu, Saonli; Guha, Sharmistha; Schork, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Multi-locus effect modeling is a powerful approach for detection of genes influencing a complex disease. Especially for rare variants, we need to analyze multiple variants together to achieve adequate power for detection. In this paper, we propose several parsimonious branching model techniques to assess the joint effect of a group of rare variants in a case-control study. These models implement a data reduction strategy within a likelihood framework and use a weighted score test to assess the statistical significance of the effect of the group of variants on the disease. The primary advantage of the proposed approach is that it performs model-averaging over a substantially smaller set of models supported by the data and thus gains power to detect multi-locus effects. We illustrate these proposed approaches on simulated and real data and study their performance compared to several existing rare variant detection approaches. The primary goal of this paper is to assess if there is any gain in power to detect association by averaging over a number of models instead of selecting the best model. Extensive simulations and real data application demonstrate the advantage the proposed approach in presence of causal variants with opposite directional effects along with a moderate number of null variants in linkage disequilibrium. PMID:26436424

  15. Area preserving map models of gyro-averaged ExB chaotic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2013-10-01

    Area preserving maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas. Here we focus on drift-wave maps describing chaotic transport in E × B zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. Going beyond previous studies, we include finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects by gyro-averaging the corresponding Hamiltonian of the map. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the gyro-averaged map reduces to the standard Chirikov map in the case of monotonic E × B shear flows, and to the standard non-twist map in the case of non-monotonic E × B shear flows. Like in the case of continuous E × B drift wave models, we show that in the gyro-averaged maps, FLR effects lead to chaos suppression, bifurcation of the shearless curve, and a complex phase space topology. Dynamical systems methods are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers, and the transport properties of an ensemble of test particles with a Maxwellian distribution. J.F. acknowledges support from the Brazilian government agency FAPESP. D. dCN acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. A novel power spectrum calculation method using phase-compensation and weighted averaging for the estimation of ultrasound attenuation.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seo Weon; Kim, Hyungsuk

    2010-05-01

    An estimation of ultrasound attenuation in soft tissues is critical in the quantitative ultrasound analysis since it is not only related to the estimations of other ultrasound parameters, such as speed of sound, integrated scatterers, or scatterer size, but also provides pathological information of the scanned tissue. However, estimation performances of ultrasound attenuation are intimately tied to the accurate extraction of spectral information from the backscattered radiofrequency (RF) signals. In this paper, we propose two novel techniques for calculating a block power spectrum from the backscattered ultrasound signals. These are based on the phase-compensation of each RF segment using the normalized cross-correlation to minimize estimation errors due to phase variations, and the weighted averaging technique to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The simulation results with uniform numerical phantoms demonstrate that the proposed method estimates local attenuation coefficients within 1.57% of the actual values while the conventional methods estimate those within 2.96%. The proposed method is especially effective when we deal with the signal reflected from the deeper depth where the SNR level is lower or when the gated window contains a small number of signal samples. Experimental results, performed at 5MHz, were obtained with a one-dimensional 128 elements array, using the tissue-mimicking phantoms also show that the proposed method provides better estimation results (within 3.04% of the actual value) with smaller estimation variances compared to the conventional methods (within 5.93%) for all cases considered. PMID:20083291

  17. BiSON data preparation: a correction for differential extinction and the weighted averaging of contemporaneous data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Hale, S. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximize the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimizing the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio, we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide greater constraint on changes in the oscillation spectrum with solar activity. In addition, the analysis of the low-frequency region suggests that we have achieved a noise level that may allow us to improve estimates of the upper limit of g-mode amplitudes.

  18. Impact of particulate matter and ammonia on average daily weight gain, mortality and lung lesions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Michiels, A; Piepers, S; Ulens, T; Van Ransbeeck, N; Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Sierens, A; Haesebrouck, F; Demeyer, P; Maes, D

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the simultaneous influence of particulate matter (PM10) and ammonia (NH3) on performance, lung lesions and the presence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) in finishing pigs. A pig herd experiencing clinical problems of M. hyopneumoniae infections was selected. In total, 1095 finishing pigs of two replicates in eight compartments each were investigated during the entire finishing period (FP). Indoor PM10 and NH3 were measured at regular intervals during the FP with two Grimm spectrometers and two Graywolf Particle Counters (PM10) and an Innova photoacoustic gas monitor (NH3). Average daily weight gain (ADG) and mortality were calculated and associated with PM10 and NH3 during the FP. Nasal swabs (10 pigs/compartment) were collected one week prior to slaughter to detect DNA of M. hyopneumoniae with nested PCR (nPCR). The prevalence and extent of pneumonia lesions, and prevalence of fissures and pleurisy were examined at slaughter (29 weeks). The results from the nasal swabs and lung lesions were associated with PM10 and NH3 during the FP and the second half of the FP. In the univariable model, increasing PM10 concentrations resulted in a higher odds of pneumonia lesions (second half of the FP: OR=8.72; P=0.015), more severe pneumonia lesions (FP: P=0.04, second half of the FP: P=0.009), a higher odds of pleurisy lesions (FP: OR=20.91; P<0.001 and second half of the FP: OR=40.85; P<0.001) and a higher number of nPCR positive nasal samples (FP: OR=328.00; P=0.01 and second half of the FP: OR=185.49; P=0.02). Increasing NH3 concentrations in the univariable model resulted in a higher odds of pleurisy lesions (FP: OR=21.54; P=0.003) and a higher number of nPCR positive nasal samples (FP: OR=70.39; P=0.049; second half of the FP: OR=8275.05; P=0.01). In the multivariable model, an increasing PM10 concentration resulted in a higher odds of pleurisy lesions (FP: OR=8.85; P=0.049). These findings indicate that the respiratory health of finishing pigs was significantly affected by PM10. PMID:26148844

  19. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  20. Area-to-point parameter estimation with geographically weighted regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Morito

    2015-07-01

    The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is a problem by which aggregated units of data influence the results of spatial data analysis. Standard GWR, which ignores aggregation mechanisms, cannot be considered to serve as an efficient countermeasure of MAUP. Accordingly, this study proposes a type of GWR with aggregation mechanisms, termed area-to-point (ATP) GWR herein. ATP GWR, which is closely related to geostatistical approaches, estimates the disaggregate-level local trend parameters by using aggregated variables. We examine the effectiveness of ATP GWR for mitigating MAUP through a simulation study and an empirical study. The simulation study indicates that the method proposed herein is robust to the MAUP when the spatial scales of aggregation are not too global compared with the scale of the underlying spatial variations. The empirical studies demonstrate that the method provides intuitively consistent estimates.

  1. Chapter 1 -Hearing Conservation It has been shown that an eight hour time-weighted average exposure to 85 decibels or

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    62 Chapter 1 - Hearing Conservation Program It has been shown that an eight hour time-weighted average exposure to 85 decibels or greater can have unfavorable effects on hearing. The Hearing Conservation Program has been designed to reduce hearing loss at the College of Agricultural Sciences

  2. Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2004-01-01

    Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

  3. Temporal-spatial characteristics of area-averaged sensible heat flux by Large Aperture Scintillometer over Hai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Liu, S. M.; Xu, Z. W.; Jia, L.; Ding, X. P.

    2010-09-01

    Due to the wide and deep application of Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS), the scintillation method exhibits as a robust technique in measuring area-averaged sensible heat fluxes. As the path length of LAS is comparable to the pixel size of satellite images and grid scale of hydrological models, the measurements are helpful for validation. Meanwhile LAS has the potential to explore the scale effect, especially to bridge the gap from local to regional flux measurement. In our analysis, the ground measurements including LAS, Eddy Covariance (EC) system and Automatic Weather System(AWS), as well as TM/MODIS satellite in Miyun, Guantao and Daxing sites over Hai River Basin from 2008-2009 were selected, which can represent three different heterogeneous surfaces in Hai River Basin. After data processing and quality control, continuous sensible heat flux (Hlas) data on Kilometers Scale were obtained over various surfaces. Based on the footprint model of LAS, the distribution of source area for LAS measurements had been analyzed over Miyun, Guantao and Daxing sites in January, April, July and October, 2008. And then the daily variation of Hlas in January, April, July and October in 2008 over the three sites have been analyzed; the value and tendency of variation in these months are different among these sites, which are in accordance with the local crop phenophases. From the comparison of daily mean net radiation (Rn) and Hlas from 2008-2009 over the three sites, it can be seen the seasonal variation of Hlas are consistent in these two years, however, Miyun site shows a single peak while Guantao and Daxing sites show double-peak variation of Hlas, which mainly due to the different crop phenophases and irrigation conditions. At last, the difference between Hlas and Hec in Miyun and Guantao sites had been discussed separately. In accordance with the underlying surfaces, the reasons for the difference between Hlas and Hec can be attributed to the energy balance ratio of EC, the heterogeneity of the underlying surfaces as well as the relative weights of the overlap area between EC and LAS measurements. While in Guantao site, apart from the above reasons mentioned in Miyun site, the atmospheric instability may be one of the main reasons that contribute to the difference between Hlas and Hec. Key words: Large aperture scintillometer, Hai River Basin, Data processing and quality control, Temporal-spatial characteristics

  4. An Intercomparison of Techniques to Determine the Area-Averaged Latent Heat Flux from Individual in Situ Observations: A remote Sensing Approach Using the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelgrum, H.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.

    1996-04-01

    A knowledge of the area-averaged latent heat flux is necessary to validate large-scale model predictions of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces. This paper describes different procedures to obtain as a weighted average of ground-based observations. The weighting coefficients are obtained from remote sensing measurements. The remote sensing data used in this study consist of a Landsat thematic mapper image of the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area (EFEDA) grid box in central Spain, acquired on June 12, 1991. A newly developed remote sensing algorithm, the surface energy balance for land algorithm (SEBAL), solves the energy budget on a pixel-by-pixel basis. From the resulting frequency distribution of the latent heat flux, the area-averaged latent heat flux was calculated as = 164 W m-2. This method was validated with field measurements of latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and soil moisture. In general, the SEBAL-derived output compared well with field measurements. Two other methods for retrieval of weighting coefficients were tested against SEBAL. The second method combines satellite images of surface temperature, surface albedo, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) into an index on a pixel-by-pixel basis. After inclusion of ground-based measurements of the latent heat flux, a linear relationship between the index and the latent heat flux was established. This relationship was used to map the latent heat flux on a pixel-by-pixel basis, resulting in = 194 W m-2. The third method makes use of a supervised classification of the thematic mapper image into eight land use classes. An average latent heat flux was assigned to each class by using field measurements of the latent heat flux. According to the percentage of occurrence of each class in the image, was calculated as 110 W m-2. A weighting scheme was produced to make an estimation of possible from in situ observations. The weighting scheme contained a multiplication factor for each measurement site in order to compensate for the relative contribution of that site to . It was shown that derived as the arithmetic mean of 13 individual in situ observations leads to a difference of 34% ( = 104 W m-2), which emphasizes the need for improved weighting procedures.

  5. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  6. Power dissipation and time-averaged pressure in oscillating flow through a sudden area change

    E-print Network

    Smith, Barton L.

    that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Barton L. Smith Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-averaged pressure gradient has been used to counteract streaming flows in a thermoacoustic Stirling refrigerator1

  7. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED AREA AVERAGED VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

  8. The use of sampling weights in Bayesian hierarchical models for small area estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cici; Wakefield, Jon; Lumely, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical modeling has been used extensively for small area estimation. However, design weights that are required to reflect complex surveys are rarely considered in these models. We develop computationally efficient, Bayesian spatial smoothing models that acknowledge the design weights. Computation is carried out using the integrated nested Laplace approximation, which is fast. A simulation study is presented that considers the effects of non-response and non-random selection of individuals. We examine the impact of ignoring the design weights and the benefits of spatial smoothing. The results show that, when compared with standard approaches, mean squared error can be greatly reduced with the proposed models. Bias reduction occurs through the inclusion of the design weights, with variance reduction being achieved through hierarchical smoothing. We analyze data from the Washington State 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The models are easily and quickly fitted within the R environment, using existing packages. PMID:25457595

  9. Survey of one-year average Rn levels in Pittsburgh area homes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B L

    1985-12-01

    Radon concentrations averaged over 1 yr were measured in 169 homes selected without regard to factors known to influence Rn levels. The average level was 6.3 pCi/l in basements, 2.4 pCi/l on first floors, and 2.0 pCi/l on second floors; medians were considerably smaller, 2.6, 1.20, and 0.95 pCi/l, respectively. Distributions deviate considerably from log normal in having an excess of very large values and a deficiency of very low values. Levels in upper floors were somewhat lower where the basement was isolated by closed doors than where it was not. Drafty houses had lower Rn levels than less drafty ones. Houses exposed to wind had higher levels than those well sheltered from wind. There was little correlation between Rn concentration and age of the house, indicating that Rn exposures may not have changed appreciably during the past 50 yr; this is important for estimating risks of Rn-induced lung cancer. Houses with forced air heating systems seemed to have higher Rn levels in the upper floors than those with steam or hot water heat. No strong correlations were found between Rn levels and cooking with natural gas, or river vs well-water supplies. PMID:4077511

  10. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  11. The critical threshold of Lawsonia intracellularis in pig faeces that causes reduced average daily weight gains in experimentally challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Alison M; Barchia, Idris M

    2014-01-31

    Serology indicates that Lawsonia intracellularis infection is widespread in many countries, with most pigs seroconverting before 22 weeks of age. However, the majority of animals appear to be sub-clinically affected, demonstrated by the low reported prevalence of diarrhoea. Production losses caused by sub-clinical proliferative enteropathy (PE) are more difficult to diagnose, indicating the need for a quantitative L. intracellularis assay that correlates well with disease severity. In previous studies, increasing numbers of L. intracellularis in pig faeces, quantified with a real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), showed a strong negative correlation with average daily gain (ADG). In this study, the association between faecal L. intracellularis numbers and PE severity was examined in two L. intracellularis experimental challenge trials (n1=32 and n2=95). The number of L. intracellularis shed in individual faeces was determined by qPCR on days 0, 7, 14, 17 and 21 days post challenge, and average daily gain was recorded over the same period. The severity of histopathological lesions of PE was scored at 21 days post challenge. L. intracellularis numbers correlated well with histopathology severity and faecal consistency scores (r=0.72 and 0.68, respectively), and negatively with ADG (r=-0.44). Large reductions in ADG (131 g/day) occurred when the number of L. intracellularis shed by experimentally challenged pigs increased from 10(7) to 10(8)L. intracellularis, although smaller ADG reductions were also observed (15 g/day) when the number of L. intracellularis increased from 10(6) to 10(7)L. intracellularis. PMID:24388631

  12. Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: a case study using ordered weighted average.

    PubMed

    Gorsevski, Pece V; Donevska, Katerina R; Mitrovski, Cvetko D; Frizado, Joseph P

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approach for evaluating the suitability for landfill site selection in the Polog Region, Macedonia. The multi-criteria decision framework considers environmental and economic factors which are standardized by fuzzy membership functions and combined by integration of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and ordered weighted average (OWA) techniques. The AHP is used for the elicitation of attribute weights while the OWA operator function is used to generate a wide range of decision alternatives for addressing uncertainty associated with interaction between multiple criteria. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by different OWA scenarios that report landfill suitability on a scale between 0 and 1. The OWA scenarios are intended to quantify the level of risk taking (i.e., optimistic, pessimistic, and neutral) and to facilitate a better understanding of patterns that emerge from decision alternatives involved in the decision making process. PMID:22030279

  13. Novel computer program for fast exact calculation of accessible and molecular surface areas and average surface curvature.

    PubMed

    Tsodikov, Oleg V; Record, M Thomas; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2002-04-30

    New computer programs, SurfRace and FastSurf, perform fast calculations of the solvent accessible and molecular (solvent excluded) surface areas of macromolecules. Program SurfRace also calculates the areas of cavities inaccessible from the outside. We introduce the definition of average curvature of molecular surface and calculate average molecular surface curvatures for each atom in a structure. All surface area and curvature calculations are analytic and therefore yield exact values of these quantities. High calculation speed of this software is achieved primarily by avoiding computationally expensive mathematical procedures wherever possible and by efficient handling of surface data structures. The programs are written initially in the language C for PCs running Windows 2000/98/NT, but their code is portable to other platforms with only minor changes in input-output procedures. The algorithm is robust and does not ignore either multiplicity or degeneracy of atomic overlaps. Fast, memory-efficient and robust execution make this software attractive for applications both in computationally expensive energy minimization algorithms, such as docking or molecular dynamics simulations, and in stand-alone surface area and curvature calculations. PMID:11939594

  14. Anisotropic Step, Surface Contact, and Area Weighted Directed Walks on the Triangular Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, A. C.; Brak, R.; Owczarek, A. L.

    We present results for the generating functions of single fully-directed walks on the triangular lattice, enumerated according to each type of step and weighted proportional to the area between the walk and the surface of a half-plane (wall), and the number of contacts made with the wall. We also give explicit formulae for total area generating functions, that is when the area is summed over all configurations with a given perimeter, and the generating function of the moments of heights above the wall (the first of which is the total area). These results generalise and summarise nearly all known results on the square lattice: all the square lattice results can be obtaining by setting one of the step weights to zero. Our results also contain as special cases those that already exist for the triangular lattice. In deriving some of the new results we utilise the Enumerating Combinatorial Objects (ECO) and marked area methods of combinatorics for obtaining functional equations in the most general cases. In several cases we give our results both in terms of ratios of infinite q-series and as continued fractions.

  15. Inter-laboratory evaluation of SEC-post-column calcofluor for determination of the weight-average molar mass of cereal ?-glucan.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Anne; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Ulset, Ann-Sissel T; Christensen, Bjørn E; Andersson, Roger; Mikkelson, Atte; Tuomainen, Päivi; Maina, Ndegwa; Ballance, Simon

    2015-06-25

    Even though size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with post column addition of calcofluor (SEC-calcofluor) has been used for the determination of cereal ?-glucan molar mass in foods for many years, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the method. To address this issue a set of suitable ?-glucan standards were generated by preparative SEC and their molar mass characteristics were determined by analytical multi-detection SEC (refractive index (RI), light scattering). Each standard was then analysed by SEC-calcofluor at three different labs. As a direct comparison, the analyses were repeated with a RI detector. For SEC-calcofluor accurate measurements of weight average molar mass (Mw) can be made for ?-glucan populations within 10-500×10(3)g/mol. Above this molar mass threshold there is an increasing tendency for underestimation of Mw. Precipitation of some ?-glucan-calcofluor complexes may have delayed their transport into the detector. PMID:25839819

  16. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [?=0.5g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation in NYC, however, precludes simple interpretation of interactive effects on birth weight, and highlights the importance of considering differential distributions of air pollution concentrations, and potential differences in susceptibility, across deprivation levels. PMID:26318257

  17. MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (super)computing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

  18. A comparison of spatial smoothing methods for small area estimation with sampling weights

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Chen, Cici; Lumley, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small area estimation (SAE) is an important endeavor in many fields and is used for resource allocation by both public health and government organizations. Often, complex surveys are carried out within areas, in which case it is common for the data to consist only of the response of interest and an associated sampling weight, reflecting the design. While it is appealing to use spatial smoothing models, and many approaches have been suggested for this endeavor, it is rare for spatial models to incorporate the weighting scheme, leaving the analysis potentially subject to bias. To examine the properties of various approaches to estimation we carry out a simulation study, looking at bias due to both non-response and non-random sampling. We also carry out SAE of smoking prevalence in Washington State, at the zip code level, using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The computation times for the methods we compare are short, and all approaches are implemented in R using currently available packages. PMID:24959396

  19. Involvement of the medial hypothalamus and the septal area in the control of food intake and body weight in geese.

    PubMed

    Snapir, N; Yaakobi, M; Robinzon, B; Ravona, H; Perek, M

    1976-12-01

    Intracranial injections of 6-OHDA were used to destroy the following brain areas of male geese: bilateral VMH-mamillary (BL-VMH), unilateral VMH (UL-VMH), septal area, and bilateral hypothalamic areas located dorsal, lateral, caudal and rostral to the VMH. The brain damage was nonspecific, destroying cell bodies as well as axons. The effects of these lesions were determined on food intake, body weight, abdominal adipose tissue, liver weight and fat content, and on selected endocrine gland weights. The highest food intake, obesity and liver weight and its fat content were exhibited by the BL-VMH lesioned geese. The UL-VMH and the septal lesioned geese showed moderate increase in food intake, which eventually decreased in the UL-VMH but remained constant in the septal lesioned ones. The liver fat content of the latter groups of geese was higher than the controls. No differences were found between the controls and the group of geese lesioned in the various hypothalamic areas - excluding the VMH - in all parameters measured. While no significant differences were found in pituitary, thyroid and adrenal weights among all groups of geese, a decrease in testes weight was noted in the lesioned groups of geese as compared to the controls. The interrelationships between body weight, food intake, adiposity and liver weight are discussed. PMID:799313

  20. Can time-weighted average concentrations be used to assess the risks of metsulfuron-methyl to Myriophyllum spicatum under different time-variable exposure regimes?

    PubMed

    Belgers, J D M; Aalderink, G H; Arts, G H P; Brock, T C M

    2011-10-01

    We tested the effects of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on growth of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum under laboratory conditions using different exposure scenarios. The exposures of each scenario were comparable in the concentration × time factor, viz., the same 21-d time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations but variable in peak exposure concentrations (ranging from 0.1 to 21000 ng ai L?¹) and exposure periods (1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 d). To study recovery potential of the exposed M. spicatum plants we continued the observation on shoot and root growth for another 21 d in herbicide-free medium so that the total observation period was 42 d. Non-destructive endpoints, length and number of new shoots and roots, were determined weekly from day 14 onwards. Destructive endpoints, dry-weight (DW) of main shoots, new shoots and new roots, were measured at the end of the experiment (t=42 d). Metsulfuron-methyl exposure in particular inhibited new tissue formation but was not lethal to main shoots. On days 21 and 42 after start exposure, EC??/EC?? values for new tissues expressed in terms of peak concentration (=measured concentration during exposure periods of different length) showed large differences between exposure scenarios in contrast to EC??/EC?? values for days 21 and 42 expressed in terms of 21-d and 42-d TWA concentrations, respectively. At the end of the experiment (day 42), 42-d TWA EC(x) values were remarkably similar between exposure scenarios, while a similar trend could already be observed on day 21 for 21-d TWA EC(x) values. For the macrophyte M. spicatum and exposure to the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl the TWA approach seems to be appropriate to use in the risk assessment. However, the data from the toxicity experiment suggest that on day 21 also the absolute height of the pulse exposure played a (minor) role in the exposure - response relationships observed. PMID:21875741

  1. Hamiltonian gyro-averaged area preserving map models of finite Larmor radius effects on ExB chaotic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Caldas, Ibere

    2014-10-01

    Area preserving maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on three types of area preserving maps describing ExB chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. We include finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects by gyro-averaging the corresponding Hamiltonians of the maps. The Hamiltonians have frequencies with monotonic and non-monotonic profiles. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that FLR leads to chaos suppression, modifies the stability of fixed points, and changes the robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects also modify the phase space topology and give rise to bifurcations of the zonal flow ExB velocity profile. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.

  2. Relationship of T2-Weighted MRI Myocardial Hyperintensity and the Ischemic Area-At-Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han W.; Van Assche, Lowie; Jennings, Robert B.; Wince, W. Benjamin; Jensen, Christoph J.; Rehwald, Wolfgang G.; Wendell, David C.; Bhatti, Lubna; Spatz, Deneen M.; Parker, Michele A.; Jenista, Elizabeth R.; Klem, Igor; Crowley, Anna Lisa C.; Chen, Enn-Ling; Judd, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: After acute myocardial infarction (MI), delineating the area-at-risk (AAR) is crucial for measuring how much, if any, ischemic myocardium has been salvaged. T2-weighted MRI is promoted as an excellent method to delineate the AAR. However, the evidence supporting the validity of this method to measure the AAR is indirect, and it has never been validated with direct anatomic measurements. Objective: To determine whether T2-weighted MRI delineates the AAR. Methods and Results: Twenty-one canines and 24 patients with acute MI were studied. We compared bright-blood and black-blood T2-weighted MRI with images of the AAR and MI by histopathology in canines and with MI by in vivo delayed-enhancement MRI in canines and patients. Abnormal regions on MRI and pathology were compared by (a) quantitative measurement of the transmural-extent of the abnormality and (b) picture matching of contours. We found no relationship between the transmural-extent of T2-hyperintense regions and that of the AAR (bright-blood-T2: r=0.06, P=0.69; black-blood-T2: r=0.01, P=0.97). Instead, there was a strong correlation with that of infarction (bright-blood-T2: r=0.94, P<0.0001; black-blood-T2: r=0.95, P<0.0001). Additionally, contour analysis demonstrated a fingerprint match of T2-hyperintense regions with the intricate contour of infarcted regions by delayed-enhancement MRI. Similarly, in patients there was a close correspondence between contours of T2-hyperintense and infarcted regions, and the transmural-extent of these regions were highly correlated (bright-blood-T2: r=0.82, P<0.0001; black-blood-T2: r=0.83, P<0.0001). Conclusion: T2-weighted MRI does not depict the AAR. Accordingly, T2-weighted MRI should not be used to measure myocardial salvage, either to inform patient management decisions or to evaluate novel therapies for acute MI. PMID:25972514

  3. Quantification of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in internal combustion engine exhaust with time-weighted average solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Koziel, Jacek A; Kenessov, Bulat

    2015-05-11

    A new and simple method for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) quantification in vehicle exhaust was developed based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The rationale was to develop a method based on existing and proven SPME technology that is feasible for field adaptation in developing countries. Passive sampling with SPME fiber retracted into the needle extracted nearly two orders of magnitude less mass (n) compared with exposed fiber (outside of needle) and sampling was in a time weighted-averaging (TWA) mode. Both the sampling time (t) and fiber retraction depth (Z) were adjusted to quantify a wider range of Cgas. Extraction and quantification is conducted in a non-equilibrium mode. Effects of Cgas, t, Z and T were tested. In addition, contribution of n extracted by metallic surfaces of needle assembly without SPME coating was studied. Effects of sample storage time on n loss was studied. Retracted TWA-SPME extractions followed the theoretical model. Extracted n of BTEX was proportional to Cgas, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limits were 1.8, 2.7, 2.1 and 5.2 mg m(-3) (0.51, 0.83, 0.66 and 1.62 ppm) for BTEX, respectively. The contribution of extraction onto metallic surfaces was reproducible and influenced by Cgas and t and less so by T and by the Z. The new method was applied to measure BTEX in the exhaust gas of a Ford Crown Victoria 1995 and compared with a whole gas and direct injection method. PMID:25911428

  4. Mapping the time-averaged distribution of combustion-derived air pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Zinniker, D. A.; Moldowan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Urban air pollution is an ongoing and complicated problem for both residents and policy makers. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the geographic source and fate of organic pollutants in a dynamic urban environment. Natural and artificial hydrophobic substrates were employed for the passive monitoring and mapping of ground-level organic pollutants in the San Francisco Bay area. We focused specifically on volatile and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds are proxies for a broad range of combustion related air pollutants derived from local, regional, and global combustion sources. PAHs include several well-studied carcinogens and can be measured easily and accurately across a broad range of concentrations. Estimates of time-integrated vapor phase and particle deposition were made from measuring accumulated PAHs in the leaves of several widely distributed tree species (including the Quercus agrifolia and Sequoia sempervirens) and an artificial wax film. Samples were designed to represent pollutant exposure over a period of one to several months. The selective sampling and analysis of hydrophobic substrates providess insight into the average geographic distribution of ground-level air pollutants in a simple and inexpensive way. However, accumulated organics do not directly correlated with human exposure and the source signature of PAHs may be obscured by transport, deposition, and flux processes. We attempted to address some of these complications by studying 1) PAH accumulation rates within substrates in a controlled microcosm, 2) differences in PAH abundance in different substrate types at the same locality, and 3) samples near long-term high volume air sampling stations. We also set out to create a map of PAH concentrations based on our measurements. This map can be directly compared with interpolated data from high-volume sampling stations and used to address questions concerning atmospheric heterogeneity of these pollutants (i.e. due to both source localization and dominant wind patterns). Our initial results indicate that exposure to PAHs in the bay area is geographically heterogeneous and individual exposure may vary by more than two orders of magnitude. The signatures of PAH contamination also varies considerably, indicating different sources and differing transportation mechanisms may be important at different sites and times.

  5. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (?0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (?0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ?800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (?800 d). The earliest AFC group (?749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (?8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm-specific herd management. The MY is a very important factor for dairy farm profitability. The group of farms having the highest MY achieved the highest net profit despite having greater fertility problems. PMID:25064657

  6. Relationship between paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and relative proprioceptive weighting ratio of older persons with lumbar spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tadashi; Sakai, Yoshihito; Nakamura, Eishi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yamada, Ayaka; Sato, Noritaka; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio during local vibratory stimulation of older persons with lumbar spondylosis in an upright position. [Subjects] In all, 74 older persons hospitalized for lumbar spondylosis were included. [Methods] We measured the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio of postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240?Hz were applied to the subjects’ paraspinal or gastrocnemius muscles. Back strength, abdominal muscle strength, and erector spinae muscle (L1/L2, L4/L5) and lumbar multifidus (L1/L2, L4/L5) cross-sectional areas were evaluated. [Results] The erector spinae muscle (L1/L2) cross-sectional area was associated with the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio during 60Hz stimulation. [Conclusion] These findings show that the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio compared to the erector spinae muscle (L1/L2) cross-sectional area under 60Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of trunk proprioceptive sensitivity. PMID:26311962

  7. Influence of average molecular weights of poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 on phase separation and in vitro drug release from microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Busnel, J P; Benoît, J P

    1990-09-01

    The phase separation of fractionated poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 was determined by silicone oil addition. Polymer fractionation by preparative size exclusion chromatography afforded five different microsphere batches. Average molecular weight determined the existence, width, and displacement of the "stability window" inside the phase diagrams, and also microsphere characteristics such as core loading and amount released over 6 hr. Further, the gyration and hydrodynamic radii were measured by light scattering. It is concluded that the polymer-solvent affinity is largely modified by the variation of average molecular weights owing to different levels of solubility. The lower the average molecular weight is, the better methylene chloride serves as a solvent for the coating material. However, a paradoxical effect due to an increase in free carboxyl and hydroxyl groups is noticed for polymers of 18,130 and 31,030 SEC (size exclusion chromatography) Mw. For microencapsulation, polymers having an intermediate molecular weight (47,250) were the most appropriate in terms of core loading and release purposes. PMID:2235892

  8. Cartilage and labrum degeneration in the dysplastic hip generally originates in the anterosuperior weight-bearing area: an arthroscopic observation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Y; Miura, H; Takasugi, S; Iwamoto, Y

    1999-01-01

    To clarify the intra-articular pathology of dysplastic osteoarthritis, we conducted 120 hip arthroscopies. Hips were classified radiologically into four stages: 41 prearthritic stage, 42 early-stage, 34 advanced-stage, and 3 end-stage. As the radiological stage progressed, articular cartilage degeneration became more extensive and severe. In the prearthritic and early stages, cartilage degeneration generally originated in the anterosuperior portion of the weight-bearing area of the femoral head and acetabulum. Cartilage degeneration of the acetabulum usually preceded that of the femoral head. Most detaching tears of the acetabular labrum originated in the anterosuperior area, too. In conclusion, cartilage and labrum degeneration in the dysplastic hip generally originates in the anterosuperior portion of weight-bearing area. PMID:10424553

  9. Academic StandardsAcademic StandardsAcademic StandardsAcademic Standards Your cumulative weighted average or CWA, calculated as a percentage, is a general indicator of your

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    . A CWA is based on two factors: The grade you receive in a course. The number of credit units attached to the course. How to Calculate Your CWA Step 1 Multiply the mark in each course by the number of credit units courses. Step 3 Add together the number of credit units taken. Divide the total weighted grades

  10. 40 CFR 63.2854 - How do I determine the weighted average volume fraction of HAP in the actual solvent loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2854 How do I determine the weighted... received for use in your vegetable oil production process. By the end of each calendar month following an... the solvent in each delivery of solvent, including solvent recovered from off-site oil. To...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2854 - How do I determine the weighted average volume fraction of HAP in the actual solvent loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2854 How do I determine the weighted... received for use in your vegetable oil production process. By the end of each calendar month following an... the solvent in each delivery of solvent, including solvent recovered from off-site oil. To...

  12. Estimates of area-averaged turbulent energy fluxes in a convectively driven boundary layer using aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherf, A.; Roth, R.

    1996-12-01

    During the field campaign of EFEDA II several aircraft measurements were performed in order to evaluate area mean values of turbulent energy fluxes over a relatively flat terrain in a desertification threatened area in Spain. Since earlier field experiments indicated differences between airborne measurements and surface observations, we tried to close the gap by carefully analysing the turbulence measurements. In order to evaluate the influence of the temporal variation of the convective boundary layer, the rise of the inversion, derived from simultaneously performed radiosonde ascents, was taken into account. By estimating the linear approximated fields of the meteorological parameters, it was possible to calculate the mean values of these quantities as well as the temporal and spatial derivatives, which are necessary for the evaluation of the advective terms of the energy budget. In this way is possible to examine the terms of the conservation equations in a supplementary way.

  13. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries..., Subpart C—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  14. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries..., Subpart G—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  15. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries..., Subpart G—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  16. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries..., Subpart C—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  17. Built-up Areas Extraction in High Resolution SAR Imagery based on the method of Multiple Feature Weighted Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhao, Z.; Ma, A. D.

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic aperture radar in the application of remote sensing technology is becoming more and more widely because of its all-time and all-weather operation, feature extraction research in high resolution SAR image has become a hot topic of concern. In particular, with the continuous improvement of airborne SAR image resolution, image texture information become more abundant. It's of great significance to classification and extraction. In this paper, a novel method for built-up areas extraction using both statistical and structural features is proposed according to the built-up texture features. First of all, statistical texture features and structural features are respectively extracted by classical method of gray level co-occurrence matrix and method of variogram function, and the direction information is considered in this process. Next, feature weights are calculated innovatively according to the Bhattacharyya distance. Then, all features are weighted fusion. At last, the fused image is classified with K-means classification method and the built-up areas are extracted after post classification process. The proposed method has been tested by domestic airborne P band polarization SAR images, at the same time, two groups of experiments based on the method of statistical texture and the method of structural texture were carried out respectively. On the basis of qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis based on the built-up area selected artificially is enforced, in the relatively simple experimentation area, detection rate is more than 90%, in the relatively complex experimentation area, detection rate is also higher than the other two methods. In the study-area, the results show that this method can effectively and accurately extract built-up areas in high resolution airborne SAR imagery.

  18. Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  19. Reach of Effective, Nationally-Available, Low-Cost, Nonprofit Weight Loss Program in Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nia S; Nassel, Ariann F; Thomas, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Obesity rates are higher for ethnic minority, low-income, and rural communities. Programs are needed to support these communities with weight management. We determined the reach of a low-cost, nationally-available weight loss program in Health Resources and Services Administration medically underserved areas (MUAs) and described the demographics of the communities with program locations. This is a cross-sectional analysis of Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS) chapter locations. Geographic information systems technology was used to combine information about TOPS chapter locations, the geographic boundaries of MUAs, and socioeconomic data from the Decennial 2010 Census. TOPS is available in 30 % of MUAs. The typical TOPS chapter is in a Census Tract that is predominantly white, urban, with a median annual income between $25,000 and $50,000. However, there are TOPS chapters in Census Tracts that can be classified as predominantly black or predominantly Hispanic; predominantly rural; and as low or high income. TOPS provides weight management services in MUAs and across many types of communities. TOPS can help treat obesity in the medically underserved. Future research should determine the differential effectiveness among chapters in different types of communities. PMID:26072259

  20. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 198 kilograms per second per square meter (40.6(lb/sec)/sq ft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

  1. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  2. Temporal and spatial characteristics of the area at risk investigated using computed tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    van der Pals, Jesper; Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Kellman, Peter; Taylor, Joni; Kozlov, Shawn; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Chen, Marcus Y.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can measure the myocardial area at risk (AAR), but the technique has received criticism for inadequate validation. CMR commonly depicts an AAR that is wider than the infarct, which in turn would require a lateral perfusion gradient within the AAR. We investigated the presence of a lateral perfusion gradient within the AAR and validated CMR measures of AAR against three independent reference standards of high quality. Methods and results Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging, microsphere blood flow analysis, T1-weighted 3T CMR and fluorescent microparticle pathology were used to investigate the AAR in a canine model (n = 10) of ischaemia and reperfusion. AAR size by CMR correlated well with CT (R2 = 0.80), microsphere blood flow (R2 = 0.80), and pathology (R2 = 0.74) with good limits of agreement [?0.79 ± 4.02% of the left ventricular mass (LVM) vs. CT; ?1.49 ± 4.04% LVM vs. blood flow and ?1.01 ± 4.18% LVM vs. pathology]. The lateral portion of the AAR had higher perfusion than the core of the AAR by CT perfusion imaging (40.7 ± 11.8 vs. 25.2 ± 17.7 Hounsfield units, P = 0.0008) and microsphere blood flow (0.11 ± 0.04 vs. 0.05 ± 0.02 mL/g/min, lateral vs. core, P = 0.001). The transmural extent of MI was lower in the lateral portion of the AAR than the core (28.2 ± 10.2 vs. 17.4 ± 8.4% of the wall, P = 0.001). Conclusion T1-weighted CMR accurately quantifies size of the AAR with excellent agreement compared with three independent reference standards. A lateral perfusion gradient results in lower transmural extent of infarction at the edges of the AAR compared with the core. PMID:25881901

  3. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

  4. Study of Double-Weighted Graph Model and Optimal Path Planning for Tourist Scenic Area Oriented Intelligent Tour Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Long, Y.; Wi, X. L.

    2014-04-01

    When tourists visiting multiple tourist scenic spots, the travel line is usually the most effective road network according to the actual tour process, and maybe the travel line is different from planned travel line. For in the field of navigation, a proposed travel line is normally generated automatically by path planning algorithm, considering the scenic spots' positions and road networks. But when a scenic spot have a certain area and have multiple entrances or exits, the traditional described mechanism of single point coordinates is difficult to reflect these own structural features. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on the influence on the process of path planning caused by scenic spots' own structural features such as multiple entrances or exits, and then proposes a doubleweighted Graph Model, for the weight of both vertexes and edges of proposed Model can be selected dynamically. And then discusses the model building method, and the optimal path planning algorithm based on Dijkstra algorithm and Prim algorithm. Experimental results show that the optimal planned travel line derived from the proposed model and algorithm is more reasonable, and the travelling order and distance would be further optimized.

  5. Monitoring desertification using the integrated CA GIS and RS with AHP-derived weights: a case study of Beijing and its neighboring areas in recent 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gongwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Qing; Ding, Huoping

    2007-06-01

    This paper aims to monitor desertification evolution of different stages and assess its factors using remote sensing (RS) data and cellular automata (CA)-geographical information system (GIS) with an adaptive analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to derive weights of desertification factors. The study areas (114°E to 117°E and 39.5°to 42.2°N) are one of the important agro-pastoral transitional zone, located in Beijing and its neighboring areas, marginal desertified areas in North China. Desertification information including NDVI and desertification area were derived from the satellite images of 1987TM, 1996TM (with a resolution of 28.5), and 2006 CBERS-(with a resolution of 19.5 m) in study areas. The ancillary data in terms of meteorology, geology, 30m-DEM, hydrography can be statistical analyzed with GIS technology. A CA model based on the desertification factors with AHP-derived weights was built by AML program in ArcGIS workstation to assess the evolution of desertification in different stages (from 1987 to 1996, and from 1996 to 2006). The research results show that desertified areas was increased by 3.28% per year from 1987 to 1996, so was 0.51% per year from 1996 to 2006. Although the weights of desertification factors have some changes in different stages, the main factors including climate, NDVI, and terrain did not change except the values in study areas.

  6. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  7. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  8. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

  9. Volatility-- a statistical comparison between the secondary and primary home markets : the lower Cape's volatility and average return compared to three Boston area primary markets

    E-print Network

    Knight, Craig, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis attempts to analyze the long-standing perception that the secondary home market, homes built in and around vacation areas, is more volatile than the primary home market. For the first time, this study measures ...

  10. Segmentation of white matter flaring areas in ultrasound images of very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Govaert, Paul; Conneman, Nikk; Lequin, Maarten; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-06-01

    In this article, we present an interactive algorithm segmenting white brain matter, visible as hyperechoic flaring areas in ultrasound (US) images of preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). The algorithm combines both the textural properties of pathological brain tissue and mathematical morphology operations. An initial flaring area estimate is derived from a multifeature multiclassifier tissue texture classifier. This area is refined based on the structural properties of the choroid plexus, a brain feature known to have characteristics similar to flaring. Subsequently, a combination of a morphological closing, gradient and opening by reconstruction operation determines the final flaring area boundaries. Experimental results are compared with a gold standard constructed from manual flaring area delineations of 12 medical experts. In addition, we compared our algorithm to an existing active contour method. The results show our technique agrees to the gold standard with statistical significance and outperforms the existing method in accuracy. Finally, using the flaring area as a criterion we improve the sensitivity of PVL detection up to 98% as compared with the state of the art. PMID:19251355

  11. Performance in Test Beam of a Large-area and Light-weight GEM detector with 2D Stereo-Angle (U-V) Strip Readout

    E-print Network

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Gua, Chao; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Zhao, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    A large-area and light-weight Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was built at the University of Virginia as a prototype for the detector R$\\&$D program of the future Electron Ion Collider. The prototype has a trapezoidal geometry designed as a generic sector module in a disk layer configuration of a forward tracker in collider detectors. It is based on light-weight material and narrow support frames in order to minimize multiple scattering and dead-to-sensitive area ratio. The chamber has a novel type of two dimensional (2D) stereo-angle readout board with U-V strips that provides (r,$\\varphi$) position information in the cylindrical coordinate system of a collider environment. The prototype was tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013 and the analysis of the test beam data demonstrates an excellent response uniformity of the large area chamber with an efficiency higher than 95%. An angular resolution of 60 $\\mu$rad in the azimuthal direction and a position resolution better than 550 ...

  12. Dry weight partitioning and hydraulic traits in young Pinus taeda trees fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus in a subtropical area.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Laura I; Bulfe, Nardia M L; Pinazo, Martín A; Monteoliva, Silvia E; Graciano, Corina

    2013-03-01

    Plants of Pinus taeda L. from each of four families were fertilized with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N?+?P at planting. The H family had the highest growth in dry mass while the L family had the lowest growth. Measurements of plant hydraulic architecture traits were performed during the first year after planting. Stomatal conductance (gs), water potential at predawn (?predawn) and at midday (?midday), branch hydraulic conductivity (ks and kl) and shoot hydraulic conductance (K) were measured. One year after planting, dry weight partitioning of all aboveground organs was performed. Phosphorus fertilization increased growth in all four families, while N fertilization had a negative effect on growth. L family plants were more negatively affected than H family plants. This negative effect was not due to limitations in N or P uptake because plants from all the families and treatments had the same N and P concentration in the needles. Phosphorus fertilization changed some hydraulic parameters, but those changes did not affect growth. However, the negative effect of N can be explained by changes in hydraulic traits. L family plants had a high leaf dry weight per branch, which was increased by N fertilization. This change occurred together with a decrease in shoot conductance. Therefore, the reduction in gs was not enough to avoid the drop in ?midday. Consequently, stomatal closure and the deficient water status of the needles resulted in a reduction in growth. In H family plants, the increase in the number of needles per branch due to N fertilization was counteracted by a reduction in gs and also by a reduction in tracheid lumen size and length. Because of these two changes, ?midday did not drop and water availability in the needles was adequate for sustained growth. In conclusion, fertilization affects the hydraulic architecture of plants, and different families develop different strategies. Some of the hydraulic changes can explain the negative effect of N fertilization on growth. PMID:23355634

  13. Trends of some high quantiles of average and extremes inter-arrival times and rainfall depths at daily scale for an Italian Sub-Alpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of rainfall statistical structure represents an important research area in hydrology, meteorology, atmospheric physics and climatology, because of the several theoretical and practical implications. The statistical inference of the alternation of wet periods (WP) and dry periods (DP) in daily rainfall records can be achieved through the modelling of inter-arrival time-series (IT), defined as the succession of times elapsed from a rainy day and the one immediately preceding it. It has been shown previously that the statistical structure of IT can be well described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution (Lch). In this work, Lch was successfully applied to IT data belonging to a sub-alpine area (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy); furthermore the same statistical procedure was applied to daily rainfall records to ITs associated. The analysis has been carried out for 26 daily rainfall long-series (? 90 yr of observations). The main objective of this work was to detect temporal trends of some features describing the statistical structure of both inter-arrival time-series (IT) and associated rainfall depth (H). Each time-series was divided on subsets of five years long and for each of them the estimation of the Lch parameter was performed, so to extend the trend analysis to some high quantiles.

  14. Cosmological Measures with Volume Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.

    It has been common for cosmologists to advocate volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  15. How to Address Measurement Noise in Bayesian Model Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöniger, A.; Wöhling, T.; Nowak, W.

    2014-12-01

    When confronted with the challenge of selecting one out of several competing conceptual models for a specific modeling task, Bayesian model averaging is a rigorous choice. It ranks the plausibility of models based on Bayes' theorem, which yields an optimal trade-off between performance and complexity. With the resulting posterior model probabilities, their individual predictions are combined into a robust weighted average and the overall predictive uncertainty (including conceptual uncertainty) can be quantified. This rigorous framework does, however, not yet explicitly consider statistical significance of measurement noise in the calibration data set. This is a major drawback, because model weights might be instable due to the uncertainty in noisy data, which may compromise the reliability of model ranking. We present a new extension to the Bayesian model averaging framework that explicitly accounts for measurement noise as a source of uncertainty for the weights. This enables modelers to assess the reliability of model ranking for a specific application and a given calibration data set. Also, the impact of measurement noise on the overall prediction uncertainty can be determined. Technically, our extension is built within a Monte Carlo framework. We repeatedly perturb the observed data with random realizations of measurement error. Then, we determine the robustness of the resulting model weights against measurement noise. We quantify the variability of posterior model weights as weighting variance. We add this new variance term to the overall prediction uncertainty analysis within the Bayesian model averaging framework to make uncertainty quantification more realistic and "complete". We illustrate the importance of our suggested extension with an application to soil-plant model selection, based on studies by Wöhling et al. (2013, 2014). Results confirm that noise in leaf area index or evaporation rate observations produces a significant amount of weighting uncertainty and compromises the reliability of model ranking. Without our suggested extension, this additional contribution to prediction uncertainty could not be detected and model ranking results would be misinterpreted. We therefore advise modelers to include our suggested upgrade in the Bayesian model averaging routine.

  16. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2007-02-01

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the averaged scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the average shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic average vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero average shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the averaged domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate 'average' spacetime behaviour in general relativity.

  17. Velocity associated characteristics of force production in college weight lifters

    PubMed Central

    Kanehisa, H.; Fukunaga, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine velocity specific isokinetic forces and cross sectional areas of reciprocal muscle groups in Olympic weight lifters. METHODS: The cross sectional area of the flexor or extensor muscles of the elbow or knee joint was determined by a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus in 34 college weight lifters and 31 untrained male subjects matched for age. Maximum voluntary force produced in the flexion and extension of the elbow and knee joints was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300 degrees/s. RESULTS: The average cross sectional area was 31-65% higher, and the force was 19-62% higher in weight lifters than in the untrained subjects. The ratio of force to cross sectional area was the same in both groups. The weight lifters showed a lower velocity associated decline in force than untrained subjects in the elbow and knee flexors but not in the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that for muscle contractions with velocities between 60 degrees/s and 300 degrees/s the difference in isokinetic force between weight lifters and untrained subjects can be primarily attributed to the difference in the muscle cross sectional area. However, the lower velocity associated decline in force implies that weight lifters may have a higher force per cross sectional area than untrained subjects at velocities above 300 degrees/s. ????? PMID:10205693

  18. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  19. Birth Weight and Adult IQ, but Not Anxious-Depressive Psychopathology, Are Associated with Cortical Surface Area: A Study in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Alemany, Silvia; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW) induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA) which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles. Aims We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i) to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii) to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ) influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects. Results Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders. Conclusion The present study supports findings indicating that i) BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii) uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii) higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv) these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology. PMID:26086820

  20. From cellular doses to average lung dose.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R

    2015-11-01

    Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions. PMID:25920789

  1. Weight Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. Eating too much or not being physically active enough will make you overweight. To maintain your weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories ...

  2. Product (a) Type (b) Time of Harvest Gear Code (c) Area of catch (d) Net Weight No. of Fish F/FR RD/GG/DR/FL/OT (mm/yy) (kg) (when RD, GG or DR)

    E-print Network

    Product (a) Type (b) Time of Harvest Gear Code (c) Area of catch (d) Net Weight No. of Fish F/FR RD=Other (describe the type of product; ____________________.) (c): If the Gear Code is OT, describe the type of gear

  3. The Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymer Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Arturo; Pastoriza, M. Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Various methods for the determination of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of different polymer samples are presented. The study shows that the molecular weight averages and distribution of a polymerization completely depend on the characteristics of the reaction itself.

  4. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision.

    PubMed

    Pan, Peng-min; Li, Jian-ping; Lv, Gu-lai; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Song-ming; Lou, Jian-zhong

    2009-08-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp. PMID:19650197

  5. Threaded average temperature thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

  6. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  7. Combining remotely sensed and other measurements for hydrologic areal averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. R.; Peck, E. L.; Keefer, T. N.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for combining measurements of hydrologic variables of various sampling geometries and measurement accuracies to produce an estimated mean areal value over a watershed and a measure of the accuracy of the mean areal value. The method provides a means to integrate measurements from conventional hydrological networks and remote sensing. The resulting areal averages can be used to enhance a wide variety of hydrological applications including basin modeling. The correlation area method assigns weights to each available measurement (point, line, or areal) based on the area of the basin most accurately represented by the measurement. The statistical characteristics of the accuracy of the various measurement technologies and of the random fields of the hydrologic variables used in the study (water equivalent of the snow cover and soil moisture) required to implement the method are discussed.

  8. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 178 kilograms per second per square meter (6.5(lb/sec)/(sq ft))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

  9. Effect of high-speed jet on flow behavior, retrogradation, and molecular weight of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhen; Luo, Shun-Jing; BeMiller, James N; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2015-11-20

    Effects of high-speed jet (HSJ) treatment on flow behavior, retrogradation, and degradation of the molecular structure of indica rice starch were investigated. Decreasing with the number of HSJ treatment passes were the turbidity of pastes (degree of retrogradation), the enthalpy of melting of retrograded rice starch, weight-average molecular weights and weight-average root-mean square radii of gyration of the starch polysaccharides, and the amylopectin peak areas of SEC profiles. The areas of lower-molecular-weight polymers increased. The chain-length distribution was not significantly changed. Pastes of all starch samples exhibited pseudoplastic, shear-thinning behavior. HSJ treatment increased the flow behavior index and decreased the consistency coefficient and viscosity. The data suggested that degradation of amylopectin was mainly involved and that breakdown preferentially occurred in chains between clusters. PMID:26344255

  10. Synchronous Boxcar Averager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    Digital electronic filtering system produces series of moving-average samples of fluctuating signal in manner resulting in removal of undesired periodic signal component of known frequency. Filter designed to pass steady or slowly varying components of fluctuating pressure, flow, pump speed, and pump torque in slurry-pumping system. Concept useful for monitoring or control in variety of applications including machinery, power supplies, and scientific instrumentation.

  11. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  12. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  13. Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

  14. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...service, particularly during rush hour when operators frequently...and may not accurately reflect rush-hour operating conditions...the increase to 175 pounds in order to ``toughen'' the testing...action is being proposed in order to ensure that the Bus...

  15. Direct Linearization and Adjoint Approaches to Evaluation of Atmospheric Weighting Functions and Surface Partial Derivatives: General Principles, Synergy and Areas of Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustino, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

  16. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    PubMed

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t statistics on unstandardized estimates also can be used to provide more informative measures of relative importance than sums of AIC weights. Finally, I illustrate how seriously compromised statistical interpretations and predictions can be for all three of these flawed practices by critiquing their use in a recent species distribution modeling technique developed for predicting Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) distribution in Colorado, USA. These model averaging issues are common in other ecological literature and ought to be discontinued if we are to make effective scientific contributions to ecological knowledge and conservation of natural resources. PMID:26594695

  17. Holiday weight gain: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Mayer, J

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to rise and controversy remains regarding the underlying specific causes of this trend. Recently, the magnitude of holiday weight gain and its contribution to annual weight gain were examined in a convenience sample of 195 adults. On average, weight gain during the 6-week winter period from Thanksgiving through New Year averaged only 0.37 kg. However, weight gain was greater among individuals who were overweight or obese, and 14% gained >2.3 kg (5 lb). In addition, among the entire population, weight gain during the 6-week holiday season explained 51% of annual weight gain. These results suggest that holiday weight gain may be an important contributor to the rising prevalence of obesity, even though absolute values for weight gain in this study were less than anticipated. Further studies using representative populations are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:11206847

  18. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  19. Cosmological measures without volume weighting

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N

    2008-10-15

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  20. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    E-print Network

    Don N. Page

    2008-09-16

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  1. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  2. The Use of CASES-97 Observations to Assess and Parameterize the Impact of Land-Surface Heterogeneity on Area-Average Surface Heat Fluxes for Large-Scale Coupled Atmosphere-Hydrology Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; Yates, David; LeMone, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    To understand the effects of land-surface heterogeneity and the interactions between the land-surface and the planetary boundary layer at different scales, we develop a multiscale data set. This data set, based on the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES97) observations, includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface observations obtained from a dense observation network covering a large region on the order of 100 km. We use this data set to drive three land-surface models (LSMs) to generate multi-scale (with three resolutions of 1, 5, and 10 kilometers) gridded surface heat flux maps for the CASES area. Upon validating these flux maps with measurements from surface station and aircraft, we utilize them to investigate several approaches for estimating the area-integrated surface heat flux for the CASES97 domain of 71x74 square kilometers, which is crucial for land surface model development/validation and area water and energy budget studies. This research is aimed at understanding the relative contribution of random turbulence versus organized mesoscale circulations to the area-integrated surface flux at the scale of 100 kilometers, and identifying the most important effective parameters for characterizing the subgrid-scale variability for large-scale atmosphere-hydrology models.

  3. High average-power induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  4. Signal-averaged electrocardiography in healthy children: relationship with age, sex, and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Yip, W C; Chan, K Y; Koh, B C

    1997-10-01

    Signal-averaged electrocardiograms (SAECGs) have been found to be influenced by sex and anthropometry in adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this relationship in children. Total filtered QRS duration (TQRS), duration of high-frequency, low-amplitude signals in the terminal portion of the QRS complex that were less than 40 microV (HFLA) root-mean-square voltage in the last 40 ms of the filtered QRS (RMS40) were determined by high-resolution electrocardiographic (ECG) recording (MAC 15 ECG System, Marquette Electronics, Milwaukee, WI). These parameters were correlated with age, sex, body weight, height, relative weight, body mass index, and body surface area. As HFLA and RMS40 were not normally distributed, they were logarithmically transformed for regression analysis. The best subset multiple regression procedure was used to evaluate the variables that would optimally influence SAECG measurements and to obtain regression equations for the prediction of each SAECG parameter. Although univariate analysis shows that almost all the body characteristics and age are significantly correlated with SAECGs, multiple regression analysis reveals that TQRS is significantly influenced by height (P < .0001), relative weight (P = .012), and body mass index (P = .041); HFLA is influenced by weight (P = .001), height (P = .004), and body mass index (P = .001); and RMS40 is influenced by height (P < .0001) and relative weight (P = .001). Sex is noted to significantly influence both TQRS and RMS40 (P < .0001, P = .002, respectively), while HFLA is found to be significantly related to age (P = .001). In summary, SAECGs in Chinese children are shown to be influenced by height, weight, and relative weight or body mass index, but not body surface area, while age and sex also significantly contribute to the variation of some SAECG parameters. PMID:9375903

  5. Short communication Improved reproducibility in the determination of the molecular weight

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    of this polymer vary signifi- cantly as a function of its molecular weight and molecular weight distribution (Beri-average molecular weight, Mn, and the weight-average molecular weight, Mw, and therefore the polydispersity index Mw-coated glass particles eluted with a 2% acetic acid solution. Refractive index, RI, and ultra-violet absorption

  6. Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and several radiative forcing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Ultimately, the goal of the framework is to advise better methods for ensemble averaging models and create better climate predictions.

  7. Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

  8. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  9. Average Circuit Depth and Average Communication Complexity Bruno Codenotti \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Simon, Janos

    \\Gamma/14 2 n). Keywords: circuit complexity, parallel time, communication complexity, lower bounds \\LambdaAverage Circuit Depth and Average Communication Complexity Bruno Codenotti \\Lambda Istituto di and Widgerson [KW90] to derive strong lower bounds on the expected parallel time to compute boolean functions

  10. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  11. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...dynamometer road load setting is determined from the equivalent test weight, the reference frontal area, the body shape...this paragraph (horsepower). W = vehicle equivalent test weight (lbs) from the table in paragraph (a)....

  12. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  13. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  14. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

  15. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    E-print Network

    Artyom V. Astashenok; Antonino Del Popolo

    2012-04-17

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown hat the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent onclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures $\\Lambda=0$ is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the osmological constant is non-zero.

  16. A Prospective Study of Holiday Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Sovik, Kara N.; Nguyen, Tuc T.; O'Neil, Patrick M.; Sebring, Nancy G.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is commonly asserted that the “average American” gains five pounds (2.27 kg) or more over the holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year's Day, yet few data support this statement. Methods To estimate actual holiday-related weight variation, we measured body weight in a non-clinical sample of 195 adults. Subjects were weighed four times, 6-8 weeks apart, such that weight change was determined for three intervals: Pre-Holiday (from late September to mid-November, Holiday (November to January) and Post-Holiday (January to March). A final weight was obtained in 165 participants the following September. Other vital signs and self-reported health measures were obtained to mask the main outcome of interest. Results Mean weight increased significantly during the Holiday (+0.37 ± 1.52 kg, P<0.001), but not during the Pre-Holiday (+0.18 ± 1.49 kg, P=0.09), or Post-Holiday (–0.07 ± 1.14 kg, P=0.36) interval. Holiday weight gain was greater than Post-holiday weight gain (P < 0.002). Compared with their weight in September, study subjects had an average net weight gain of +0.48 ± 2.22 kg at their March measurement (P<0.003). Between March and the next September, there was no significant additional weight change (+0.21 kg ± 2.3 kg, P=0.13) for the 165 participants who returned for follow-up. Conclusions Average holiday weight gain is 0.37 kg, far less than commonly asserted. As this gain is not reversed during spring or summer months, the net 0.48 kg fall/winter weight gain appears likely to contribute to the increase in body weight that frequently occurs during adulthood. PMID:10727591

  17. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  18. Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.

  19. Application of [superscript 1]H DOSY for Facile Measurement of Polymer Molecular Weights

    E-print Network

    Li, Weibin

    To address the practical issues of polymer molecular weight determination, the first accurate polymer weight-average molecular weight determination method in diverse living/controlled polymerization via DOSY (diffusion-ordered ...

  20. The experimental evidence for weight-loss treatment of essential hypertension: a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Hovell, M F

    1982-01-01

    The empirical evidence concerning the therapeutic effects of weight loss for hypertension treatment was reviewed. Interventions were critically reviewed for strength of measures and experimental design. Six of 21 intervention studies proved to be methodologically strong. However, only one study was considered a randomized clinical trial, testing the combined effects of weight reduction and pharmacological treatment of hypertension. Average blood pressure decrease obtained from the methodologically strongest studies was -21 mmHg and -13 mmHg, for systolic and diastolic measures, respectively. This magnitude change suggests that weight loss may be a clinically and statistically significant treatment. Confounding and bias variables, such as adherence to diet, medication, salt consumption, etc., were discussed and future areas of research were outlined. It was concluded that weight loss appears to be an effective and safe treatment of hypertension. PMID:7039371

  1. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  2. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  3. Weight Management and Calories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Weight Management You are here Home Weight Management Error message ... page.preprocess.inc ). Print Share Why is weight management important? In addition to helping you feel and ...

  4. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  5. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... load setting is determined from the equivalent test weight, the reference frontal area, the body shape... = vehicle equivalent test weight (lbs) from the table in paragraph (a). a = 0.43 for fastback-shaped... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road load power, test weight,...

  6. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

  8. Weight Distributions of Multi-Edge type LDPC Codes

    E-print Network

    KASAI, Kenta; DECLERCQ, David; POULLIAT, Charly; SAKANIWA, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    The multi-edge type LDPC codes, introduced by Richardson and Urbanke, present the general class of structured LDPC codes. In this paper, we derive the average weight distributions of the multi-edge type LDPC code ensembles. Furthermore, we investigate the asymptotic exponential growth rate of the average weight distributions and investigate the connection to the stability condition of the density evolution.

  9. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age?=?43.25, SD?=?13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  10. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  11. Instability at long averaging times

    E-print Network

    Hensinger, Winfried

    measurement _ - investigation of magnitude and long-term variation of the stray-field induced quadrupole shift & long-time storage 760 nm repumping efficiency Extrapolation to zero light shift SpectroscopyInstability at long averaging times Variation of quadrupole shift and of compensation voltages

  12. Temperature-Averaging Thermal Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V.

    1984-01-01

    Temperature-averaging thermal probe measures long-term temperature fluctuations in fluid environment. Consists of temperature probe embedded inside thermally massive material. Probe measurements used to estimate powerplant heating and cooling loads, map temperature profiles, and calibrate more-sensitive temperature probes.

  13. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  14. 76 FR 19275 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 115, 170, 176, and 178 RIN 1625-AB20 Passenger Weight and Inspected.... SUMMARY: On December 14, 2010, the Coast Guard amended its regulations governing the maximum weight and..., including increasing the Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP) to 185 lb. The amendment triggered...

  15. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight

  16. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Caitlin E; Herschel, Daniel J; Lasek, Amy W; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

    2015-02-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  17. Effects of wildfire disaster exposure on male birth weight in an Australian population

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, M. H.; Behie, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Maternal stress can depress birth weight and gestational age, with potential health effects. A growing number of studies examine the effect of maternal stress caused by environmental disasters on birth outcomes. These changes may indicate an adaptive response. In this study, we examine the effects of maternal exposure to wildfire on birth weight and gestational age, hypothesising that maternal stress will negatively influence these measures. Methodology: Using data from the Australian Capital Territory, we employed Analysis of Variance to examine the influence of the 2003 Canberra wildfires on the weight of babies born to mothers resident in fire-affected regions, while considering the role of other factors. Results: We found that male infants born in the most severely fire-affected area had significantly higher average birth weights than their less exposed peers and were also heavier than males born in the same areas in non-fire years. Higher average weights were attributable to an increase in the number of macrosomic infants. There was no significant effect on the weight of female infants or on gestational age for either sex. Conclusions and implications: Our findings indicate heightened environmental responsivity in the male cohort. We find that elevated maternal stress acted to accelerate the growth of male fetuses, potentially through an elevation of maternal blood glucose levels. Like previous studies, our work finds effects of disaster exposure and suggests that fetal growth patterns respond to maternal signals. However, the direction of the change in birth weight is opposite to that of many earlier studies. PMID:26574560

  18. Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights

    E-print Network

    Bai, Fengshan

    , and a large amount of experimental results are presented. Index Terms--Data mining, ranking association rulesMining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between

  19. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  20. Statistical properties of the moving average price in dollar-yen exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takaaki; Mizuno, Takayuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a weighted-moving-average analysis for the tick-by-tick data of yen-dollar exchange rates. The weights are determined automatically for given data by applying the Yule-Walker formula for autoregressive model. Although the data are non-stationary, the resulting moving average gives a quite nice property that the deviation around the moving-average becomes a white noise. The weights decay exponentially with time scale less than 2 min implying that dealers are watching only very recent market state.

  1. Weights of wild mallard Anas platyrhynchos, gadwall A. strepera, and blue-winged teal A. discors during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Johnson, D.H.; Sharp, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    During 1976-81 we weighed several thousands of wild Mallard, Gadwall, and Blue-winged Teal in central North Dakota to examine duckling growth patterns, adult weights, and the factors influencing them. One-day-old Mallard and Gadwall averaged 32.4 and 30.4 g, respectively, a reduction of 34% and 29% from fresh egg weights. In all three species, the logistic growth curve provided a good fit for duckling growth patterns. Except for the asymptote, there was no difference in growth curves between males and females of a species. Mallard and Gadwall ducklings were heavier in years when wetland area was extensive or had increased from the previous year. Weights of after-second-year females were greater than yearlings for Mallard but not for Gadwall or Blue-winged Teal. Adult Mallard females lost weight continuously from late March to early July. Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal females, which nest later than Mallard, gained weight after spring arrival, lost weight from the onset of nesting until early July, and then regained some weight. Females of all species captured on nests were lighter than those captured off nests at the same time. Male Mallard weights decreased from spring arrival until late May. Male Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal weights increased after spring arrival, then declined until early June. Males of all three species then gained weight until the end of June. Among adults, female Gadwall and male Mallard and Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years when wetland area had increased from the previous year; female Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years with more wetland area.

  2. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  3. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Walter R.

    -Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame J. Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL The cross section for Thomson scattering Average-Atom Model Divide plasma into WS cells with a nucleus and Z electrons p2 2 - Z r + V a(r) = a a(r) V(r) = VKS(n(r), r) n(r) = nb(r) + nc(r) 4r2nb(r) = nl 2(2l+1) 1+exp[( nl -µ)/kBT] Pnl(r)2 Z = r

  4. Skeleton of weighted social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

  5. Optical imaging reconstruction using the average value as the reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Motoki; Miwa, Mitsuharu; Yamashita, Yutaka; Tsuchiya, Yutaka

    1997-08-01

    We propose a new algorithm for optical computed tomography (CT) to quantify the absorptive substances in highly scattering media such as human tissues. Our algorithm uses the uniform medium in which scattering and absorption coefficients are equivalent to the average coefficients of the actual object to be measured. In other words, we use an imaginary reference. When the weight function and re-emissions are measurable or can be calculated for the imaginary reference, we can describe the inside structure of the non-uniform object using the deviation of the absorption coefficient from the average value. Since it is difficult to prepare a phantom of which exterior shape and inside structure are identical to that of the real objects, conventional methods cannot be free from the significant errors. The averages of the absorption and scattering coefficients are obtained by measurements such as time-resolved spectroscopy. The weight function and re- missions can be calculated using the average values by a Monte Carlo simulation or a finite difference method. The absolute absorption coefficient is obtained as the sum of the average and the deviation. The validity of our algorithm was confirmed by measuring a tissue-like phantom which contains three different absorbers. We evaluated reconstructed images and confirmed that the new method gives better accuracy in the quantitation of the concentration of absorbing substance and a smaller image distortion. Our results have significant implications for optical CT which quantifies the concentration of absorbing substances accurately without measuring the reference phantom.

  6. Model Averaging for Improving Inference from Causal Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan B.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Vahratian, Anjel

    2015-01-01

    Model selection is an integral, yet contentious, component of epidemiologic research. Unfortunately, there remains no consensus on how to identify a single, best model among multiple candidate models. Researchers may be prone to selecting the model that best supports their a priori, preferred result; a phenomenon referred to as “wish bias”. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), based on background causal and substantive knowledge, are a useful tool for specifying a subset of adjustment variables to obtain a causal effect estimate. In many cases, however, a DAG will support multiple, sufficient or minimally-sufficient adjustment sets. Even though all of these may theoretically produce unbiased effect estimates they may, in practice, yield somewhat distinct values, and the need to select between these models once again makes the research enterprise vulnerable to wish bias. In this work, we suggest combining adjustment sets with model averaging techniques to obtain causal estimates based on multiple, theoretically-unbiased models. We use three techniques for averaging the results among multiple candidate models: information criteria weighting, inverse variance weighting, and bootstrapping. We illustrate these approaches with an example from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN) study. We show that each averaging technique returns similar, model averaged causal estimates. An a priori strategy of model averaging provides a means of integrating uncertainty in selection among candidate, causal models, while also avoiding the temptation to report the most attractive estimate from a suite of equally valid alternatives. PMID:26270672

  7. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... porphyrias because reducing the intakes of carbohydrate and energy in an effort to lose weight can worsen ... attempted to lose weight rapidly with very low energy diets. Patients with acute Porphyria should avoid very ...

  8. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you lose weight. If you are patient, you may be surprised at how much weight you lose naturally while breastfeeding.

  9. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share ... Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the ...

  10. Weighted and controlled frames

    E-print Network

    Peter Balazs; Jean-Pierre Antoine; Anna Grybos

    2009-02-12

    Weighted and controlled frames have been introduced recently to improve the numerical efficiency of iterative algorithms for inverting the frame operator. In this paper we develop systematically these notions, including their mutual relationship. We will show that controlled frames are equivalent to standard frames and so this concept gives a generalized way to check the frame condition, while offering a numerical advantage in the sense of preconditioning. Next, we investigate weighted frames, in particular their relation to controlled frames. We consider the special case of semi-normalized weights, where the concepts of weighted frames and standard frames are interchangeable. We also make the connection with frame multipliers. Finally we analyze weighted frames numerically. First we investigate three possibilities for finding weights in order to tighten a given frame, i.e., decrease the frame bound ratio. Then we examine Gabor frames and how well the canonical dual of a weighted frame is approximated by the inversely weighted dual frame.

  11. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  12. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    SciTech Connect

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  13. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    E-print Network

    Emil Prodan

    2008-10-04

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes \\cite{Kellendonk:2004p597} to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states.

  14. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

    E-print Network

    385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

  15. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success. PMID:25089189

  16. Theory of optimal weighting of data to detect climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    A search for climatic change predicted by climate models can easily yield unconvincing results because of 'climatic noise,' the inherent, unpredictable variability of time-average atmospheric data. A weighted average of data that maximizes the probability of detecting predicted climatic change is presented. To obtain the optimal weights, an estimate of the covariance matrix of the data from a prior data set is needed. This introduces additional sampling error into the method. This is presently taken into account. A form of the weighted average is found whose probability distribution is independent of the true (but unknown) covariance statistics of the data and of the climate model prediction.

  17. The uncertainty of simple spatial averages using rain gauge networks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.L.; Maliekal, J.A.; Greene, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A technique is presented whereby the standard error of a simple spatial average can be computed given any spatial configuration of measuring sites. The method should improve useful to those wishing to assess the time-averaged performance of a network of rain gauges where the site locations are fixed within the averaging area. It is demonstrated that in addition to the site density and the spatial structure of the measured variable, the spatial geometry of the network with respect to the averaging area must be accounted for in the standard error expression. By incorporating estimates of the long-term population mean in the method, bias and random error in the sample statistics are minimized. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  18. A Weighted and Directed Interareal Connectivity Matrix for Macaque Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Markov, N. T.; Ercsey-Ravasz, M. M.; Ribeiro Gomes, A. R.; Lamy, C.; Magrou, L.; Vezoli, J.; Misery, P.; Falchier, A.; Quilodran, R.; Gariel, M. A.; Sallet, J.; Gamanut, R.; Huissoud, C.; Clavagnier, S.; Giroud, P.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Barone, P.; Dehay, C.; Toroczkai, Z.; Knoblauch, K.; Van Essen, D. C.; Kennedy, H.

    2014-01-01

    Retrograde tracer injections in 29 of the 91 areas of the macaque cerebral cortex revealed 1,615 interareal pathways, a third of which have not previously been reported. A weight index (extrinsic fraction of labeled neurons [FLNe]) was determined for each area-to-area pathway. Newly found projections were weaker on average compared with the known projections; nevertheless, the 2 sets of pathways had extensively overlapping weight distributions. Repeat injections across individuals revealed modest FLNe variability given the range of FLNe values (standard deviation <1 log unit, range 5 log units). The connectivity profile for each area conformed to a lognormal distribution, where a majority of projections are moderate or weak in strength. In the G29 × 29 interareal subgraph, two-thirds of the connections that can exist do exist. Analysis of the smallest set of areas that collects links from all 91 nodes of the G29 × 91 subgraph (dominating set analysis) confirms the dense (66%) structure of the cortical matrix. The G29 × 29 subgraph suggests an unexpectedly high incidence of unidirectional links. The directed and weighted G29 × 91 connectivity matrix for the macaque will be valuable for comparison with connectivity analyses in other species, including humans. It will also inform future modeling studies that explore the regularities of cortical networks. PMID:23010748

  19. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  20. Averaging along Uniform Random Integers

    E-print Network

    Janvresse, Élise

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by giving a meaning to "The probability that a random integer has initial digit d", we define a URI-set as a random set E of natural integers such that each n>0 belongs to E with probability 1/n, independently of other integers. This enables us to introduce two notions of densities on natural numbers: The URI-density, obtained by averaging along the elements of E, and the local URI-density, which we get by considering the k-th element of E and letting k go to infinity. We prove that the elements of E satisfy Benford's law, both in the sense of URI-density and in the sense of local URI-density. Moreover, if b_1 and b_2 are two multiplicatively independent integers, then the mantissae of a natural number in base b_1 and in base b_2 are independent. Connections of URI-density and local URI-density with other well-known notions of densities are established: Both are stronger than the natural density, and URI-density is equivalent to log-density. We also give a stochastic interpretation, in terms of URI-...

  1. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887

  2. A model-averaging method for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Pohlmann, Karl F; Chapman, Jenny B; Pohll, Greg M; Reeves, Donald M

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates alternative groundwater models with different recharge and geologic components at the northern Yucca Flat area of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS), USA. Recharge over the DVRFS has been estimated using five methods, and five geological interpretations are available at the northern Yucca Flat area. Combining the recharge and geological components together with additional modeling components that represent other hydrogeological conditions yields a total of 25 groundwater flow models. As all the models are plausible given available data and information, evaluating model uncertainty becomes inevitable. On the other hand, hydraulic parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) are uncertain in each model, giving rise to parametric uncertainty. Propagation of the uncertainty in the models and model parameters through groundwater modeling causes predictive uncertainty in model predictions (e.g., hydraulic head and flow). Parametric uncertainty within each model is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation, and model uncertainty is evaluated using the model averaging method. Two model-averaging techniques (on the basis of information criteria and GLUE) are discussed. This study shows that contribution of model uncertainty to predictive uncertainty is significantly larger than that of parametric uncertainty. For the recharge and geological components, uncertainty in the geological interpretations has more significant effect on model predictions than uncertainty in the recharge estimates. In addition, weighted residuals vary more for the different geological models than for different recharge models. Most of the calibrated observations are not important for discriminating between the alternative models, because their weighted residuals vary only slightly from one model to another. PMID:19788638

  3. The Effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating Intervention on Weight Management in Women

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention on weight management. Design Random control trial. Setting Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention The intervention, using 6 weekly 2 hour small group sessions, focused on reducing calorie and fat intake when eating out through education, behavior change strategies, and mindful eating meditations. Main Outcome Measures Weight, waist circumference, self-reported daily calorie and fat intake, self-reported calories and fat consumed when eating out, emotional eating, diet related self-efficacy, and barriers to weight management when eating out. Analysis General linear models examined change from baseline to final endpoint to determine differences in outcomes between the intervention and control group. Results Participants in the intervention group lost significantly more weight (P =.03), had lower average daily caloric (P =.002) and fat intake (P =.001), had increased diet related self-efficacy (P =.02), and had fewer barriers to weight management when eating out (P =.001). Conclusions and Implications Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention was effective in promoting weight management in perimenopausal women. PMID:22243980

  4. Monitoring low birth weight: an evaluation of international estimates and an updated estimation procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Ann K.; Wardlaw, Tessa

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the data used to produce estimates of the proportion of infants with low birth weight in developing countries and to describe biases in these data. To assess the effect of adjustment procedures on the estimates and propose a modified estimation procedure for international reporting purposes. METHODS: Mothers' reports about their recent births in 62 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 1990 and 2000 were analysed. The proportion of infants weighed at birth, characteristics of those weighed, extent of misreporting, and mothers' subjective assessments of their children's size at birth were examined. FINDINGS: In many developing countries the majority of infants were not weighed at birth. Those who were weighed were more likely to have mothers who live in urban areas and are educated, and to be born in a medical facility with assistance from medically trained personnel. Birth weights reported by mothers are "heaped" on multiples of 500 grams. CONCLUSION: Current survey-based estimates of the prevalence of low birth weight are biased substantially downwards. Two adjustments to reported data are recommended: a weighting procedure that combines reported birth weights with mothers' assessment of the child's size at birth, and categorization of one-quarter of the infants reported to have a birth weight of exactly 2500 grams as having low birth weight. Averaged over all surveys, these procedures increased the proportion classified as having low birth weight by 25%. We also recommend that the proportion of infants not weighed at birth be routinely reported. Efforts are needed to increase the weighing of newborns and the recording of their weights. PMID:15798841

  5. Dynamic averaging and foraging decisions in horses (Equus callabus).

    PubMed

    Devenport, Jill A; Patterson, Megan R; Devenport, Lynn D

    2005-08-01

    The variability of most environments taxes foraging decisions by increasing the uncertainty of the information available. One solution to the problem is to use dynamic averaging, as do some granivores and carnivores. Arguably, the same strategy could be useful for grazing herbivores, even though their food renews and is more homogeneously distributed. Horses (Equus callabus) were given choices between variable patches after short or long delays. When patch information was current, horses returned to the patch that was recently best, whereas those without current information matched choices to the long-term average values of the patches. These results demonstrate that a grazing species uses dynamic averaging and indicate that, like granivores and carnivores, they can use temporal weighting to optimize foraging decisions. PMID:16131264

  6. A comparative analysis of 9 multi-model averaging approaches in hydrological continuous streamflow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Richard; Gatien, Philippe; Renaud, Benoit; Brissette, François; Martel, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to test whether a weighted combination of several hydrological models can simulate flows more accurately than the models taken individually. In addition, the project attempts to identify the most efficient model averaging method and the optimal number of models to include in the weighting scheme. In order to address the first objective, streamflow was simulated using four lumped hydrological models (HSAMI, HMETS, MOHYSE and GR4J-6), each of which were calibrated with three different objective functions on 429 watersheds. The resulting 12 hydrographs (4 models × 3 metrics) were weighted and combined with the help of 9 averaging methods which are the simple arithmetic mean (SAM), Akaike information criterion (AICA), Bates-Granger (BGA), Bayes information criterion (BICA), Bayesian model averaging (BMA), Granger-Ramanathan average variant A, B and C (GRA, GRB and GRC) and the average by SCE-UA optimization (SCA). The same weights were then applied to the hydrographs in validation mode, and the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency metric was measured between the averaged and observed hydrographs. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the accuracy of weighted methods to that of individual models. A Kruskal-Wallis test and a multi-objective optimization algorithm were then used to identify the most efficient weighted method and the optimal number of models to integrate. Results suggest that the GRA, GRB, GRC and SCA weighted methods perform better than the individual members. Model averaging from these four methods were superior to the best of the individual members in 76% of the cases. Optimal combinations on all watersheds included at least one of each of the four hydrological models. None of the optimal combinations included all members of the ensemble of 12 hydrographs. The Granger-Ramanathan average variant C (GRC) is recommended as the best compromise between accuracy, speed of execution, and simplicity.

  7. Data Point Averaging for Computational Fluid Dynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system and method for generating fluid flow parameter data for use in aerodynamic heating analysis. Computational fluid dynamics data is generated for a number of points in an area on a surface to be analyzed. Sub-areas corresponding to areas of the surface for which an aerodynamic heating analysis is to be performed are identified. A computer system automatically determines a sub-set of the number of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas and determines a value for each of the number of sub-areas using the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The value is determined as an average of the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The resulting parameter values then may be used to perform an aerodynamic heating analysis.

  8. Importance Ratings and Weighting: Old Concerns and New Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Lara B.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes key concepts, reviews empirical findings, and discusses important issues related to the use of subjective importance ratings and importance weighting. The review of empirical findings focuses on weighting achieved via the multiplicative model and on 3 areas in which weighting is commonly used: quality of life, self-esteem,…

  9. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  10. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  11. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  12. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  13. On the Weighted Mean Value Theorem for Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polezzi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals is a powerful tool, which can be used to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and to obtain the average value of a function on an interval. On the other hand, its weighted version is very useful for evaluating inequalities for definite integrals. This article shows the solutions on applying the weighted

  14. Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Lon J.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

  15. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  16. Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

  17. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  18. RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

  19. Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

    2015-02-01

    We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

  20. Average Time Complexity Classes Jinyi Cai \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Average Time Complexity Classes Jin­yi Cai \\Lambda Alan Selman y Department of Computer Science's theory of average polynomial time to arbitrary time bounds and prove that average time complexity classes form as fine a hierarchy as do deterministic time complexity classes. Keywords: computational

  1. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  2. 40 CFR 91.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Averaging. 91.204 Section 91.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.204 Averaging. (a) Negative credits from engine...

  3. AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH HYSTERESIS

    E-print Network

    Schellekens, Michel P.

    AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH HYSTERESIS A. POKROVSKII O.RASSKAZOV A. VLADIMIROV Abstract. The goal of this paper is to extend the averaging technique to new classes of hysteresis on the systems with the classical Preisach nonlinearity. Key words: Averaging technique, Hysteresis, Sweeping

  4. Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1–3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

  5. Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1-3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

  6. Computation of vertically averaged velocities in irregular sections of straight channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, E.; Tucciarelli, T.; Sinagra, M.; Sammartano, V.; Corato, G.

    2015-09-01

    Two new methods for vertically averaged velocity computation are presented, validated and compared with other available formulas. The first method derives from the well-known Huthoff algorithm, which is first shown to be dependent on the way the river cross section is discretized into several subsections. The second method assumes the vertically averaged longitudinal velocity to be a function only of the friction factor and of the so-called "local hydraulic radius", computed as the ratio between the integral of the elementary areas around a given vertical and the integral of the elementary solid boundaries around the same vertical. Both integrals are weighted with a linear shape function equal to zero at a distance from the integration variable which is proportional to the water depth according to an empirical coefficient ?. Both formulas are validated against (1) laboratory experimental data, (2) discharge hydrographs measured in a real site, where the friction factor is estimated from an unsteady-state analysis of water levels recorded in two different river cross sections, and (3) the 3-D solution obtained using the commercial ANSYS CFX code, computing the steady-state uniform flow in a cross section of the Alzette River.

  7. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant biochemistry using Bayesian model averaging with variable and band selection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Kaiguang; Valle, Denis; Popescu, Sorin; Zhang, Xuesong; Malick, Bani

    2013-05-15

    Model specification remains challenging in spectroscopy of plant biochemistry, as exemplified by the availability of various spectral indices or band combinations for estimating the same biochemical. This lack of consensus in model choice across applications argues for a paradigm shift in hyperspectral methods to address model uncertainty and misspecification. We demonstrated one such method using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which performs variable/band selection and quantifies the relative merits of many candidate models to synthesize a weighted average model with improved predictive performances. The utility of BMA was examined using a portfolio of 27 foliage spectral–chemical datasets representing over 80 species across the globe to estimate multiple biochemical properties, including nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, cellulose, lignin, chlorophyll (a or b), carotenoid, polar and nonpolar extractives, leaf mass per area, and equivalent water thickness. We also compared BMA with partial least squares (PLS) and stepwise multiple regression (SMR). Results showed that all the biochemicals except carotenoid were accurately estimated from hyerspectral data with R2 values > 0.80.

  8. 77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings, 75 FR 81533 (December 28, 2010... Duty Proceedings, 76 FR 5518 (Feb. 1, 2011). In September, 2011, pursuant to section 123(g)(1)(D) of..., 71 FR 77722 (Dec. 27, 2006) (``Final Modification for Investigations''). The Department has...

  9. Inferring Conjunctive Probabilities from Noisy Samples: Evidence for the Configural Weighted Average Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Mirjam A.; Rieskamp, Jörg; Nilsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Judging whether multiple events will co-occur is an important aspect of everyday decision making. The underlying probabilities of occurrence are usually unknown and have to be inferred from experience. Using a rigorous, quantitative model comparison, we investigate how people judge the conjunctive probabilities of multiple events to co-occur. In 2…

  10. 77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...implementing this new policy on entries covered by...Federation note that Russia is in the process of...that notwithstanding Russia's non-Member status...subject merchandise from Russia. Department Position...assessment rate include foreign exporters and...

  11. Exploring Weight Identity: An Examination of the Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Components of Weight

    E-print Network

    Asbury, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-04-20

    - underweight (N = 4), average weight (N = 11) and overweight and obese (N = 10), based on Body Mass Index (BMI) scores. Participants in all three groups were then asked to participate in a follow-up interview. Based on the responses from the interviews...

  12. Target frequency influences antisaccade endpoint bias: evidence for perceptual averaging.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Caitlin; Heath, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Perceptual judgments related to stimulus-sets are represented computationally different than individual items. In particular, the perceptual averaging hypothesis contends that the visual system represents target properties (e.g., eccentricity) via a statistical summary of the individual targets included within a stimulus-set. Here we sought to determine whether perceptual averaging governs the visual information mediating an oculomotor task requiring top-down control (i.e., antisaccade). To that end, participants completed antisaccades (i.e., saccade mirror-symmetrical to a target) – and complementary prosaccades (i.e., saccade to veridical target location) – to different target eccentricities (10.5°, 15.5° and 20.5°) located left and right of a common fixation. Importantly, trials were completed in blocks wherein eccentricities were presented with equal frequency (i.e., control condition) and when the ‘proximal’ (10.5°: i.e., proximal-weighting condition) and ‘distal’ (20.5°: i.e., distal-weighting condition) targets were respectively presented five times as often as the other eccentricities. If antisaccades are governed by a statistical summary then amplitudes should be biased in the direction of the most frequently presented target within a block. As expected, pro- and antisaccade across each target eccentricity were associated with an undershooting bias and prosaccades were refractory to the manipulation of target frequency. Most notably, antisaccades in the proximal-weighting condition had a larger undershooting bias than the control condition, whereas the converse was true for the distal-weighing condition; that is, antisaccades were biased in the direction of the most frequently presented target. Thus, we propose that perceptual averaging extends to motor tasks requiring top-down cognitive control. PMID:25449162

  13. Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

  14. Restraint, weight loss, and variability of body weight.

    PubMed

    Heatherton, T F; Polivy, J; Herman, C P

    1991-02-01

    Restrained and unrestrained subjects (n = 24) were weighed daily for a 6-week period and again 6 months later in order to determine whether dietary restraint or relative body weight is the better predictor of weight variability. Restraint was a significantly better predictor of naturally occurring weight fluctuations than was relative body weight. Furthermore, the 2 factors of the Restraint Scale, Concern for Dieting and Weight Fluctuations, were both significant predictors of weight variability. We propose that exaggerated weight fluctuations are not a natural concomitant of higher body weight but possibly the consequence of a cycle of dieting and overeating, which seems to preclude actual weight loss. PMID:2005275

  15. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their risk for developing type 2 diabetes. What changes in eating habits can help you lose weight? Most people need ... care provider can help you decide how to change your eating habits. Choices include • Eating fewer calories than usual. This ...

  16. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ...

  17. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  18. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  19. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  20. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (Hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling due to a buildup of fluid in the tissues can cause weight gain. This may be due to menstruation, ...

  1. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare Healthy Meals Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals ... are here Home / Interactive Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Error message ...

  2. A Stochastic Model of Space-Time Variability of Mesoscale Rainfall: Statistics of Spatial Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. A previously developed spectral model of rain statistics that is designed to capture this property, predicts power law scaling behavior for the second moment statistics of area-averaged rain rate on the averaging length scale L as L right arrow 0. In the present work a more efficient method of estimating the model parameters is presented, and used to fit the model to the statistics of area-averaged rain rate derived from gridded radar precipitation data from TOGA COARE. Statistical properties of the data and the model predictions are compared over a wide range of averaging scales. An extension of the spectral model scaling relations to describe the dependence of the average fraction of grid boxes within an area containing nonzero rain (the "rainy area fraction") on the grid scale L is also explored.

  3. A re-averaged WENO reconstruction and a third order CWENO scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chieh-Sen; Arbogast, Todd; Hung, Chen-Hui

    2014-04-01

    A WENO re-averaging (or re-mapping) technique is developed that converts function averages on one grid to another grid to high order. Nonlinear weighting gives the essentially non-oscillatory property to the re-averaged function values. The new reconstruction grid is used to obtain a standard high order WENO reconstruction of the function averages at a select point. By choosing the reconstruction grid to include the point of interest, a high order function value can be reconstructed using only positive linear weights. The re-averaging technique is applied to define two variants of a classic CWENO3 scheme that combines two linear polynomials to obtain formal third order accuracy. Such a scheme cannot otherwise be defined, due to the nonexistence of linear weights for third order reconstruction at the center of a grid element. The new scheme uses a compact stencil of three solution averages, and only positive linear weights are used. The scheme extends easily to problems in higher space dimensions, essentially as a tensor product of the one-dimensional scheme. The scheme maintains formal third order accuracy in higher dimensions. Numerical results show that this CWENO3 scheme is third order accurate for smooth problems and gives good results for non-smooth problems, including those with shocks.

  4. Insulin sensitivity as a predictor of weight regain.

    PubMed

    Wing, R R

    1997-01-01

    A recent study found that increases in insulin sensitivity following weight loss and stabilization were strongly related to subsequent weight regain. The present paper analyzed this relationship in two behavioral weight-loss programs. In the first study, 125 nondiabetic subjects were followed over 30 months; weight losses averaged 10 kg at six months, and subjects had regained 8 kg of their weight loss by their 30-month follow-up. Neither fasting insulin levels at six months nor changes in fasting insulin from zero to six months were related to subsequent weight regain. Similarly, insulin levels measured two hours after a 75 g glucose load were unrelated to subsequent weight regain. The second study followed 33 individuals with Type II diabetes, treated with behavior modification, and either a low calorie diet or a very low calorie diet. Weight losses averaged 18 kg at six months, and subjects had regained 10 kg by their 24-month follow-up. The Bergman minimal model was used to assess insulin sensitivity at 6-month intervals. Initial analyses suggested that changes in insulin sensitivity from zero to six months were related to subsequent weight regain, but this effect was strongly influenced by an outlier. After removing this individual, there were no significant relationships between the changes in insulin sensitivity that accompanied weight loss and future weight regain. Likewise, insulin sensitivity at 12 months did not predict weight regain from 12 to 24 months. These data do not support the hypothesis that increases in insulin sensitivity with weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. PMID:9061712

  5. Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

  6. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. PDINFORMATIK On the Average Running Time of

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    o PDINFORMATIK On the Average Running Time of Odd-Even Merge Sort Christine Rüb MPI-I-95 & Dokumentation Im Stadtwald 66123 Saarbrücken Germany #12;On the Average Rllnning Time of Odd-Even Merge Sort Christine Rüb MPI-I-95-1-010 April 1995 #12;On the Average Running Time of Odd-Even Merge Sort Christine Rüb

  9. Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.

  10. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  11. Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

  12. Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Boutilier, Justin J. Lee, Taewoo; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR weight prediction methodologies perform comparably to the LR model and can produce clinical quality treatment plans by simultaneously predicting multiple weights that capture trade-offs associated with sparing multiple OARs.

  13. Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Scott

    Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken.S.A. Abstract A new impact ionization model is developed using both the average energy and the average square, the impact ionization (I.I.) coefficient, ff, i.e., the number of ionization events per unit length along

  14. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  15. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  16. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  17. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  18. INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Svanda, Michal

    2012-11-10

    I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

  19. Weighting by Inverse Variance or by Sample Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

    2010-01-01

    Most of the statistical procedures in meta-analysis are based on the estimation of average effect sizes from a set of primary studies. The optimal weight for averaging a set of independent effect sizes is the inverse variance of each effect size, but in practice these weights have to be estimated, being affected by sampling error. When assuming a…

  20. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  1. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

  2. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  4. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  5. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-print Network

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number of model cases....

  6. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  7. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  9. Last updated: October 2015 CALCULATE MY AVERAGE

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    . 2. 3. AVERAGE (sum of five marks ÷ 5) MANITOBA CALCULATING AN ADMISSION AVERAGE ONE MATHEMATICS Applied Mathematics 40S Pre-Calculus Mathematics 40S Introduction to Calculus 45S ONE ENGLISH ELA Applied Mathematics 40S OR Pre-Calculus Mathematics 40S Applicants may be admitted with one subject

  10. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com

    2011-03-01

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

  11. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? (a) Washington, DC... DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? 591.216 Section 591.216 Administrative... DC survey areas identified in § 591.215(a) and then averages these average prices together...

  12. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? (a) Washington, DC... DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? 591.216 Section 591.216 Administrative... DC survey areas identified in § 591.215(a) and then averages these average prices together...

  13. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? (a) Washington, DC... DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? 591.216 Section 591.216 Administrative... DC survey areas identified in § 591.215(a) and then averages these average prices together...

  14. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? (a) Washington, DC... DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? 591.216 Section 591.216 Administrative... DC survey areas identified in § 591.215(a) and then averages these average prices together...

  15. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? (a) Washington, DC... DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? 591.216 Section 591.216 Administrative... DC survey areas identified in § 591.215(a) and then averages these average prices together...

  16. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  17. Self-averaging in complex brain neuron signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Fukayama, D.; Yadid, G.

    2002-12-01

    Nonlinear statistical properties of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of limbic brain are studied in vivo. VTA plays key role in generation of pleasure and in development of psychological drug addiction. It is shown that spiking time-series of the VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit long-range correlations with self-averaging behavior. This specific VTA phenomenon has no relation to VTA rewarding function. Last result reveals complex role of VTA in limbic brain.

  18. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  19. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  20. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  1. Weighted Clones Libor Barto

    E-print Network

    Barto, Libor

    Weighted Clones Libor Barto Department of Algebra Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University in Prague AAA 89, February 27, 2015 #12;what is this talk about? clones relational clones why study clones: almost whole UA + fun why study relational clones: CSP why we care about : UA CSP

  2. Weight-loss medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more a month. Consider whether the cost, side effects, and the small weight loss you can expect are worth it to you. Your body may not absorb important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from food while you are using orlistat. You should take ...

  3. Light propagation in the averaged universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-10-01

    Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

  4. Television Situation Comedies: Female Weight, Male Negative Comments, and Audience Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Gregory; Burggraf, Kimberley

    2000-01-01

    Content analysis of prime time television situation comedies examined body weights of female central characters, negative comments made by male characters about their weight or bodies, and audience reactions. Below-average weight females were over-represented in the programs. The heavier the females, the more negative comments made to or about…

  5. Weighting strategies in the meta-analysis of single-case studies.

    PubMed

    Manolov, Rumen; Guilera, Georgina; Sierra, Vicenta

    2014-12-01

    Establishing the evidence base of interventions taking place in areas such as psychology and special education is one of the research aims of single-case designs, in conjunction with the aim of improving the well-being of participants in the studies. The scientific criteria for solid evidence focus on the internal and external validity of the studies, and for both types of validity, replicating studies and integrating the results of these replications (i.e., meta-analyzing) is crucial. In the present study, we deal with one of the aspects of meta-analysis-namely, the weighting strategy used when computing an average effect size across studies. Several weighting strategies suggested for single-case designs are discussed and compared in the context of both simulated and real-life data. The results indicated that there are no major differences between the strategies, and thus, we consider that it is important to choose weights with a sound statistical and methodological basis, while scientific parsimony is another relevant criterion. More empirical research and conceptual discussion are warranted regarding the optimal weighting strategy in single-case designs, alongside investigation of the optimal effect size measure in these types of designs. PMID:24488814

  6. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  7. Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

  8. Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO

    E-print Network

    Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy E is the number of the common preys of x and y

  9. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting

  10. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  11. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  12. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  13. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  14. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  15. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  16. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  17. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  18. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  19. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  20. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  1. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  2. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    E-print Network

    Don N. Page

    2014-10-22

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  3. Applications of high average power nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-02-05

    Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

  4. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  5. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ? such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  6. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  7. A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kidner, Ronald

    1999-06-02

    To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here.

  8. When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenstein, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

  9. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R.; Doshi, Sapna D.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Feig, Emily H.

    2013-01-01

    Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate. PMID:24032024

  10. Normal Organ Weights in Women: Part I-The Heart.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac enlargement is a well-known independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death, though the definition of what constitutes cardiac enlargement is not universally established. A previous study was undertaken to establish a normal range for male hearts to address this issue; the present study was designed to address the issue and to determine normal cardiac weights in adult human females. A prospective study was undertaken of healthy females dying from sudden, traumatic deaths aged 18 to 35 years. Cases were excluded if: there was a history of medical illness, including illicit drug use; prolonged medical treatment was performed; there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death; body length and weight could not be accurately assessed; if there was significant cardiac injury; or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross, microscopic, and toxicologic analysis, including evidence of systemic disease. A total of 102 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 10-year period of data collection from 2004 to 2014. The decedents had an average age of 24.4 years and ranged in length from 141 to 182 cm (56.4 to 72.8 in.) with an average length of 160 cm (64 in.). The weight ranged from 35.9 to 152 kg (79 to 334 lbs) with an average weight of 65.3 kg (143 lbs). The majority of the decedents (86%) died from either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. Overall, the heart weights ranged from 156 to 422 g with an average of 245 g and a standard deviation of 52 g. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between heart weight and body weight, body length, and body mass index, respectively, and found insufficient associations to enable predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a normal range for heart weight in women of 148 to 296 g. PMID:26153896

  11. 40 CFR 62.15210 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...15210 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...section 4.1, to calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...1755 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging...section 4.1, to calculate the daily arithmetic average for concentrations of...

  13. Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Valentin

    2010-04-01

    Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

  14. Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

  15. Explicit cosmological coarse graining via spatial averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present matter density of the Universe, while highly inhomogeneous on small scales, displays approximate homogeneity on large scales. We propose that whereas it is justified to use the Friedmann Lemaître Robertson Walker (FLRW) line element (which describes an exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe) as a template to construct luminosity distances in order to compare observations with theory, the evolution of the scale factor in such a construction must be governed not by the standard Einstein equations for the FLRW metric, but by the modified Friedmann equations derived by Buchert (Gen Relat Gravit 32:105, 2000; 33:1381, 2001) in the context of spatial averaging in Cosmology. Furthermore, we argue that this scale factor, defined in the spatially averaged cosmology, will correspond to the effective FLRW metric provided the size of the averaging domain coincides with the scale at which cosmological homogeneity arises. This allows us, in principle, to compare predictions of a spatially averaged cosmology with observations, in the standard manner, for instance by computing the luminosity distance versus red-shift relation. The predictions of the spatially averaged cosmology would in general differ from standard FLRW cosmology, because the scale-factor now obeys the modified FLRW equations. This could help determine, by comparing with observations, whether or not cosmological inhomogeneities are an alternative explanation for the observed cosmic acceleration.

  16. Volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Bolejko

    2008-11-22

    This paper considers the volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model. The volume averaging became of considerable interest after it was shown that the volume acceleration calculated within the averaging framework can be positive even though the local expansion rate is always decelerating. This issue was intensively studied within spherically symmetric models. However, since our Universe is not spherically symmetric similar analysis is needed in non symmetrical models. This papers presents the averaging analysis within the quasispherical Szekeres model which is a non-symmetrical generalisation of the spherically symmetric Lema\\^itre--Tolman family of models. Density distribution in the quasispherical Szekeres has a structure of a time-dependent mass dipole superposed on a monopole. This paper shows that when calculating the volume acceleration, $\\ddot{a}$, within the Szekeres model, the dipole does not contribute to the final result, hence $\\ddot{a}$ only depends on a monopole configuration. Thus, the volume averaging within the Szekeres model leads to literally the same solutions as obtained within the Lema\\^itre--Tolman model.

  17. Distributed strategies for generating weight-balanced and doubly stochastic digraphs

    E-print Network

    Gharesifard, Bahman

    2009-01-01

    Weight-balanced and doubly stochastic digraphs are two classes of digraphs that play an essential role in a variety of cooperative control problems, including formation control, distributed averaging, and optimization. We refer to a digraph as doubly stochasticable (weight-balanceable) if it admits a doubly stochastic (weight-balanced) adjacency matrix. This paper studies the characterization of both classes of digraphs, and introduces distributed algorithms to compute the appropriate set of weights in each case.

  18. Growth curves of carcass traits obtained by ultrasonography in three lines of Nellore cattle selected for body weight.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, C C; Mercadante, M E Z; Jorge, A M; Paz, C C P; El Faro, L; Monteiro, F M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of selection for postweaning weight was evaluated within the growth curve parameters for both growth and carcass traits. Records of 2404 Nellore animals from three selection lines were analyzed: two selection lines for high postweaning weight, selection (NeS) and traditional (NeT); and a control line (NeC) in which animals were selected for postweaning weight close to the average. Body weight (BW), hip height (HH), rib eye area (REA), back fat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT) were measured and records collected from animals 8 to 20 (males) and 11 to 26 (females) months of age. The parameters A (asymptotic value) and k (growth rate) were estimated using the nonlinear model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System program, which included fixed effect of line (NeS, NeT, and NeC) in the model, with the objective to evaluate differences in the estimated parameters between lines. Selected animals (NeS and NeT) showed higher growth rates than control line animals (NeC) for all traits. Line effect on curves parameters was significant (P < 0.001) for BW, HH, and REA in males, and for BFT and RFT in females. Selection for postweaning weight was effective in altering growth curves, resulting in animals with higher growth potential. PMID:26535722

  19. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  20. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria

    2008-02-01

    We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an {\\mathcal {O}}(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z~2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion.

  1. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  2. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  3. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria E-mail: maria.ronkainen@helsinki.fi

    2008-02-15

    We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an O(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z{approx}2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion.

  4. Information filtering via weighted heat conduction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, by taking into account effects of the user and object correlations on a heat conduction (HC) algorithm, a weighted heat conduction (WHC) algorithm is presented. We argue that the edge weight of the user-object bipartite network should be embedded into the HC algorithm to measure the object similarity. The numerical results indicate that both the accuracy and diversity could be improved greatly compared with the standard HC algorithm and the optimal values reached simultaneously. On the Movielens and Netflix datasets, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 39.7% and 56.1% in the optimal case, respectively, and the diversity could reach 0.9587 and 0.9317 when the recommendation list equals to 5. Further statistical analysis indicates that, in the optimal case, the distributions of the edge weight are changed to the Poisson form, which may be the reason why HC algorithm performance could be improved. This work highlights the effect of edge weight on a personalized recommendation study, which maybe an important factor affecting personalized recommendation performance.

  5. A hierarchical Bayesian model averaging framework for groundwater prediction under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chitsazan, Nima; Tsai, Frank T-C

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater prediction models are subjected to various sources of uncertainty. This study introduces a hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method to segregate and prioritize sources of uncertainty in a hierarchical structure and conduct BMA for concentration prediction. A BMA tree of models is developed to understand the impact of individual sources of uncertainty and uncertainty propagation to model predictions. HBMA evaluates the relative importance of different modeling propositions at each level in the BMA tree of model weights. The HBMA method is applied to chloride concentration prediction for the "1,500-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana from 2005 to 2029. The groundwater head data from 1990 to 2004 is used for model calibration. Four sources of uncertainty are considered and resulted in 180 flow and transport models for concentration prediction. The results show that prediction variances of concentration from uncertain model elements are much higher than the prediction variance from uncertain model parameters. The HBMA method is able to quantify the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty to the total uncertainty. PMID:24890644

  6. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  7. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    PubMed

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Pet?í?ek, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82?(3))Si(1.18?(1))O(9.59?(5))) and by average structure refinements. 8?(5) to 20?(13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137?(2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021?(5) 0.1834?(2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009?(5) -0.1834?(2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real structure of mullite is locally ordered (as previously known), but on the long-range its average is not completely disordered, the modulated structure of mullite may be denoted the true 'average structure of mullite'. PMID:26027012

  8. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and grade point average among student servicemembers and veterans.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Hinkson, Kent; Bichrest, Michael; Ahern, D Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined relationships among self-reported depression severity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and grade point average (GPA) among student servicemembers and veterans. We asked 422 student servicemembers and veterans (72% male, 86% Caucasian, mean age = 36.29 yr) to complete an anonymous online survey that assessed self-reported GPA, depression severity, PTSD severity, and frequency of academic problems (late assignments, low grades, failed exams, and skipped classes). Female respondents reported a slightly higher GPA than males (3.56 vs 3.41, respectively, p = 0.01). Depression symptoms (beta weight = -0.174, p = 0.03), male sex (beta weight = 0.160, p = 0.01), and younger age (beta weight = 0.155, p = 0.01) were associated with lower GPA but not PTSD symptoms (beta weight = -0.040, p = 0.62), although the interaction of depression and PTSD symptoms showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship with GPA (beta weight = -0.378, p = 0.08). More severe depression was associated with turning in assignments late (beta weight = 0.171, p = 0.03), failed exams (beta weight = 0.188, p = 0.02), and skipped classes (beta weight = 0.254, p = 0.01). The relationship of depression with self-reported GPA was mediated by frequency of failed examns. Results suggest that student servicemembers and veterans with greater emotional distress also report worse academic performance. PMID:25436619

  9. State-Issued Identification Cards Reveal Patterns in Adult Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Main, Eric C.; Harris, Jenine K.; Moland, Abraham; Cude, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Background: State-issued identification cards are a promising data source for neighborhood-level obesity estimates. Methods: We used information from three million Oregon state-issued identification cards to compute age-adjusted estimates of average adult body mass index (BMI) for each census tract in the state. We used multivariate linear regression to identify associations between weight status and population characteristics, food access, commuting behavior, and geography. Results: Together, home values, education, race, ethnicity, car commuting, and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) explained 86% of the variation in BMI among tracts. BMI was lower in areas with higher home values and greater educational attainment, and higher in areas with more workers commuting by car. Discussion: Our findings are consistent with other research on socioeconomic disparities in obesity. This demonstrates state-issued identification cards are a promising data source for BMI surveillance and may offer new insight into the association between weight status and economic and environmental factors. Public health agencies should explore options for developing their own obesity estimates from identification card data. PMID:26062036

  10. SEDFIT-MSTAR: Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation equilibrium in the ultracentrifuge

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure – which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system) a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?–carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in “point” average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

  11. Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J Jr

    2002-01-01

    For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

  12. STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHT VALUES FOR THE MONONUCLIDIC ELEMENTS - 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    When the policy for determining the atomic weight values for the mononuclidic elements was changed some decades ago, it was argued that new atomic mass tables would only be produced about once a decade. Since 1977, the average has been once every nine years, which is consistent with that early estimate. This report summarizes the changes over the years for the atomic weight values of the mononuclidic elements. It applies the Commission's technical rules to the latest atomic mass table and recommends changes in the values of the Standard Atomic Weights for eleven of the twenty-two for the TSAW.

  13. Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.

  14. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  15. Bayesian locally weighted online learning 

    E-print Network

    Edakunni, Narayanan U.

    2010-01-01

    Locally weighted regression is a non-parametric technique of regression that is capable of coping with non-stationarity of the input distribution. Online algorithms like Receptive FieldWeighted Regression and Locally ...

  16. Distracted Eating and Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... distraction can lead to weight gain. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Nutrition Weight Control About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  17. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-print Network

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  18. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  19. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  20. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  1. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  2. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63.846 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

  3. Higher Order Birkho# Averages Thomas Jordan

    E-print Network

    Young, Todd

    Higher Order Birkho# Averages Thomas Jordan Department of Mathematics University of Bristol Bristol, UK thomas.jordan@bristol.ac.uk Vincent Naudot Department of Mathematics Florida Atlantic University 777 Glades Road Boca Raton, FL, USA vnaudot@fau.edu Todd Young # Department of Mathematics Ohio

  4. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  5. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  6. Averaging theory for discontinuous piecewise differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llibre, Jaume; Mereu, Ana C.; Novaes, Douglas D.

    2015-06-01

    We develop the averaging theory of first and second order for studying the periodic solutions of discontinuous piecewise differential systems in arbitrary dimension and with an arbitrary number of systems with the minimal conditions of differentiability. We also provide two applications.

  7. Probabilistic Weather Forecasting via Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-print Network

    Mass, Clifford F.

    Probabilistic Weather Forecasting via Bayesian Model Averaging Adrian E. Raftery University of Washington May 27, 2009 #12;Basic Idea #12;Basic Idea Forecast ensembles: #12;Basic Idea Forecast ensembles: The dominant approach to probabilistic forecasting #12;Basic Idea Forecast ensembles: The dominant approach

  8. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  9. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  10. Molecular Weight Effects on the Viscoelastic Response of a Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC -SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of each material with different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of approximately 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly.

  11. Uncertainty of GHz-band Whole-body Average SARs in Infants based on their Kaup Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Hironobu; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

    We previously showed that a strong correlation exists between the absorption cross section and the body surface area of a human for 0.3-2GHz far field exposure, and proposed a formula for estimating whole-body-average specific absorption rates (WBA-SARs) in terms of height and weight. In this study, to evaluate variability in the WBA-SARs in infants based on their physique, we derived a new formula including Kaup indices of infants, which are being used to check their growth, and thereby estimated the WBA-SARs in infants with respect to their age from 0 month to three years. As a result, we found that under the same height/weight, the smaller the Kaup indices are, the larger the WBA-SARs become, and that the variability in the WBA-SARs is around 15% at the same age. To validate these findings, using the FDTD method, we simulated the GHz-band WBA-SARs in numerical human models corresponding to infants with age of 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, which were obtained by scaling down the anatomically based Japanese three-year child model developed by NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology). Results show that the FDTD-simulated WBA-SARs are smaller by 20% compared to those estimated for infants having the median height and the Kaup index of 0.5 percentiles, which provide conservative WBA-SARs.

  12. Orbit Averaging in Perturbed Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2015-11-01

    The orbital period is typically much shorter than the time scale for dynamical evolution of large-scale structures in planetary rings. This large separation in time scales motivates the derivation of reduced models by averaging the equations of motion over the local orbit period (Borderies et al. 1985, Shu et al. 1985). A more systematic procedure for carrying out the orbit averaging is to use Lie transform perturbation theory to remove the dependence on the fast angle variable from the problem order-by-order in epsilon, where the small parameter epsilon is proportional to the fractional radial distance from exact resonance. This powerful technique has been developed and refined over the past thirty years in the context of gyrokinetic theory in plasma physics (Brizard and Hahm, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 2007). When the Lie transform method is applied to resonantly forced rings near a mean motion resonance with a satellite, the resulting orbit-averaged equations contain the nonlinear terms found previously, but also contain additional nonlinear self-gravity terms of the same order that were missed by Borderies et al. and by Shu et al. The additional terms result from the fact that the self-consistent gravitational potential of the perturbed rings modifies the orbit-averaging transformation at nonlinear order. These additional terms are the gravitational analog of electrostatic ponderomotive forces caused by large amplitude waves in plasma physics. The revised orbit-averaged equations are shown to modify the behavior of nonlinear density waves in planetary rings compared to the previously published theory. This reserach was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Reserach program.

  13. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  14. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  15. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  16. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  17. Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taewoo Hammad, Muhannad; Chan, Timothy C. Y.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2; Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl{sub 2} distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the predicted weights and IOM weights was less than 5 percentage points. Similarly, the difference in femoral head V54.3 Gy values between the two dose distributions was less than 5 percentage points for all but one patient. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a proof of concept that patient anatomy can be used to predict appropriate objective function weights for treatment planning. In the long term, such geometry-driven weights may serve as a starting point for iterative treatment plan design or may provide information about the most clinically relevant region of the Pareto surface to explore.

  18. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62 Section 226.62 Employees...Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average...

  19. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62 Section 226.62 Employees...Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average...

  20. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  1. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on lowing pH in the sea water of the Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, G.; Lv, L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent study showed that average pH value in the seawater of the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area of the Yellow Sea were about 7.9 and 8.0-8.2, respectively, indicating significant low pH value in the sea water of the bay. At the same period, existence of high concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids, including formate, acetate and lactate was detected. By theoretical calculation, field and laboratory simulate experiments, this study investigated the effect of these organic acids on pH value of the seawater in the Jiaozhou Bay. The results showed that average concentration of the total low molecular weight organic acids was 29.01 ?mol/L; and average concentrations of formate, acetate and lactate were 4.06 ? mol/L, 18.31 ?mol/L, and 6.64 ?mol/L, respectively, in the surface seawater samples collected from 15 sampling stations in the Jiaozhou Bay in May, 2012. With similar total alkalinity (TA) and concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Jiaozhou Bay and the Yellow Sea, all the low molecular weight organic acids could decrease pH value in the seawater. Under field condition, co-effect of the three organic acids could decrease pH value in the sea water of the Jiaozhou Bay up to 0.185. We also collected samples of 6 stations of Narragansett Bay as comparison. The results supported that low molecular weight organic acids was critical on acidification of seawater in the Jiaozhou bay.

  2. Application of 1H DOSY for Facile Measurement of Polymer Molecular Weights

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weibin; Chung, Hoyong; Daeffler, Christopher; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    To address the practical issues of polymer molecular weight determination, the first accurate polymer weight-average molecular weight determination method in diverse living/controlled polymerization via DOSY (diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy) is reported. Based on the linear correlation between the logarithm of diffusion coefficient (log D) and the molecular weights (log Mw), external calibration curves were created to give predictions of molecular weights of narrowly-dispersed polymers. This method was successfully applied to atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), with weight-average molecular weights given by this method closely correlated to those obtained from GPC measurement. PMID:23335819

  3. Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n?=?497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD?=2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. PMID:25868552

  4. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  5. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Performance of a Thermoplastic Glassy Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical Testing of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-TM-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength were all determined as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight (Mc) was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approx. 22000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Furthermore, inelastic analysis showed that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microstructural images supported these findings.

  6. Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having ? = 0 have volume deceleration parameter qvol<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated qvol in some Lemaître-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that qvol>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit qvol<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

  7. Average entanglement for Markovian quantum trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, S.; Spehner, D.

    2010-11-15

    We study the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. We calculate the average of the concurrence of the qubits wave function over all quantum trajectories. For two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, this average decays exponentially with a rate depending on the measurement scheme only. This contrasts with the known disappearance of entanglement after a finite time for the density matrix in the absence of measurements. For two qubits coupled to a common bath, the mean concurrence can vanish at discrete times. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump or quantum state diffusion dynamics in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect entanglement in specific examples.

  8. Indirect CP violation results and HFAG averages

    E-print Network

    Silvia Borghi

    2013-12-17

    The current status of the search for indirect CP violation in the neutral D meson system at the B-factories and at LHCb is reported. The indirect CP asymmetry search is performed by the measurement of the proper-time asymmetry ($A_{\\Gamma}$) in decays of $D^0-\\bar{D^0}$ mesons to CP eigenstates, $K^-K^+$ and $\\pi^- \\pi^+$, and by $y_{CP}$, the ratio between the effective lifetime measured in decay to a CP eigenstate and that to the mixed eigenstate $K \\pi$. All results are consistent with the no CP violation hypothesis. The latest world averages for mixing and CP asymmetry in the charm sector evaluated by the Heavy Flavour Averaging Group are presented. The no mixing hypothesis is excluded at more than 12 standard deviations. The search for direct and indirect CP violation in the charm sector is consistent with no CP violation at 2.0% confident level.

  9. Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

  10. Some correlates of the maintenance of weight lost through behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Stuart, R B; Guire, K

    1978-01-01

    Using a mail and in-class distributed survey, data were collected from 721 members of Weight Watchers classes some 15 months after they reached their goal weights. The group averaged 73.2 kg (162.1 lb) before losing 19.0 percent of their body weight to reach goal weights averaging 59.6 kg (131.2 lb) in an average of 31 weeks. Fifteen months after reaching goal, 24.6 percent were below goal, 28.9 were within 5 percent of their goal, 17.5 percent were from 6--10 percent above their goal and 28.9 percent were 11 percent or more above goal. Those who maintained their goal weight, as opposed to those who regained, tended to have several things in common: they attended classes after reaching goal weight in the same locations and with the same lecturers that assissted their weight loss; they had lower initial weights: they conceived of themselves as 'overweight' when they were approximately three pounds above goal; they had improved self-concepts; they made more lifestyle changes supporting weight maintenance; and they continued, after goal, use of many of the techniques used to reach goal weight. Each of these factors has implications for planning for more programs designed to produce more lasting weight losses. PMID:711367

  11. Reference-tissue correction of T2-weighted signal intensity for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Oto, Aytekin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether correction with respect to reference tissue of T2-weighted MRimage signal intensity (SI) improves its effectiveness for classification of regions of interest (ROIs) as prostate cancer (PCa) or normal prostatic tissue. Two image datasets collected retrospectively were used in this study: 71 cases acquired with GE scanners (dataset A), and 59 cases acquired with Philips scanners (dataset B). Through a consensus histology- MR correlation review, 175 PCa and 108 normal-tissue ROIs were identified and drawn manually. Reference-tissue ROIs were selected in each case from the levator ani muscle, urinary bladder, and pubic bone. T2-weighted image SI was corrected as the ratio of the average T2-weighted image SI within an ROI to that of a reference-tissue ROI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of T2-weighted image SIs for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs. AUC (+/- standard error) for uncorrected T2-weighted image SIs was 0.78+/-0.04 (datasets A) and 0.65+/-0.05 (datasets B). AUC for corrected T2-weighted image SIs with respect to muscle, bladder, and bone reference was 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), and 0.75+/-0.04 (p=0.8), respectively, for dataset A; and 0.81+/-0.04 (p=0.002), 0.78+/-0.04 (p<0.001), and 0.79+/-0.04 (p<0.001), respectively, for dataset B. Correction in reference to the levator ani muscle yielded the most consistent results between GE and Phillips images. Correction of T2-weighted image SI in reference to three types of extra-prostatic tissue can improve its effectiveness for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs, and correction in reference to the levator ani muscle produces consistent T2-weighted image SIs between GE and Phillips MR images.

  12. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  13. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  14. AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES

    E-print Network

    Mörters, Peter

    AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES P. M ¨ ORTERS Abstract: We show that a measure on IR d is linearly rectifiable if and only if the lower 1­density is positive and finite Radon measure on IR d and ff â?? 0. The lower ff­density of ¯ at x is the number d ff (¯; x) = lim inf t#0

  15. Economic evaluation of an internet-based weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether a behavioral Internet treatment (BIT) program for weight management is a viable, cost-effective option compared with usual care (UC) in a diverse sample of overweight (average body mass index = 29 kg/m2), healthy adults (mean age = 34 years) serving in the US Air Force. Two-grou...

  16. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  17. Terrestrial kilometric radiation: 3-average spectral properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Alexander, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    A study is presented of the average spectral properties of terrestrial kilometric radiation (TKR) derived from observations made by radio astronomy experiments onboard the IMP-6 and RAE-2 spacecraft. As viewed from near the equatorial plane, TKR is most intense and most often observed in the 21-24 hr local time zone and is rarely seen in the 09-12 hr zone. The peak flux density usually occurs near 240 kHz, but there is evidence that the peak occurs at a somewhat lower frequency on the dayside. The frequency of the peak in the average flux spectrum varies inversely with increasing substorm activity as inferred from the auroral electrojet index (AE) from a maximum near 300 kHz during very quiet times to a minimum below 200 kHz during very disturbed times. The absolute flux levels in the 100-600 kHz TKR band increase significantly with increasing AE. The average power associated with a particular source region seems to decrease rapidly with increasing source altitude.

  18. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  19. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    E-print Network

    Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

    2004-08-20

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-curves and the spectral variability at visible + mid-IR wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, season. We also considered the appearance of an increasingly frozen Mars and simulated its detection versus real Mars with TPF-C and TPF-I as a function of spectral resolving power, signal-to-noise, integration time.

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  1. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  2. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  8. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  9. Computation of synthetic mammograms with an edge-weighting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Hanno; Bergner, Frank; Erhard, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The promising increase in cancer detection rates1, 2 makes digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) an interesting alternative to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast cancer screening. However, this benefit comes at the cost of an increased average glandular dose in a combined DBT plus FFDM acquisition protocol. Synthetic mammograms, which are computed from the reconstructed tomosynthesis volume data, have demonstrated to be an alternative to a regular FFDM exposure in a DBT plus synthetic 2D reading mode.3 Besides weighted averaging and modified maximum intensity projection (MIP) methods,4, 5 the integration of CAD techniques for computing a weighting function in the forward projection step of the synthetic mammogram generation has been recently proposed.6, 7 In this work, a novel and computationally efficient method is presented based on an edge-retaining algorithm, which directly computes the weighting function by an edge-detection filter.

  10. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  11. Determination of weighting functions for energy-weighted acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, R.P.; Hamill, J.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Energy-weighted acquisition (EWA) is an image filtering technique, with a different spatial filter (weighting function) for each energy. The imaging characteristics of EWA are governed by the weighting functions used during the acquisition of the image. The determination of weighting functions is more complicated than the determination of energy windows in conventional imaging because the number of degrees of freedom is much greater. A methodology by which weighting functions can be produced is described. The weighting function is determined by minimizing a generalized chi-square with variable contributions from coefficients quantifying key image characteristics, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and scatter fraction. Varying the importance of these characteristics gives us a workable function-generation tool, able to address a variety of clinical needs. The resulting weighting functions exhibit good scatter reduction properties at various scatter depths, as demonstrated by measurements of line source response functions in a scattering medium at depths from 5 to 14 cm. Energy weighting can also be used to compensate for collimator penetration from high energy gamma rays. Weighting functions are tested in the laboratory using both planar and SPECT phantoms.

  12. PARAMETRIC DISTANCE WEIGHTING OF LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a parametric model for estimating the areas within watersheds whose land use best predicts indicators of stream ecological condition. We regress a stream response variable on the distance-weighted proportion of watershed area that has a specific land use, such as agric...

  13. Can optimal marker weightings improve thoracohumeral kinematics accuracy?

    PubMed

    Begon, Mickaël; Dal Maso, Fabien; Arndt, Anton; Monnet, Tony

    2015-07-16

    Local and global optimization algorithms have been developed to estimate joint kinematics to reducing soft movement artifact (STA). Such algorithms can include weightings to account for different STA occur at each marker. The objective was to quantify the benefit of optimal weighting and determine if optimal marker weightings can improve humerus kinematics accuracy. A pin with five reflective markers was inserted into the humerus of four subjects. Seven markers were put on the skin of the arm. Subjects performed 38 different tasks including arm elevation, rotation, daily-living tasks, and sport activities. In each movement, mean and peak errors in skin- vs. pins-orientation were reported. Then, optimal marker weightings were found to best match skin- and pin-based orientation. Without weighting, the error of the arm orientation ranged from 1.9° to 17.9°. With weighting, 100% of the trials were improved and the average error was halved. The mid-arm markers weights were close to 0 for three subjects. Weights of a subject applied to the others for a given movement, and weights of a movement applied to others for a given subject did not systematically increased accuracy of arm orientation. Without weighting, a redundant set of marker and least square algorithm improved accuracy to estimate arm orientation compared to data of the literature using electromagnetic sensor. Weightings were subject- and movement-specific, which reinforces that STA are subject- and movement-specific. However, markers on the deltoid insertion and on lateral and medial epicondyles may be preferred if a limited number of markers is used. PMID:25935687

  14. Perceptual averaging governs antisaccade endpoint bias.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Caitlin; Heath, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Antisaccades entail decoupling the spatial relations between stimulus and response and executing a saccade to a target's mirror-symmetrical location. The indirect spatial relations require that a relative target percept supports antisaccade sensorimotor transformations. Here, we sought to identify whether the percept supporting antisaccades results in a respective over- and undershooting bias for the near and far targets within a stimulus-set (i.e., oculomotor range effect hypothesis) or renders an eccentricity-specific bias based on a statistical summary of the individual target percepts in a stimulus-set (i.e., perceptual averaging hypothesis). Antisaccades (and complementary prosaccades) were completed in separate blocks (i.e., proximal and distal) that contained an equal number of target eccentricities, but differed with respect to their magnitudes. The proximal block included eccentricities of 3.0°, 5.5°, 8.0°, 10.5°, and 13.0°, whereas the distal block included eccentricities of 10.5°, 13.0°, 15.5°, 18.0°, and 20.5°. The proximal block showed that antisaccade amplitudes to the central target (8.0°) did not elicit a reliable bias, whereas the block's 'near' (3.0° and 5.5°) and 'far' (10.5° and 13.0°) targets produced an over- and undershooting bias, respectively. Notably, however, the distal block showed a reliable-and large magnitude-undershooting bias for the central target (i.e., 15.5°): a bias that generalized to each target within the block. Taken together, results for the proximal and distal blocks are incompatible with the range effect hypothesis. Instead, results indicate that the visual percept supporting antisaccades is based on the statistical summary of the range of target eccentricities within a stimulus-set (i.e., perceptual averaging). Moreover, perceptual averaging represents a parsimonious basis by which the oculomotor system can specify sensorimotor transformations via non-veridical (i.e., relative) visual information. PMID:24935477

  15. Technique of diffusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Wu; He, Huiguang

    2003-05-01

    To study the application of diffusion weighted imaging and image post processing in the diagnosis of stroke, especially in acute stroke, 205 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner and the images such as T1, T2 and diffusion weighted images were obtained. Image post processing was done with "3D Med System" developed by our lab to analyze data and acquire the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, the signal in cerebral infarction areas changed to hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images, normal or hypointensity in T1-weighted images. In hyperacute stage, however, the signal was hyperintense just in the diffusion weighted imaes; others were normal. In the chronic stage, the signal in T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging showed hypointensity and hyperintensity in T2 weighted imaging. Because ADC declined obviously in acute and subacute stage of stroke, the lesion area was hypointensity in ADC map. With the development of the disease, ADC gradually recovered and then changed to hyperintensity in ADC map in chronic stage. Using diffusion weighted imaging and ADC mapping can make a diagnosis of stroke, especially in the hyperacute stage of stroke, and can differentiate acute and chronic stroke.

  16. Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.

  17. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-print Network

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  18. Cosmic clocks, cosmic variance and cosmic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2007-10-01

    Cosmic acceleration is explained quantitatively, purely in general relativity with matter obeying the strong energy condition, as an apparent> effect due to quasilocal gravitational energy differences that arise in the decoupling of bound systems from the global expansion of the universe. "Dark energy" is recognized as a misidentification of those aspects of gravitational energy which by virtue of the equivalence principle cannot be localized. Matter is modelled as an inhomogeneous distribution of clusters of galaxies in bubble walls surrounding voids, as we observe. Gravitational energy differences between observers in bound systems, such as galaxies, and volume-averaged comoving locations in freely expanding space can be so large that the time dilation between the two significantly affects the parameters of any effective homogeneous isotropic model one fits to the universe. A new approach to cosmological averaging is presented, which implicitly solves the Sandage-de Vaucouleurs paradox. Comoving test particles in freely expanding space, which observe an isotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB), possess a quasilocal "rest" energy E>=(?(?,x>))mc>2 on the spatial hypersurfaces of homogeneity. Here 1 <= ? < 3/2 the lower bound refers to fiducial reference observers at "finite infinity", which is defined technically in relation to the demarcation scale between bound systems and expanding space. Within voids ? > 1, representing the quasilocal gravitational energy of expansion and spatial curvature variations. Since all our cosmological measurements apart from the CMB involve photons exchanged between objects in bound systems, and since clocks in bound systems are largely unaffected, this is entirely consistent with observation. When combined with a non-linear scheme for cosmological evolution with back-reaction via the Buchert equations, a new observationally viable model of the universe is obtained, without "dark energy". A quantitative scheme is presented for the recalibration of average cosmological parameters. It uses boundary conditions at the time of last scattering consistent with primordial inflation. The expansion age is increased, allowing more time for structure formation. The baryon density fraction obtained from primordial nucleosynthesis bounds can be significantly larger, yet consistent with primordial lithium abundance measurements. The angular scale of the first Doppler peak in the CMB anisotropy spectrum fits the new model despite an average negative spatial curvature at late epochs, resolving the anomaly associated with ellipticity in the CMB anisotropies. Non-baryonic dark matter to baryonic matter ratios of about 3:1 are typically favoured by observational tests. A number of other testable consequences are discussed, with the potential to profoundly change the whole of theoretical and observational cosmology.

  19. Average prime-pair counting formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let ?_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p? x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that ?_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ?_{2r}(x)=?_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for ?(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ?_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  20. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-print Network

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  1. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

  2. Sleep duration and weight loss among overweight/obese women enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, E M; Fava, J; Subak, L L; Stone, K; Hart, C N; Demos, K; Wing, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether baseline sleep duration predicts weight loss outcomes in a randomized controlled trial examining a behavioral weight loss (BWL) intervention among overweight and obese (OW/OB) women with urinary incontinence; and whether participation in the BWL intervention is associated with changes in sleep duration. Design: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study of a 6-month BWL program. Subjects: Three hundred sixteen OW/OB women, with urinary incontinence (age: 30–81 years, body mass index (BMI; 25–50?kg?m?2) enrolled from July 2004–April 2006. Measurements: Measured height and weight, self-report measures of demographics, sleep and physical activity. Results: Neither self-reported total sleep time (TST) nor time in bed (TIB) at baseline significantly predicted weight loss outcomes among OW/OB women in a BWL treatment. BWL treatment was successful regardless of how much subjects reported sleeping at baseline, with an average weight loss of 8.19?kg for OW/OB women receiving BWL treatment, versus a weight loss of 1.44?kg in the control condition. Similarly, changes in weight, BMI and incontinence episodes did not significantly predict changes in sleep duration or TIB across the treatment period. Conclusion: Although epidemiological and cross-sectional studies support a relationship between short sleep and increased BMI, the present study found no significant relationship between TST or TIB and weight loss for OW/OB women participating in a BWL treatment. PMID:23446658

  3. An Ensemble Approach to Weighting Convective Parameterizations of the Regional Model Brams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, A. F.; Freitas, S.; Gan, M. A.; Campos Velho, H. F.; Luz, E. F.; de Mattos, J. Z.; Passos, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    An unsolved problem in meteorology is to represent clouds and their collective effects in regional or large scale atmospheric numerical models, since the physical processes of the clouds and their interaction with the environment are not well understood yet. In the atmospheric models with grid box around 10 Km or greater the effects of clouds on the atmosphere are represented by convective parameterizations. The inverse problem methodology for parameter estimation is applied to the precipitation simulations over South America to December 2004 using the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (BRAMS) to weight the ensemble of convective parameterizations of Grell and Dévényi implemented in the model BRAMS. The forward problem is addressed by the BRAMS, and the ensemble of convective parameterizations is expressed by several methodologies used to parameterize convection. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem applying the Firefly method (FA) to retrieving the weights of the ensemble of convective parameterizations of Grell and Dévényi. The South America was divided in sub-areas to introduce the different characteristics of the precipitation patterns observed to the weighted patterns. The precipitation field estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was used as the observed data. For determining the best combination of the ensemble members reproducing the TRMM measurement, the quadratic difference between simulation fields and the observed data was used and the objective function is optimized by the FA method. The retrieved field of precipitation was in agreement with the observed field. We computed the error precipitation field obtained with simple ensemble average and the error to the retrieved precipitation: errors of the ensemble average are greater than the errors of the retrieved precipitation. We expect to employ the method introduced here to improve the simulated precipitation of the BRAMS system.

  4. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-01

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczy?ski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, DV; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the ?CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  5. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  6. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  7. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW) on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman.? Methods Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW) and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed. ? Results Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7%) of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%), followed by arithmetic and language (16% each). BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers.? Conclusion Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems. PMID:26366257

  8. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  10. Nutrition for Disease States Anorexia nervosa Weight restoration Weight

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    . · During hospitalization, AN patients tend to require escalating caloric intake in order to maintain a 1 consumed. Daily essential macronutrient re- quirements to maintain weight are 110­140 g of carbohydrates, 15­20 g of essential fatty acids and 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight in adults

  11. Weighted-Interaction Nestedness Estimator (WINE): A new estimator to calculate over frequency matrices

    E-print Network

    Galeano, Javier; Iriondo, Jose M

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) running in Matlab, called Weighted-Interaction Nestedness Estimator, WINE (Fig. 1). WINE is a Matlab application developed to perform the calculation of the new weighted nestedness estimator. This program allows the user to: open a data file, select the range of data to be analysed, and calculate the results, obtaining two graphics and three indices. The indices shown in the graphical interface are: a) weighted nestedness of the frequency matrix, b) average weighted nestedness of 100 random matrices of similar characteristics, and c) the new weighted- interaction nestedness estimator, which compares the two previous results.

  12. An Efficient Weighted Routing Strategy for Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Huang, Jian-Ling; Li, Qian

    2012-11-01

    Considering the link congestion based traffic model, which can more accurately model the traffic diffusing process of many real complex systems such as the Internet, we propose an efficient weighted routing strategy in which each link's weight is assigned with the edge betweenness of the original un-weighted network with a tunable parameter ?. As the links with the highest edge betweenness are susceptible to traffic congestion, our routing strategy efficiently redistribute the heavy traffic load from central links to noncentral links. The highest traffic capacity under this new routing strategy is achieved when compared with the shortest path routing strategy and the efficient routing strategy. Moreover, the average path length of our routing strategy is much smaller than that of the efficient routing strategy. Therefore, our weighted routing strategy is preferable to other routing strategies and can be easily implemented through software method.

  13. Prediction of Platinum Prices Using Dynamically Weighted Mixture of Experts

    E-print Network

    Lubinsky, Baruch; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2008-01-01

    Neural networks are powerful tools for classification and regression in static environments. This paper describes a technique for creating an ensemble of neural networks that adapts dynamically to changing conditions. The model separates the input space into four regions and each network is given a weight in each region based on its performance on samples from that region. The ensemble adapts dynamically by constantly adjusting these weights based on the current performance of the networks. The data set used is a collection of financial indicators with the goal of predicting the future platinum price. An ensemble with no weightings does not improve on the naive estimate of no weekly change; our weighting algorithm gives an average percentage error of 63% for twenty weeks of prediction.

  14. Transformation of surface albedo to surface: Atmosphere surface and irradiance, and their spectral and temporal averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nack, M. L.; Curran, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of the albedo at the top of a realistic atmosphere upon the surface albedo, solar zenith angle, and cloud optical thickness is examined for the cases of clear sky, total cloud cover, and fractional cloud cover. The radiative transfer calculations of Dave and Braslau (1975) for particular values of surface albedo and solar zenith angle, and a single value of cloud optical thickness are used as the basis of a parametric albedo model. The question of spectral and temporal averages of albedos and reflected irradiances is addressed, and unique weighting functions for the spectral and temporal albedo averages are developed.

  15. SECTION A Demographics None Low Average High

    E-print Network

    Dahlberg, Teresa A.

    problems Improved my ability to think critically Helped me to better understand the nature of my major problems I am comfortable thinking about ideas and beliefs different from my own I have a good are general questions regarding your abilities in various areas. Please use the scale to the right to indicate

  16. A digitally controlled AGC loop circuitry for GNSS receiver chip with a binary weighted accurate dB-linear PGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Jin; Yiqi, Zhuang; Yue, Yin; Miao, Cui

    2015-03-01

    A novel digitally controlled automatic gain control (AGC) loop circuitry for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver chip is presented. The entire AGC loop contains a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an AGC circuit and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is implemented in a 0.18 ?m complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and measured. A binary-weighted approach is proposed in the PGA to achieve wide dB-linear gain control with small gain error. With binary-weighted cascaded amplifiers for coarse gain control, and parallel binary-weighted trans-conductance amplifier array for fine gain control, the PGA can provide a 64 dB dynamic range from -4 to 60 dB in 1.14 dB gain steps with a less than 0.15 dB gain error. Based on the Gaussian noise statistic characteristic of the GNSS signal, a digital AGC circuit is also proposed with low area and fast settling. The feed-backward AGC loop occupies an area of 0.27 mm2 and settles within less than 165 ?s while consuming an average current of 1.92 mA at 1.8 V.

  17. High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L.

    1995-05-01

    Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.

  18. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Progressive quantization in distributed average consensus

    E-print Network

    Thanou, Dorina; Frossard, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributed average consensus in a sensor network where sensors exchange quantized information with their neighbors. In particular, we exploit the increasing correlation between the exchanged values throughout the iterations of the consensus algorithm in order to design an efficient progressive quantization scheme. We implement a fixed-resolution uniform quantizer in each sensor, where refined quantization is achieved by reducing the quantization intervals with the convergence of the consensus algorithm. We propose a recurrence relation for computing the quantization parameters that depend on the network topology and the communication rate. We further propose a simple exponential model for the adaptation of the quantization intervals. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the progressive quantization scheme that leads to the consensus solution even at low communication rate.

  20. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Simplified optical path-averaged rain gauge.

    PubMed

    Wang, T I; Earnshaw, K B; Lawrence, R S

    1978-02-01

    It has previously been shown that the scintillations produced by raindrops falling through a collimated laser beam can be used to measure the drop-size distribution and the rainfall rate, both averaged over the path. We now present a theoretical analysis, verified by observation, showing that the variance of the scintillations detected by a line-detector measured at frequencies near 1 kHz is closely related to rain rate and is nearly independent of drop-size distribution. If only rain rate is desired, the variance type of optical rain gauge has several advantages over the earlier model. It could use a diverging beam, thus eliminating the practical difficulties of maintaining adjustment and pointing of a collimated beam. Furthermore, it is less sensitive to the presence of updrafts and downdrafts along the beam and can thus be used over rough terrain. PMID:20174419

  2. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  3. Young adults’ performance in a low intensity weight loss campaign

    PubMed Central

    LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Leahey, Tricia M.; Weinberg, Brad M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults (YA) are underrepresented in behavioral weight loss programs and achieve poorer outcomes than older adults (OA). There has been a call to develop programs specifically targeting this age group. This study examined the performance of YA enrolled in a low intensity, team-based weight loss campaign and compared their outcomes to OA to determine the utility of such an approach for weight loss in this population. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online team-based weight loss and exercise competition (N=6795, 81% female, 94% White, age=44.7±11.2, BMI=29.4±5.9). YA was defined as 18–35 years and OA as >35 years; YA and OA were compared on enrollment, retention, weight loss and change in steps. A total of 1562 YA enrolled and 715 completed the program. Fewer YA completed compared with OA (46% vs. 62%, p<.001). However, among completers, YA achieved greater percent weight loss (?4.5±4.0% vs. ?3.8±3.2%) and greater daily step change (+1578.2±3877.2 vs. +1342.2±3645.7) than OA (p’s<.001). Further, more YA completers achieved a ?5% weight loss (40% vs. 29%, p<.001). Findings were consistent in the overweight/obese subsample, and using ?25 years of age as the cut off for YA. Weight losses among YA in this low-intensity weight loss campaign were quite promising, with over 700 YA completing the program and on average achieving a 4.5% weight loss. Indeed, the potential public health impact of such an approach is substantial; future efforts to develop programs for this age group may benefit from using a low intensity, team-based approach. PMID:22318313

  4. Weight Status and Weight-Management Behaviors Among Philadelphia High School Students, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Bauer, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity among youth may be stabilizing and even declining in some areas of the United States. The objective of our study was to examine whether the stabilization in obesity prevalence among Philadelphia high school students was accompanied by changes in weight-management behaviors. Methods We evaluated changes in self-reported weight status and weight-management behaviors by using data collected by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2007, 2009, and 2011. We used multivariable regression models controlling for race/ethnicity and age to estimate prevalence. Results Although the proportion of overweight and obese students did not change significantly during the study period, we found that approximately half of female students and 30% of male students reported trying to lose weight. Among female students, we observed significant increases in the proportion engaging in 5 or more days of physical activity per week (26.0% in 2007 to 31.9% in 2011; P = .003) and significant decreases in the proportion consuming at least 1 soda per day (31.1% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2011, P = .001). The proportion of female students who fasted for weight loss also increased significantly during the study period (12.2% in 2007 to 17.0% in 2011, P = .02). We found no significant changes in behavior among male students. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity and overweight may have reached a plateau among Philadelphia high school students, most students still failed to meet recommendations for healthful weight-management behaviors. Continued public health initiatives are necessary to promote participation in healthful weight-management behaviors. PMID:24070036

  5. RICE STARCH AMYLOPECTIN, AND AMYLOSE: MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND SOLUBILITY IN DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE-BASED SOLVENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), with either 50 mM LiBr, 10% water or both, was used as solvent for multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) batch mode analysis of rice starch, and amylopectin and amylose weight-average molecular weight (Mw). DMSO/50 mM LiBr was a better solvent for these measurements ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the...

  11. 18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301.7 Section...ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE...ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a)...

  12. Fundamental Weights, Permutation Weights and Weyl Character Formula

    E-print Network

    Hasan R. Karadayi; Meltem Gungormez

    1998-12-11

    For a finite Lie algebra $G_N$ of rank N, the Weyl orbits $W(\\Lambda^{++})$ of strictly dominant weights $\\Lambda^{++}$ contain $dimW(G_N)$ number of weights where $dimW(G_N)$ is the dimension of its Weyl group $W(G_N)$. For any $W(\\Lambda^{++})$, there is a very peculiar subset $\\wp(\\Lambda^{++})$ for which we always have $$ dim\\wp(\\Lambda^{++})=dimW(G_N)/dimW(A_{N-1}) . $$ For any dominant weight $ \\Lambda^+ $, the elements of $\\wp(\\Lambda^+)$ are called {\\bf Permutation Weights}. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between elements of $\\wp(\\Lambda^{++})$ and $\\wp(\\rho)$ where $\\rho$ is the Weyl vector of $G_N$. The concept of signature factor which enters in Weyl character formula can be relaxed in such a way that signatures are preserved under this one-to-one correspondence in the sense that corresponding permutation weights have the same signature. Once the permutation weights and their signatures are specified for a dominant $\\Lambda^+$, calculation of the character $ChR(\\Lambda^+)$ for irreducible representation $R(\\Lambda^+)$ will then be provided by $A_N$ multiplicity rules governing generalized Schur functions. The main idea is again to express everything in terms of the so-called {\\bf Fundamental Weights} with which we obtain a quite relevant specialization in applications of Weyl character formula.

  13. Overweight, Obesity and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Marie M.; Stare, Fredrick J.

    1967-01-01

    Evidence is cited showing that overweight is a health hazard, but that this is primarily true only when the excess weight is due to an excess accumulation of adipose tissue. Diagnosis of frank obesity should be established by a careful interpretation of height-weight tables and of all other pertinent data. Although many factors play an etiologic role, obesity can occur only when caloric intake exceeds caloric output, and can be obviated only when this imbalance is reversed. Therefore prevention of weight gain, which should receive increasing attention, and also satisfactory weight loss, both require that caloric output be increased through added physical activity and that caloric intake be decreased through diminished consumption. Success depends on recognizing the fallacy of all misleading misinformation, and on establishing permanent habits of regular exercise and of moderation in eating and drinking. Suggestions are made that can be effective guidelines to a commonsense program of weight control. PMID:6045471

  14. When does weight matter most?

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice J

    2012-01-01

    Past empirical work establishes a wage penalty from being overweight. In this paper, I exploit variation in an individual's weight over time to determine the age when weight has the largest impact on labor market outcomes. For white men, controlling for weight at younger ages does not eliminate the effect of older adult weight on wage: being overweight as a young adult only adds an additional penalty to adult wages. However, for white women, what they weigh in their early twenties solely determines the existence of an adult wage penalty. The female early-twenties weight penalty has a persistent effect on wages, and differences in marital characteristics, occupation status, or education cannot explain it. It also is not a proxy for intergenerational unobservables. PMID:22192425

  15. Reconstructing Weighted Networks from Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, P. Y.; Leung, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of how the different nodes of a network interact or link with one another is crucial for the understanding of the collective behavior and the functionality of the network. We have recently developed a method that can reconstruct both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input and is based on a relation between the pseudo-inverse of the matrix of the correlation of the node dynamics and the Laplacian matrix of the weighted network. Using several examples of different dynamics, we demonstrate that our method can accurately reconstruct the connectivity as well as the weights of the links for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics. The work of ESCC and CYL has been supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 14300914.

  16. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  17. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  18. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  19. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  20. Preoperative weight loss in super-obese patients: study of the rate of weight loss and its effects on surgical morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Marco Aurelio; Riccioppo, Daniel; Pajecki, Denis; de Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59). The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98) and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%). The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight), the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study. PMID:25627995

  1. The four undergraduate years. Changes in weight, eating attitudes, and depression.

    PubMed

    Girz, Laura; Polivy, Janet; Provencher, Veronique; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Pratt, Michael W; Mark Pancer, S; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Adams, Gerald R

    2013-10-01

    Weight, eating attitudes, and depression were assessed in male and female students over the 4 years of university attendance, and the relation of weight changes to eating attitudes and depression was explored using self-report measures (Restraint Scale, EDI, CES-D) collected at six time points during the university years. Results showed that, in general, weight increased between year one and year four of university attendance for both men and women, with men gaining an average of 4.1 kg and women gaining an average of 3.2 kg. Weight gain was associated with increased body dissatisfaction and negative eating attitudes among women, whereas weight loss was associated with decreased negative eating attitudes. Well-being and eating attitudes of men who gained weight did not differ, either initially or at year four, from those of men who remained weight stable, whereas men who lost weight reported higher negative eating attitudes both initially and at year four. Weight gain, therefore, appears to be associated with negative outcomes, including greater preoccupation with eating and weight, for women, but not for men, while weight loss improves the attitudes only of women. PMID:23764239

  2. Effect of different flooring systems on weight and pressure distribution on claws of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Ventorp, M; Nilsson, C

    2008-05-01

    Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different flooring systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each section had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic asphalt flooring on the alleys or a low-abrasive slatted concrete floor. Some sections had feed-stalls equipped with rubber mats; other sections did not. The vertical ground reaction force, contact area, and average contact pressure were determined on the left hind foot using the I-Scan system and analyzed with the F-scan system. These determinations were made in each of the following 3 zones of the claw: bulb, wall, and sole. Most of the weight on claws exposed to concrete floors was carried by the bulb (37.4 +/- 3.5 and 18.3 +/- 2.9% of weight exerted on the foot in the lateral and medial claw, respectively) and the wall zone (20.0 +/- 2.6 and 13.4 +/- 2.4% on lateral and medial claw, respectively). The weight and pressure distribution in cows kept on sections with rubber covered alleys but passing daily over the asphalt floor on their way to the milking parlor did not differ in any zones, except for lateral bulbs, compared with those exposed to slatted concrete alone. Still, the weight bearing of the sole zone in cows kept on rubber mats without access to asphalt was less than that of cows kept on concrete slatted floors (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 12.7 +/- 1.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). In cows kept on asphalt flooring without feed-stalls, most weight was exerted to the sole zone (36.2 +/- 2.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.8% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). Feed-stalls in combination with asphalt flooring yielded a decreased total contact area (30.1 +/- 1.2 cm(2)) compared with asphalt floors without feed-stalls (35.7 +/- 1.2 cm(2)). The largest total contact area was obtained on the asphalt floor without feed-stalls, resulting in a lower contact pressure (39.8 +/- 2.3 N/cm(2)) than in claws exposed to concrete (66.0 +/- 2.7 N/ cm(2)) or rubber mats (56.7 +/- 1.7 N/cm(2)). In conclusion, housing with abrasive floors resulted in claws with increased contact area at the sole surface and therefore, decreased contact pressure, but reduced the weight-bearing role of the strongest part of the claw capsule, the claw wall. PMID:18420618

  3. 40 CFR 1066.805 - Road-load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...dynamometer using the appropriate equivalent test weight shown in Table 1 of this section. Equivalent test weights are established according to each...weight class corresponding to each equivalent test weight; the inertia weight class...

  4. Numerical Prediction Methods (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of Transonic Separated Flows)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Lomax, Harvard

    1981-01-01

    During the past five years, numerous pioneering archival publications have appeared that have presented computer solutions of the mass-weighted, time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for transonic problems pertinent to the aircraft industry. These solutions have been pathfinders of developments that could evolve into a major new technological capability, namely the computational Navier-Stokes technology, for the aircraft industry. So far these simulations have demonstrated that computational techniques, and computer capabilities have advanced to the point where it is possible to solve forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for transonic research problems. At present there are two major shortcomings of the technology: limited computer speed and memory, and difficulties in turbulence modelling and in computation of complex three-dimensional geometries. These limitations and difficulties are the pacing items of the continuing developments, although the one item that will most likely turn out to be the most crucial to the progress of this technology is turbulence modelling. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the state of the art of this technology and suggest possible future areas of research. We now discuss some of the flow conditions for which the Navier-Stokes equations appear to be required. On an airfoil there are four different types of interaction of a shock wave with a boundary layer: (1) shock-boundary-layer interaction with no separation, (2) shock-induced turbulent separation with immediate reattachment (we refer to this as a shock-induced separation bubble), (3) shock-induced turbulent separation without reattachment, and (4) shock-induced separation bubble with trailing edge separation.

  5. Understanding coastal morphodynamic patterns from depth-averaged sediment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, F.; Falqués, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Dodd, N.; Garnier, R.; Calvete, D.

    2015-06-01

    This review highlights the important role of the depth-averaged sediment concentration (DASC) to understand the formation of a number of coastal morphodynamic features that have an alongshore rhythmic pattern: beach cusps, surf zone transverse and crescentic bars, and shoreface-connected sand ridges. We present a formulation and methodology, based on the knowledge of the DASC (which equals the sediment load divided by the water depth), that has been successfully used to understand the characteristics of these features. These sand bodies, relevant for coastal engineering and other disciplines, are located in different parts of the coastal zone and are characterized by different spatial and temporal scales, but the same technique can be used to understand them. Since the sand bodies occur in the presence of depth-averaged currents, the sediment transport approximately equals a sediment load times the current. Moreover, it is assumed that waves essentially mobilize the sediment, and the current increases this mobilization and advects the sediment. In such conditions, knowing the spatial distribution of the DASC and the depth-averaged currents induced by the forcing (waves, wind, and pressure gradients) over the patterns allows inferring the convergence/divergence of sediment transport. Deposition (erosion) occurs where the current flows from areas of high to low (low to high) values of DASC. The formulation and methodology are especially useful to understand the positive feedback mechanisms between flow and morphology leading to the formation of those morphological features, but the physical mechanisms for their migration, their finite-amplitude behavior and their decay can also be explored.

  6. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  7. Defining and computing optimum RMSD for gapped and weighted multiple-structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyi; Snoeyink, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Pairwise structure alignment commonly uses root mean square deviation (RMSD) to measure the structural similarity, and methods for optimizing RMSD are well established. We extend RMSD to weighted RMSD for multiple structures. By using multiplicative weights, we show that weighted RMSD for all pairs is the same as weighted RMSD to an average of the structures. Thus, using RMSD or weighted RMSD implies that the average is a consensus structure. Although we show that in general, the two tasks of finding the optimal translations and rotations for minimizing weighted RMSD cannot be separated for multiple structures like they can for pairs, an inherent difficulty and a fact ignored by previous work, we develop a near-linear iterative algorithm to converge weighted RMSD to a local minimum. 10,000 experiments of gapped alignment done on each of 23 protein families from HOMSTRAD (where each structure starts with a random translation and rotation) converge rapidly to the same minimum. Finally we propose a heuristic method to iteratively remove the effect of outliers and find well-aligned positions that determine the structural conserved region by modeling B-factors and deviations from the average positions as weights and iteratively assigning higher weights to better aligned atoms. PMID:18989040

  8. SU-F-BRD-01: A Logistic Regression Model to Predict Objective Function Weights in Prostate Cancer IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T; Craig, T; Sharpe, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time.

  9. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  10. Bayesian model averaging for ligand discovery.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Nicos; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is now a standard approach used in the pharmaceutical industry to identify potential drug-like lead molecules. The analysis linking biological data with molecular properties is a major goal in both academic and pharmaceutical research. This paper presents a Bayesian analysis of high-dimensional descriptor data using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations for learning classification trees as a novel method for pharmacophore and ligand discovery. We use experimentally determined binding affinity data with the protein pyruvate kinase to train and assess our model averaging algorithm and then apply it to a large database of over 3.7 million molecules. We compare the results of a number of variations on the central Bayesian theme to that of two Neural Network (NN) architectures and that of Support Vector Machines (SVM). The main Bayesian algorithm, in addition to achieving high specificity and sensitivity, also lends itself naturally to classifying test sets with missing data and providing a ranking for the classified compounds. The approach has been used to select and rank potential biologically active compounds and could provide a powerful tool in compound testing. PMID:19489531

  11. Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (ZC) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation–reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between ZC and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in ZC in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower ZC tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594

  12. Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Sapozhnikov, A. N.

    2006-07-15

    The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

  13. Optimizing Average Precision Using Weakly Supervised Data.

    PubMed

    Behl, Aseem; Mohapatra, Pritish; Jawahar, C V; Kumar, M Pawan

    2015-12-01

    Many tasks in computer vision, such as action classification and object detection, require us to rank a set of samples according to their relevance to a particular visual category. The performance of such tasks is often measured in terms of the average precision (ap). Yet it is common practice to employ the support vector machine ( svm) classifier, which optimizes a surrogate 0-1 loss. The popularity of svmcan be attributed to its empirical performance. Specifically, in fully supervised settings, svm tends to provide similar accuracy to ap-svm, which directly optimizes an ap-based loss. However, we hypothesize that in the significantly more challenging and practically useful setting of weakly supervised learning, it becomes crucial to optimize the right accuracy measure. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a novel latent ap-svm that minimizes a carefully designed upper bound on the ap-based loss function over weakly supervised samples. Using publicly available datasets, we demonstrate the advantage of our approach over standard loss-based learning frameworks on three challenging problems: action classification, character recognition and object detection. PMID:26539857

  14. Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

  15. Stratigraphic Paleobiology of the Taranto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarponi, Daniele; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Taviani, Marco; Huntley, John Warren; Amorosi, Alessandro; Negri, Alessandra; Battista Vai, Gian

    2015-04-01

    The area surrounding Taranto, Italy is chronostratigraphically very important, as it is one of the few areas in the world where Upper Pleistocene marine successions are well exposed, easily accessible, and relatively thick. Several outcrops in this area were investigated as suitable marine sections for defining the Late Pleistocene GSSP. At these locations, the late Pleistocene bathymetric history of the Taranto area was depicted using macrobenthic assemblages from a network of outcrops and cores. Outcrops at Pontile, Fronte, and Garitta, along with two cores drilled at Cimino and Cantoro were densely sampled to conduct quantitatively-derived paleobathymetric reconstructions. These deposits yielded relatively diverse mollusk associations (> 250 species and > 9.000 specimens distributed among 55 samples), dominated by extant mollusk species of known bathymetric distribution. Multiple analytical approaches were applied to the macrobenthic dataset in a comparative fashion: (i) direct calibration by weighted averaging of taxa with known preferred depth recovered in a sample, (ii) posteriori-calibrated ordination (DCA) using bathymetric data of key extant taxa. These analyses were conducted at both species and genus level. Regardless of the choice of the analytical method, mollusk assemblages yielded bathymetric trends congruent with previous qualitative and semi-quantitative paleoecological and stratigraphic analyses: the bathymetric range of sampled deposits is bracketed between 140 and 0 meters. Secondly, macrobenthos-derived proxies provided an improved characterization of the marine deposits in terms of sample bathymetry and by discriminating shallowing-upward (regressive) trends from deepening-upward (transgressive) tendencies. Thirdly, mollusk-derived bathymetric inferences suggest spatial bathymetric gradients that are coherent with the morphology of the study area. In conclusion, the results provided an improved characterization of coastal depositional facies in a sequence stratigraphic perspective, which is one of the primary research goals of Stratigraphic Paleobiology.

  16. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Haverhill, MA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  18. BPA Exposure and Birth Weight

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Weight Pregnancy About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  19. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  20. Determination of hydrologic properties needed to calculate average linear velocity and travel time of ground water in the principal aquifer underlying the southeastern part of Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.; Monheiser, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 48-square-mile area in the southeastern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was studied to determine if generalized information obtained from geologic maps, water-level maps, and drillers' logs could be used to estimate hydraulic conduc- tivity, porosity, and slope of the potentiometric surface: the three properties needed to calculate average linear velocity of ground water. Estimated values of these properties could be used by water- management and regulatory agencies to compute values of average linear velocity, which could be further used to estimate travel time of ground water along selected flow lines, and thus to determine wellhead protection areas around public- supply wells. The methods used to estimate the three properties are based on assumptions about the drillers' descriptions, the depositional history of the sediments, and the boundary con- ditions of the hydrologic system. These assump- tions were based on geologic and hydrologic infor- mation determined from previous investigations. The reliability of the estimated values for hydro- logic properties and average linear velocity depends on the accuracy of these assumptions. Hydraulic conductivity of the principal aquifer was estimated by calculating the thickness- weighted average of values assigned to different drillers' descriptions of material penetrated during the construction of 98 wells. Using these 98 control points, the study area was divided into zones representing approximate hydraulic- conductivity values of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 250 feet per day. This range of values is about the same range of values used in developing a ground-water flow model of the principal aquifer in the early 1980s. Porosity of the principal aquifer was estimated by compiling the range of porosity values determined or estimated during previous investigations of basin-fill sediments, and then using five different values ranging from 15 to 35 percent to delineate zones in the study area that were assumed to be underlain by similar deposits. Delineation of the zones was based on depositional history of the area and the distri- bution of sediments shown on a surficial geologic map. Water levels in wells were measured twice in 1990: during late winter when ground-water with- drawals were the least and water levels the highest, and again in late summer, when ground- water withdrawals were the greatest and water levels the lowest. These water levels were used to construct potentiometric-contour maps and subsequently to determine the variability of the slope in the potentiometric surface in the area. Values for the three properties, derived from the described sources of information, were used to produce a map showing the general distribution of average linear velocity of ground water moving through the principal aquifer of the study area. Velocity derived ranged from 0.06 to 144 feet per day with a median of about 3 feet per day. Values were slightly faster for late summer 1990 than for late winter 1990, mainly because increased with- drawal of water during the summer created slightly steeper hydraulic-head gradients between the recharge area near the mountain front and the well fields farther to the west. The fastest average linear-velocity values were located at the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon and south of Dry Creek near the mountain front, where the hydraulic con- ductivity was estimated to be the largest because the drillers described the sediments to be pre- dominantly clean and coarse grained. Both of these areas also had steep slopes in the potentiometric surface. Other areas where average linear velocity was fast included small areas near pumping wells where the slope in the potentiometric surface was locally steepened. No apparent relation between average linear velocity and porosity could be seen in the mapped distributions of these two properties. Calculation of travel time along a flow line to a well in the southwestern part of the study area during the sum

  1. Financial Incentives and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  2. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ?4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6% geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ?3% of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon. PMID:24748485

  3. Increasing molecular weight parameters of a helical polymer through polymerization in a chiral solvent.

    PubMed

    Holder, Simon J; Achilleos, Mariliz; Jones, Richard G

    2006-09-27

    In this communication, we will demonstrate that polymerization in a chiral solvent can affect the molecular weight distribution of the product by perturbing the balance of the P and M helical screw senses of the growing chains. Specifically, for the Wurtz-type synthesis of polymethylphenylsilane (PMPS) in either (R) or (S)-limonene, the weight-average molecular weight of the products (average Mw = 80 000) was twice that of PMPS synthesized in (R/S)-limonene (average Mw = 39 200). Peturbation of the helical segmentation along the polymer chains leads to a reduction in the rate of occurrence of a key termination step. This the first time that a chiral solvent has been demonstrated to have such an effect on a polymerization process in affecting molecular weight parameters in contrast to affecting tacticity. PMID:16984183

  4. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  5. Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management1

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Megan A.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (?1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2–4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3–8 wk for whole pulses and 4–12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (?1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption. PMID:22043448

  6. Varying results using the shell weights of different planktonic foraminiferal species as a proxy for changing carbonate ion concentrations in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; McConnell, M. C.; Thunell, R.; Astor, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean acidification, due in part to increased atmospheric CO2, is thought to reduce calcification rates of planktonic foraminifera. A positive linear relationship has been found between foraminiferal shell weight and the carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] of the waters in which they calcify (Barker and Elderfield, 2002). Such a relationship provides a useful proxy for determining past changes in ocean carbonate chemistry. The Cariaco Basin, Venezuela (10°30' N, 65°31 W) is an ideal study area to determine the relationship between seawater [CO32-] and planktonic foraminiferal shell weight as the region is characterized by the seasonal upwelling of low pH, low temperature, and low carbonate ion concentrated waters. In this study we use biweekly sediment trap samples and concurrent hydrographic measurements collected between January 2005 and May 2010 in the Cariaco Basin to assess the relationship between [CO32-] and shell weight of three planktonic foraminiferal species, Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa and Globigerinoides sacculifer. Measured salinity, pH, sea surface temperature (SST) and total alkalinity (TA) were used to estimate pCO2 and [CO32-]. Size-normalized shells of G. ruber, O. universa and G. sacculifer were picked (> 10 per sample), photographed for size analysis and weighed. Globigerinoides ruber shell weights varied from 10.4 ?g to 17.7 ?g, with an average weight of 14.62 ?g from 2005 to 2007, with concurrent surface water [CO32-] ranging from ~220-280 ?mol/kg. Orbulina universa shell weights ranged from 35.4 ?g to 67.8 ?g with an average shell weight of 50.1 ?g. Preliminary data reveal a strong positive linear relationship between foraminiferal shell weight and [CO32-] for G. ruber (R2 = 0.52, 99% confidence level; p = 0.007) but no significant relationship for O. universa (R2 = 0.05, ; p = 0.4). The initial results suggest that the foraminiferal shell weight changes of certain planktonic foraminiferal species may reflect changes in the carbonate system better than others.

  7. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  8. Birth weight and longitudinal growth in infants born below 32?weeks’ gestation: a UK population study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tim J; Statnikov, Yevgeniy; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Pan, Huiqi; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe birth weight and postnatal weight gain in a contemporaneous population of babies born <32?weeks’ gestation, using routinely captured electronic clinical data. Design Anonymised longitudinal weight data from 2006 to 2011. Setting National Health Service neonatal units in England. Methods Birth weight centiles were constructed using the LMS method, and longitudinal weight gain was summarised as mean growth curves for each week of gestation until discharge, using SITAR (Superimposition by Translation and Rotation) growth curve analysis. Results Data on 103?194 weights of 5009 babies born from 22–31?weeks’ gestation were received from 40 neonatal units. At birth, girls weighed 6.6% (SE 0.4%) less than boys (p<0.0001). For babies born at 31?weeks’ gestation, weight fell after birth by an average of 258?g, with the nadir on the 8th postnatal day. The rate of weight gain then increased to a maximum of 28.4?g/d or 16.0?g/kg/d after 3?weeks. Conversely for babies of 22 to 28?weeks’ gestation, there was on average no weight loss after birth. At all gestations, babies tended to cross weight centiles downwards for at least 2?weeks. Conclusions In very preterm infants, mean weight crosses centiles downwards by at least two centile channel widths. Postnatal weight loss is generally absent in those born before 29?weeks, but marked in those born later. Assigning an infant's target centile at birth is potentially harmful as it requires rapid weight gain and should only be done once weight gain has stabilised. The use of electronic data reflects contemporary medical management. PMID:23934365

  9. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  10. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  11. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  12. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  13. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  14. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  15. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1863 - Standard weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard weight. 51.1863 Section 51.1863 Agriculture... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Standard Weight § 51.1863 Standard weight. (a) When packages are marked to a net weight of 15 pounds (6.80 kg) or more, the net weight of the contents shall not be less than...

  17. 14 CFR 23.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight is the highest weight at which compliance with each...

  18. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  19. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  20. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement weight. 981.18 Section 981.18 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight...) For weight of containers, (b) For excess moisture, (c) For trash or other foreign material of any...

  1. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  2. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  3. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  4. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  5. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement weight. 981.18 Section 981.18 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight...) For weight of containers, (b) For excess moisture, (c) For trash or other foreign material of any...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1863 - Standard weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard weight. 51.1863 Section 51.1863 Agriculture... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Standard Weight § 51.1863 Standard weight. (a) When packages are marked to a net weight of 15 pounds (6.80 kg) or more, the net weight of the contents shall not be less than...

  7. 14 CFR 23.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight is the highest weight at which compliance with each...

  8. Weights, growth, and survival of timber wolf pups in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Ballenberghe, V.; Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Weights, growth rates, canine tooth lengths, and survival data were obtained from 73 wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups that were 8 to 28 weeks old when live-trapped in three areas of northern Minnesota from 1969 to 1972. Relative weights of wild pups are expressed as percentages of a standard weight curve based on data from captive pups of similar age. These relative weights varied greatly within litters, between litters, and between years; extremes of 31 to 144 percent of the standard were observed. Growth rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.23 kilograms per day were observed, and similar variations in general devel pment and in replacement and growth of canine teeth were noted. Survival data based on radio-tracking and tag returns indicated that pups with relative weights less than 65 percent of standard have a poor chance of survival, whereas pups of at least 80 percent of standard weight have a high survivability. Pups born in 1972 were especially underweight, probably a result of declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities in the interior of the Superior National Forest study area.

  9. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  10. The public health significance of low birth weight in the USA*

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Leona

    1962-01-01

    In this discussion of the significance of low birth weight in the USA, the author presents data relating birth weight, ethnic grouping and duration of gestation to infant mortality rates, and concludes that measures designed to lower the infant mortality in one country or area cannot always be applied without change in another area. She challenges the notion that a birth weight of 2500 g or less necessarily implies a premature birth; it would hardly be valid, for instance, in areas where the median birth weights are below 3000 g. Moreover, the state of physiological development and efficiency of the infant is more important in determining its survival than its weight at birth. In her conclusions, she also lists a number of factors that should be taken into consideration for assessing the significance of low birth weight and for deciding on practical programmes to reduce the mortality associated with it. PMID:13865963

  11. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  12. Removing Camera Shake via Weighted Fourier Burst Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Delbracio, Mauricio; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Numerous recent approaches attempt to remove image blur due to camera shake, either with one or multiple input images, by explicitly solving an inverse and inherently ill-posed deconvolution problem. If the photographer takes a burst of images, a modality available in virtually all modern digital cameras, we show that it is possible to combine them to get a clean sharp version. This is done without explicitly solving any blur estimation and subsequent inverse problem. The proposed algorithm is strikingly simple: it performs a weighted average in the Fourier domain, with weights depending on the Fourier spectrum magnitude. The method can be seen as a generalization of the align and average procedure, with a weighted average, motivated by hand-shake physiology and theoretically supported, taking place in the Fourier domain. The method's rationale is that camera shake has a random nature, and therefore, each image in the burst is generally blurred differently. Experiments with real camera data, and extensive comparisons, show that the proposed Fourier burst accumulation algorithm achieves state-of-the-art results an order of magnitude faster, with simplicity for on-board implementation on camera phones. Finally, we also present experiments in real high dynamic range (HDR) scenes, showing how the method can be straightforwardly extended to HDR photography. PMID:26068313

  13. Removing Camera Shake via Weighted Fourier Burst Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbracio, Mauricio; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Numerous recent approaches attempt to remove image blur due to camera shake, either with one or multiple input images, by explicitly solving an inverse and inherently ill-posed deconvolution problem. If the photographer takes a burst of images, a modality available in virtually all modern digital cameras, we show that it is possible to combine them to get a clean sharp version. This is done without explicitly solving any blur estimation and subsequent inverse problem. The proposed algorithm is strikingly simple: it performs a weighted average in the Fourier domain, with weights depending on the Fourier spectrum magnitude. The method can be seen as a generalization of the align and average procedure, with a weighted average, motivated by hand-shake physiology and theoretically supported, taking place in the Fourier domain. The method's rationale is that camera shake has a random nature and therefore each image in the burst is generally blurred differently. Experiments with real camera data, and extensive comparisons, show that the proposed Fourier Burst Accumulation (FBA) algorithm achieves state-of-the-art results an order of magnitude faster, with simplicity for on-board implementation on camera phones. Finally, we also present experiments in real high dynamic range (HDR) scenes, showing how the method can be straightforwardly extended to HDR photography.

  14. Noise reduction of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transversal data using improved wavelet transform and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Li, Jiangtao; Wang, Yang; Deng, Shaogui

    2015-02-01

    NMR logging and core NMR signals acts as an effective way of pore structure evaluation and fluid discrimination, but it is greatly contaminated by noise for samples with low magnetic resonance intensity. Transversal relaxation time (T2) spectrum obtained by inversion of decay signals intrigued by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence may deviate from the truth if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is imperfect. A method of combing the improved wavelet thresholding with the EWMA is proposed for noise reduction of decay data. The wavelet basis function and decomposition level are optimized in consideration of information entropy and white noise estimation firstly. Then a hybrid threshold function is developed to avoid drawbacks of hard and soft threshold functions. To achieve the best thresholding values of different levels, a nonlinear objective function based on SNR and mean square error (MSE) is constructed, transforming the problem to a task of finding optimal solutions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to ensure the stability and global convergence. EWMA is carried out to eliminate unwanted peaks and sawtooths of the wavelet denoised signal. With validations of numerical simulations and experiments, it is demonstrated that the proposed approach can reduce the noise of T2 decay data perfectly.

  15. Noise reduction of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transversal data using improved wavelet transform and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA).

    PubMed

    Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Li, Jiangtao; Wang, Yang; Deng, Shaogui

    2015-02-01

    NMR logging and core NMR signals acts as an effective way of pore structure evaluation and fluid discrimination, but it is greatly contaminated by noise for samples with low magnetic resonance intensity. Transversal relaxation time (T(2)) spectrum obtained by inversion of decay signals intrigued by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence may deviate from the truth if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is imperfect. A method of combing the improved wavelet thresholding with the EWMA is proposed for noise reduction of decay data. The wavelet basis function and decomposition level are optimized in consideration of information entropy and white noise estimation firstly. Then a hybrid threshold function is developed to avoid drawbacks of hard and soft threshold functions. To achieve the best thresholding values of different levels, a nonlinear objective function based on SNR and mean square error (MSE) is constructed, transforming the problem to a task of finding optimal solutions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to ensure the stability and global convergence. EWMA is carried out to eliminate unwanted peaks and sawtooths of the wavelet denoised signal. With validations of numerical simulations and experiments, it is demonstrated that the proposed approach can reduce the noise of T(2) decay data perfectly. PMID:25574595

  16. Blade size and weight effects in shovel design.

    PubMed

    Freivalds, A; Kim, Y J

    1990-03-01

    The shovel is a basic tool that has undergone only nominal systematic design changes. Although previous studies found shovel-weight and blade-size effects of shovelling, the exact trade-off between the two has not been quantified. Energy expenditure, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and shovelling performance were measured on five subjects using five shovels with varying blade sizes and weights to move sand. Energy expenditure, normalised to subject weight and load handled, varied quadratically with the blade-size/shovel-weight (B/W) ratio. Minimum energy cost was at B/W = 0.0676 m2/kg, which for an average subject and average load would require an acceptable 5.16 kcal/min of energy expenditure. Subjects, through the ratings of perceived exertion, also strongly preferred the lighter shovels without regard to blade size. Too large a blade or too heavy a shovel increased energy expenditure beyond acceptable levels, while too small a blade reduced efficiency of the shovelling. PMID:15676758

  17. Cascaded failures in weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Mirzasoleiman, Baharan; Babaei, Mahmoudreza; Jalili, Mahdi; Safari, Mohammadali

    2011-10-01

    Many technological networks can experience random and/or systematic failures in their components. More destructive situations can happen if the components have limited capacity, where the failure in one of them might lead to a cascade of failures in other components, and consequently break down the structure of the network. In this paper, the tolerance of cascaded failures was investigated in weighted networks. Three weighting strategies were considered including the betweenness centrality of the edges, the product of the degrees of the end nodes, and the product of their betweenness centralities. Then, the effect of the cascaded attack was investigated by considering the local weighted flow redistribution rule. The capacity of the edges was considered to be proportional to their initial weight distribution. The size of the survived part of the attacked network was determined in model networks as well as in a number of real-world networks including the power grid, the internet in the level of autonomous system, the railway network of Europe, and the United States airports network. We found that the networks in which the weight of each edge is the multiplication of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes had the best robustness against cascaded failures. In other words, the case where the load of the links is considered to be the product of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes is favored for the robustness of the network against cascaded failures. PMID:22181234

  18. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  19. Distribution of Structural Weight of Wing Along the Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savelyev, V. V.

    1946-01-01

    In the present report the true weight distribution law of the wing structure along the span is investigated. It is shown that the triangular distribution and that based on the proportionality to the chords do not correspond to the actual weight distribution, On the basis of extensive data on wings of the CAHI type airplane formulas are obtained from which it is possible to determine the true diagram of the structural weight distribution along the span from a knowledge of only the geometrical dimensions of the wing. At the end of the paper data are presented showing how the structural weight is distributed between the straight center portion and the tapered portion as a function of their areas.

  20. A Cohort Study Evaluating the Implications of Biology, Weight Status and Socioeconomic Level on Global Self-Esteem Competence Among Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p < .001). Neither weight status (95% CI: 0.81, 2.55; p = .26) nor age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.87; p = .82) were significant risk indicators for lower than average levels of global self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development. PMID:24218867