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STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL CEC-WS-2R (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Area Weighted Average Calculation Worksheet WS-2R Residential (Page 1 of 1) Site/Time: ____________________ HERS Provider: __________________ 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 This worksheet should

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Fuzzy Weighted Average: Alternative approach

We present an alternative definition of the fuzzy weighted average, in which Zadeh's extension principle is applied to the definition of the non-fuzzy weighted average where weights are required to be normalised. It is argued that the alternative approach should be preferred above the traditional approach. An algorithm for the computation of the fuzzy weighted average for the alternative approach

Broek van den Pim; Joost Noppen; K. Demirli; A. Akgunduz

2006-01-01

3

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

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Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

2011-02-01

5

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

2014-04-01

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Acid porcine skin gelatins (type A), lime bone gelatins (type B) and gelatin from different cold water fish species were compared on the basis of low deformation mechanical properties, Bloom value, weight average molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and isoelectric point. The dynamic storage modulus and Bloom value for all types of gelatin increased with increasing weight average molecular weight.

Jonhard Eysturskarđ; Ingvild J. Haug; Ann-Sissel Ulset; Kurt I. Draget

2009-01-01

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A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

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Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Schemes: Properties and Enhancements

Roberts (1959) first introduced the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control scheme. Using simulation to evaluate its properties, he showed that the EWMA is useful for detecting small shifts in the mean of a process. The recognition that an EWMA control scheme can be represented as a Markov chain allows its properties to be evaluated more easily and completely than

James M. Lucas; Michael S. Saccucci

1990-01-01

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period...regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle weights. The purpose of this...

2011-05-19

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the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in the Connecticut River basin. Fisheries (Bethesda) 7(6): 2-11. POTTER. I. C.Â· F. W. H. BEAMISH, AND B. G. H04 Hold1l.'orth. Hall Un'iversity ofMassachlUletts Amherst. MA 01008 AN IMPROVED OTTER SURFACE

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0625-AA87 Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin...Register requesting comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin...Register requesting comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping...

2011-02-01

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0625-AA87 Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin...is requesting comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin...comparisons. Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping...

2010-12-28

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The views of women of above average weight about appropriate weight gain in pregnancy

Objective: to examine the beliefs of women of above average weight about appropriate levels of weight gain in pregnancy.Design: an in-depth qualitative study of 37 women.Setting: women recruited from a city hospital, a rural hospital and by community midwives in the south of England.Participants: women were identified via hospital notes or by community midwives. Over a one-year period all women

Rose Wiles

1998-01-01

14

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Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor

In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.

Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.

1994-05-01

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POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT

POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading form of macromolecules They are compounds of high molecular weight formed by combining a large number. Molecular Weight The physical properties of polymers depend heavily on their molecular weights, which vary

Weston, Ken

17

Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children

Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male\\/female), obesity status (obese\\/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary\\/upper elementary) were

Jillon S Vander Wal; Mark H Thelen

2000-01-01

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Latent-variable approaches to the Jamesian model of importance-weighted averages.

The individually importance-weighted average (IIWA) model posits that the contribution of specific areas of self-concept to global self-esteem varies systematically with the individual importance placed on each specific component. Although intuitively appealing, this model has weak empirical support; thus, within the framework of a substantive-methodological synergy, we propose a multiple-item latent approach to the IIWA model as applied to a range of self-concept domains (physical, academic, spiritual self-concepts) and subdomains (appearance, math, verbal self-concepts) in young adolescents from two countries. Tests considering simultaneously the effects of self-concept domains on trait self-esteem did not support the IIWA model. On the contrary, support for a normative group importance model was found, in which importance varied as a function of domains but not individuals. Individuals differentially weight the various components of self-concept; however, the weights are largely determined by normative processes, so that little additional information is gained from individual weightings. PMID:23150198

Scalas, L Francesca; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S

2013-01-01

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Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

Warrens, Matthijs J.

2011-01-01

20

77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...square foot of clear floor space. Given the upward trend in passenger weight estimations then underway by the Federal...Administration and the United States Coast Guard, FTA published...and to change the floor space occupied per standing...

2012-12-14

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A numerical procedure using integral equations is presented for the tabulation of moments of run lengths of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts. Both average run lengths (ARL's) and standard deviations of run lengths (SDRL's) are presented for the twosided EWMA chart assuming normal observations, along with an example illustrating how to design such a chart. The procedure given extends

Stephen V. Crowder

1987-01-01

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When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

2013-01-01

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Body weight, diet and home range area in primates

Primates show a strong positive relationship between body weight and home range area. Dietary habits also influence home range area. Folivorous primates occupy smaller home range areas for their body weight than do frugivores and omnivores. Primates generally require smaller home range area per individual than solitary terrestrial mammals, but primates living in social groups have much larger total home

Katharine Milton; Michael L. May

1976-01-01

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Linearity enhancement of multibit ?? A\\/D and D\\/A converters using data weighted averaging

A dynamic element matching algorithm, data weighted averaging, is introduced for use in multibit ?? data converters. Using this algorithm, distortion spectra from DAC linearity errors are shaped by first-order noise shaping, resulting in a dynamic range improvement of 9 dB\\/octave when DAC errors dominate. Combining this technique with random dithering nearly eliminates the aliasing of the DAC errors into

Rex T. Baird; Terri S. Fiez

1995-01-01

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Approximation Schemes for Minimizing Average Weighted Completion Time with Release Dates

We consider the problem of scheduling jobs with re- lease dates on machines so as to minimize their average weighted completion time. We present the first known poly- nomial time approximation schemes for several variants of this problem. Our results include PTASs for the case of identical parallel machines and a constant number of unre- lated machines with and without

Foto N. Afrati; Evripidis Bampis; Chandra Chekuri; David R. Karger; Claire Kenyon; Sanjeev Khanna; Ioannis Milis; Maurice Queyranne; Martin Skutella; Clifford Stein; Maxim Sviridenko

1999-01-01

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Eating and body image concerns among average-weight and obese African American and Hispanic girls

Concern has been expressed that African American and Hispanic girls, because of their greater prevalence and degree of overweight, may be at greater risk than Caucasian girls for the development of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to document the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to compare overweight and obese girls to average-weight girls

Jillon S Vander Wal

2004-01-01

27

A Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme applied to shallow water equations for real-life applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the application of a Weighted Average Flux (WAF) approximation to the shallow water equations with friction and real bathymetry on unstructured two dimensional grids. The scheme obtained must satisfy severe numerical criteria so it can be implemented in the TELEMAC code, widely used in industry.

Ata, Riadh; Pavan, Sara; Khelladi, Sofiane; Toro, Eleuterio F.

2013-12-01

28

[Weighted-averaging multi-planar reconstruction method for multi-detector row computed tomography].

Development of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) has enabled three-dimensions (3D) scanning with minute voxels. Minute voxels improve spatial resolution of CT images. At the same time, however, they increase image noise. Multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) is one of effective 3D-image processing techniques. The conventional MPR technique can adjust slice thickness of MPR images. When a thick slice is used, the image noise is decreased. In this case, however, spatial resolution is deteriorated. In order to deal with this trade-off problem, we have developed the weighted-averaging multi-planar reconstruction (W-MPR) technique to control the balance between the spatial resolution and noise. The weighted-average is determined by the Gaussian-type weighting function. In this study, we compared the performance of W-MPR with that of conventional simple-addition-averaging MPR. As a result, we could confirm that W-MPR can decrease the image noise without significant deterioration of spatial resolution. W-MPR can adjust freely the weight for each slice by changing the shape of the weighting function. Therefore, W-MPR can allow us to select a proper balance of spatial resolution and noise and at the same time produce suitable MPR images for observation of targeted anatomical structures. PMID:22277813

Aizawa, Mitsuhiro; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Keita; Kobayashi, Norio; Yama, Mitsuru; Sano, Tsukasa; Murakami, Shin-ichi

2012-01-01

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Excessive weight gain after pregnancy in urban areas: one important area to prevent diabetes.

Diabetes has been found to be common in people, including the women of child bearing age, in urban Nepal. There is a custom of feeding the women with foods rich in calories and fats, as much as possible, after delivery. Weights of 200 women of urban Kathmandu before the first pregnancy and 6 months and 1 year after delivery were studied. The mean + SD of weights before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 51.3 + 4.9, 67.2 + 6.3 and 63.4 + 6.4 respectively. Similarly, the mean + SD of body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 21.3 + 1.8, 27.9 + 2.5 and 26.7 + 2.8 respectively. The average increases in weight and BMI six months after delivery were 15.9 kg and 6.6; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). Six months later the average increased weight and BMI decreased by 3.8 kg and 1.2 respectively. Thus, the average increases in weight and BMI one year after first pregnancy were 12.1 kg and 5.4; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). The women seemed to have difficulty in losing weight gained. In view of the problem of overweight, the custom of excess feeding after delivery seems required to be discouraged in urban areas to prevent subsequent gestational and type 2 diabetes in women and the population. PMID:16519070

Bhattarai, Madhur Dev; Singh, Dhruba Lall

2005-12-01

30

Estimation of the global average temperature with optimally weighted point gauges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the minimum mean squared error (MSE) incurred in estimating an idealized Earth's global average temperature with a finite network of point gauges located over the globe. We follow the spectral MSE formalism given by North et al. (1992) and derive the optimal weights for N gauges in the problem of estimating the Earth's global average temperature. Our results suggest that for commonly used configurations the variance of the estimate due to sampling error can be reduced by as much as 50%.

Hardin, James W.; Upson, Robert B.

1993-01-01

31

Wetland Boundary Determination in the Great Dismal Swamp Using Weighted Averages

A weighted average method was used to analyze transition zone vegetation in the Great Dismal Swamp to determine if a more uniform determination of wetland boundaries can be made nationwide. The method was applied to vegetation data collected on four transects and three vertical layers across the wetland-to-upland transition zone of the swamp. Ecological index values based on water tolerance were either taken from the literature or derived from local species tolerances. Wetland index values were calculated for 25-m increments using species cover and rankings based on the ecological indices. Wetland index values were used to designate increments as either wetland, transitional, or upland, and to examine the usefulness of a provisional wetland-upland break-point. The weighted average method did not provide for an objective placement of an absolute wetland boundary, but did serve to focus attention on the transitional boundary zone where supplementary information is necessary to select a wetland-upland breakpoint.

Carter, Virginia; Garrett, Mary, Keith; Gammon, Patricia, T.

1988-01-01

32

Model Averaging Methods for Weight Trimming in Generalized Linear Regression Models

In sample surveys where units have unequal probabilities of inclusion, associations between the inclusion probability and the statistic of interest can induce bias in unweighted estimates. This is true even in regression models, where the estimates of the population slope may be biased if the underlying mean model is misspecified or the sampling is nonignorable. Weights equal to the inverse of the probability of inclusion are often used to counteract this bias. Highly disproportional sample designs have highly variable weights; weight trimming reduces large weights to a maximum value, reducing variability but introducing bias. Most standard approaches are ad hoc in that they do not use the data to optimize bias-variance trade-offs. This article uses Bayesian model averaging to create “data driven” weight trimming estimators. We extend previous results for linear regression models (Elliott 2008) to generalized linear regression models, developing robust models that approximate fully-weighted estimators when bias correction is of greatest importance, and approximate unweighted estimators when variance reduction is critical. PMID:23275683

Elliott, Michael R.

2012-01-01

33

The number-average molecular weight of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) irradiated from a â¶Â°Co source in air at room temperature has been estimated from the experimental results of tensile creep measurements and electron microscopy. The viscoelastic method which makes use of the maximum relaxation time was used for samples with low radiation doses. The mean chain length of highly irradiated samples, which can

M. Takenaga; K. Yamagata

1981-01-01

34

Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents. PMID:19200083

Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

2009-01-01

35

Estimating average soil contaminant concentrations is a routine site investigation, risk assessment and remediation verification activity. Some techniques however fail to adequately consider the spatial distribution of contaminants and may result in erroneous estimates. Kriging may provides the best linear unbiased estimator of soil contaminant levels for sites when concentrations are spatially correlated. When variogram models show limited relationships, or when sampling density is limited, the application of geostatistical techniques may, not be appropriate. In these situations the geographic distribution of contaminants is often discounted when developing estimates of soil contaminant concentrations. In this poster presentation we describe the use of a Voronoi tessellation weighted averaging approach for estimating soil lead and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that in turn were used in performing risk assessment computations. The exposure point concentrations estimated using this approach provided a more realistic assessment of the risks actually posed by soil contaminants at this site.

Pedersen, T.A. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); LaVelle, J.M. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

36

Equating of Subscores and Weighted Averages under the NEAT Design. Research Report. ETS RR-11-01

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the literature has seen increasing interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic values; for example, one study suggested the report of weighted averages of a subscore and the total score, whereas others showed, for various operational and simulated data sets, that weighted averages, as compared to subscores, lead to more accurate…

Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby

2011-01-01

37

A Novel Adaptive-Weighted-Average Framework for Blood Glucose Prediction

Abstract Background Blood glucose (BG) prediction plays a very important role in daily BG management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Several algorithms, such as autoregressive (AR) models and artificial neural networks, have been proposed for BG prediction. However, every algorithm has its own subject range (i.e., one algorithm might work well for one diabetes patient but poorly for another patient). Even for one individual patient, this algorithm might perform well during the preprandial period but poorly during the postprandial period. Materials and Methods A novel framework was proposed to combine several BG prediction algorithms. The main idea of the novel framework is that an adaptive weight is given to each algorithm where one algorithm's weight is inversely proportional to the sum of the squared prediction errors. In general, this framework can be applied to combine any BG prediction algorithms. Results As an example, the proposed framework was used to combine an AR model, extreme learning machine, and support vector regression. The new algorithm was compared with these three prediction algorithms on the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) readings of 10 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients; the CGMS readings of each patient included 860 CGMS data points. For each patient, the algorithms were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error, relative error, Clarke error-grid analysis, and J index. Of the 40 evaluations, the new adaptive-weighted algorithm achieved the best prediction performance in 37 (92.5%). Conclusions Thus, we conclude that the adaptive-weighted-average framework proposed in this study can give satisfactory predictions and should be used in BG prediction. The new algorithm has great robustness with respect to variations in data characteristics, patients, and prediction horizons. At the same time, it is universal. PMID:23883406

Wu, Xiangwei; Mo, Xue

2013-01-01

38

In this paper, the weighted average prediction (WAP) is introduced into the existing consensus protocol for simultaneously improving the robustness to communication delay and the convergence speed of achieving the consensus. The frequency-domain analysis and algebra graph theory are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient condition guaranteeing the second-order delayed multi-agent systems applying the WAP-based consensus protocol to achieve the stationary consensus. It is proved that introducing the WAP with the proper length into the existing consensus protocol can improve the robustness against communication delay. Also, we prove that for two kinds of second-order delayed multi-agent systems: 1) the IR-ones with communication delay approaching zero and 2) the ones with communication delay approaching the maximum delay, introducing the WAP with the proper length into the existing consensus protocol can accelerate the convergence speed of achieving the stationary consensus. PMID:22453642

Wu, Zhihai; Fang, Huajing; She, Yingying

2012-10-01

39

Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. PMID:25136677

Merigo, Jose M.

2014-01-01

40

Detecting the start of an influenza outbreak using exponentially weighted moving average charts

Background Influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks in temperate climates, usually during winter and early spring, and are endemic in tropical climates. The severity and length of influenza outbreaks vary from year to year. Quick and reliable detection of the start of an outbreak is needed to promote public health measures. Methods We propose the use of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart of laboratory confirmed influenza counts to detect the start and end of influenza outbreaks. Results The chart is shown to provide timely signals in an example application with seven years of data from Victoria, Australia. Conclusions The EWMA control chart could be applied in other applications to quickly detect influenza outbreaks. PMID:20587013

2010-01-01

41

Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. PMID:25136677

Marin, Lucas; Valls, Aida; Isern, David; Moreno, Antonio; Merigó, José M

2014-01-01

42

A Weight-Averaged Interpolation Method for Coupling Time-Accurate Rarefied and Continuum Flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach to coupling rarefied and continuum flow regimes as a single, hybrid model is introduced. The method borrows from techniques used in the simulation of spray flows to interpolate Lagrangian point-particles onto an Eulerian grid in a weight-averaged sense. A brief overview of traditional methods for modeling both rarefied and continuum domains is given, and a review of the literature regarding rarefied/continuum flow coupling is presented. Details of the theoretical development of the method of weighted interpolation are then described. The method evaluates macroscopic properties at the nodes of a CFD grid via the weighted interpolation of all simulated molecules in a set surrounding the node. The weight factor applied to each simulated molecule is the inverse of the linear distance between it and the given node. During development, the method was applied to several preliminary cases, including supersonic flow over an airfoil, subsonic flow over tandem airfoils, and supersonic flow over a backward facing step; all at low Knudsen numbers. The main thrust of the research centered on the time-accurate expansion of a rocket plume into a near-vacuum. The method proves flexible enough to be used with various flow solvers, demonstrated by the use of Fluent as the continuum solver for the preliminary cases and a NASA-developed Large Eddy Simulation research code, WRLES, for the full lunar model. The method is applicable to a wide range of Mach numbers and is completely grid independent, allowing the rarefied and continuum solvers to be optimized for their respective domains without consideration of the other. The work presented demonstrates the validity, and flexibility of the method of weighted interpolation as a novel concept in the field of hybrid flow coupling. The method marks a significant divergence from current practices in the coupling of rarefied and continuum flow domains and offers a kernel on which to base an ongoing field of research. It has the potential to significantly increase the flexibility of hybrid rarefied/continuum flow analyses.

Diaz, Steven William

43

Conductivity image enhancement in MREIT using adaptively weighted spatial averaging filter

Background In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we reconstruct conductivity images using magnetic flux density data induced by externally injected currents. Since we extract magnetic flux density data from acquired MR phase images, the amount of measurement noise increases in regions of weak MR signals. Especially for local regions of MR signal void, there may occur excessive amounts of noise to deteriorate the quality of reconstructed conductivity images. In this paper, we propose a new conductivity image enhancement method as a postprocessing technique to improve the image quality. Methods Within a magnetic flux density image, the amount of noise varies depending on the position-dependent MR signal intensity. Using the MR magnitude image which is always available in MREIT, we estimate noise levels of measured magnetic flux density data in local regions. Based on the noise estimates, we adjust the window size and weights of a spatial averaging filter, which is applied to reconstructed conductivity images. Without relying on a partial differential equation, the new method is fast and can be easily implemented. Results Applying the novel conductivity image enhancement method to experimental data, we could improve the image quality to better distinguish local regions with different conductivity contrasts. From phantom experiments, the estimated conductivity values had 80% less variations inside regions of homogeneous objects. Reconstructed conductivity images from upper and lower abdominal regions of animals showed much less artifacts in local regions of weak MR signals. Conclusion We developed the fast and simple method to enhance the conductivity image quality by adaptively adjusting the weights and window size of the spatial averaging filter using MR magnitude images. Since the new method is implemented as a postprocessing step, we suggest adopting it without or with other preprocessing methods for application studies where conductivity contrast is of primary concern. PMID:24970640

2014-01-01

44

Weighted Average as Computed by the KarnikÂMendel Algorithms Feilong Liu, Student Member, IEEE, and Jerry M. Mendel, Life Fellow, IEEE Abstract--By connecting work from two different problems-- the fuzzy weighted. This new algorithm uses the KarnikÂMendel (KM) algorithms to compute the FWA -cut end- points. It appears

Mendle, Jerry M.

45

A molluscan analogue dataset is presented in conjunction with a weighted-averaging technique as a tool for estimating past salinity patterns in south Florida’s estuaries and developing targets for restoration based on these reconstructions. The method, here referred to as cumulative weighted percent (CWP), was tested using modern surficial samples collected in Florida Bay from sites located near fixed water monitoring stations that record salinity. The results were calibrated using species weighting factors derived from examining species occurrence patterns. A comparison of the resulting calibrated species-weighted CWP (SW-CWP) to the observed salinity at the water monitoring stations averaged over a 3-year time period indicates, on average, the SW-CWP comes within less than two salinity units of estimating the observed salinity. The SW-CWP reconstructions were conducted on a core from near the mouth of Taylor Slough to illustrate the application of the method.

Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.

2012-01-01

46

Robust HLLC Riemann solver with weighted average flux scheme for strong shock

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researchers have reported failures of the approximate Riemann solvers in the presence of strong shock. This is believed to be due to perturbation transfer in the transverse direction of shock waves. We propose a simple and clear method to prevent such problems for the Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) scheme. By defining a sensing function in the transverse direction of strong shock, the HLLC flux is switched to the Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) flux in that direction locally, and the magnitude of the additional dissipation is automatically determined using the HLL scheme. We combine the HLLC and HLL schemes in a single framework using a switching function. High-order accuracy is achieved using a weighted average flux (WAF) scheme, and a method for v-shear treatment is presented. The modified HLLC scheme is named HLLC-HLL. It is tested against a steady normal shock instability problem and Quirk's test problems, and spurious solutions in the strong shock regions are successfully controlled.

Kim, Sung Don; Lee, Bok Jik; Lee, Hyoung Jin; Jeung, In-Seuck

2009-11-01

47

47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unseparated loop costs for the study area as calculated pursuant...36.611(h) for the study area. (1) If a company...36.612(a), the study area average unseparated...calculated pursuant to the method described in paragraph...to § 36.601(c). Effective July 1, 2001, for...

2010-10-01

48

Evolution of area-averaged vertical velocity in the convective region of a midlatitude squall line

EVOLUTION OF AREA-AVERAGED VERTICAL VELOCITY IN THE CONVECTIVE REGION OF A MIDLATITUDE SQUALL LINE A Thesis by DENNIS ALLEN HOBSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Meteorology EVOLUTION OF AREA-AVERAGED VERTICAL VELOCITY IN THE CONVECTIVE REGION OF A MIDLATITUDE SQUALL LINE A Thesis by DENNIS ALLEN HOBSON Approved as to style and content by: Michael...

Hobson, Dennis Allen

2012-06-07

49

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is involved in numerous environmental processes, and its molecular size is important in many of these processes, such as DOM bioavailability, DOM sorptive capacity, and the formation of disinfection byproducts during water treatment. The size and size distribution of the molecules composing DOM remains an open question. In this contribution, an indirect method to assess the average size of DOM is described, which is based on the reaction of hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) quenching by DOM. HO(•) is often assumed to be relatively unselective, reacting with nearly all organic molecules with similar rate constants. Literature values for HO(•) reaction with organic molecules were surveyed to assess the unselectivity of DOM and to determine a representative quenching rate constant (krep = 5.6 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). This value was used to assess the average molecular weight of various humic and fulvic acid isolates as model DOM, using literature HO(•) quenching constants, kC,DOM. The results obtained by this method were compared with previous estimates of average molecular weight. The average molecular weight (Mn) values obtained with this approach are lower than the Mn measured by other techniques such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), and flow field fractionation (FFF). This suggests that DOM is an especially good quencher for HO(•), reacting at rates close to the diffusion-control limit. It was further observed that humic acids generally react faster than fulvic acids. The high reactivity of humic acids toward HO(•) is in line with the antioxidant properties of DOM. The benefit of this method is that it provides a firm upper bound on the average molecular weight of DOM, based on the kinetic limits of the HO(•) reaction. The results indicate low average molecular weight values, which is most consistent with the recent understanding of DOM. A possible DOM size distribution is discussed to reconcile the small nature of DOM with the large-molecule behavior observed in other studies. PMID:25222517

Appiani, Elena; Page, Sarah E; McNeill, Kristopher

2014-10-21

50

The effect of capsule-filling machine vibrations on average fill weight.

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the speed of capsule filling and the inherent machine vibrations on fill weight for a dosator-nozzle machine. The results show that increasing speed of capsule filling amplifies the vibration intensity (as measured by Laser Doppler vibrometer) of the machine frame, which leads to powder densification. The mass of the powder (fill weight) collected via the nozzle is significantly larger at a higher capsule filling speed. Therefore, there is a correlation between powder densification under more intense vibrations and larger fill weights. Quality-by Design of powder based products should evaluate the effect of environmental vibrations on material attributes, which in turn may affect product quality. PMID:23872302

Llusa, Marcos; Faulhammer, Eva; Biserni, Stefano; Calzolari, Vittorio; Lawrence, Simon; Bresciani, Massimo; Khinast, Johannes

2013-09-15

51

Weighted frame averaging for motion compensation of laser radar image data

Recent interest in the collection of laser radar imagery has motivated the development of automatic, accurate image registration techniques to reduce laser speckle, increase image signal to noise ratio, decrease the deleterious effects of atmospheric tip\\/tilt, and enhance image detail. This research seeks a new method to assign weights to each of the frames that have been previously registered using

A. MacDonald

2006-01-01

52

Quantum Black Hole Wave Packet: Average Area Entropy and Temperature Dependent Width

A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the average mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's area entropy is formulated using the $\\langle \\text{mass}^2 \\rangle$ average, leaving the $\\langle \\text{mass} \\rangle$ average to set the Hawking temperature. The width function peaks at the Planck scale for an elementary (zero entropy, zero free energy) micro black hole of finite rms size, and decreases Doppler-like towards the classical limit.

Aharon Davidson; Ben Yellin

2014-04-23

53

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify area-average evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in area-average evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and area-average evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on average, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.

Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.

2009-12-01

54

High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

1993-01-01

55

Binary Weighted Averaging of an Ensemble of Coherently Collected Image Frames

Recent interest in the collection of remote laser radar imagery has motivated novel systems that process temporally contiguous frames of collected imagery to produce an average image that reduces laser speckle, increases image SNR, decreases the deleterious effects of atmospheric distortion, and enhances image detail. This research seeks an algorithm based on Bayesian estimation theory to select those frames from

Adam MacDonald; Stephen Cain; Mark Oxley

2007-01-01

56

Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) plans for non-homogeneous negative binomial counts are developed for detecting the onset of seasonal disease outbreaks in public health surveillance. These plans are robust to changes in the in-control mean and over-dispersion parameter of the negative binomial distribution, and therefore are referred to as adaptive plans. They differ from the traditional approach of using standardized

R. S. Sparks; T. Keighley; D. Muscatello

2011-01-01

57

Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

1992-01-01

58

Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls

E. A. Smith; A. Y. Hsu; W. L. Crosson; R. T. Field; L. J. Fritschen; R. J. Gurney; E. T. Kanemasu; W. P. Kustas; D. Nie; W. J. Shuttleworth

1992-01-01

59

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

2006-10-01

60

The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of piglet birth weight on future BW, growth, backfat, and longissimus muscle area of pigs in a commercial U.S. production system. Pigs (n=5727) at a commercial farm were individually weighed and identified within 24h of birth. Weights were collected prior to weaning (n=4108), after finisher placement (n=3439), and 7 (n=1622)

J. S. Fix; J. P. Cassady; W. O. Herring; J. W. Holl; M. S. Culbertson; M. T. See

2010-01-01

61

the distributed spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. Using weighted average consensus algorithm, we the global decision statistics from the weighted soft measurement combining throughout the network-inspired consensus- based scheme is introduced to spectrum sensing in [8] for the decentralized measurement combining

Guo, Yi

62

This study examined the variation in weight, height and body mass index of 1048 mothers living in a rural area of Bangladesh in relation to age, education, number of previous pregnancies, number of dead children, religion, family type, family size, and amount of land owned by the household. Multiple regression analysis revealed a positive relationship of education with all three variables. Moslem mothers were on average in better condition than Hindus. The number of dead children showed a negative relationship with height, weight and body mass index. PMID:8425883

Bhuiya, A; Mostafa, G

1993-01-01

63

In this paper, two novel approaches, gradient-based and direct strain estimation techniques, are proposed for high-quality average strain imaging incorporating a cost function maximization. Stiffness typically is a continuous function. Consequently, stiffness of proximal tissues is very close to that of the tissue corresponding to a given data window. Hence, a cost function is defined from exponentially weighted neighboring pre- and post-compression RF echo normalized cross-correlation peaks in the lateral (for displacement estimation) or in both the axial and the lateral (for direct strain estimation) directions. This enforces a controlled continuity in displacement/strain and average displacement/strain is calculated from the corresponding maximized cost function. Axial stress causes lateral shift in the tissue. Therefore, a 1-D post-compression echo segment is selected by incorporating Poisson's ratio. Two stretching factors are considered simultaneously in gradient-based strain estimation that allow imaging the lesions properly. The proposed time-domain gradient-based and direct-strain-estimation-based algorithms demonstrate significantly better performance in terms of elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe), elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and mean structural similarity (MSSIM) than the other reported time-domain gradient-based and direct-strain-estimation techniques in finite element modeling (FEM) simulation and phantom experiments. For example, in FEM simulation, it has been found that the proposed direct strain estimation method can improve up to approximately 2.49 to 8.71, 2.2 to 6.63, 1.5 to 5, and 1.59 to 2.45 dB in the SNRe, CNRe, PSNR, and MSSIM compared with the traditional direct strain estimation method, respectively, and the proposed gradient-based algorithm demonstrates 2.99 to 16.26, 18.74 to 23.88, 3 to 9.5, and 0.6 to 5.36 dB improvement in the SNRe, CNRe, PSNR, and MSSIM, respectively, compared with a recently reported time-domain gradient-based technique. The range of improvement as noted above is for low to high applied strains. In addition, the comparative results using the in vivo breast data (including malignant or benign masses) also show that the lesion size is better defined by the proposed gradient-based average strain estimation technique. PMID:22899118

Hussain, Mohammad Arafat; Abu Anas, Emran Mohammad; Alam, S Kaisar; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

2012-08-01

64

The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximise the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimising the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide gr...

Davies, G R; Elsworth, Y; Hale, S J

2014-01-01

65

In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW) of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ? AMW ? 47.82 kDa) from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates. PMID:25090114

Chi, Chang-Feng; Cao, Zi-Hao; Wang, Bin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Rui; Zhang, Bin

2014-01-01

66

Area-preserving maps models of gyro-averaged ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport

Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the...

da Fonseca, J D; Caldas, I L

2014-01-01

67

Time-weighted average (TWA) passive sampling using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography was investigated as a new method of collecting, identifying and quantifying contaminants in process gas streams. Unlike previous TWA-SPME techniques using the retracted fiber configuration (fiber within needle) to monitor ambient conditions or relatively stagnant gases, this method was developed for fast-moving process gas streams at temperatures approaching 300 °C. The goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method of analyzing low concentrations of contaminants in hot gas streams without performing time-consuming exhaustive extraction with a slipstream. This work in particular aims to quantify trace tar compounds found in a syngas stream generated from biomass gasification. This paper evaluates the concept of retracted SPME at high temperatures by testing the three essential requirements for TWA passive sampling: (1) zero-sink assumption, (2) consistent and reliable response by the sampling device to changing concentrations, and (3) equal concentrations in the bulk gas stream relative to the face of the fiber syringe opening. Results indicated the method can accurately predict gas stream concentrations at elevated temperatures. Evidence was also discovered to validate the existence of a second boundary layer within the fiber during the adsorption/absorption process. This limits the technique to operating within reasonable mass loadings and loading rates, established by appropriate sampling depths and times for concentrations of interest. A limit of quantification for the benzene model tar system was estimated at 0.02 g m(-3) (8 ppm) with a limit of detection of 0.5 mg m(-3) (200 ppb). Using the appropriate conditions, the technique was applied to a pilot-scale fluidized-bed gasifier to verify its feasibility. Results from this test were in good agreement with literature and prior pilot plant operation, indicating the new method can measure low concentrations of tar in gasification streams. PMID:23398991

Woolcock, Patrick J; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

2013-03-15

68

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

methodology used to estimate the percentage of wastewater effluent in an otherwise pristine water site is proposed on the basis of the weighted mean of the level of a consortium of indicator pollutants. This method considers the levels of uncertainty in the evaluation of each of the indicators in the site, potential effluent sources, and uncontaminated surroundings. A detailed demonstrative study was conducted on a site that is potentially subject to wastewater leakage. The research concentrated on several perched springs that are influenced to an unknown extent by agricultural communities. A comparison was made to a heavily contaminated site receiving wastewater effluent and surface water runoff. We investigated six springs in two nearby ridges where fecal contamination was detected in the past; the major sources of pollution in the area have since been diverted to a wastewater treatment system. We used chloride, acesulfame, and carbamazepine as domestic pollution tracers. Good correlation (R2 > 0.86) was observed between the mixing ratio predictions based on the two organic tracers (the slope of the linear regression was 1.05), whereas the chloride predictions differed considerably. This methodology is potentially useful, particularly for cases in which detailed hydrological modeling is unavailable but in which quantification of wastewater penetration is required. We demonstrate that the use of more than one tracer for estimation of the mixing ratio reduces the combined uncertainty level associated with the estimate and can also help to disqualify biased tracers.

Gasser, Guy; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Glazman, Hillel; Lev, Ovadia

2014-05-01

69

Acetabular roof arc angles and anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area

Background: Acetabular fracture involves whether superior articular weight bearing area and stability of the hip are assessed by acetabular roof arc angles comprising medial, anterior and posterior. Many previous studies, based on clinical, biomechanics and anatomic superior articular surface of acetabulum showed different degrees of the angles. Anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area (ABSAWBA) of the femoral head can be identified as radiographic subchondral bone density at superior acetabular dome. The fracture passes through ABSAWBA creating traumatic hip arthritis. Therefore, acetabular roof arc angles of ABSAWBA were studied in order to find out that the most appropriate degrees of recommended acetabular roof arc angles in the previous studies had no ABSAWBA involvement. Materials and Methods: ABSAWBA of femoral head was identified 68 acetabular fractures and 13 isolated pelvic fractures without unstable pelvic ring injury were enrolled. Acetabular roof arc angle was measured on anteroposterior, obturator and iliac oblique view radiographs of normal contralateral acetabulum using programmatic automation controller digital system and measurement tools. Results: Average medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles of the ABSAWBA of 94 normal acetabulum were 39.09 (7.41), 42.49 (8.15) and 55.26 (10.08) degrees, respectively. Conclusions: Less than 39°, 42° and 55° of medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles involve ABSAWBA of the femoral head. Application of the study results showed that 45°, 45° and 62° from the previous studies are the most appropriate medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles without involvement of the ABSAWBA respectively.

Harnroongroj, Thossart; Wattanakaewsripetch, Montri; Sudjai, Narumol; Harnroongroj, Thos

2014-01-01

70

The Application of Bayesian Model Averaging in Compatibility of Stand Basal Area for Even-Aged

on their posterior probabilities, with the better performing predictions getting higher weights than the poorer plantations because the CDF regression aimed to fit the CDF of diameter distribution. Lei (2008) reported

Cao, Quang V.

71

In this paper, we investigate applicability of Bayesian model averaging (BMA) methodology to atmospheric dispersion multimodel ensemble system within the context of emergency response applications. The BMA method can be used both to evaluate model predictions and to combine model results using BMA weighing factors. We analyze time evolution of BMA weights and include a detailed quantitative comparison of different

S. Potempski; S. Galmarini; A. Riccio; G. Giunta

2010-01-01

72

Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24–37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all gravidas who gave birth in the hospitals from 1999 to 2003. Blood hemoglobin

A. G. Ma; E. G. Schouten; Y. Wang; R. X. Xu; M. C. Zheng; Y. Li; Y. Y. Sun; Q. Z. Wang

2009-01-01

73

Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

74

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

75

. Mendel, Life Fellow, IEEE Abstract--The focus of this paper is the linguistic weighted av- erage (LWA 90089-2564 USA (e-mail: dongruiw@usc.edu; mendel@sipi.usc. edu). Color versions of one or more a richer platform." Mendel [19] notes that "words mean different things to different people and so

Mendle, Jerry M.

76

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

2007-01-01

77

Residence in CoalMining Areas and Low-Birth-Weight Outcomes

The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight.\\u000a We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother’s residence\\u000a in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005–2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were

Melissa Ahern; Martha Mullett; Katherine MacKay; Candice Hamilton

78

The impact of correlated readings on the estimation of the average area under readers' ROC curves

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used in a variety of settings since it was first declassified by the United States government over 60 years ago. One venue in which it has received particular attention is in the field of radiology. In radiology, as in other areas of application, ROC analysis is used to assess the ability of a

Matthew A. Hall; Matthew S. Mayo

2005-01-01

79

Racial Residential Segregation and Low Birth Weight in Michigan's Metropolitan Areas

Objectives. We examined the influence of racial residential segregation, independent of neighborhood economic factors, on the overall and specific etiological risks of low birth weight. Methods. We geocoded all singleton births in Michigan metropolitan areas during 2000 to census tracts. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate the association between low birth weight (< 2500 g) and neighborhood-level economic and racial segregation, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed competing risks of the 2 etiologies of low birth weight: intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Results. Living in a Black segregated area was associated with increased odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.29; P < .05) of low birth weight after adjusting for individual- and tract-level measures. The analysis suggested that the association between low birth weight and racial segregation was attributable primarily to increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.37; P < .05). Conclusions. Odds of low birth weight are higher in racially segregated Black neighborhoods in Michigan's metropolitan areas, independent of economic factors. The association appears to operate through intrauterine growth restriction rather than preterm birth. PMID:21778487

Bader, Michael D. M.

2011-01-01

80

We tested the effects of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on growth of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum under laboratory conditions using different exposure scenarios. The exposures of each scenario were comparable in the concentration×time factor, viz., the same 21-d time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations but variable in peak exposure concentrations (ranging from 0.1 to 21000ngaiL?1) and exposure periods (1, 3, 7, 14

J. D. M. Belgers; G. H. Aalderink; G. H. P. Arts; T. C. M. Brock

2011-01-01

81

Background Gestational weight gain is important to assess for epidemiological and public health purposes: it is correlated with infant growth and may be related to maternal outcomes such as reproductive health and chronic disease risk. Methods commonly used to assess weight gain incorporate assumptions that are usually not borne out, such as a linear weight gain, or do not account for differential length of gestation. Methods We introduce a novel method to assess gestational weight gain, the area under the weight gain curve. This is easily interpretable as the additional pound-days carried due to pregnancy and avoids many flaws in alternative assessments. We compare the performance of the simple difference, weekly gain, Institute of Medicine categories and the area under the weight gain curve in predicting birthweight and maternal weight retention at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-partum. The analytic sample comprises 2016 participants in Project Viva, an observational prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Massachusetts. Results For birthweight outcomes, none of the weight gain measures is a meaningfully superior predictor. For 6-month postpartum weight retention the simple difference is superior, while for 12-, 24- and 36-month weight retention the area under the weight gain curve is superior. Conclusions These findings are plausible biologically: the same amount of weight gained early vs later in the pregnancy may reflect increased maternal fat stores. The timing of weight gain is reflected best in the area under the weight gain curve. Different methods of measuring gestational weight gain may be appropriate depending on the context. PMID:17715174

Kleinman, Ken P; Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Peterson, Karen E; Gillman, Matthew W

2007-01-01

82

This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. Here the authors report on the use of volume imaging LIDAR to calculate horizontal wind velocities in different vertical profiles. The LIDAR observes backscatter from naturally occurring aerosols, and is capable of imaging a 50 to 70 km[sup 2] area every 3 to 4 minutes. Spatial averaging of the wind velocities has the advantage of averaging out convective scale velocities which are inherent in all measurements, and which can only be averaged out of fixed measurements by averaging for times long compared to the drift time for such convective structures to pass the measurement point, which is often of the order of hours. Data have been analyzed for two particular cases, one a convective light wind case, and the other a case with moderate to high wind speeds, and shear effects.

Schols, J.L.; Eloranta, E.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1992-11-30

83

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff estimation and water budget in ungauged basins is a challenge for hydrological researchers and planners. The principal aim of this study was the application and validation of the Kennessey method, which is a physiography-based indirect process for determining the average annual runoff coefficient and the basin-scale water balance. The coefficient can be calculated using specific physiographic characteristics (slope, permeability and vegetation cover) and a parameter that defines climatic conditions and does not require instrumental data. One of the main purposes of this study was to compare the average annual runoff coefficient obtained using the Kennessey method with the coefficients calculated using data from 30 instrumented drainage basins in Sardinia (Italy) over 71 years (from 1922 to 1992). These measurements represent an important and complete historical dataset from the study area. Using the runoff coefficient map, the method was also applied to assess the effective annual recharge rate of the aquifers of the Calich hydrogeological basin in the Nurra Plain (Alghero, NW Sardinia-Italy). The groundwater recharge rate was compared with rates calculated using the standard water balance method. The implementation of the method at the regional and basin scales was supported by GIS analyses. The results of the method are promising but show some discrepancies with other methodologies due to the higher weights given to the physiographic parameters than to the meteorological parameters. However, even though the weights assigned to the parameters require improvements, the Kennessey method is a useful tool for evaluating hydrologic processes, particularly for water management in areas where instrumental data are not available.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele

2014-11-01

84

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Area-averaged horizontal wind measurements are derived from the motion of spatial inhomogeneities in aerosol backscattering observed with a volume-imaging lidar. Spatial averaging provides high precision, reducing sample variations of wind measurements well below the level of turbulent fluctuations, even under conditions of very light mean winds and strong convection or under the difficult conditions represented by roll convection. Wind velocities are measured using the two-dimensional spatial cross correlation computed between successive horizontal plane maps of aerosol backscattering, assembled from three-dimensional lidar scans. Prior to calculation of the correlation function, three crucial steps are performed: (1) the scans are corrected for image distortion by the wind during a finite scan time; (2) a temporal high pass median filtering is applied to eliminate structures that do not move with the wind; and (3) a histogram equalization is employed to reduce biases to the brightest features.

Schols, J. L.; Eloranta, E. W.

1992-01-01

85

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Area-averaged horizontal wind measurements are derived from the motion of spatial inhomogeneities in aerosol backscattering observed with a volume-imaging lidar. Spatial averaging provides high precision, reducing sample variations of wind measurements well below the level of turbulent fluctuations, even under conditions of very light mean winds and strong convection or under the difficult conditions represented by roll convection. Wind velocities are measured using the two-dimensional spatial cross correlation computed between successive horizontal plane maps of aerosol backscattering, assembled from three-dimensional lidar scans. Prior to calculation of the correlation function, three crucial steps are performed: (1) the scans are corrected for image distortion by the wind during a finite scan time; (2) a temporal high pass median filtering is applied to eliminate structures that do not move with the wind; and (3) a histogram equalization is employed to reduce biases to the brightest features.

Schols, J. L.; Eloranta, E. W.

1992-11-01

86

Mapping Human Cortical Areas in vivo Based on Myelin Content as Revealed by T1- and T2-weighted MRI

Non-invasively mapping the layout of cortical areas in humans is a continuing challenge for neuroscience. We present a new method of mapping cortical areas based on myelin content as revealed by T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. The method is generalizable across different 3T scanners and pulse sequences. We use the ratio of T1w/T2w image intensities to eliminate the MR-related image intensity bias and enhance the contrast to noise ratio for myelin. Data from each subject was mapped to the cortical surface and aligned across individuals using surface-based registration. The spatial gradient of the group average myelin map provides an observer-independent measure of sharp transitions in myelin content across the surface—i.e. putative cortical areal borders. We found excellent agreement between the gradients of the myelin maps and the gradients of published probabilistic cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas that were registered to the same surface-based atlas. For other cortical regions, we used published anatomical and functional information to make putative identifications of dozens of cortical areas or candidate areas. In general, primary and early unimodal association cortices are heavily myelinated and higher, multi-modal, association cortices are more lightly myelinated, but there are notable exceptions in the literature that are confirmed by our results. The overall pattern in the myelin maps also has important correlations with the developmental onset of subcortical white matter myelination, evolutionary cortical areal expansion in humans compared to macaques, postnatal cortical expansion in humans, and maps of neuronal density in non-human primates. PMID:21832190

Glasser, Matthew F.; Van Essen, David C.

2011-01-01

87

integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average for detecting episodic or short-term pollution events (e.g. increased herbicide concentrations during a flood

Boyer, Edmond

88

Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether girls and boys categorized from body mass index (BMI) values as overweight or obese for their age have lower bone mineral content (BMC) or lower bone area in relation to total body weight than children of normal adiposity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in a university bone research unit.SUBJECTS: Two hundred girls and 136 boys aged 3–19 y recruited

A Goulding; RW Taylor; IE Jones; KA McAuley; PJ Manning; SM Williams

2000-01-01

89

Boosting with Averaged Weight Vectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the previous base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. Some researchers have pointed out the intuition that it is probably better to construct a distribution that is orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous base models, but that this is not always possible. We present an algorithm that attempts to come as close as possible to this goal in an efficient manner. We present experimental results demonstrating significant improvement over AdaBoost and the Totally Corrective boosting algorithm, which also attempts to satisfy this goal.

Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

90

Costs Associated with Low Birth Weight in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is prevalent in low-income countries. Even though the economic evaluation of interventions to reduce this burden is essential to guide health policies, data on costs associated with LBW are scarce. This study aims to estimate the costs to the health system and to the household and the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) arising from infant deaths associated with LBW in Southern Mozambique. Methods and Findings Costs incurred by the households were collected through exit surveys. Health system costs were gathered from data obtained onsite and from published information. DALYs due to death of LBW babies were based on local estimates of prevalence of LBW (12%), very low birth weight (VLBW) (1%) and of case fatality rates compared to non-LBW weight babies [for LBW (12%) and VLBW (80%)]. Costs associated with LBW excess morbidity were calculated on the incremental number of hospital admissions in LBW babies compared to non-LBW weight babies. Direct and indirect household costs for routine health care were 24.12 US$ (CI 95% 21.51; 26.26). An increase in birth weight of 100 grams would lead to a 53% decrease in these costs. Direct and indirect household costs for hospital admissions were 8.50 US$ (CI 95% 6.33; 10.72). Of the 3,322 live births that occurred in one year in the study area, health system costs associated to LBW (routine health care and excess morbidity) and DALYs were 169,957.61 US$ (CI 95% 144,900.00; 195,500.00) and 2,746.06, respectively. Conclusions This first cost evaluation of LBW in a low-income country shows that reducing the prevalence of LBW would translate into important cost savings to the health system and the household. These results are of relevance for similar settings and should serve to promote interventions aimed at improving maternal care. PMID:22174885

Sicuri, Elisa; Bardaji, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Macete, Eusebio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara

2011-01-01

91

Background The intention was to find out whether there was an association between the socio-economic resources in a small neighbourhood ("basic statistical unit"; BSU) and individual mortality, net of individual resources, and whether this association differed between municipalities including a quite large city and others. The possibility of a rural-urban difference in the health effect of community resources has not been checked earlier. Methods Discrete-time hazard models for mortality at age 60-89 were estimated for 1990-1992 and 2000-2002, using register data that cover the entire Norwegian population. For each person, the educational level and the municipality and BSU of residence in 1990 and 2000 were known. Average education was computed by aggregating over the individual data. In total, there were about 200000 deaths in more than 13000 BSUs during 5 million person-years of observation. Results There was a significant relationship between average education in the BSU and individual mortality, but only in the medium-sized and largest municipalities. The sharpest relationship was seen in the latter, where for example OR per year of education was 0.908 (95% CI 0.887-0.929) in the 1990-92 period. The findings were robust to various alternative specifications. Conclusion These results from a large data set are consistent with the idea that neighbourhood socio-economic resources may affect individual mortality, but suggest that distinctions according to population size or density be made in future research and that one should be careful, if focusing on cities, to generalize beyond that setting. With these data, one can only speculate about the reasons for the rural-urban difference. A stronger higher-level spatial segregation in urban areas may be one explanation. PMID:20003181

2009-01-01

92

We tested the effects of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on growth of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum under laboratory conditions using different exposure scenarios. The exposures of each scenario were comparable in the concentration × time factor, viz., the same 21-d time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations but variable in peak exposure concentrations (ranging from 0.1 to 21000 ng ai L?ą) and exposure periods (1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 d). To study recovery potential of the exposed M. spicatum plants we continued the observation on shoot and root growth for another 21 d in herbicide-free medium so that the total observation period was 42 d. Non-destructive endpoints, length and number of new shoots and roots, were determined weekly from day 14 onwards. Destructive endpoints, dry-weight (DW) of main shoots, new shoots and new roots, were measured at the end of the experiment (t=42 d). Metsulfuron-methyl exposure in particular inhibited new tissue formation but was not lethal to main shoots. On days 21 and 42 after start exposure, EC??/EC?? values for new tissues expressed in terms of peak concentration (=measured concentration during exposure periods of different length) showed large differences between exposure scenarios in contrast to EC??/EC?? values for days 21 and 42 expressed in terms of 21-d and 42-d TWA concentrations, respectively. At the end of the experiment (day 42), 42-d TWA EC(x) values were remarkably similar between exposure scenarios, while a similar trend could already be observed on day 21 for 21-d TWA EC(x) values. For the macrophyte M. spicatum and exposure to the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl the TWA approach seems to be appropriate to use in the risk assessment. However, the data from the toxicity experiment suggest that on day 21 also the absolute height of the pulse exposure played a (minor) role in the exposure - response relationships observed. PMID:21875741

Belgers, J D M; Aalderink, G H; Arts, G H P; Brock, T C M

2011-10-01

93

The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production efficiency and consumer knowledge of growth-enhancing technology use, WTP decreased by 12%-leading to a decrease in social acceptability. Results demonstrated that improved efficiency also improved environmental impact, but impacts on economic viability and social acceptability are highly dependent on consumer and producer behavioral responses to efficiency improvements. PMID:24146151

White, R R; Capper, J L

2013-12-01

94

The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (?0.800kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (?0.699kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ?800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (?800 d). The earliest AFC group (?749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700kg) groups. The highest MY (?8,500kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm-specific herd management. The MY is a very important factor for dairy farm profitability. The group of farms having the highest MY achieved the highest net profit despite having greater fertility problems. PMID:25064657

Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

2014-10-01

95

A modified version of the simple biosphere model (SiB) of Sellers et al. (1986) was used to investigate the impact of spatial variability in the fields of topography, vegetation cover, and soil moisture on the area-averaged fluxes of sensible and latent heat for an area of 2×15 km [the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

Piers J. Sellers; Mark D. Heiser; Forrest G. Hall; Scott J. Goetz; Donald E. Strebel; Shashi B. Verma; Raymond L. Desjardins; Peter M. Schuepp; J. Ian MacPherson

1995-01-01

96

The mathematical principle of weighting averages to determine the most appropriate numerical outcome is well established in economic and social studies. It has seen little application in forensic dentistry. This study re-evaluated the data from a previous study of age assessment at the 10 year threshold. A semiautomatic process of weighting averages by n-td, x-tds, sd-tds, se-tds, 1/sd-tds, 1/se-tds was prepared in an Excel worksheet and the different weighted mean values reported. In addition the Fixed Effects and Random Effects models for Meta-Analysis were used and applied to the same data sets. In conclusion it has been shown that the most accurate age estimation method is to use the Random Effects Model for the mathematical procedures. PMID:25066175

Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Lucas, Victoria S

2014-08-01

97

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements allow for estimations of the refractive index structure parameter Cn2 over large areas in the atmospheric surface layer. Turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum are inferred through coupled sets of equations derived from the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. One-dimensional sensitivity functions have been produced that relate the sensitivity of heat fluxes to uncertainties in single values of beam height over homogeneous and flat terrain. However, real field sites include variable topography and heterogeneous surfaces. We develop here the first analysis of the sensitivity of scintillometer derived sensible heat fluxes to uncertainties in spatially distributed topographic measurements. For large-aperture scintillometers and independent friction velocity u* measurements, sensitivity is shown to be concentrated in areas near the center of the beam path and where the underlying topography is closest to the beam height. Uncertainty may be greatly reduced by focusing precise topographic measurements in these areas. A new two-dimensional variable terrain sensitivity function is developed for quantitative error analysis. This function is compared with the previous one-dimensional sensitivity function for the same measurement strategy over flat and homogeneous terrain. Additionally, a new method of solution to the set of coupled equations is produced that eliminates computational error. The results are produced using a new methodology for error analysis involving distributed parameters that may be applied in other disciplines.

Gruber, M. A.; Fochesatto, G. J.; Hartogensis, O. K.

2014-01-01

98

Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085

Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru

2014-01-01

99

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research using NASA Ames AH-1 and OH-58C helicopters, and NASA Glenn test rigs, has shown that in-flight vibration data are typically non-stationary [l-4]. The nature and extent of this non-stationarity is most likely produced by several factors operating simultaneously. The aerodynamic flight environment and pilot commands provide continuously changing inputs, with a complex dynamic response that includes automatic feedback control from the engine regulator. It would appear that the combined effects operate primarily through an induced torque profile, which causes concomitant stress modulation at the individual internal gear meshes in the transmission. This notion is supported by several analyses, which show that upwards of 93% of the vibration signal s variance can be explained by knowledge of torque alone. That this relationship is stronger in an AH-1 than an OH-58, where measured non-stationarity is greater, suggests that the overall mass of the vehicle is an important consideration. In the lighter aircraft, the unsteady aerodynamic influences transmit relatively greater unsteady dynamic forces on the mechanical components, quite possibly contributing to its greater non-stationarity . In a recent paper using OH-58C pinion data [5], the authors have shown that in computing a time synchronous average (TSA) for various single-value metric computations, an effective trade-off can be obtained between sample size and measured stationarity by using data from only a single mesh cycle. A mesh cycle, which is defined as the number of rotations required for the gear teeth to return to their original mating position, has the property of representing all of the discrete phase angles of the opposing gears exactly once in the average. Measured stationarity is probably maximized because a single mesh cycle of the pinion gear occurs over a very short span of time, during which time-dependent non-stationary effects are kept to a minimum. Clearly, the advantage of local stationarity diminishes as the temporal duration of the cycle increases. This is most evident for a planetary mesh cycle, which can take several minutes to complete.

Huff, Edward M.; Mosher, Marianne; Barszcz, Eric

2002-01-01

100

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the use of the area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies is introduced as flow regime indicators in two-phase flow systems. The entropy provides quantitative information about the disorder in the area-averaged void fraction or bubble chord length distributions. The CPDF (cumulative probability distribution function) of void fractions and bubble chord lengths obtained by means of impedance meters and conductivity probes are used to calculate both entropies. Entropy values for 242 flow conditions in upward two-phase flows in 25.4 and 50.8-mm pipes have been calculated. The measured conditions cover ranges from 0.13 to 5 m/s in the superficial liquid velocity j f and ranges from 0.01 to 25 m/s in the superficial gas velocity j g. The physical meaning of both entropies has been interpreted using the visual flow regime map information. The area-averaged void fraction and bubble chord length entropies capability as flow regime indicators have been checked with other statistical parameters and also with different input signals durations. The area-averaged void fraction and the bubble chord length entropies provide better or at least similar results than those obtained with other indicators that include more than one parameter. The entropy is capable to reduce the relevant information of the flow regimes in only one significant and useful parameter. In addition, the entropy computation time is shorter than the majority of the other indicators. The use of one parameter as input also represents faster predictions.

Hernández, Leonor; Juliá, J. Enrique; Paranjape, Sidharth; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

2010-11-01

101

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molybdenum carbide supported on active carbon for catalytic hydrotreating was prepared by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) in flowing H 2of an active carbon impregnated by an heptamolybdate. TPR led at 973 K to the formation of supported Mo 2C. This new method of preparation avoids the use of methane as carburizing reactant and allows in situpreparation of supported molybdenum carbide without any contact of this pyrrophoric material with air between preparation and catalytic run. The various steps of the carburization process were studied by trapping the solid intermediates at different temperatures during TPR. Two successive reactions were evidenced: the partial reduction by H 2of the initial molybdenum precursor to MoO 2, and its subsequent carburization to Mo 2C. This last step is mainly due to the reduction of MoO 2and carburization with native methane evolved from the reaction of the carbon support with dihydrogen. Solid materials were characterized by elemental analysis, X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and specific surface area measurements.

Mordenti, Delphine; Brodzki, Dominique; Djéga-Mariadassou, Gérald

1998-11-01

102

We examined changes in dry weight and leaf area within Dactylis glomerata L. plants using allometric analysis to determine whether observed patterns were truly affected by [CO2] and N supply or merely reflect ontogenetic drift. Plants were grown hydroponically at four concentrations of{\\\\rm NO}^{\\\\minus}_{3}in controlled environment cabinets at ambient (360?ll?1) or elevated (680?ll?1) atmospheric [CO2]. Both CO2and N enrichment stimulated

H. Harmens; C. M. Stirling; C. Marshall; J. F. Farrar

2000-01-01

103

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on

Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka

2004-01-01

104

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) ER01OC10.000 ER01OC10.001...

2010-10-01

105

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and...Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) ER01OC10.006 ER01OC10.007...

2010-10-01

106

Standardized uptake values(SUVs) arewidelyusedto measure 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake in venoustumors.ft has beenreported thatnormalization ofFDGuptake forpatient body weight(SUV@) overestimates FDGuptake inheavypatients, as theirfraclionof bodyfat (wfthlow FDGuptake)is oftenin creased. The objecth,eofthusstudywas to determineifâ€śnormal izalionof FDGuptake for the body surface areaâ€ť (SUV@)is independentofthe patient'sbodysize and is morereliablethan SUVbW.Methods: FDG-PET images were acquired on 44 pa tients (body walght range: 45â€\\

Chun K. Kim; Naresh C. Gupta; B. Chandramouli; Abass Alavi

107

In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the “sprawling” nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs. PMID:23814454

Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M.

2013-01-01

108

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

2014-10-01

109

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855

2014-01-01

110

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

1973-01-01

111

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

1973-01-01

112

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When tourists visiting multiple tourist scenic spots, the travel line is usually the most effective road network according to the actual tour process, and maybe the travel line is different from planned travel line. For in the field of navigation, a proposed travel line is normally generated automatically by path planning algorithm, considering the scenic spots' positions and road networks. But when a scenic spot have a certain area and have multiple entrances or exits, the traditional described mechanism of single point coordinates is difficult to reflect these own structural features. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on the influence on the process of path planning caused by scenic spots' own structural features such as multiple entrances or exits, and then proposes a doubleweighted Graph Model, for the weight of both vertexes and edges of proposed Model can be selected dynamically. And then discusses the model building method, and the optimal path planning algorithm based on Dijkstra algorithm and Prim algorithm. Experimental results show that the optimal planned travel line derived from the proposed model and algorithm is more reasonable, and the travelling order and distance would be further optimized.

Shi, Y.; Long, Y.; Wi, X. L.

2014-04-01

113

Estimating Average Domain Scores.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study was performed to determine whether a group's average percent correct in a content domain could be accurately estimated for groups taking a single test form and not the entire domain of items. Six Item Response Theory (IRT) -based domain score estimation methods were evaluated, under conditions of few items per content area per…

Pommerich, Mary; Nicewander, W. Alan

114

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic-ray neutron probe measures soil moisture over tens of hectares, thus averaging spatially variable soil moisture fields. A previous paper described how variable soil moisture profiles affect the integrated cosmic-ray neutron signal from which depth-average soil moisture is computed. Here, we investigate the effect of horizontal heterogeneity on the relationship between neutron counts and average soil moisture. Observations from a distributed sensor network at a site in southern Arizona indicate that the horizontal component of the total variance of the soil moisture field is less variably in time than the vertical component. Using results from neutron particle transport simulations we show that 1-D binary distributions of soil moisture may affect both the mean and variance of neutron counts of a cosmic-ray neutron detector placed arbitrarily in a soil moisture field, potentially giving rise to an underestimate of the footprint average soil moisture. Similar simulations that used 1-D and 2-D Gaussian soil moisture fields indicate consistent mean and variances of a randomly placed detector if the correlation length scales are short (less than 30 m) and/or the soil moisture field variance is small (<0.032 m6 m-6). Taken together, these soil moisture observations and neutron transport simulations show that horizontal heterogeneity likely has a small effect on the relationship between mean neutron counts and average soil moisture for soils under natural conditions.

Franz, Trenton E.; Zreda, M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Rosolem, R.

2013-10-01

115

Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

2010-01-01

116

Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted regression results suggest spatial variability in effects, and also indicate that some rural communities may be impacted by upstream urban discharges. Conclusions There is evidence that permitted surface water chemical discharges are related to population mortality. Toxicity weights and upstream discharges are important for understanding some mortality effects. Chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may nevertheless play a role in contributing to cancer mortality risk. Spatial models allow for the examination of geographic variability not captured through the regression models. PMID:22471926

2012-01-01

117

200 Area population weighted X/Q for the public within 10 miles of the site boundary

An overall population weighted atmospheric dispersion coefficient (X/Q) has been calculated for the public within 10 miles of the Hanford Site boundary. The Columbia river was assumed as the Hanford site boundary to the north and the east. The GXQ code was used for the calculation. The value calculated is 1.88 x 10-8 s/m 3.

Van Keuren, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-09

118

Complex network theory has been used to study complex systems. However, many real life systems involve multiple kinds of objects . They can't be described by simple graphs. In order to provide complete information of these systems, we extend the concept of evolving models of complex networks to hypernetworks. In this work, we firstly propose a non-uniform hypernetwork model with attractiveness, and obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the non-uniform hypernetwork. Furthermore, we develop a model for weighted hypernetworks that couples the establishment of new hyperedges and nodes and the weights' dynamical evolution. We obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution by using the hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork model with attractiveness. In particular, the model yields a nontrivial time evolution of nodes' properties and scale-free behavior for the hyperdegree distribution. It is expected that our work may give help to the study of the hypernetworks in real-world syste...

Zhu, Xin-Yun

2014-01-01

119

Plants of Pinus taeda L. from each of four families were fertilized with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N?+?P at planting. The H family had the highest growth in dry mass while the L family had the lowest growth. Measurements of plant hydraulic architecture traits were performed during the first year after planting. Stomatal conductance (gs), water potential at predawn (?predawn) and at midday (?midday), branch hydraulic conductivity (ks and kl) and shoot hydraulic conductance (K) were measured. One year after planting, dry weight partitioning of all aboveground organs was performed. Phosphorus fertilization increased growth in all four families, while N fertilization had a negative effect on growth. L family plants were more negatively affected than H family plants. This negative effect was not due to limitations in N or P uptake because plants from all the families and treatments had the same N and P concentration in the needles. Phosphorus fertilization changed some hydraulic parameters, but those changes did not affect growth. However, the negative effect of N can be explained by changes in hydraulic traits. L family plants had a high leaf dry weight per branch, which was increased by N fertilization. This change occurred together with a decrease in shoot conductance. Therefore, the reduction in gs was not enough to avoid the drop in ?midday. Consequently, stomatal closure and the deficient water status of the needles resulted in a reduction in growth. In H family plants, the increase in the number of needles per branch due to N fertilization was counteracted by a reduction in gs and also by a reduction in tracheid lumen size and length. Because of these two changes, ?midday did not drop and water availability in the needles was adequate for sustained growth. In conclusion, fertilization affects the hydraulic architecture of plants, and different families develop different strategies. Some of the hydraulic changes can explain the negative effect of N fertilization on growth. PMID:23355634

Faustino, Laura I; Bulfe, Nardia M L; Pinazo, Martín A; Monteoliva, Silvia E; Graciano, Corina

2013-03-01

120

The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

Schoeller, Dale A

2014-07-01

121

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

Francis, Richard L.

1992-01-01

122

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

123

Kriging without negative weights

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

124

Control Chart Tests Based on Geometric Moving Averages

A geometrical moving average gives the most recent observation the greatest weight, and all previous observations weights decreasing in geometric progression from the most recent back to the first. A graphical procedure for generating geometric moving averages is described in which the most recent observation is assigned a weight r. The properties of control chart tests based on geometric moving

S. W. Roberts

1959-01-01

125

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-11

126

We investigate the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on weighted Newman-Watts (NW) networks. In weighted NW networks, the link weight wij is assigned to the link between the nodes i and j as: wij = (kappai · kappaj)beta, where kappai(kappaj) is the degree of node i(j) and beta represents the strength of the correlations. Obviously, the link weight can be

Wen-Bo Du; Xian-Bin Cao; Lin Zhao; Hong Zhou

2009-01-01

127

Aggregation operators for linguistic weighted information

The aim of this paper is to model the processes of the aggregation of weighted information in a linguistic framework. Three aggregation operators of weighted linguistic information are presented: linguistic weighted disjunction operator, linguistic weighted conjunction operator, and linguistic weighted averaging operator. A study of their axiomatics is presented to demonstrate their rational aggregation

Francisco Herrera; Enrique Herrera-Viedma

1997-01-01

128

... weight... Read full story >> Healthy Weight Loss share Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your ... your own skin share The ABC's of Positive Body Image Feeling comfortable in your own skin can be ...

129

... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

130

Threaded average temperature thermocouple

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

131

He suggests starting with Python and Java, because they are easy to learn. The ... This is not just a theoretical question. ... does it, you can expect to do as well as the average big company—that is, to grow ..... And not in the trivial sense that.

2001-04-12

132

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2005-04-21

134

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... = Weighted-average MACT model point value for pigmented gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MPG = Mass of pigmented gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. PVCG = Weighted-average MACT model point...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... = Weighted-average MACT model point value for pigmented gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MPG = Mass of pigmented gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. PVCG = Weighted-average MACT model point...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... = Weighted-average MACT model point value for pigmented gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MPG = Mass of pigmented gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. PVCG = Weighted-average MACT model point...

2012-07-01

137

The causal meaning of Fisher's average effect

Summary In order to formulate the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, Fisher defined the average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Finding these notions to be somewhat opaque, some authors have recommended reformulating Fisher’s ideas in terms of covariance and regression, which are classical concepts of statistics. We argue that Fisher intended his two averages to express a distinction between correlation and causation. On this view, the average effect is a specific weighted average of the actual phenotypic changes that result from physically changing the allelic states of homologous genes. We show that the statistical and causal conceptions of the average effect, perceived as inconsistent by Falconer, can be reconciled if certain relationships between the genotype frequencies and non-additive residuals are conserved. There are certain theory-internal considerations favouring Fisher’s original formulation in terms of causality; for example, the frequency-weighted mean of the average effects equaling zero at each locus becomes a derivable consequence rather than an arbitrary constraint. More broadly, Fisher’s distinction between correlation and causation is of critical importance to gene-trait mapping studies and the foundations of evolutionary biology. PMID:23938113

LEE, JAMES J.; CHOW, CARSON C.

2013-01-01

138

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

1973-01-01

139

Combining remotely sensed and other measurements for hydrologic areal averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for combining measurements of hydrologic variables of various sampling geometries and measurement accuracies to produce an estimated mean areal value over a watershed and a measure of the accuracy of the mean areal value. The method provides a means to integrate measurements from conventional hydrological networks and remote sensing. The resulting areal averages can be used to enhance a wide variety of hydrological applications including basin modeling. The correlation area method assigns weights to each available measurement (point, line, or areal) based on the area of the basin most accurately represented by the measurement. The statistical characteristics of the accuracy of the various measurement technologies and of the random fields of the hydrologic variables used in the study (water equivalent of the snow cover and soil moisture) required to implement the method are discussed.

Johnson, E. R.; Peck, E. L.; Keefer, T. N.

1982-01-01

140

Covariant approximation averaging

We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

Eigo Shintani; Rudy Arthur; Thomas Blum; Taku Izubuchi; Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner

2014-02-02

141

Covariant approximation averaging

We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

2014-01-01

142

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard tomographic analyses ignore model uncertainty. It is assumed that a given model generated the data and the task is to estimate the quantum state, or a subset of parameters within that model. Here we apply a model averaging technique to mitigate the risk of overconfident estimates of model parameters in two examples: (1) selecting the rank of the state in tomography and (2) selecting the model for the fidelity decay curve in randomized benchmarking.

Ferrie, Christopher

2014-09-01

143

The extraction of charm mixing and CP violation parameters requires the combination of many measurements. The latest averages are reviewed and the contribution of individual measurements is discussed. While it is established that the CP-even eigenstate is the shorter lived, the oscillation frequency of charm mesons is still not known to high accuracy. All CP asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero within less than 3 sigma.

Gersabeck, Marco

2014-01-01

144

We present an empirical investigation of 14 real world networks, which can be described by bipartite graphs. We show that the basic elements (the actor nodes) in all the networks cooperate and compete in some acts (activities, organizations, or events). Each node is assigned by a 'node weight', which denotes the obtained competition result. We are interested in the distribution

Chun-Hua Fu; Xiu-Lian Xu; Ai-Fen Liu; Yong-Ping Wu; Dan Shen; Shui-Jing Liu; Xia Qian; Ya-Chao Feng; Cheng-Liang Wei; Da-Ren He

2008-01-01

145

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11

146

Temperature averaging thermal probe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (inventors)

1985-01-01

147

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

148

... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add ...

149

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

Ustino, Eugene A.

2006-01-01

150

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in the learning style preferences of gifted, average-ability, and special needs students. One hundred seventy-two elementary school students from two large school jurisdictions from a large urban area in Western Canada were administered the Dunn, Dunn, & Price (1985) Learning Style Inventory (LSI). A multivariate analysis of variance

Michael C. Pyryt; Lauran H. Sandals; John Begoray

1998-01-01

151

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the effects of land-surface heterogeneity and the interactions between the land-surface and the planetary boundary layer at different scales, we develop a multiscale data set. This data set, based on the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES97) observations, includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface observations obtained from a dense observation network covering a large region on the order of 100 km. We use this data set to drive three land-surface models (LSMs) to generate multi-scale (with three resolutions of 1, 5, and 10 kilometers) gridded surface heat flux maps for the CASES area. Upon validating these flux maps with measurements from surface station and aircraft, we utilize them to investigate several approaches for estimating the area-integrated surface heat flux for the CASES97 domain of 71x74 square kilometers, which is crucial for land surface model development/validation and area water and energy budget studies. This research is aimed at understanding the relative contribution of random turbulence versus organized mesoscale circulations to the area-integrated surface flux at the scale of 100 kilometers, and identifying the most important effective parameters for characterizing the subgrid-scale variability for large-scale atmosphere-hydrology models.

Chen, Fei; Yates, David; LeMone, Margaret

2001-01-01

152

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use a rule of thumb about the weight of babies to practice doubling and halving numbers. They complete an organized table and compare data using vertical and horizontal double bar graphs. The lesson includes a student activity sheet and extension ideas.

Cook, Marcy

2008-01-01

153

Lorcaserin for weight management.

Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m(2) or ?27 kg/m(2) with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

2013-01-01

154

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Reflected Solar Radiation)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

155

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

156

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles

Ensembles used for probabilistic weather forecasting often exhibit a spread-error correlation, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper proposes a statistical method for postprocessing ensembles based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which is a standard method for combining predictive distributions from different sources. The BMA predictive probability density function (PDF) of any quantity of interest is a weighted average

Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting; Fadoua Balabdaoui; Michael Polakowski

2005-01-01

157

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we have proposed a new type of filter which has the most desirable properties of an image smoothing filter. These properties are (1) Robust smoothing efficiency. (2) Edge preservation. and (3) Thin-line detail preservation. The new filter is related to Hodges-Lehman D filter, which is the median of averages of symmetrically placed order statistics. Though it has robust smoothing efficiency, D filter cannot preserve edges or thin-line details. It is shown in this paper that by incorporating a subsampling scheme derived in this paper with the robust D filtering process, the edges as well as the thin-line details can be preserved. The new filter computes its output as the median of weighted averages, instead of plain averages of symmetrically placed order statistics. One particular weighting scheme is considered in details for experiments. The experimental and comparison results are included verifying the useful properties of the proposed filter. To carry out the comparison experiments some new measures for edge and detail preservation are also proposed in the paper.

Wu, Wen-Rong; Kundu, Amlan

1990-07-01

158

The weight loss profile: a biopsychosocial approach to weight loss.

Obesity is a common complicating condition in a variety of medical problems. Often effective consultation liaison involves recommendations to overweight patients involving lifestyle and health risk modification. Factors that need to be addressed include exercise, nutritional counseling/caloric restriction, and attitude and behavioral change regarding eating. Patients requiring weight loss typically seek various commercial programs that are readily accessible. One major problem associated with such programs is the high attrition rate within the first six weeks of initiation. Therefore, attempts to facilitate longer-term retention and associated weight loss are warranted. One approach is the identification of factors associated with problems in short-term retention and weight loss followed by the implementation of brief interventions to potentially reverse the influence of these factors on retention and weight loss. The present investigation was conducted to determine the effects of such a strategy on short-term retention and weight loss in a commercial weight loss program. Two groups (n = 66 per group) of female participants with a mean age of thirty-eight years, mean initial weight of 184.6 lbs, mean height of 64.3 inches, mean goal weight of 147.3 lbs, mean Body Mass Index of 31.4 kg/m2 were recruited for the study. Groups were matched for age, initial weight, height, goal weight, and body mass index. One group (controls) received a standard thirteen-week group cognitive-behavioral intervention that emphasized the teaching of self-management strategies for weight reduction. The second group (personalized intervention) received the same thirteen-week cognitive-behavioral intervention. This group also completed a questionnaire (Weight Loss Profile) that identifies factors associated with poor retention and minimal weight loss. Targeted interventions were implemented to modify specific problem areas identified on the Weight Loss Profile. The problem areas were based upon previous research which identified predictors of retention and weight loss. The problem areas included job stress, social comfort, self-consciousness regarding weight and eating behaviors, concern with physical appearance, Type A behavior pattern, social support, motivation, and expectation of success. Both groups also received 1,000 calorie/day prepackaged foods, instruction in mild exercise, and nutritional counseling. Weekly weights and attendance were recorded across the thirteen consecutive week period. The group receiving the personalized intervention lost significantly more weight than the control group (30 lbs vs. 11 lbs, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2807739

Feuerstein, M; Papciak, A; Shapiro, S; Tannenbaum, S

1989-01-01

159

Ultrahigh molecular weight aromatic siloxane polymers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The condensation of a diol with a silane in toluene yields a silphenylene-siloxane polymer. The reaction of stiochiometric amounts of the diol and silane produced products with molecular weights in the range 2.0 - 6.0 x 10 to the 5th power. The molecular weight of the product was greatly increased by a multistep technique. The methodology for synthesis of high molecular weight polymers using a two step procedure was refined. Polymers with weight average molecular weights in excess of 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power produced by this method. Two more reactive silanes, bis(pyrrolidinyl)dimethylsilane and bis(gamma butyrolactam)dimethylsilane, are compared with the dimethyleminodimethylsilane in ability to advance the molecular weight of the prepolymer. The polymers produced are characterized by intrinsic viscosity in tetrahydrofuran. Weight and number average molecular weights and polydispersity are determined by gel permeation chromatography.

Ludwick, L. M.

1982-01-01

160

II. Statistical comparison of White Leghorn, Degalb 101 inbred hybrids, and Hyline 934 inbred hybrids, for body weight, egg weight, egg production, and feed efficiency . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 12 III . Correlation coefficients between... total feed con- sumption and various hereditary oharaoteristioa in which the three breeding groups differ RIQURXS 1. Average body weights by 4 week periods 2. Average egg weights by 4-week periods 3. Average egg produotioa by 4-week periods Pounds...

McCracken, Don Frederick

2012-06-07

161

Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation probabilistic data The Brier Score (BS) and Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) were used. Finally comparison between BMA calibrated data and data from ensemble members will be displayed.

Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

162

Optimal averaging (OA) is used to compute the area-average seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) for a variety of areas from 1860 to 1989. The OA gives statistically improved averages and the objective assignment of confidence intervals to these averages. For the global average, the early part of the record (1860-1890) and the times of the two world wars have largest

Thomas M. Smith; C. F. Ropelewski; R. W. Reynolds

1994-01-01

163

Modular Approach to Physics: Average Speed versus Average Velocity

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an interactive demonstration of average speed and velocity. The user can move the object, while average speed and velocity is calculated and available through the Data panel. A full lesson plan is available through the Help menu. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-05-24

164

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

165

Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and several radiative forcing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Ultimately, the goal of the framework is to advise better methods for ensemble averaging models and create better climate predictions.

Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick

2014-05-01

166

Faculty and Staff Survey 2012 FHS Driver Averages -Faculty

: Workload 66.0% 65.9% 24. Work Area: Change Management 65.7% 59.4% 25. Work Area: Recognition Â Faculty 62WE SPEAK: Faculty and Staff Survey 2012 #12;FHS Driver Averages - Faculty Ranked Drivers Driver Averages Rest. Average 1. Job: Safety 84.1% 81.9% 2. Job: Clarity 83.3% 82.0% 3. Org: Faculty or Division

Lennard, William N.

167

Religion, weight perception, and weight control behavior

Religion's relationships with weight perception and weight control behavior were examined using data (3032 adults aged 25–74) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Religion was conceptualized as denomination, religious attendance\\/practice, religious social support, religious commitment, religious application, and religious identity. Weight perception was conceptualized as underestimating body weight, overestimating body weight, and accurately assessing body

Karen Hye-cheon Kim

2007-01-01

168

Weight Trimming and Propensity Score Weighting

Propensity score weighting is sensitive to model misspecification and outlying weights that can unduly influence results. The authors investigated whether trimming large weights downward can improve the performance of propensity score weighting and whether the benefits of trimming differ by propensity score estimation method. In a simulation study, the authors examined the performance of weight trimming following logistic regression, classification

Brian K. Lee; Justin Lessler; Elizabeth A. Stuart; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

2011-01-01

169

Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

T. Buchert

1995-12-15

170

Average Speed and Unit Conversion

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

2009-01-01

171

When good = better than average

People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These

Don A. Moore

2007-01-01

172

Pseudo-average block sensitivity equals average sensitivity S. Venkatesh

of indices i such that f(w) 6= f(w (i) ). De#12;nition 2 (Average sensitivity) The average sensitivity of f with respect to d, bs d;w (f), is the number of blocks S i such that f(w) 6= f(w (S i ) ). De#12;nition 4 For a binary string w 2 f0; 1g n , we denote by w (i) , the string obtained from w by ipping its ith bit

Srinivasan, Venkatesh

173

Analysis of the lifted weight including height and frequency factors for workers in Colombia.

Factors related to the height of the load and the frequency of handling have become a way to predict the acceptable standard weight lifted for workers whose main task is the manual lifting of materials and measuring the conditions is important to determine a maximum weight lifted. This study was conducted to twenty (20) workers between eighteen (18) and forty (40) years old with a minimum six months experience and belonging to the warehouse and packaging area of a dairy products company. Consideration was given to three different heights such as knuckle, shoulder and total height as well as frequencies of 2, 4 and 6 times per minute. Average values for lifted weight were 17.9306 ± 2.37 kg. The conclusions and recommendations included a review of legislation related to Colombian maximum acceptable weight of lifting due to the current law does not match the acceptable weight handled in this research. PMID:22316950

Saavedra-Robinson, Luisa; Quintana, Leonardo A J; Fortunato Leal, Luis Díaz; Nińo, María

2012-01-01

174

Weight structures, weight ltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for

Weight structures, weight #28;ltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for basic notion is the new de#28;nition of a weight structure for a triangulated C. We prove that a weight to cohomology zero". For Hw being the heart of the weight structure we de#28;ne a canonical conservative weakly

175

Puzzles and Paradoxes Involving Averages: An Intuitive Approach

\\u000a Questions involving (re)aggregating parts into wholes are fundamental to all branches of scientific inquiry Saari (2001).\\u000a After discussing two very general insights we derive from the aggregation literature, we look at how wholes may sometimes\\u000a be reconstructed from their parts when we weight the parts appropriately, and we show that the notion of weighted averages\\u000a can be used to make

Scott L. Feld; Bernard Grofman

176

5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...consumer expenditure weights from the tabulated results of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES). (2) Employment weights. The employment weight is the relative employment population of the survey area compared...

2012-01-01

177

5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consumer expenditure weights from the tabulated results of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES). (2) Employment weights. The employment weight is the relative employment population of the survey area compared...

2010-01-01

178

179

5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...consumer expenditure weights from the tabulated results of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES). (2) Employment weights. The employment weight is the relative employment population of the survey area compared...

2011-01-01

180

5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

181

In view of the limited success rates of all weight-loss strategies to date, this article hypothesises that in situations where previous dieting attempts have failed, better outcomes and health improvements will arise from advocating weight-stability goals. This means the promotion of weight maintenance (to ensure any reduction in weight is maintained) and weight constancy (where steps are taken to maintain existing weight without attempting weight loss), rather than advocating existing 5–10% weight-loss targets for these patients. The majority of approaches to obesity focus on weight reduction despite poor evidence of effectiveness. Primary care remains reluctant to engage in ineffective approaches, yet is well placed to give advice, and would undoubtedly adopt effective obesity-management approaches if they were developed. Despite guidance for overweight or obese people to aim for a 5–10% weight reduction, current trends demonstrate escalation of average weights and obesity. A literature review found little information about evaluation of weight-stability approaches (either weight maintenance or weight constancy), despite theoretical support for them. Yet taking steps to protect weight reduction where it is achieved, and to promote weight constancy (without weight loss) where further dieting is predicted to fail, would have a beneficial effect on preventing further growth of obesity-related morbidity in the population. Some evidence exists to support simple behavioural approaches to improve weight stability, but these measures do not feature in current advice and hence are not widely advocated. PMID:18307855

Pryke, Rachel; Docherty, Andrea

2008-01-01

182

Exponential Moving Average Stock Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A primary application of econophysics is using digital signal processing techniques to filter and predict market data, which is theorized to exhibit random walk motion. An exponential moving average is one tool that physicists use to smooth data from an input signal to identify its trends. The Exponential Moving Average Stock Model implements three types of exponential moving averages and allows the user to change the parameters of each. The model allows the user to view the results of exponential moving averages computed on the New York Stock Exchange daily closing price of six familiar companies. It demonstrates one way that traders use causal filters to smooth market data and forecast the next day's price.

Mohorn, Matthew

2013-02-14

183

Comparative effectiveness of accommodating and weight resistance training modes.

Six men and six women trained the elbow flexors of both arms 3 d.wk-1 for 20 wk. In each training session, one arm did 3-5 sets of 10 maximal concentric actions on an accommodating resistance device (ARD), the other arm 3-5 sets of 8-12 coupled eccentric/concentric actions (repetitions) to volitional failure (8-12 RM) on a weight resistance device (WRD). The average "intensity" (force of concentric actions) was approximately 1.25 times greater in ARD training, the average "volume" (number of actions x force of actions) 1.6 times greater in WRD training, and the time required to complete a training session the same for each. Both types of training produced significant increases in a single maximum weight lift (1 RM on the WRD), in the peak force of a single maximal concentric action measured on the ARD and an isovelocity dynamometer, and in biceps, brachialis, and total elbow flexor cross-sectional area (CSA). Biceps Type I and II fiber area did not change significantly. WRD training produced greater increases than ARD training in the 1 RM test on the WRD and in brachialis CSA. The data indicate that both of these common training regimens effectively increase strength and muscle mass, but the weight training regimen may be more effective for increasing muscle mass. PMID:7476067

O'Hagan, F T; Sale, D G; MacDougall, J D; Garner, S H

1995-08-01

184

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

185

Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

Glenn, Nicole M

2013-03-01

186

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PVCG = Weighted-average MACT model point value for clear gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MCG = Mass of clear gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. PVTR = Weighted-average MACT model point value...

2010-07-01

187

. The thickness of the small and large intestine estimated by the weight (g)/length(m) ratio was largest in the M group. #12;In the TS and C groups the starch content in the small intestine, caecum and large intestine content in the S group was accompanied by a reduced pH mainly in the caecum and in the large intestine

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

188

Weight structures, weight oltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for

Weight structures, weight oltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for and func- tors. Our basic notion is the new deonition of a weight structure for a triangulated C_. We prove that a weight structure deones Postnikov towers of objects of C_; these towers

189

Weighting responses in true-false examinations

Using as a criterion the average of seven half-semester marks in social science subjects, weights are computed for correct and incorrect responses and for omissions. The incorrect responses are weighted slightly more heavily (.55 as compared to .50) on the negative side than are the correct responses on the positive side. Since the difference is small, the chance theory of

E. H. Staffelbach

1930-01-01

190

Evaluations of average level spacings

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01

191

Weight-based stigmatization in children

OBJECTIVE: To examine sex differences in children's weight-based stigmatization.DESIGN: School-based sample of children evaluating qualities of children of varying weights.SUBJECTS: Thirty-four children (age, 7–9 y; body mass index (BMI) 12.1–31.2 kg\\/m2).MEASURES: Drawings of children that varied by sex (boy, girl) and weight (thin, average, chubby) were presented to children. Parents provided written consent and demographic data.RESULTS: Children evaluated drawings of

KA Kraig; PK Keel

2001-01-01

192

Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniel

2014-01-01

193

New publication Climatological averages for

New publication Climatological averages for 1981-2010 and 2001-2010 for stations appearing in the monthly bulletin of the Climatological Observers Link ISBN 978-0-9569485-0-2 Available 1 September detach and return form below with payment. Please make cheques payable to `Climatological Observers Link

194

New applications for high average power beams

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

1993-08-01

195

Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain

Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted weight gain recommendations. PMID:18926129

Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

2008-01-01

196

Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132

Samra, Nashwa M.; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

2013-01-01

197

Different weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: postpartum weight and birth weight

Objective: To identify the effect of different gestational weight gains among women of normal weight before pregnancy on babies’ birth weights, and women’s weights 18–24 months postpartum.Methods: Two groups of women of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index [BMI] 19.6–25.4 kg\\/m2) took part in the study (n = 200). They gained either moderate weight (9–15 kg) or high weight

Inga Thorsdottir; Bryndis E Birgisdottir

1998-01-01

198

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

2013-03-01

199

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between the transactions, and the weighted association rule mining does not work on databases with only binary attributes

Bai, Fengshan

200

Averaging of quantum dynamical semigroups

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the elliptic regularization method, the Cauchy problem for the Schrödinger equation with discontinuous degenerating coefficients is associated with a sequence of regularized Cauchy problems and the corresponding regularized dynamical semigroups. We study a divergent sequence of quantum dynamical semigroups as a random process with values in the space of quantum states defined on a measurable space of regularization parameters with a finitely additive measure. The mathematical expectation of the considered processes determined by the Pettis integral defines a family of averaged dynamical transformations. We investigate the semigroup property and the injectivity and surjectivity of the averaged transformations. We establish the possibility of defining the process by its mathematical expectation at two different instants and propose a procedure for approximating an unknown initial state by solutions of a finite set of variational problems on compact sets.

Sakbaev, V. Zh.

2010-09-01

201

Informed Test Component Weighting.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

Rudner, Lawrence M.

2001-01-01

202

76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...prior to a change in the assumed average weight per person standard that will become...

2011-05-19

203

Placental Morphometry Determines the Birth Weight

Background: Placental morphometry determines the foetal development and adulthood disease pattern. Hence, in the present study the influence of placental weight, volume, surface area, and thickness were studied in different groups of birth weight by sex of the newborn. Material and Methods: Present study was conducted on 164 consecutive singleton deliveries from a teaching hospital of Northern Karnataka, India. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed by maximum likelihood method after checking the linearity. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of regression models were computed to exhibit their utility for physicians. Results: Gestational age exhibited positive relationship with birth weight. Placental parameters showed a positive and significant relationship (p<0.001) with birth weight and higher values in males. The birth weight was estimated by regression models using sex of the newborn and placental morphometry; weight (R2=0.474), surface area (R2=0.420), and volume (R2=0.477) at 95% confidence interval. Low birth weight babies in the study were correctly identified by placental weight, surface area, volume and sex of the newborn. Their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values have been specified. Conclusion: Placental morphometry: weight, surface area, volume and sex of the baby determined the birth weight efficiently to initiate the corrective measures for planning better maternal care and to pacify mothers and their relatives. PMID:24392363

Balihallimath, Rupa L; Shirol, Veereshkumar S; Gan, Anita M; Tyagi, Naresh Kumar; Bandankar, Manisha R

2013-01-01

204

42 CFR 417.590 - Computation of the average of the per capita rates of payment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Computation of the average of the per capita rates of...590 Computation of the average of the per capita rates of...capita rate of payment for each class of the HMO's or CMP's...under § 417.592, weighted averages of those per capita...

2010-10-01

205

Molecular relaxation study of polystyrene: influence of temperature, draw rate and molecular weight

Molecular relaxation study of polystyrene: influence of temperature, draw rate and molecular weight different polystyrene samples, four monodisperse of weight-average molecular weight ranging from 210 000 relaxation time (t1), which is of the order of seconds, is independent of average molecular weight (Mw

Pezolet, Michel

206

... and drink Other ways to maintian a healthy weight? Limit portion size to control calorie intake. Add ... Go4Life Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall health and well-being. ...

207

... provider about how you might achieve a healthier body weight. Obesity and overweight have been shown to increase ... Contact CDC-INFO Healthy Weight Introduction Assessing Your Weight BMI - Body Mass Index Adult BMI Calculator Metric Version Adult - ...

208

Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Behrend, Juliane, E-mail: I.Brown@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: Juliane.Behrend@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2009-04-15

209

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: John makes DVDs of his friendâs shows. He has realized that, because of his fixed costs, his average cost per DVD depends on the number of DVDs he prod...

210

Kid's Choice Program improves weight management behaviors and weight status in school children

The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three “Good Health

Helen M. Hendy; Keith E. Williams; Thomas S. Camise

2011-01-01

211

Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-12-01

212

average-linkage clustering example 1 average-linkage clustering example 1

average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage clustering example 1 #12;average-linkage

Perkins, Theodore J.

213

Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss

Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity. PMID:24533218

Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

2013-01-01

214

Flexible time domain averaging technique

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

215

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

216

Surface tensions (gamma) of normal alkanes and methyl methacrylate (MMA) oligomers at various molecular weights in the low molecular weight range were computed using a newly proposed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation strategy which was developed based on the definition of gamma = ( partial differential U/ partial differential sigma)n,V,S. The MD simulations, even with the use of a generic force field, reproduced the experimentally observed molecular weight dependence of gamma (i.e., gamma proportional Mn(-2/3), where Mn is the number-average molecular weight) for both series of oligomers. Analysis of the data reveals that solvent accessible surface area, one of the key input variables used for the calculation of gamma, exhibits an Mn(2/3) (rather than Mn(1)) dependence. The reason for such dependence is that solvent accessible surface area formed by the chainlike small molecules depends, to a larger extent, on their orientations rather than their size. However, this is not the case for high molecular weight molecules as solvent accessible surface area of such surfaces are determined by the orientations of their segments which are determined by the conformations of the molecules. This may explain why surface tension of polymers experimentally exhibits an Mn(-1) dependence. It is inferred that the corresponding molecular weight dependence of the entropy changes associated with molecules in the low and high molecular weight ranges would be different. PMID:16570996

Li, Chunli; Choi, Phillip

2006-04-01

217

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Producing timely and accurate water forecast and information is the mission of National Weather Service River Forecast Centers (NWS RFCs) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The river forecast system in RFCs requires average surface temperature in the fixed 6-hour period 000-0600, 0600-1200, 1200-1800, and 1200-0000 UTC. The current logic of RFC temperature forecast relies on ingest of point values of daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperature. Meanwhile, the mean temperature for the 6-hour period is estimated from a weighted average of daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperature. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in the first high spectral resolution infrared sounder on board the Aqua satellite which was launched in May 2002 and follows a Sun-synchronous polar orbit. It is aimed to produce high resolution atmospheric profile and surface atmospheric parameters. As Aqua crosses the equator at about 1330 and 0130 local time, the AIRS retrieved surface temperature may represent daytime maximum and nighttime minimum value. Comparing to point observation from surface weather stations which are often sparse over the less-populated area and are unevenly distributed, satellite may obtain better area averaged observation. This test study assesses the potential of using AIRS retrieved surface temperature to forecast 6-hour average temperature for NWS RFCs. The California Nevada RFC is selected due to the poor coverage of surface observation in the mountainous region and spring snow melting. The study focuses on the March to May spring season when water from snowpack melting often plays important role in flood. AIRS retrieved temperature and surface weather station data set will be used to derive statistical weighting coefficient for 6-hour average temperature forecast. The resulting forecast biases and errors will be the main indicators of the potential usage. All study results will be presented in the meeting.

Ding, F.; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Esfandiari, A. E.

2012-12-01

218

Approximation techniques for average completion time scheduling

We consider the problem of nonpreemptive scheduling to minimize average (weighted) completion time, allowing for release dates, parallel machines, and precedence constraints. Recent work has led to constant-factor approximations for this problem, based on solving a preemptive or linear programming relaxation and then using the solution to get an ordering on the jobs. We introduce several new techniques which generalize this basic paradigm. We use these ideas to obtain improved approximation algorithms for one-machine scheduling to minimize average completion time with release dates. In the process, we obtain an optimal randomized on-line algorithm for the same problem that beats a lower bound for deterministic on-line algorithms. We consider extensions to the case of parallel machine scheduling, and for this we introduce two new ideas: first, we show that a preemptive one-machine relaxation is a powerful tool for designing parallel machine scheduling algorithms that simultaneously produce good approximations and have small running times; second, we show that a non-greedy {open_quotes}rounding{close_quotes} of the relaxation yields better approximations than a greedy one. We also prove a general theorem relating the value of one-machine relaxations to that of the schedules obtained for the original m-machine problems. This theorem applies even when there are precedence constraints on the jobs. We apply this result to precedence graphs such as in-trees, out-trees, and series- parallel graphs; these are of particular interest in compiler applications that partly motivated our work.

Chekuri, C.; Motwani, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Natarajan, B. [Hewlett Packard Labs., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Stein, C. [Dartmouth College, Hannover, NH (United States)

1997-06-01

219

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

220

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

221

Overweight, obesity, and weight change among incarcerated women.

Excessive weight gain among inmates is frequently observed by correctional health care providers; however, there is little published research on weight change during incarceration. This study describes the weight and weight changes among women incarcerated in a unified correctional system (prison and jail). The women were interviewed and had their height and weight measured. At baseline, 33.0% were of normal weight, 34.9% were overweight, and 32.1% were obese. Participants were reweighed after a median of 14 days; the women had gained an average of 1.1 lbs/week (SD: 2.1 lbs, range: -3.3 to +9.2 lbs) with 71% of women gaining weight. Women incarcerated for 2 weeks or less at time of study enrollment experienced higher average weight weekly gains than those incarcerated longer than 2 weeks (1.7 lbs vs. 0.8 lbs). PMID:22899812

Clarke, Jennifer G; Waring, Molly E

2012-10-01

222

During 1976-81 we weighed several thousands of wild Mallard, Gadwall, and Blue-winged Teal in central North Dakota to examine duckling growth patterns, adult weights, and the factors influencing them. One-day-old Mallard and Gadwall averaged 32.4 and 30.4 g, respectively, a reduction of 34% and 29% from fresh egg weights. In all three species, the logistic growth curve provided a good fit for duckling growth patterns. Except for the asymptote, there was no difference in growth curves between males and females of a species. Mallard and Gadwall ducklings were heavier in years when wetland area was extensive or had increased from the previous year. Weights of after-second-year females were greater than yearlings for Mallard but not for Gadwall or Blue-winged Teal. Adult Mallard females lost weight continuously from late March to early July. Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal females, which nest later than Mallard, gained weight after spring arrival, lost weight from the onset of nesting until early July, and then regained some weight. Females of all species captured on nests were lighter than those captured off nests at the same time. Male Mallard weights decreased from spring arrival until late May. Male Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal weights increased after spring arrival, then declined until early June. Males of all three species then gained weight until the end of June. Among adults, female Gadwall and male Mallard and Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years when wetland area had increased from the previous year; female Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years with more wetland area.

Lokemoen, J.T.; Johnson, D.H.; Sharp, D.E.

1990-01-01

223

Skeleton of weighted social network

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

2013-03-01

224

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change hy gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was related to increased alcohol consumption (P=0.014) in men and

Christina D. Economos; M. Lise Hildebrandt; Raymond R. Hyatt

225

In contrast to a still common belief, a steadily flowing hourglass changes its weight in the course of time. We will show that, nevertheless, it is possible to construct hourglasses that do not change their weight.

Volker Becker; Thorsten Poeschel

2007-01-31

226

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family Issues Obesity in Children Parenting Weight Control Transcript Overweight parents wanting to ... weight control program among 96 overweight or obese children between the ages of 2 and 5. For ...

227

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

2007-06-01

228

A model-averaging method for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty.

This study evaluates alternative groundwater models with different recharge and geologic components at the northern Yucca Flat area of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS), USA. Recharge over the DVRFS has been estimated using five methods, and five geological interpretations are available at the northern Yucca Flat area. Combining the recharge and geological components together with additional modeling components that represent other hydrogeological conditions yields a total of 25 groundwater flow models. As all the models are plausible given available data and information, evaluating model uncertainty becomes inevitable. On the other hand, hydraulic parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) are uncertain in each model, giving rise to parametric uncertainty. Propagation of the uncertainty in the models and model parameters through groundwater modeling causes predictive uncertainty in model predictions (e.g., hydraulic head and flow). Parametric uncertainty within each model is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation, and model uncertainty is evaluated using the model averaging method. Two model-averaging techniques (on the basis of information criteria and GLUE) are discussed. This study shows that contribution of model uncertainty to predictive uncertainty is significantly larger than that of parametric uncertainty. For the recharge and geological components, uncertainty in the geological interpretations has more significant effect on model predictions than uncertainty in the recharge estimates. In addition, weighted residuals vary more for the different geological models than for different recharge models. Most of the calibrated observations are not important for discriminating between the alternative models, because their weighted residuals vary only slightly from one model to another. PMID:19788638

Ye, Ming; Pohlmann, Karl F; Chapman, Jenny B; Pohll, Greg M; Reeves, Donald M

2010-01-01

229

Demonstration of a Model Averaging Capability in FRAMES

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in model structure can be incorporated in risk assessment using multiple alternative models and model averaging. To facilitate application of this approach to regulatory applications based on risk or dose assessment, a model averaging capability was integrated with the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) version 2 software. FRAMES is a software platform that allows the non-parochial communication between disparate models, databases, and other frameworks. Users have the ability to implement and select environmental models for specific risk assessment and management problems. Standards are implemented so that models produce information that is readable by other downstream models and accept information from upstream models. Models can be linked across multiple media and from source terms to quantitative risk/dose estimates. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools are integrated. A model averaging module was implemented to accept output from multiple models and produce average results. These results can be deterministic quantities or probability distributions obtained from an analysis of parameter uncertainty. Output from alternative models is averaged using weights determined from user input and/or model calibration results. A model calibration module based on the PEST code was implemented to provide FRAMES with a general calibration capability. An application illustrates the implementation, user interfaces, execution, and results of the FRAMES model averaging capabilities.

Meyer, P. D.; Castleton, K. J.

2009-12-01

230

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

2013-06-17

231

Process for the treatment and packaging of low or average activity radio-active waste

The present invention relates to a preferably continuous process for the treatment of low and average activity radio-active waste, comprising a pretreatment of said waste, a precipitation of radio -active compounds so as to form a stable suspension which may be superconcentrated, wherein from 0.6 to 2 parts by weight of cement for one part by weight of suspension, from

R. Pierlas; J. Taponier

1981-01-01

232

Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss

Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success. PMID:25089189

Gardner, C D

2012-01-01

233

The percentage saleable meat yield was determined for 42 carcasses from grass-fed steers representing a range of breed types purchased in Australia for the Japanese market. Their mean (s.d.) carcass weight and P8 fat depth were 329 (28.1) kg and 17.3 (4.3) mm, respectively.All measures of subcutaneous fat depth were significantly (P < 0.05) and moderately correlated with percentage saleable

D. L. Hopkins; A. H. K. Roberts

1995-01-01

234

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program for physician-delivered nutrition counseling, alone and in combination with an office-support pro- gram, on dietary fat intake, weight, and blood low- density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with hy- perlipidemia. Participants and Methods: Forty-five primary care internists at the Fallon Community Health Plan, a cen- tral Massachusetts health maintenance organization, were

Ira S. Ockene; James R. Hebert; Judith K. Ockene; Gordon M. Saperia; Ed Stanek; Robert Nicolosi; Philip A. Merriam; Thomas G. Hurley

235

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program for physician-delivered nutrition counseling, alone and in combination with an office-support program, on dietary fat intake, weight, and blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipidemia.\\u000aPARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Forty-five primary care internists at the Fallon Community Health Plan, a central Massachusetts health maintenance organization, were randomized by site into

Ira S. Ockene; James R. Hebert; Judith K. Ockene; Gordon M. Saperia; Stanek Edward J. III; Robert Nicolosi; Philip A. Merriam; Thomas G. Hurley

1999-01-01

236

EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF SEX ON BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREWEANING GAIN IN BEEF CATTLE

UMEROUS published reports indicate that the average weights of bulls and heifers differ at all ages, even when raised under similar environmental conditions. Adjustment of weights for these differences is often desired for statistical analysis or for comparisons of means. Two methods of adjustment have usually been used. One method is to add or subtract the average difference in weight

ROBERT M. KOCH; K. E. GREGORY; J. E. INGALLS; R. L. ARTHAUD

2010-01-01

237

A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887

Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

2014-05-01

238

A weighted and directed interareal connectivity matrix for macaque cerebral cortex.

Retrograde tracer injections in 29 of the 91 areas of the macaque cerebral cortex revealed 1,615 interareal pathways, a third of which have not previously been reported. A weight index (extrinsic fraction of labeled neurons [FLNe]) was determined for each area-to-area pathway. Newly found projections were weaker on average compared with the known projections; nevertheless, the 2 sets of pathways had extensively overlapping weight distributions. Repeat injections across individuals revealed modest FLNe variability given the range of FLNe values (standard deviation <1 log unit, range 5 log units). The connectivity profile for each area conformed to a lognormal distribution, where a majority of projections are moderate or weak in strength. In the G29 × 29 interareal subgraph, two-thirds of the connections that can exist do exist. Analysis of the smallest set of areas that collects links from all 91 nodes of the G29 × 91 subgraph (dominating set analysis) confirms the dense (66%) structure of the cortical matrix. The G29 × 29 subgraph suggests an unexpectedly high incidence of unidirectional links. The directed and weighted G29 × 91 connectivity matrix for the macaque will be valuable for comparison with connectivity analyses in other species, including humans. It will also inform future modeling studies that explore the regularities of cortical networks. PMID:23010748

Markov, N T; Ercsey-Ravasz, M M; Ribeiro Gomes, A R; Lamy, C; Magrou, L; Vezoli, J; Misery, P; Falchier, A; Quilodran, R; Gariel, M A; Sallet, J; Gamanut, R; Huissoud, C; Clavagnier, S; Giroud, P; Sappey-Marinier, D; Barone, P; Dehay, C; Toroczkai, Z; Knoblauch, K; Van Essen, D C; Kennedy, H

2014-01-01

239

Distributions and averages of electron density parameters: Explaining the effects of gradient-weighted averages of these variables, rs and s , from which local spin density LSD and generalized gradient, change of crystal structure, etc. are used to explain why GGA corrects LSD in the way it does

Burke, Kieron

240

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

241

Clinical and genetic predictors of weight gain in patients diagnosed with breast cancer

Background: Post-diagnosis weight gain in breast cancer patients has been associated with increased cancer recurrence and mortality. Our study was designed to identify risk factors for this weight gain and create a predictive model to identify a high-risk population for targeted interventions. Methods: Chart review was conducted on 459 breast cancer patients from Northwestern Robert H. Lurie Cancer Centre to obtain weights and body mass indices (BMIs) over an 18-month period from diagnosis. We also recorded tumour characteristics, demographics, clinical factors, and treatment regimens. Blood samples were genotyped for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and adiponectin pathway genes (ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1). Results: In all, 56% of patients had >0.5?kg?m–2 increase in BMI from diagnosis to 18 months, with average BMI and weight gain of 1.9?kg?m–2 and 5.1?kg, respectively. Our best predictive model was a primarily SNP-based model incorporating all 14 FTO and adiponectin pathway SNPs studied, their epistatic interactions, and age and BMI at diagnosis, with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 for 18-month weight gain. Conclusion: We created a powerful risk prediction model that can identify breast cancer patients at high risk for weight gain. PMID:23922112

Reddy, S M; Sadim, M; Li, J; Yi, N; Agarwal, S; Mantzoros, C S; Kaklamani, V G

2013-01-01

242

Average Vaporisation Rate in Turbulent Subcritical Two-Phase Flow

This work considers alternative expressions for turbulent evaporation rate used in the framework of an entirely Eulerian model based on a transport equation for the average liquid surface area. Commonly employed expressions for vaporisation rate derived from Spalding-Godsave theory fail to account for vaporisation enhancement induced by turbulence; moreover, they do not describe experimentally observed fact that the pressure affects

M. S. Sidhu; A. A. Burluka

2008-01-01

243

OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the data used to produce estimates of the proportion of infants with low birth weight in developing countries and to describe biases in these data. To assess the effect of adjustment procedures on the estimates and propose a modified estimation procedure for international reporting purposes. METHODS: Mothers' reports about their recent births in 62 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 1990 and 2000 were analysed. The proportion of infants weighed at birth, characteristics of those weighed, extent of misreporting, and mothers' subjective assessments of their children's size at birth were examined. FINDINGS: In many developing countries the majority of infants were not weighed at birth. Those who were weighed were more likely to have mothers who live in urban areas and are educated, and to be born in a medical facility with assistance from medically trained personnel. Birth weights reported by mothers are "heaped" on multiples of 500 grams. CONCLUSION: Current survey-based estimates of the prevalence of low birth weight are biased substantially downwards. Two adjustments to reported data are recommended: a weighting procedure that combines reported birth weights with mothers' assessment of the child's size at birth, and categorization of one-quarter of the infants reported to have a birth weight of exactly 2500 grams as having low birth weight. Averaged over all surveys, these procedures increased the proportion classified as having low birth weight by 25%. We also recommend that the proportion of infants not weighed at birth be routinely reported. Efforts are needed to increase the weighing of newborns and the recording of their weights. PMID:15798841

Blanc, Ann K.; Wardlaw, Tessa

2005-01-01

244

RECONSTRUCTION OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE USING COMPUTER AVERAGING

The axial projection of the glutamine synthetase molecule has been reconstructed from electron micrographs of a stained preparation by using a new method of correlation search and averaging. The average over 50 individual molecules appears as a radial pattern with sixfold symmetry. The handedness evident in the average is attributed to nonuniformity of the negative stain. PMID:32653

Frank, J.; Goldfarb, W.; Eisenberg, D.; Baker, T.S.

2014-01-01

245

Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

2012-01-01

246

Average Annual Pay by State and Industry, 1997

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Average annual pay levels by industry varied widely across the nation according to this BLS release for 1997, with high average incomes of $49,995 recorded in mining areas and a low average pay of $15,877 recorded in retail trade, an industry largely populated by part-time workers. Regionally, The District of Columbia held the greatest annual pay level at $46,775 in 1997, while South and North Dakota, Montana, Mississippi, and Arkansas retained low annual salaries of $21,645, $22,047, $21,947, $22,772, and $23,268 respectively. Additional comparisons of annual incomes by state and industry for 1996 and 1997 are available at this Average Annual Pay by State and Industry page with four detailed statistical tables.

247

Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

248

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory activity worksheet engages students in an exploration of mass and weight. Students use a balance to measure the mass and a spring scale to measure the weight of a series of objects. They then analyze the data to determine the relationship between these two quantities and conceptualize the distinction between the mass and weight through questions regarding measurements on the moon and other planets.

Nelson, Jane; Nelson, Jim

2011-06-14

249

Relationship between smoking, weight and attitudes to weight in adolescent schoolgirls

A total of 1,932 schoolgirls aged 11-18 from seven schools in the South London area were surveyed using questionnaires which addressed eating patterns, body weight history, attitudes to body weight and shape, menstrual history and current smoking behaviour. They were also weighed and their height was measured. Twelve per cent of the girls were regular smokers and 10% smoked seven

C. Halek; S. Kerry; H. Humphrey; A. H. Crisp; J. M. Hughes

1993-01-01

250

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

Manura, David

2002-10-18

251

Overt weight stigma, psychological distress and weight loss treatment outcomes.

Weight stigma is pervasive and is associated with psychosocial distress. Little research has examined the association between weight stigma and weight loss treatment outcomes. The current investigation examined overt weight stigma, depression, binge eating, and weight loss treatment outcomes in a sample of 55 overweight and obese adults. Overt weight stigma was significantly associated with greater depression and binge eating and poorer weight loss treatment outcomes in a 14-week behavioral weight loss program, suggesting that overt weight stigma may be detrimental to overweight and obese individuals' ability to lose weight and engage in behaviors consistent with weight loss. PMID:20460417

Wott, Carissa B; Carels, Robert A

2010-05-01

252

The averaging of apparent relative dielectric permittivities by time domain reflectometry (TDK) is examined for properties varying along TDK waveguides and in the plane perpendicular to a TDR probe. A square root averaging model with uniform weighting factors describes the measured apparent relative dielectric permittivity for axially varying materials; variations in the transverse plane are described by an inverse averaging

P. A. Ferré; D. L. Rudolph; R. G. Kachanoski

1996-01-01

253

In the before researches, most researchers often address on the classifying problem how to get higher accuracy and more efficiency. Then they have proposed some algorithms for this intention [W.S. Yerazunis, 2004; L. Androutsopoulos et al., 2000; G.L. Webb et al., 2005]. Mostly, these algorithms need very strong resource to calculate the predicted probability of each class label and to

Bei Hui; Yue Wu

2008-01-01

254

12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...investments. 702.105 Section 702.105 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION...CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105...

2010-01-01

255

Robust HLLC Riemann solver with weighted average flux scheme for strong shock

Many researchers have reported failures of the approximate Riemann solvers in the presence of strong shock. This is believed to be due to perturbation transfer in the transverse direction of shock waves. We propose a simple and clear method to prevent such problems for the Harten–Lax–van Leer contact (HLLC) scheme. By defining a sensing function in the transverse direction of

Sung Don Kim; Bok Jik Lee; Hyoung Jin Lee; In-Seuck Jeung

2009-01-01

256

Robust HLLC Riemann solver with weighted average flux scheme for strong shock

Many researchers have reported failures of the approximate Riemann solvers in the presence of strong shock. This is believed to be due to perturbation transfer in the transverse direction of shock waves. We propose a simple and clear method to prevent such problems for the Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) scheme. By defining a sensing function in the transverse direction of

Sung Don Kim; Bok Jik Lee; Hyoung Jin Lee; In-Seuck Jeung

2009-01-01

257

A Gradient Based Weighted Averaging Method for Estimation of Fingerprint Orientation Fields

different impact on estimation of the dominant orientation fields. Our preliminary experiment results the traits in a fingerprint image and presenting them in quantitative forms. It may also include identifying

Hu, Jiankun

258

Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ?12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that heterogeneity of variances in ADG is prevalent in feedlot performance and indicate potential sources of heteroskedasticity. Further investigation of factors associated with heteroskedasticity in feedlot performance is warranted to increase consistency and uniformity in commercial beef cattle production and subsequent profitability. PMID:23482583

Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

2013-06-01

259

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...methodology will apply to preliminary determinations issued after April 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rachael Nimmo, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone:...

2012-02-14

260

Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

Sun, Ye; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke

2014-01-01

261

Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01

262

A method for obtaining the maximum entropy OWA operator weights with uncertain orness measure

The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators have a wide range of applications in the field of decision science. The corresponding weights of the OWA operators can be obtained by a variety of methods, and the method of obtain the maximal entropy OWA (MEOWA) operator weights is one of them. In this paper, we discuss how to solve the weight vectors

Zhou Rongxi; Xu Jianrong

2008-01-01

263

Importance Ratings and Weighting: Old Concerns and New Perspectives

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes key concepts, reviews empirical findings, and discusses important issues related to the use of subjective importance ratings and importance weighting. The review of empirical findings focuses on weighting achieved via the multiplicative model and on 3 areas in which weighting is commonly used: quality of life, self-esteem,…

Russell, Lara B.; Hubley, Anita M.

2005-01-01

264

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

2007-01-01

265

Birth Weight Statistical Models

and birth defect rates are very high for low birth weight babies. A woman's behavior during pregnancy of carrying the baby to term and, consequently, of delivering a baby of normal weight. The goal of this study) dummy or design variables for a polytomous variable with k categories. Each dummy variable equals 1

266

Weight discrimination and bullying.

Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

2013-04-01

267

Time-averaged order parameter restraints in molecular dynamics simulations.

A method is described that allows experimental [Formula: see text] order parameters to be enforced as a time-averaged quantity in molecular dynamics simulations. The two parameters that characterize time-averaged restraining, the memory relaxation time and the weight of the restraining potential energy term in the potential energy function used in the simulation, are systematically investigated based on two model systems, a vector with one end restrained in space and a pentapeptide. For the latter it is shown that the backbone N-H order parameter of individual residues can be enforced such that the spatial fluctuations of quantities depending on atomic coordinates are not significantly perturbed. The applicability to realistic systems is illustrated for the B3 domain of protein G in aqueous solution. PMID:25312596

Hansen, Niels; Heller, Fabian; Schmid, Nathan; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

2014-11-01

268

Practical applications of averages and differences of Friedel opposites.

The practical use of the average and difference intensities of Friedel opposites at different stages of structure analysis has been investigated. It is shown how these values may be properly and practically used at the stage of space-group determination. At the stage of least-squares refinement, it is shown that increasing the weight of the difference intensities does not improve their fit to the model. The correct form of the coefficients for a difference electron-density calculation is given. In the process of structure validation, it is further shown that plots of the observed and model difference intensities provide an objective method to evaluate the fit of the data to the model and to reveal insufficiencies in the intensity measurements. As a further tool for the validation of structure determinations, the use of the Patterson functions of the average and difference intensities has been investigated and their clear advantage demonstrated. PMID:21173470

Flack, H D; Sadki, M; Thompson, A L; Watkin, D J

2011-01-01

269

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

270

Spatially averaged turbulent stress and its partitioning

Double averaging of the fundamental flow equations is an attractive methodology for investigating spatially heterogeneous\\u000a flows. The resulting double-averaged equations can be used as a framework for development of turbulence models. In order to\\u000a fully explore the potential of such models the stress terms that appear in the momentum equation as a result of each averaging\\u000a step needs to be

Dubravka Pokrajac; Ian McEwan; Vladimir Nikora

2008-01-01

271

Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

Mathias, Lon J.

1983-01-01

272

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

Stroud, P.

1994-02-01

273

Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

1990-01-01

274

Polyline averaging using distance surfaces: A spatial hurricane climatology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Gulf states are frequently hit by hurricanes, causing widespread damage resulting in economic loss and occasional human fatalities. Current hurricane climatologies and predictive models frequently omit information on the spatial characteristics of hurricane movement—their linear tracks. We investigate the construction of a spatial hurricane climatology that condenses linear tracks to one-dimensional polylines. With the aid of distance surfaces, an average hurricane track is calculated by summing polylines as part of a grid-based algorithm. We demonstrate the procedure on a particularly vulnerable coastline around the city of Galveston in Texas, where the tracks of the closest storms to Galveston are also weighted by an inverse distance function. Track averaging is also applied as a means of interpolating possible paths of historical storms where records are sporadic observations, and sometimes anecdotal. We offer the average track as a convenient regional summary of expected hurricane movement. The average track, together with other hurricane attributes, also provides a means to assess the expected local vulnerability of property and environmental damage.

Scheitlin, Kelsey N.; Mesev, Victor; Elsner, James B.

2013-03-01

275

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminiferal shell weight can be impacted by environmental factors both during initial shell formation and as the result of post mortem preservation. An improved understanding of what determines this relationship can lead to both an understanding of foraminiferal calcite production in modern oceans and proxy development for past environmental conditions. Significantly, foraminiferal shell weight has been linked to carbonate ion concentration in both laboratory culture (of both planktic and benthic species) and in the modern and fossil record (in planktic foraminifera). This study explores the relationship between shell weight and changes in oxygenation and carbonate saturation in fossil benthic foraminifera from a high-resolution sedimentary record (MV0811-15JC; 34°36.930' N, 119°12.920' W; 418m water depth; 16.1-3.4 ka; sedimentation rate 44-100 cm kyr-1) from Santa Barbara Basin, CA (SBB). Ongoing work in SBB has described rapid biotic reorganization through the recent deglaciation in response to changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations, which are used here to create a semi quantitative oxygenation history for site MV0811-15JC. In modern Oxygen Minimum Zones, decreases in oxygen closely covary with increases in Total Carbon (with a corresponding decrease in the carbonate saturation state). We interpret that records from SBB of the average size-normalized test weight of Uvigerinid and Bolivinid foraminifera show that shell weight responds to these changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Multiple metrics of 'size normalization' including by length, geometric estimation of surface area and volume, and tracing of individual silhouettes are tested. Regardless of method utilized, the size normalized shell weight of all species fluctuates with abrupt changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Although all species respond to large-scale environmental changes, the weight records of Bolivinids and Uvigerinids reveal distinct differences, indicating that processes governing shell weight may vary across taxonomic groups.

Davis, C. V.; Hill, T. M.; Moffitt, S. E.

2013-12-01

276

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01

277

Background. Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain. Methods. Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention. Results. Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p < .05) associated with weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline. Conclusions. For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is associated with sustained improvement in the cardiometabolic profile. PMID:23183902

Beavers, Daniel P.

2013-01-01

278

A re-averaged WENO reconstruction and a third order CWENO scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A WENO re-averaging (or re-mapping) technique is developed that converts function averages on one grid to another grid to high order. Nonlinear weighting gives the essentially non-oscillatory property to the re-averaged function values. The new reconstruction grid is used to obtain a standard high order WENO reconstruction of the function averages at a select point. By choosing the reconstruction grid to include the point of interest, a high order function value can be reconstructed using only positive linear weights. The re-averaging technique is applied to define two variants of a classic CWENO3 scheme that combines two linear polynomials to obtain formal third order accuracy. Such a scheme cannot otherwise be defined, due to the nonexistence of linear weights for third order reconstruction at the center of a grid element. The new scheme uses a compact stencil of three solution averages, and only positive linear weights are used. The scheme extends easily to problems in higher space dimensions, essentially as a tensor product of the one-dimensional scheme. The scheme maintains formal third order accuracy in higher dimensions. Numerical results show that this CWENO3 scheme is third order accurate for smooth problems and gives good results for non-smooth problems, including those with shocks.

Huang, Chieh-Sen; Arbogast, Todd; Hung, Chen-Hui

2014-04-01

279

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

280

Temperature averages and rates of stratospheric reactions

Use of zonal average temperatures is common in numerical modeling of stratospheric chemistry. In most cases, this approach is accurate. The exceptions are when a heterogeneous reaction or a thermal process which is highly non-linear in temperature is involved. The differences between use of an average temperature and more realistic temperature are presented for cases where temperature fluctuations are of

D. M. Murphy; A. R. Ravishankara

1994-01-01

281

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018: Marks, Mignon. Staff Forecast of Average Retail Electricity Prices: 2005 to 2018. California Energy DRAFTSTAFFREPORT JUNE 2007 CEC-200-2007-013-SD Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor #12;CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

282

EVOLUTION OF ADIABATIC INVARIANTS IN STOCHASTIC AVERAGING.

EVOLUTION OF ADIABATIC INVARIANTS IN STOCHASTIC AVERAGING. DMITRY DOLGOPYAT. Abstract. An averaging problem with Markov fast motion is considered. The diffusive limit is obtained for the evolution of adi of this phenomenon).) In this case terms neglected in (2) can dramatically alter long time dynamics. Hence one has

Dolgopyat, Dmitry

283

Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1–3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

2006-01-01

284

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10

285

Biologically weighted personal UV dosimetry.

People are exposed to natural or artificial UV radiation in different ways; unintentionally or intentionally, at their workplace on their spare time. To quantify the amount of individual UV exposure, a personal dosimetry is necessary. In research, polysulphone film (PSF) dosimeters are the most frequently used personal UV dosimeters. We use calculated weighting factors in the measurement processing of polysulphone film dosimeters. The special weighting factor transforms the dosimeter reading from an equivalent UV dose to the biologically effective UV dose. The factor depends on the investigated problem (action spectrum of the photobiological effect and spectral distribution of the incident UV source), the calibration of PSF was carried out once by a monochromatic radiation (gamma = 295 nm). The equivalent dose readings are available from this calibration curve for any investigated question. A presented result of this method is the seasonal measurement of erythemally effective UV exposure by ambient solar radiation, and the individual exposure level in a "normal" person concerning UV exposure and also in groups with the risk of a lack of sunshine. Further applications are occupational measurements of the risk of health damage by UV radiation (with respect to the limit of the maximum permissible 8 h-exposure according to IRPA/INIRC-guidelines). We controlled the extent of UV exposure in workers in the area of arc welding workplaces. The biological weighting of PSF readings simplifies a routine use of PSF in personal UV monitoring to investigators without the expending special measurement technology (e.g. spectroradiometer). PMID:8988614

Knuschke, P; Barth, J

1996-10-01

286

A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

Englberger, L.

1999-01-01

287

... The doctor will consider all factors including your age and other possible infertility factors and then make a recommendation about whether you should try to lose weight before you try to get pregnant. Changing your ...

288

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Body Weight Obesity in Children Transcript Offering fresh insight into the childhood obesity ... new research suggests that almost 1/3 of children between 8 and 15 do not have an ...

289

... and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard ... health. Now women of childbearing age have another motivation for watching their weight: studies show that prepregnancy ...

290

Weight Varieties Allen Knutson

(resp. a high weight) of T V â?? the irreducible representation of G with high weight â?? \\Lambda k the high is that for each Weyl group element Ă? 2 W, any lift ~ Ă? 2 G is semisimple. (Proof: ~ Ă? jĂ?j 2 T.) Another is that lifts ~ Ă? of Coxeter elements (products of all the simple reflections) are regular [19]. 4 #12; Contents

Knutson, Allen

291

What is the Required Energy Deficit per unit Weight Loss?

One of the most pervasive weight loss rules is that a cumulative energy deficit of 3500 kcal is required per pound of body weight loss, or equivalently 32.2 MJ per kg. Under what conditions is it appropriate to use this rule of thumb and what are the factors that determine the cumulative energy deficit required per unit weight loss? Here, I examine this question using a modification of the classic Forbes equation that predicts the composition of weight loss as a function of the initial body fat and magnitude of weight loss. The resulting model predicts that a larger cumulative energy deficit is required per unit weight loss for people with greater initial body fat - a prediction supported by published weight loss data from obese and lean subjects. This may also explain why men can lose more weight than women for a given energy deficit since women typically have more body fat than men of similar body weight. Furthermore, additional weight loss is predicted to be associated with a lower average cumulative energy deficit since a greater proportion of the weight loss is predicted to result from loss of lean body mass which has a relatively low energy density in comparison with body fat. The rule of thumb approximately matches the predicted energy density of lost weight in obese subjects with an initial body fat above 30 kg but overestimates the cumulative energy deficit required per unit weight loss for people with lower initial body fat. PMID:17848938

Hall, Kevin D.

2008-01-01

292

Genetic Relationship between Birth Weight and Adult Weight in Holsteins

Records of body weight for 1026 Holstein females from two herds included birth weight and all available subsequent calving weights for the first six parities. Birth weight differed between herds and between sires within herds. Years also differed; however, partial nesting of sires within years could account for part of this. Month of birth had no influence on birth weight.

R. C. Lamb; B. O. Barker

1975-01-01

293

Representation of object weight in human ventral visual cortex.

Skilled manipulation requires the ability to predict the weights of viewed objects based on learned associations linking object weight to object visual appearance. However, the neural mechanisms involved in extracting weight information from viewed object properties are unknown. Given that ventral visual pathway areas represent a wide variety of object features, one intriguing but as yet untested possibility is that these areas also represent object weight, a nonvisual motor-relevant object property. Here, using event-related fMRI and pattern classification techniques, we tested the novel hypothesis that object-sensitive regions in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), in addition to traditional motor-related brain areas, represent object weight when preparing to lift that object. In two studies, the same participants prepared and then executed lifting actions with objects of varying weight. In the first study, we show that when lifting visually identical objects, where predicted weight is based solely on sensorimotor memory, weight is represented in object-sensitive OTC. In the second study, we show that when object weight is associated with a particular surface texture, that texture-sensitive OTC areas also come to represent object weight. Notably, these texture-sensitive areas failed to carry information about weight in the first study, when object surface properties did not specify weight. Our results indicate that the integration of visual and motor-relevant object information occurs at the level of single OTC areas and provide evidence that the ventral visual pathway is actively and flexibly engaged in processing object weight, an object property critical for action planning and control. PMID:25065755

Gallivan, Jason P; Cant, Jonathan S; Goodale, Melvyn A; Flanagan, J Randall

2014-08-18

294

Light propagation in the averaged universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J.

2014-10-01

295

Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

2008-01-01

296

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

297

Average-passage flow model development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

1989-01-01

298

Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways of dealing with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. In the first one, the correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example, the leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show the non-triviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

Kašpar, P.; Svítek, O.

2014-05-01

299

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been widely used to estimate concentration of chemicals in groundwater systems. However, estimation uncertainty is rarely discussed in the literature. Uncertainty in ANN output stems from three sources: ANN inputs, ANN parameters (weights and biases), and ANN structures. Uncertainty in ANN inputs may come from input data selection and/or input data error. ANN parameters are naturally uncertain because they are maximum-likelihood estimated. ANN structure is also uncertain because there is no unique ANN model given a specific case. Therefore, multiple plausible AI models are generally resulted for a study. One might ask why good models have to be ignored in favor of the best model in traditional estimation. What is the ANN estimation variance? How do the variances from different ANN models accumulate to the total estimation variance? To answer these questions we propose a Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging (HBMA) framework. Instead of choosing one ANN model (the best ANN model) for estimation, HBMA averages outputs of all plausible ANN models. The model weights are based on the evidence of data. Therefore, the HBMA avoids overconfidence on the single best ANN model. In addition, HBMA is able to analyze uncertainty propagation through aggregation of ANN models in a hierarchy framework. This method is applied for estimation of fluoride concentration in the Poldasht plain and the Bazargan plain in Iran. Unusually high fluoride concentration in the Poldasht and Bazargan plains has caused negative effects on the public health. Management of this anomaly requires estimation of fluoride concentration distribution in the area. The results show that the HBMA provides a knowledge-decision-based framework that facilitates analyzing and quantifying ANN estimation uncertainties from different sources. In addition HBMA allows comparative evaluation of the realizations for each source of uncertainty by segregating the uncertainty sources in a hierarchical framework. Fluoride concentration estimation using the HBMA method shows better agreement to the observation data in the test step because they are not based on a single model with a non-dominate weights.

Fijani, E.; Chitsazan, N.; Nadiri, A.; Tsai, F. T.; Asghari Moghaddam, A.

2012-12-01

300

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

301

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

Page, Don N

2014-01-01

302

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

Don N. Page

2014-06-02

303

Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

2009-03-09

304

Bimetal sensor averages temperature of nonuniform profile

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument that measures an average temperature across a nonuniform temperature profile under steady-state conditions has been developed. The principle of operation is an application of the expansion of a solid material caused by a change in temperature.

Dittrich, R. T.

1968-01-01

305

Compositional averaging of backscatter intensities in compounds.

We present high-precision measurements of pure element stable isotope pairs that demonstrate mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds was pragmatically based on elemental mass fractions. Our isotopic measurements establish that this approximation has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based on the number of electrons or protons, termed "electron fraction," which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. We also present an improved backscatter (electron loss) factor based on a modified electron fraction average for the ZAF atomic number correction that provides a significant analytical improvement, especially where large atomic number corrections are required. PMID:12807672

Donovan, John J; Pingitore, Nicholas E; Westphal, Andrew

2003-06-01

306

Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

Page, Don N.

2014-11-01

307

Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

308

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2013-07-01

309

310

Coherent average technique--a tutorial review.

This paper highlights the effects of digitization in relation to the effective numberical range over which the signal to be averaged has to be resolved. The effect of quantization noise on the number of averaging cycles is assessed and it is shown that for averaging weak signals such as the HIS bundle electrogram, high resolution analogue-to-digital (A/D) conversion is required so as to prevent a substantial increase in the number of averaging cycles. Also the requirement for adequate low-pass filtering is discussed and relationships between the numerical range of the A/D conversion process, the order of the low-pass filter, its cut-off frequency and sampling frequency are formulated. PMID:1890821

Goovaerts, H G; Rompelman, O

1991-07-01

311

Popular weight reduction diets.

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

312

\\u000a We present methods for extracting an average representation of respiratory dynamics from free-breathing lung MR images. Due\\u000a to individual variations in respiration and the difficulties of real-time pulmonary imaging, time of image acquisition bears\\u000a little physiologic meaning. Thus, we reparameterize each individual’s expiratory image sequence with respect to normalized\\u000a lung capacity (area, as a substitute for volume), where 1 represents

Tessa A. Sundaram; Brian B. Avants; James C. Gee

2004-01-01

313

Average transmission probability of a random stack

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31

314

Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.

The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

Fernando, K Vince

2008-10-01

315

Applications of high average power nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

1996-02-05

316

PERIODICITY OF AVERAGED HISTORIES OF CHAOTIC OSCILLATORS

This study is dedicated to demonstrate the periodicities embedded in the averaged responses of chaotic systems with periodic excitations. Recent studies in the field of non-linear oscillations often found random-like responses for some deterministic non-linear systems with periodic excitations, which were then named “chaotic systems”. However, in this study, by discretizing the initial conditions on a chosen domain and averaging

C.-P. CHAO; Y. Kang; S.-S. Shyr; C.-C. Chou; M.-H. CHU

2001-01-01

317

Averaged coordination numbers of planar aperiodic tilings

We consider averaged shelling and coordination numbers of aperiodic tilings. Shelling numbers count the vertices on radial shells around a vertex. Coordination numbers, in turn, count the vertices on coordination shells of a vertex, defined via the graph distance given by the tiling. For the Ammann-Beenker tiling, we find that coordination shells consist of complete shelling orbits, which enables us to calculate averaged coordination numbers for rather large distances explicitly. The relation to topological invariants of tilings is briefly discussed.

Michael Baake; Uwe Grimm

2005-09-18

318

Ensemble Weight Enumerators for Protograph LDPC Codes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently LDPC codes with projected graph, or protograph structures have been proposed. In this paper, finite length ensemble weight enumerators for LDPC codes with protograph structures are obtained. Asymptotic results are derived as the block size goes to infinity. In particular we are interested in obtaining ensemble average weight enumerators for protograph LDPC codes which have minimum distance that grows linearly with block size. As with irregular ensembles, linear minimum distance property is sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. In this paper the derived results on ensemble weight enumerators show that linear minimum distance condition on degree distribution of unstructured irregular LDPC codes is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for protograph LDPC codes.

Divsalar, Dariush

2006-01-01

319

Time-averaging water quality assessment

While reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act is pending, many water utilities are preparing to monitor and regulate levels of distribution system constituents that affect water quality. Most frequently, utilities are concerned about average concentrations rather than about tracing a particular constituent`s path. Mathematical and computer models, which provide a quick estimate of average concentrations, could play an important role in this effort. Most water quality models deal primarily with isolated events, such as tracing a particular constituent through a distribution system. This article proposes a simple, time-averaging model that obtains average, maximum, and minimum constituent concentrations and ages throughout the network. It also computes percentage flow contribution and percentage constituent concentration. The model is illustrated using two water distribution systems, and results are compared with those obtained using a dynamic water quality model. Both models predict average water quality parameters with no significant deviations; the time-averaging approach is a simple and efficient alternative to the dynamic model.

Reddy, L.S.; Ormsbee, L.E.; Wood, D.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-07-01

320

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

321

Generalized constructive tree weights

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

322

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

2014-11-01

323

Light weight phosphate cements

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

324

... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

325

In this paper, we present a new weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method for sparse fuzzy rule-based systems. The proposed method uses weighted increment transformation and weighted ratio transformation techniques to handle weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning in sparse fuzzy rule-based systems. It allows each variable that appears in the antecedent parts of fuzzy rules to associate with a weight between zero

Shyi-Ming Chen; Yaun-Kai Ko; Yu-Chuan Chang; Jeng-Shyang Pan

2009-01-01

326

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

327

Reagents, Compositions, Weight Loss

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short experimental study of what happens to aluminum hydroxide, silicic acid, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate (or reagents of instructors choice) when they are heated to 110 and 1200 degrees. Students determine the formula and calculate the mole percent and weight percent of each element and oxide in each reagent. They heat the samples and calculate percentage weight loss or gain. Finally, they write a lab report summarizing their results. Be sure to have students save their samples for later use in a lab that introduces X-ray diffraction.

Perkins, Dexter

328

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

Battles, Carol

2009-11-19

329

. The latter result was attained through a simulated run test [26] . In practice, a control system is either applied to a well-established process, or to a new one. In both cases, the weighting factor determination possesses a problem. The first situation.... The latter result was attained through a simulated run test [26] . In practice, a control system is either applied to a well-established process, or to a new one. In both cases, the weighting factor determination possesses a problem. The first situation...

Al-Radhi, Adhi Omar

2012-06-07

330

Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ?40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ?2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2) agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents. PMID:21437152

Curtis, Bradley; Hayes, Risa P; Fehnel, Sheri; Zografos, Laurie

2008-01-01

331

Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

2012-01-01

332

Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

Kostov, Valentin

2010-04-01

333

Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus it is more directly applicable to our observations. Unlike previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, an includes all possible non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Sweese-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass- compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein - de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. For voids aligned in a certain direction, there is a cumulative gravitational lensing correction to the distance modulus that increases with redshift. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on the density contrast of the voids, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. Despite the well known argument for photon flux conservation, the average distance modulus correction at low redshifts is not zero due to the peculiar velocities. A formula for the maximum possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (1) have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls, (2) are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The actual average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximum. That is traced to cancelations between the corrections coming from the fronts and backs of different voids at the same redshift from the observer. The calculated correction at low redshifts allows one to readily predict the redshift at which the averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram is below a required precision and suggests a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

Kostov, Valentin Angelov

334

Weighting by Inverse Variance or by Sample Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the statistical procedures in meta-analysis are based on the estimation of average effect sizes from a set of primary studies. The optimal weight for averaging a set of independent effect sizes is the inverse variance of each effect size, but in practice these weights have to be estimated, being affected by sampling error. When assuming a…

Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

2010-01-01

335

Average lung volumes for K-12 students

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on height and weight charts, I have calculated the lung volumes for K-5 and high school students. Since the normal values used in spirometry are generally based on adult sizes, these data can be useful in comparing lung volumes in K-12 students to other normal healthy K-12 students.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2008-04-14

336

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

Cosi

2009-01-01

337

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragon, Raul J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

338

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

339

Basic net systems are proposed as an infinitary Petri net model which is sufficiently restrictive to allow essentially the same theory as finite nets, yet also powerful enough to describe the basic semantics of many concepts of concurrent programming languages. Weighted basic net systems are obtained if widths are assigned to the places and lengths are assigned to the transitions

Eike Best

1988-01-01

340

... able to return to your exact pre-pregnancy weight or shape. For many women, pregnancy causes changes in the body that stay. You may have a softer belly, wider hips, and a larger waistline. Make your goals about your new body realistic.

341

... middle school, but now that I'm in high school, the other guys have bulked up and I haven't. What can I do?" "All of my friends have broad shoulders and look like they lift weights. No matter what I do, I just ...

342

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will recognize that the mass of an object is a measure that is independent of gravity. If they can effectively complete the guided inquiry activity as well as the short writing summary to reinforce what they learned, they will gain a foundation for understanding the difference between mass and weight.

King, Lance

2011-07-26

343

Longitudinal study of body weight changes in children: who is gaining and who is losing weight.

Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight. PMID:20885393

Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W

2011-03-01

344

Ideal weight and weight satisfaction: association with health practices.

Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

Kuk, Jennifer L; Ardern, Chris I; Church, Timothy S; Hebert, James R; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

2009-08-15

345

Support weight enumerators and coset weight distributions of isodual codes

Support weight enumerators and coset weight distributions of isodual codes Olgica Milenkovic In this paper various methods for computing the support weight enumerators of binary, linear, even, isodual codes are described. It is shown that there exist relationships between support weight enumerators

Milenkovic, Olgica

346

Minimum Weight Euclidean Matching and Weighted Relative Neighborhood Graphs

Minimum Weight Euclidean Matching and Weighted Relative Neighborhood Graphs Andranik Mirzaian The Minimum Weight Euclidean Matching (MWEM) problem is: given 2n point sites in the plane with Euclidean, O((n2 +F) logn) time algorithm based on the Weighted Voronoi Diagram(WVD) of the sites, where F

Mirzaian, Andranik

347

High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

2001-05-23

348

Perceiving the average hue of color arrays

The average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g. to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g. perceptual vs. cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g. categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two colors shown alternated in spatial arrays. Observers adjusted the components until the average equaled a specified reference hue. Matches for red, blue-red, or yellow-green were consistent with the arithmetic mean chromaticity, while blue-green settings deviated toward blue. The settings show little evidence for categorical coding, and cannot be predicted from the scaled appearances of the individual components. PMID:24695184

Webster, Jacquelyn; Kay, Paul; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

349

Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

350

Books average previous decade of economic misery.

For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

351

Theoretical comparisons of average normalized gain calculations

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its introduction, the normalized gain or the g-factor has been widely used in assessing students' performance in pre- and post-tests. The average g-factor can be calculated using either the average scores of the class or individual student's scores. In general, these two calculations produce different results. The nature of these two results is explored for several idealized situations. The results suggest that we may be able to utilize the difference between the two results to extract information on how the population may have changed as a result of instruction

Bao, Lei

2009-04-13

352

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M.

2013-11-01

353

Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

2014-09-01

354

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01

355

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of sibling weight level perception and sibling weight on the accuracy of respondent weight level perception dependent on sibling-pair gender composition. Design: A cross-sectional study based on the survey data, which include the children of a nationally representative sample of Danes. Logit regression models were used. Subjects: Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight respondents comprising 397 female sibling pairs, 357 male sibling pairs and 730 opposite-sex sibling pairs. The inclusion of both same-sex siblings and opposite-sex siblings is novel for studies on weight perceptions. Measurements: Weight underestimation and weight overestimation were calculated on the basis of difference between actual weight level and self-perceived weight level. Respondent gender, sibling gender, sibling body mass index (BMI) and the siblings' self-perceived weight level were included as the main controls. Results: Women frequently overestimate their weight level, whereas men often underestimate theirs. Women are more likely to overestimate their weight if their sister does the same but less likely if their brother overestimates his weight. Likewise, women are more likely to underestimate their weight if their sister also underestimates her weight but less likely if their brother underestimates his weight. The higher the BMI of their brother and the lower the BMI of their sister, the more likely men are to underestimate their own weight level. Conclusion: Results underline the importance of social context when looking at body formation and weight perceptions. The weight and weight perceptions of siblings influence own weight perception. Gender is central to studies on weight-related issues, not only respondent gender - equally so the gender of interaction. PMID:24418829

Christensen, V T

2014-01-01

356

MINIMUM WEIGHT PATHS TIMEDEPENDENT NETWORKS

MINIMUM WEIGHT PATHS in TIMEÂDEPENDENT NETWORKS Ariel Orda Raphael Rom Department of Electrical) ABSTRACT We investigate the minimum weight path problem in networks whose link weights and link delays weight problem always has a solution. We also characterize the structure of an infinite optimal path

Orda, Ariel

357

Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2010-01-01

358

Dietary Changes for Weight Management

of the regular diet is to reduce body weight and fat and to maintain weight loss. The physician will prescribeE. Dietary Changes for Weight Management and Eating Disorders #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Calorie as they are related to: Â·Weight management by balancing calories by knowing foods to reduce and foods to increase

359

Biodegradation of high molecular weight polylactic acid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polylactid acid seems to be an appropriate replacement of conventional non-biodegradable synthetic polymer primarily due to comparable mechanical, thermal and processing properties in its high molecular weight form. Biodegradation of high molecular PLA was studied in compost for various forms differing in their specific surface area. The material proved its good biodegradability under composting conditions and all investigated forms showed to be acceptable for industrial composting. Despite expectations, no significant differences in resulting mineralizations were observed for fiber, film and powder sample forms with different specific surface areas. The clearly faster biodegradation was detected only for the thin coating on porous material with high specific surface area.

Stloukal, Petr; Koutny, Marek; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Kucharczyk, Pavel

2012-07-01

360

Genetic parameters for carcass cut weight in Irish beef cattle.

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the weights of different wholesale cuts, using an experimental and a commercial data set. The experimental and commercial data sets included 413 and 635 crossbred Belgian Blue, Charolais, Limousin, Angus, Holstein, and Simmental animals, respectively. Univariate analyses using a mixed linear animal model with relationships were undertaken to estimate the heritability of cold carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat, and the cut weights, whereas a series of bivariate analyses was used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fat, and the major primal cuts. Heritability estimates for cold carcass weight in both data sets were moderate (>0.48), whereas heritability estimates for carcass conformation and fat grading were greater in the commercial data set (>0.63) than in the experimental study (>0.33). Across both data sets, heritability estimates for wholesale cut weight in the forequarter varied from 0.03 to 0.79, whereas heritability estimates of carcass cut weight in the hindquarter varied from 0.14 to 0.86. Heritability estimates for cut weights expressed as a proportion of the entire carcass weight varied from 0.04 to 0.91. Genetic correlations were strong among the different carcass cut weights within the experimental and the commercial studies. Genetic correlations between the weights of selected carcass cuts and carcass weight were moderate to high (minimum 0.45; maximum 0.88) in both data sets. Positive genetic correlations were observed in the commercial data set between the different wholesale cut weights and carcass conformation, whereas these were positive and negative in the experimental data set. Selection for increased carcass weight will, on average, increase the weight of each cut. However, the genetic correlations were less than unity, suggesting a benefit of more direct selection on high value cuts. PMID:19717761

Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Näsholm, A; Cromie, A R; Drennan, M J; Keane, M G; Berry, D P

2009-12-01

361

Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

2010-01-01

362

Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

Sturrock, Alan

1997-01-01

363

INTRODUCTION To the average American, the image

shudder of revulsion. This unfor- tunate association of eels with snakes has deprived most Americans from of the world. Not only that, but the reptilian association of eels is completely erroneous. The American eelINTRODUCTION To the average American, the image of the common eel conjures up a picture of a snake

364

Average sunrise time predicts depression prevalence

Objective: Folk wisdom has it that early rising is associated with being “healthy, wealthy and wise.” A physiologic explanation may be Wiegand's “Depressiogenic Theory of Sleep,” which posits that excessive REM sleep causes depression. Sleeping late increases REM sleep, and thus may increase depression risk. Published depression prevalence research does not use arising time, but average sunrise time (AST) for

Henry Olders

2003-01-01

365

Average thermal characteristics of solar wind electrons

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Average solar wind electron properties based on a 1 year Vela 4 data sample-from May 1967 to May 1968 are presented. Frequency distributions of electron-to-ion temperature ratio, electron thermal anisotropy, and thermal energy flux are presented. The resulting evidence concerning heat transport in the solar wind is discussed.

Montgomery, M. D.

1972-01-01

366

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

367

AVERAGING PRINCIPLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH HYSTERESIS

this approximation holds is inverse propor- tional to the rate of change of slow variables. The system is described on the systems with the classical Preisach nonlinearity. Key words: Averaging technique, Hysteresis, Sweeping to Boole Centre for Research in Informatics and Department of Applied Mathematics, University College Cork

Schellekens, Michel P.

368

Averaged Probabilistic Relational Models Daniel Wright

Averaged Probabilistic Relational Models Daniel Wright June 3, 2002 Abstract Most real-world data is stored in relational form. In contrast, most statistical learning methods work with "flat" data information about the objects and relations, and present an approximation algorithm for reasoning about

Pratt, Vaughan

369

AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES

AVERAGE DENSITIES AND LINEAR RECTIFIABILITY OF MEASURES P. M Â¨ ORTERS Abstract: We show that a measure on IR d is linearly rectifiable if and only if the lower 1Âdensity is positive and finite regularity of the measure ÂŻ is intimately related to the behaviour of the densities. We say ÂŻ is ffÂrectifiable

370

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

371

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

372

Background There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. Objective The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants’ program use in relation to weight change. Method Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Results Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was ?6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and ?6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of ?3.0% and ?3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P < .01) as percentage weight change improved. Conclusions The weight loss achieved by 12- and 52-week subscribers of a commercial Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of the primary and sensitivity analysis results. While this suggests that, on average, clinically important weight loss may be achieved, further research is required to evaluate the efficacy of this commercial Web-based weight loss program prospectively using objective measures. The potential association between greater website use and increased weight loss also requires further evaluation, as strategies to improve participants’ use of Web-based program features may be required. PMID:21993231

Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

2011-01-01

373

Experimental The average size of the silver nanoparticles, prepared by the method of Kor-

Experimental The average size of the silver nanoparticles, prepared by the method of Kor- gel, with approximate molecular weight of 900 000, was then added to 0.5 mg of these silver nanocrystals in a vial, and radically improved photochemical reactors.[1Â±6] Colloidal self-assembly has been suggested as an efficient

Braun, Paul

374

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

375

Vaccination against weight gain

Obesity endangers the lives of millions of people worldwide, through comorbidities such as heart disease, cancers, type 2 diabetes, stroke, arthritis, and major depression. New approaches to control body weight remain a high priority. Vaccines traditionally have been used to protect against infectious diseases and, more recently, for unconventional targets such as drug addiction. Methodologies that could specifically modulate the bioavailability of an endogenous molecule that regulates energy balance might provide a new foundation for treating obesity. Here we show that active vaccination of mature rats with ghrelin immunoconjugates decreases feed efficiency, relative adiposity, and body weight gain in relation to the immune response elicited against ghrelin in its active, acylated form. Three active vaccines based on the 28-aa residue sequence of ghrelin, a gastric endocrine hormone, were used to immunize adult male Wistar rats (n = 17). Synthetic ghrelin analogs were prepared that spanned residues 1–10 [ghrelin (1–10) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr1], 13–28 [ghrelin (13–28) hapten, Ghr2], and 1–28 [ghrelin(1–28) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr3], and included n-butanoyl esters at Ser-3. Groups immunized with Ghr1 or Ghr3 showed greater and more selective plasma binding capacity for the active, Ser-3-(n-octanoyl) form of ghrelin as compared with Ghr2 or keyhole limpet hemocyanin vaccinated controls. Accordingly, they gained less body weight, with sparing of lean mass and preferential reduction of body fat, consistent with reduced circulating leptin levels. The ratio of brain/serum ghrelin levels was lower in rats with strong anti-ghrelin immune responses. Effects were not attributable to nonspecific inflammatory responses. Vaccination against the endogenous hormone ghrelin can slow weight gain in rats by decreasing feed efficiency. PMID:16891413

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Moss, Jason A.; Chang, Jason; Otsuji, Jonathan; Inoue, Koki; Meijler, Michael M.; Janda, Kim D.

2006-01-01

376

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the same method for measuring friction that was used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction), students design and conduct experiments to determine if weight added incrementally to objects affects the amount of friction encountered when they slide across flat surfaces. After graphing the data from their experiments, students calculate the coefficients of friction between the objects and the surfaces they moved upon, for both static and kinetic friction.

Engineering K-Phd Program

377

Increase in average testis size of Canadian beef bulls.

Selection for adequate testis size in beef bulls is an important part of bull breeding soundness evaluation. Scrotal circumference (SC) is highly correlated with paired testis weight and is a practical method for estimating testis weight in the live animal. Most bulls presented for sale in Canada have SC included in the presale information. Scrotal circumference varies by age and breed, and may change over time due to selection for larger testis size. Therefore, it is important to periodically review the mean SC of various cattle breeds to provide valid bull selection criteria. Scrotal circumference data were obtained from bulls sold in western Canada from 2008 to 2011 and in Quebec from 2006 to 2010. Average scrotal circumferences for the most common beef breeds in Canada have increased significantly in the last 25 years. Differences between breeds have remained unchanged and Simmental bulls still have the largest SC at 1 year of age. Data provided here could aid in the establishment of new suggested minimum SC measurements for beef bulls. PMID:24155433

García Guerra, Alvaro; Hendrick, Steve; Barth, Albert D

2013-05-01

378

Increase in average testis size of Canadian beef bulls

Selection for adequate testis size in beef bulls is an important part of bull breeding soundness evaluation. Scrotal circumference (SC) is highly correlated with paired testis weight and is a practical method for estimating testis weight in the live animal. Most bulls presented for sale in Canada have SC included in the presale information. Scrotal circumference varies by age and breed, and may change over time due to selection for larger testis size. Therefore, it is important to periodically review the mean SC of various cattle breeds to provide valid bull selection criteria. Scrotal circumference data were obtained from bulls sold in western Canada from 2008 to 2011 and in Quebec from 2006 to 2010. Average scrotal circumferences for the most common beef breeds in Canada have increased significantly in the last 25 years. Differences between breeds have remained unchanged and Simmental bulls still have the largest SC at 1 year of age. Data provided here could aid in the establishment of new suggested minimum SC measurements for beef bulls. PMID:24155433

Guerra, Álvaro García; Hendrick, Steve; Barth, Albert D.

2013-01-01

379

Weight control strategies of overweight adolescents who successfully lost weight.

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the differences in weight control behaviors, dietary intake, and physical activity between overweight adolescents who lost weight and overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. This cross-sectional study compared 62 overweight adolescents who lost weight in the past with 68 overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. Youth responded to questions regarding weight control behaviors during the past year, physical activity, sedentary activity, and dietary intake. Results showed that adolescents who lost weight were more likely to report using healthful weight control behaviors such as drinking less soda and increasing their exercise level, self-weighing, consuming diets higher in protein, and spending less time watching television compared to overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. Unhealthful weight control behaviors and specific weight loss plans were not associated with weight loss in these teenagers. Adolescents would benefit from hearing this information to prevent the development of these behaviors. Providers should advise adolescents to engage in healthful weight control behaviors, such as increasing physical activity and decreasing the amount of time spent watching television, to assist with weight management. PMID:19942020

Boutelle, Kerri N; Libbey, Heather; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

2009-12-01

380

A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here.

Kidner, Ronald

1999-06-02

381

A theoretical account of cue averaging in the rodent head direction system.

Head direction (HD) cell responses are thought to be derived from a combination of internal (or idiothetic) and external (or allothetic) sources of information. Recent work from the Jeffery laboratory shows that the relative influence of visual versus vestibular inputs upon the HD cell response depends on the disparity between these sources. In this paper, we present simulation results from a model designed to explain these observations. The model accurately replicates the Knight et al. data. We suggest that cue conflict resolution is critically dependent on plastic remapping of visual information onto the HD cell layer. This remap results in a shift in preferred directions of a subset of HD cells, which is then inherited by the rest of the cells during path integration. Thus, we demonstrate how, over a period of several minutes, a visual landmark may gain cue control. Furthermore, simulation results show that weaker visual landmarks fail to gain cue control as readily. We therefore suggest a second longer term plasticity in visual projections onto HD cell areas, through which landmarks with an inconsistent relationship to idiothetic information are made less salient, significantly hindering their ability to gain cue control. Our results provide a mechanism for reliability-weighted cue averaging that may pertain to other neural systems in addition to the HD system. PMID:24366143

Page, Hector J I; Walters, Daniel M; Knight, Rebecca; Piette, Caitlin E; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Stringer, Simon M

2014-02-01

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM), with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME) of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009) over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data. The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.

Soltanzadeh, I.; Azadi, M.; Vakili, G. A.

2011-07-01

383

Objectives The objective of this prospective, single-site, two-year dietary intervention study was to evaluate the effects of moderate weight reduction and subsequent partial weight regain on cardiovascular structure and function. Background Obesity is associated with adverse cardiac and vascular structural and functional alterations. Methods Sixty obese subjects (age: 46±10 years, body mass index: 37±3 kg/m2) were evaluated during their participation in a weight loss study. Cardiac and vascular ultrasound studies were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after start of intervention. Results Forty-seven subjects (78%) completed the entire two-year follow-up. Average weight loss was 7.3±4.0, 9.2±5.6, 7.8±6.6 and 3.8±7.9% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Age- and sex- adjusted mixed linear models revealed that the follow-up time was significantly associated with decreases in weight (p<0.0001), left ventricular (LV) mass (p=0.001), and carotid intima-media thickness (p<0.0001); there was also significant improvement in LV diastolic (E’, p?0.0001) and systolic (S’, p=.001) function. Partial weight regain diminished the maximal observed beneficial effects of weight loss, however cardiovascular parameters measured at two years still showed a net benefit compared with baseline. Conclusions Diet-induced moderate weight loss in obese subjects is associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular structure and function. Subsequent weight regain is associated with partial loss of these beneficial effects. PMID:20082927

de las Fuentes, Lisa; Waggoner, Alan D.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Stein, Richard I.; Miller, Bernard V.; Foster, Gary D.; Wyatt, Holly; Klein, Samuel; Davila-Roman, Victor G.

2010-01-01

384

Ordinary kriging for on-demand average wind interpolation of in-situ wind sensor data

spurious results when estimating average wind speed and direction with Volume Imaging Lidar (VIL1 Ordinary kriging for on-demand average wind interpolation of in-situ wind sensor data Zlatko comes from wind in-situ observation stations in an area approximately 200km by 125km. We provide on

Middleton, Stuart E.

385

A diagnostic study of time variations of regionally averaged background error covariances

In variational data assimilation systems, background error covariances are often estimated from a temporal and spatial average. For a limited area model such as the Aire Limited Adaptation Dynamique Developpment International (ALADIN)\\/France, the spatial average is calculated over the regional computation domain, which covers western Europe. The purpose of this study is to revise the temporal stationarity assumption by diagnosing

Maria Monteiro; Loďk Berre

2010-01-01

386

Watershed area and discharge relationships

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use USGS WaterData website to find data on area, average annual discharge and response to high-precip events in small watersheds in southern New England. Data for the class are compiled to generate graphs showing the regional relationships between (1) area and discharge, and (2) area and time-lag between precip and maximum discharge. terms: discharge, watershed, flood

Petsch, Steven

387

Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

Edeling, W. N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R. P.

2014-10-01

388

jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

Posada, David

2008-07-01

389

Average Thermal Evolution of the Universe

We sketch the average behaviour of the temperatures and densities of the main components of the $\\Lambda$CDM universe after inflation. It is modelled as a perfect fluid with dark energy associated with the macroscopic effect of conformal variations of the metric. The main events of the thermal evolution are studied, such as the effect of particle annihilations and decoupling, and the transitions between the eras dominated by different entities. Estimates of the average present epoch temperature of baryonic matter and dark matter composed of neutralinos are given. We study the eventual presence of a sterile neutrino component and find that the sterile neutrino density at the epoch of primordial nucleosynthesis is in agreement with expectations when their evolution starts, at the end of inflation, in temperature equilibrium with the rest of the universe.

Natacha Leite; Alex H. Blin

2014-04-07

390

Average entanglement for Markovian quantum trajectories

We study the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. We calculate the average of the concurrence of the qubits wave function over all quantum trajectories. For two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, this average decays exponentially with a rate depending on the measurement scheme only. This contrasts with the known disappearance of entanglement after a finite time for the density matrix in the absence of measurements. For two qubits coupled to a common bath, the mean concurrence can vanish at discrete times. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump or quantum state diffusion dynamics in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect entanglement in specific examples.

Vogelsberger, S. [Institut Fourier, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Spehner, D. [Institut Fourier, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

2010-11-15

391

Indirect CP violation results and HFAG averages

The current status of the search for indirect CP violation in the neutral D meson system at the B-factories and at LHCb is reported. The indirect CP asymmetry search is performed by the measurement of the proper-time asymmetry ($A_{\\Gamma}$) in decays of $D^0-\\bar{D^0}$ mesons to CP eigenstates, $K^-K^+$ and $\\pi^- \\pi^+$, and by $y_{CP}$, the ratio between the effective lifetime measured in decay to a CP eigenstate and that to the mixed eigenstate $K \\pi$. All results are consistent with the no CP violation hypothesis. The latest world averages for mixing and CP asymmetry in the charm sector evaluated by the Heavy Flavour Averaging Group are presented. The no mixing hypothesis is excluded at more than 12 standard deviations. The search for direct and indirect CP violation in the charm sector is consistent with no CP violation at 2.0% confident level.

Silvia Borghi

2013-12-17

392

Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats

Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time midway between those for stimulus A and B. These results suggest that when provided with discrepant information regarding the temporal predictability of reinforcement, rats compute an average of the scheduled reinforcement times for the A and B stimuli and use this average to generate an expectation of reward for the compound stimuli. PMID:19594288

Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

393

Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having ? = 0 have volume deceleration parameter qvol<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated qvol in some Lemaître-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that qvol>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit qvol<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars

2008-10-01

394

The research focuses on the critical review and prediction of flash points of high molecular weight compounds used mainly in the specialty chemical area. Thus far this area of high molecular weight specialty chemicals has not been thoroughly...

Thomas, Derrick

2011-08-08

395

Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain

Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate. PMID:24032024

Lowe, Michael R.; Doshi, Sapna D.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Feig, Emily H.

2013-01-01

396

The Average Velocity in a Queue

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

Frette, Vidar

2009-01-01

397

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

398

Asymptotics Sheet 8 Multiple scales and averaging

the multiple-scale analysis, investigate the behaviour of solutions of the Mathieu equation: Â¨x + (a - 2q cos 2 equation df dt - f = f2 e-t with 1 and initial condition f(0) = 1 determine an approximation by using the averaging method. 4. For the differential equation d2 y dt2 + y + |y |y = 0 with initial conditions y(0) = 1

Burton, Geoffrey R.

399

Modern average global sea-surface temperature

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

400

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

2005-08-01

401

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-curves and the spectral variability at visible + mid-IR wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, season. We also considered the appearance of an increasingly frozen Mars and simulated its detection versus real Mars with TPF-C and TPF-I as a function of spectral resolving power, signal-to-noise, integration time.

Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

2004-08-20

402

Effectiveness of weight loss and maintenance interventions in women

Overweight and obesity in women contribute to increased risk of many health problems, including type 2 diabetes. A systematic\\u000a review of the weight loss literature found 17 articles in which women were the sole subjects and studies were a minimum of\\u000a 1 year or longer in duration. Data were pooled and average weight loss and maintenance for women at 6

Marion J. Franz

2004-01-01

403

Body Weights of Ohio Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)1

Average annual winter (December-February) body weights of Ohio ruffed grouse (Bonasa um- bellus) from both the glaciated northeast and the more southern unglaciated hill country ranges showed only small deviations from the 4-year (1974-1977) mean. Hill country grouse were heavier (P < 0.05) than northeastern birds in winter, but not in fall (October-November). Year-around (1969-1982) body weights were obtained only

ROBERT J. STOLL; W. MCCLAIN

1988-01-01

404

Average Run Lengths of Geometric Moving Average Charts by Numerical Methods

A numerical procedure is presented for the tabulation of average run lengths (ARL's) of geometric moving average charts. Both one-and two-sided ARL's are given for various settings of the control limits, smoothing constant and shift in the nominal level of the process mean. Where comparison is possible. the tabulated ARL's are in agreement with those obtained by Roberts [3]. [4

P. B. Robinson; T. Y. Ho

1978-01-01

405

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of contextualized math instruction on problem-solving performance of 17 middle school remedial students and 49 average-achieving prealgebra students. Results showed that both remedial and average students receiving contextualized-problem instruction outperformed comparison groups receiving word-problem instruction.…

Bottge, Brian A.

1999-01-01

406

Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

Dirks, Jean; And Others

1983-01-01

407

Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging

Abstract. We report that when tissue images are formed via a small solid angle in the backward direction (i.e., back-directional gating), the image intensity is dominantly determined by tissue scattering anisotropy. Thus, this configuration allows for scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging that can provide an intrinsic contrast by capturing tissue structures and organizations. To demonstrate the immediate feasibility, we apply scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging to tissue blocks including basal-cell carcinomas as a pilot study. The main feature of our imaging approach is the high sensitivity to tumor locations and the simplicity for large-area visualization. We further envision that scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging could potentially be used to visualize tissue microenvironments in a mesoscopic (between microscopic and macroscopic) imaging setting. PMID:23085898

Xu, Zhengbin; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kim, Young L.

2012-01-01

408

Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model.

Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a "vicious cycle" - a positive feedback loop wherein weight stigma begets weight gain. This happens through increased eating behavior and increased cortisol secretion governed by behavioral, emotional, and physiological mechanisms, which are theorized to ultimately result in weight gain and difficulty of weight loss. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing literature for evidence supporting such a model, propose ways in which individuals enter, fight against, and exit the cycle, and conclude by outlining fruitful future directions in this nascent yet important area of research. PMID:24997407

Tomiyama, A Janet

2014-11-01

409

Bounds for molecular weights of organic compounds from low resolution mass spectra

Simple empirical rules for determining the upper and lower limits to the molecular weight of organic compounds from low resolution mass spectra have been established and evaluated. The rules are based on the average of two easily determined spectral features, Maxmass and Himax1. The lower limit is this average less 5 Da and the upper limit is the average plus

Donald R. Scott

1995-01-01

410

Synthesis of averaged circuit models for switched power converters

An approach for synthesizing averaged circuit models for switching converters that realize their respective state-space averaged models is presented. The method proceeds in a systematic fashion by determining appropriate averaged circuit elements that are consistent with the averaged circuit waveforms. The averaged circuit models that are obtained are syntheses of the state-space averaged models for the underlying switched circuits. An

Seth R. Sanders; George C. Verghese

1991-01-01

411

WEIGHT:WEIGHT: DA FORM705, JUN 1998,MAYBE USED

UNIT USAPA V1.00 WEIGHT: DATE GRADE AGE HEIGHT(IN INCHES) BODY FAT: GO / NO-GO PU RAW SCORE INITIALS EVENT TIME lbs % GO / NO-GO WEIGHT: DATE GRADE AGE HEIGHT(IN INCHES) BODY FAT: GO / NO-GO PU RAW SCORE-GO TOTAL POINTS NCOIC/OICSIGNATURE COMMENTS BODY COMPOSITION EVENT TIME lbs % GO / NO-GO #12;WEIGHT:WEIGHT

de Lijser, Peter

412

Weight Cycling, Weight Gain, and Risk of Hypertension in Women

To assess prospectively the relation between body mass index, weight gain, repeated intentional weight losses, and the risk of self-reported hypertension, the authors studied 46,224 women who were participants in the Nurses Health Study II, who were free of hypertension in 1993, and who completed questions on intentional weight losses between 1989 and 1993. Women who reported they had intentionally

Alison E. Field; Tim Byers; David J. Hunter; Nan M. Laird; JoAnn E. Manson; David F. Williamson; Walter C. Willett; Graham A. Colditz

413

Information filtering via weighted heat conduction algorithm

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, by taking into account effects of the user and object correlations on a heat conduction (HC) algorithm, a weighted heat conduction (WHC) algorithm is presented. We argue that the edge weight of the user-object bipartite network should be embedded into the HC algorithm to measure the object similarity. The numerical results indicate that both the accuracy and diversity could be improved greatly compared with the standard HC algorithm and the optimal values reached simultaneously. On the Movielens and Netflix datasets, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 39.7% and 56.1% in the optimal case, respectively, and the diversity could reach 0.9587 and 0.9317 when the recommendation list equals to 5. Further statistical analysis indicates that, in the optimal case, the distributions of the edge weight are changed to the Poisson form, which may be the reason why HC algorithm performance could be improved. This work highlights the effect of edge weight on a personalized recommendation study, which maybe an important factor affecting personalized recommendation performance.

Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2011-06-01

414

High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

Messerly, M J

2007-11-13

415

AND DISCUSSION ~ ~ ~ A. Feed Efficiency B. Egg Production C. Body Weights D. Egg Weights. E. Pause in Production. F. Effect of Position Page 1 7 9 . 11 . 12 . 14 . 15 . 16 G. Cage Performance Versus Floor Performanoe. . . 18 H ~ Age to 50 Percent... ~ Statistical comparison of White Inbred Hybrid No. 1, and Inbred for initial body weight, change average body ~eight, and age to production Leghorns, Hybrid No. 2, in body weighted 50 percent 29 VII ' Statistical comparison of White Leghorns, Inbred...

Miller, Marshall Middleton

2012-06-07

416

Weight Gain and Saturated Fats

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Fats HealthDay October 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Dietary Fats Weight Control Transcript Short-term weight ... muffins with unsaturated fat had lower bad LDL cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/good HDL cholesterol ratios and ...

417

Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure - which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system), a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?-carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in "point" average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M D; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G; Rowe, Arthur J; Harding, Stephen E

2014-01-01

418

Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution.

Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S.

2012-07-01

419

Average resonance capture study of 124Te

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An average resonance capture study of 124Te was carried out by bombarding samples of 123Te with 2- and 24-keV neutron beams. The complete set of 0+, 1+, 2+ states disclosed by the experiment is consistent with the data of Robinson, Hamilton, and Snelling, demonstrating that there are no undetected states of these spins (especially 0+ states) below about 2500 keV. In particular, proposed 0+ levels at 1156 and 1290 keV are ruled out. This impacts various attempted interpretations in terms of intruder states, U(5), and O(6) symmetries.

Casten, R. F.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Liao, B.-C.

1991-07-01

420

Apparent and average acceleration of the Universe

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from the supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite $\\Lambda=0$ have volume deceleration parameter $q^{vol} 0$, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit $q^{vol} to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Bolejko, Krzysztof

2008-01-01

421

The average free volume model for liquids

In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

Yang Yu; Reinhard Krause-Rehberg

2014-04-02

422

The average free volume model for liquids

In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

Yu, Yang

2014-01-01

423

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of annual precipitation is important for many applications in hydrology, climatology, agronomy, ecology and other environmental sciences. In this study, we compared five different statistical methods to predict spatially the average annual precipitation of Turkey using point observations of annual precipitation at meteorological stations and spatially exhaustive covariate data (i.e. elevation, aspect, surface roughness, distance to coast, land use and eco-region). The methods compared were multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), universal kriging (UK), and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Average annual precipitation of Turkey from 1970 to 2006 was measured at 225 meteorological stations that are fairly uniformly distributed across the country, with a somewhat higher spatial density along the coastline. The observed annual precipitation varied between 255 mm and 2209 mm with an average of 628 mm. The annual precipitation was highest along the southern and northern coasts and low in the centre of the country, except for the area near the Van Lake, Keban and Ataturk Dams. To compare the performance of the interpolation techniques the total dataset was first randomly split in ten equally sized test datasets. Next, for each test data set the remaining 90% of the data comprised the training dataset. Each training dataset was then used to calibrate and apply the spatial prediction model. Predictions at the test dataset locations were compared with the observed test data. Validation was done by calculating the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-square and Standardized MSE (SMSE) values. According to these criteria, universal kriging is the most accurate with an RMSE of 178 mm, an R-square of 0.61 and an SMSE of 1.06, whilst multiple linear regression performed worst (RMSE of 222 mm, R-square of 0.39, and SMSE of 1.44). Ordinary kriging, UK using only elevation and geographically weighted regression are intermediate with RMSE values of 201 mm, 212 mm and 211 mm, and an R-square of 0.50, 0.44 and 0.45, respectively. The RK results are close to those of UK with an RMSE of 186 mm and R-square of 0.57. The spatial extrapolation performance of each method was also evaluated. This was done by predicting the annual precipitation in the eastern part of Turkey using observations from the western part. Results showed that MLR, GWR and RK performed best with little differences between these methods. The large prediction error variances confirmed that extrapolation is more difficult than interpolation. Whilst spatial extrapolation benefits most from covariate information as shown by an RMSE reduction of about 60 mm, in this study covariate information was also valuable for spatial interpolation because it reduced the RMSE with on average 30 mm.

Bostan, P. A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Akyurek, S. Z.

2012-10-01

424

Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

Ahumada, Albert J Jr

2002-01-01

425

Effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on birth weight.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine consumption during pregnancy on birth weight and its possible interaction with smoking. The sample included 1,011 women who were interviewed during their first 3 days after delivery in one of the hospitals of Belgrade, Yugoslavia. A significant reduction in birth weight was found to be associated with an average caffeine intake of > or = 71 mg per day, after adjustment for gestational age, infant sex, parity, and maternal height and weight, but only in infants born to nonsmoking mothers. PMID:9054237

Vlajinac, H D; Petrovi?, R R; Marinkovi?, J M; Sipeti?, S B; Adanja, B J

1997-02-15

426

Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents.

Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight. PMID:23174687

Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A

2012-12-01

427

Molecular Weight Dependence of the Viscosity of Polyethylene Macrocycles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grubbs group at Caltech is using a new method of synthesis for the production of macrocycles that avoids the problems of sample contamination with long chain linear molecules. They have produced macrocyclic polyethylenes having molecular weights as high as 400,000 g/mole. At Texas Tech University rheological measurements are being made using both the Plazek Magnetic Bearing Torsional Creep Apparatus and a Paar Physica controlled stress rheometer. Because the samples are polydisperse, with Mw/Mn values of 1.6-1-9, we here report only the results of the viscosity as a function of molecular weight. Surprisingly, unlike reports in the literature for polystyrene rings or polybutadiene rings, the viscosities of the polyethylene rings are larger than those for equivalent molecular weight linear polyethylenes and the viscosity increases approximately exponentially with weight average molecular weight. Further results will be reported at the meeting.

Wang, Jian; McKenna, Gregory; Benitez, Diego; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Grubbs, Robert

2005-03-01

428

Molecular weight, chain profile of rice amylopectin and starch pasting properties.

Differences in fine structure, average molecular size of amylopectin (AP) as well as clarity of the AP solution from indica waxy rice and high amylose (HAM) rice were examined. Despite similar amylose content (AM), rice starches displayed different pasting properties. Waxy APs had higher values of both number-average and weight-average molecular weight (MnŻ and MwŻ) but lower values of intrinsic viscosity [?], compared to HAM APs. HAM APs had higher values of average chain length (CLŻ), average external chain length (ECLŻ), and a proportion of DP ? 37. Statistical correlations of mol proportions of debranched AP, branching parameters, and molecular weight of AP were calculated. The study showed that starch pasting properties and clarity of AP solutions were influenced by molecular weight and branching characteristics of AP. PMID:24751267

Kowittaya, Chutarat; Lumdubwong, Namfone

2014-08-01

429

Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

Mariman, Edwin C M

2012-01-01

430

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

431

Weight Gain Prevention among Women

Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention.Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N

Michele D. Levine; Mary Lou Klem; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Rena R. Wing; Lisa Weissfeld; Li Qin; Marsha D. Marcus

2007-01-01

432

Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

1986-01-01

433

Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

2008-01-01

434

Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

Practical Pointers, 1978

1978-01-01

435

Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If investigators have a good causal model, it seems

David A. Freedman; Richard A. Berk

2008-01-01

436

Objective: Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial\\/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is body weight. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and body weight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight

Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Zoran Bursac; Vicki DiLillo; Della Brown White; Delia Smith West

2009-01-01

437

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site shows images of all the planets and several other celestial bodies, under which one can enter their weight and find out how their weight changes on other worlds. Mass and weight are distinguished in subsequent text. The relationship between gravity, mass, and distance is described and represented mathematically.

Hipschman, Ron

1997-01-01

438

Weighted Distance Weighted Discrimination and Its Asymptotic Properties

While Distance Weighted Discrimination (DWD) is an appealing approach to classification in high dimensions, it was designed for balanced datasets. In the case of unequal costs, biased sampling, or unbalanced data, there are major improvements available, using appropriately weighted versions of DWD (wDWD). A major contribution of this paper is the development of optimal weighting schemes for various nonstandard classification problems. In addition, we discuss several alternative criteria and propose an adaptive weighting scheme (awDWD) and demonstrate its advantages over nonadaptive weighting schemes under some situations. The second major contribution is a theoretical study of weighted DWD. Both high-dimensional low sample-size asymptotics and Fisher consistency of DWD are studied. The performance of weighted DWD is evaluated using simulated examples and two real data examples. The theoretical results are also confirmed by simulations. PMID:21152360

Qiao, Xingye; Zhang, Hao Helen; Liu, Yufeng; Todd, Michael J.; Marron, J. S.

2010-01-01

439

Domiciliary care of low birth weight neonates

A WHO sponsored prospective community based study of ‘Risk Approach and Intervention Strategy in MCH Care’ was started in\\u000a a rural field practice area attached to B.J. Medical College, Pune, catering for 47,000 population spread over 22 villages.\\u000a For implementation of risk approach strategy from pregnancy to early childhood, information about biological and sociocultural\\u000a factors was collected. Birth weight of

A. K. Pratinidhi; A. N. Shrotri; U. Shah; N. D. Bodhani

1986-01-01

440

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

441

Average path length for Sierpinski pentagon

In this paper,we investigate diameter and average path length(APL) of Sierpinski pentagon based on its recursive construction and self-similar structure.We find that the diameter of Sierpinski pentagon is just the shortest path lengths between two nodes of generation 0. Deriving and solving the linear homogenous recurrence relation the diameter satisfies, we obtain rigorous solution for the diameter. We also obtain approximate solution for APL of Sierpinski pentagon, both diameter and APL grow approximately as a power-law function of network order $N(t)$, with the exponent equals $\\frac{\\ln(1+\\sqrt{3})}{\\ln(5)}$. Although the solution for APL is approximate,it is trusted because we have calculated all items of APL accurately except for the compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1,3}$), which is obtained approximately by least-squares curve fitting. The compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) is only a small part of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1,3}$) and has little effect on APL. Further more,using the data obtained by iteration to test the fitting results, we find the relative error for $\\Delta_{t}$ is less than $10^{-7}$, hence the approximate solution for average path length is almost accurate.

Junhao Peng; Guoai Xu

2011-12-21

442

Group Averaging for de Sitter free fields

Perturbative gravity about global de Sitter space is subject to linearization-stability constraints. Such constraints imply that quantum states of matter fields couple consistently to gravity {\\it only} if the matter state has vanishing de Sitter charges; i.e., only if the state is invariant under the symmetries of de Sitter space. As noted by Higuchi, the usual Fock spaces for matter fields contain no de Sitter-invariant states except the vacuum, though a new Hilbert space of de Sitter invariant states can be constructed via so-called group-averaging techniques. We study this construction for free scalar fields of arbitrary positive mass in any dimension, and for linear vector and tensor gauge fields in any dimension. Our main result is to show in each case that group averaging converges for states containing a sufficient number of particles. We consider general $N$-particle states with smooth wavefunctions, though we obtain somewhat stronger results when the wavefunctions are finite linear combinations of de Sitter harmonics. Along the way we obtain explicit expressions for general boost matrix elements in a familiar basis.

Donald Marolf; Ian A. Morrison

2008-10-28

443

Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

1987-01-01

444

The Impact of Weight Changes on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adult Men with Normal Weight

Background Although it is known that losing weight has an effect on the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the studies that show how losing weight affects the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for the normal weight male adults are limited so far. In this study, we set body mass index as criteria and investigated how the weight changes for 4 years makes an impact on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for the male adults who have the normal body mass index. Methods From January to December of 2004, among the normal weight male adults who had general check-up at the Health Promotion Center of Ulsan University Hospital, 180 people (average age, 47.4 ± 4.61 years) who were diagnosed with fatty liver through abdominal ultrasonography were included in this study and were observed according to the variety of data and ultrasonography after 4 years (2008). People who had a history of drinking more than 140 g of alcohol per week or who had a past medical history were excluded from the analysis. The weight change of subjects was calculated using the formula 'weight change = weight of 2008 (kg) - weight of 2004 (kg)' and classified into three groups, loss group (?-3.0 kg), stable group (-2.9 to 2.9 kg), and gain group (?3.0 kg). The odds for disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in those three different groups were compared. Results Among 180 subjects, compared with stable group (67.2%, 121 subjects), loss group (11.7%, 21 subjects) showed 18.37-fold increase in the odds of disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.34 to 77.80) and gain group (21.1%, 38 subjects) showed 0.28-fold decrease in the odds of disappearance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.83). Conclusion Even for the normal weight people, losing weight has an effect on the improvement of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25309705

Cho, Ji-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Hee-Jin; Jang, Jung-Mi

2014-01-01

445

Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl{sub 2} distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the predicted weights and IOM weights was less than 5 percentage points. Similarly, the difference in femoral head V54.3 Gy values between the two dose distributions was less than 5 percentage points for all but one patient. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a proof of concept that patient anatomy can be used to predict appropriate objective function weights for treatment planning. In the long term, such geometry-driven weights may serve as a starting point for iterative treatment plan design or may provide information about the most clinically relevant region of the Pareto surface to explore.

Lee, Taewoo, E-mail: taewoo.lee@utoronto.ca; Hammad, Muhannad [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada) [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

2013-12-15

446

Birth Weight and Infant Growth: Optimal Infant Weight Gain versus Optimal Infant Weight

Objective: Infant growth assessment often focuses on “optimal” infant weights and lengths at specific ages, while de-emphasizing infant\\u000a weight gain. Objective of this study was to examine infant growth patterns by measuring infant weight gain relative to birth\\u000a weight. Methods: We conducted this study based on data collected in a prospective cohort study including 3,302 births with follow up examinations

Xu Xiong; Joan Wightkin; Jeanette H. Magnus; Gabriella Pridjian; Juan M. Acuna; Pierre Buekens

2007-01-01

447

Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

2008-01-01

448

Apparent and average acceleration of the Universe

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from the supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite $\\Lambda=0$ have volume deceleration parameter $q^{vol} to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated $q^{vol}$ in some Lema\\^itre--Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that $q^{vol} > 0$, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit $q^{vol} to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Krzysztof Bolejko; Lars Andersson

2008-07-23

449

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

450

Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on lowing pH in the sea water of the Jiaozhou Bay

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent study showed that average pH value in the seawater of the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area of the Yellow Sea were about 7.9 and 8.0-8.2, respectively, indicating significant low pH value in the sea water of the bay. At the same period, existence of high concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids, including formate, acetate and lactate was detected. By theoretical calculation, field and laboratory simulate experiments, this study investigated the effect of these organic acids on pH value of the seawater in the Jiaozhou Bay. The results showed that average concentration of the total low molecular weight organic acids was 29.01 ?mol/L; and average concentrations of formate, acetate and lactate were 4.06 ? mol/L, 18.31 ?mol/L, and 6.64 ?mol/L, respectively, in the surface seawater samples collected from 15 sampling stations in the Jiaozhou Bay in May, 2012. With similar total alkalinity (TA) and concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Jiaozhou Bay and the Yellow Sea, all the low molecular weight organic acids could decrease pH value in the seawater. Under field condition, co-effect of the three organic acids could decrease pH value in the sea water of the Jiaozhou Bay up to 0.185. We also collected samples of 6 stations of Narragansett Bay as comparison. The results supported that low molecular weight organic acids was critical on acidification of seawater in the Jiaozhou bay.

Ding, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, G.; Lv, L.

2013-12-01

451

High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology

Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.

Neau, E.L.

1995-05-01

452

We evaluated the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures during the last trimester of pregnancy on the frequency of low birth weight among neonates born 1989-1993 to women living in the Los Angeles, California, area. Using birth certificate data for that period, we assembled a retrospective cohort of infants whose mothers resided within 2 miles of 1 of 18 CO monitoring stations. Based on the gestational age and birth date of each child, we estimated last-trimester exposure by averaging the corresponding 3 months of daily CO concentrations registered at the monitoring station closest to the mother's residence (determined from the birth certificate). Where data were available (at 6 stations), we also averaged measurements taken daily for nitrogen dioxide and ozone and those taken at 6-day intervals for particulate matter [less than/equal to]10 microm (PM10) to approximate last-trimester exposures to other pollutants. Overall, the study cohort consisted of 125,573 singleton children, excluding infants born before 37 or after 44 weeks of gestation, those weighing below 1,000 or above 5,500 g at birth, those for whom fewer than 10 days of CO measurements were available during the last trimester, and those whose mothers suffered from hypertension, diabetes, or uterine bleeding during pregnancy. Within the cohort, 2,813 (2.2%) were low in birth weight (between 1,000 and 2,499 g). Exposure to higher levels of ambient CO (>5.5 ppm 3-month average) during the last trimester was associated with a significantly increased risk for low birth weight [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.44] after adjustment for potential confounders, including commuting habits in the monitoring area, sex of the child, level of prenatal care, and age, ethnicity, and education of the mother. PMID:9872713

Ritz, B; Yu, F

1999-01-01

453

Diet and Gender Moderate Clozapine-Related Weight Gain

This study examined patients with schizophrenia in two state hospitals treated with clozapine, with particular attention to factors that may affect weight gain. A retrospective chart review was performed for 40 subjects, all of whom had been treated for at least 6 months. Patients included 26 males and 14 females, 34 caucasians and 6 blacks, with an average age of

Carolyn Heimberg; Fiona Gallacher; Ruben Gur; Raquel Gur

1994-01-01

454

Reference-tissue correction of T2-weighted signal intensity for prostate cancer detection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether correction with respect to reference tissue of T2-weighted MRimage signal intensity (SI) improves its effectiveness for classification of regions of interest (ROIs) as prostate cancer (PCa) or normal prostatic tissue. Two image datasets collected retrospectively were used in this study: 71 cases acquired with GE scanners (dataset A), and 59 cases acquired with Philips scanners (dataset B). Through a consensus histology- MR correlation review, 175 PCa and 108 normal-tissue ROIs were identified and drawn manually. Reference-tissue ROIs were selected in each case from the levator ani muscle, urinary bladder, and pubic bone. T2-weighted image SI was corrected as the ratio of the average T2-weighted image SI within an ROI to that of a reference-tissue ROI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of T2-weighted image SIs for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs. AUC (+/- standard error) for uncorrected T2-weighted image SIs was 0.78+/-0.04 (datasets A) and 0.65+/-0.05 (datasets B). AUC for corrected T2-weighted image SIs with respect to muscle, bladder, and bone reference was 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), and 0.75+/-0.04 (p=0.8), respectively, for dataset A; and 0.81+/-0.04 (p=0.002), 0.78+/-0.04 (p<0.001), and 0.79+/-0.04 (p<0.001), respectively, for dataset B. Correction in reference to the levator ani muscle yielded the most consistent results between GE and Phillips images. Correction of T2-weighted image SI in reference to three types of extra-prostatic tissue can improve its effectiveness for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs, and correction in reference to the levator ani muscle produces consistent T2-weighted image SIs between GE and Phillips MR images.

Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Oto, Aytekin

2014-03-01

455

The relationships between egg weight and yolk weight

Figures on egg weight and yolk weight from a commercial strain of White Leghorn pullets obtained during the early part of their laying year have been analysed to obtain estimates of heritability and phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations.The heritability figure of 0.50 for egg weight agrees with the majority of those in the literature. The larger value of 0.71 derived

W. P. Jaffé

1964-01-01

456

WEIGHT:WEIGHT: DA FORM705, JUN 1998,MAYBE USED

UNIT USAPA V1.00 WEIGHT: DATE GRADE AGE HEIGHT(IN INCHES) BODY FAT: GO / NO-GO PU RAW SCORE INITIALS EVENT TIME lbs % GO / NO-GO WEIGHT: DATE GRADE AGE HEIGHT(IN INCHES) BODY FAT: GO / NO-GO PU RAW SCOREWEIGHT:WEIGHT: DA FORM705, JUN 1998,MAYBE USED Data Required by the Privacy Act of 1974 DATE GRADE

de Lijser, Peter

457

Weight cycling of athletes and subsequent weight gain in middleage

Objective:To study the effects of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain as young adults on long-term weight development.Design:A follow-up study with questionnaires in 1985, 1995 and 2001.Setting:Finland.Subjects:A national cohort of 1838 male elite athletes who had represented Finland in major international sport competitions in 1920–1965, including 370 men engaged in sports in which weight-related performance classes are associated with

S E Saarni; A Rissanen; S Sarna; M Koskenvuo; J Kaprio

2006-01-01

458

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large mirrors are required for a wide variety of applications. Two key constraints are mirror stability and mirror mass. Low expansion glass ceramics remain a useful material because of its excellent thermal stability, relative ease of processing and lower cost compared to alternatives. However there is room for the improvement of the manufacturing techniques over the traditional methods of milling and etching, which are high risk, expensive and time consuming. A solid blank is milled out using high speed diamond tooling to leave fragile webs of supporting material. The final process steps are the highest risk, when it is possible for catastrophic flaws to appear. We present a novel method of producing a monolithic structure from component pieces that provide a lower risk, lower cost method of producing stable and light-weighted mirrors. Individual smaller components are machined and then bonded together. The bonding process results in near substrate strength components without compromising the very low thermal expansion of the glass ceramic. It also allows the creation of novel designs with hollow cavities embedded within the structure. Prior to commencing the fabrication the mechanical design was modelled to predict the stability of candidate designs. Tests were carried out on witness pieces to prove the relative strength of the bonds. Prototypes were then fabricated and tested for thermal stability.

MacKay, Peter E.; Beveridge, Nicola L.; Wood, Trevor

2013-09-01

459

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dependence of the albedo at the top of a realistic atmosphere upon the surface albedo, solar zenith angle, and cloud optical thickness is examined for the cases of clear sky, total cloud cover, and fractional cloud cover. The radiative transfer calculations of Dave and Braslau (1975) for particular values of surface albedo and solar zenith angle, and a single value of cloud optical thickness are used as the basis of a parametric albedo model. The question of spectral and temporal averages of albedos and reflected irradiances is addressed, and unique weighting functions for the spectral and temporal albedo averages are developed.

Nack, M. L.; Curran, R. J.

1978-01-01

460

A time-averaged cosmic ray propagation theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An argument is presented, which casts doubt on our ability to choose an appropriate magnetic field ensemble for computing the average behavior of cosmic ray particles. An alternate procedure, using time-averages rather than ensemble-averages, is presented.

Klimas, A. J.; Sandri, G.

1975-01-01

461

Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

Objectives To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results Low parental education was associated with lower fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity and more fast food and unhealthy weight control. Financial strain was associated with less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control, binge drinking, and tobacco use. Conclusions Unique relationships exist between socioeconomic indicators and emerging adult health behaviors. Additional research is needed to understand financial context among emerging adults. PMID:22488394

VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

2012-01-01

462

'I want to lose weight': Early risk for disordered eating?

The present study examined the risk of disordered eating and its relation to attempts to lose weight by surveying a Maritime Canadian sample of 247 girls and boys in grades 6, 7 and 8. Current attempts to lose weight were highest in grade 8 girls (41% of girls and 9% of boys) compared with grade 6 (14% of girls and 24% of boys) and grade 7 (21% of girls and 13% of boys) children. Of those trying to lose weight, 71.4% were in the average range for weight and height, 12.2% were overweight and 16.3% were obese. The Children’s version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to assess eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used as a measure of self-esteem. The results showed that 8.5% of the children fell in the high-risk group for disordered eating (ChEAT score 20 or higher). Those in the high-risk group were significantly more likely to fear being overweight (90%), to have tried to lose weight in the past (81%), to be currently trying to lose weight (76%), and to have engaged in binge eating (38%) and self-induced vomiting (24%). The best predictor of membership in the high-risk group for girls was current attempts at weight loss and having lower self-esteem. Only two boys fell in the high-risk group. Body mass index and current weight category (underweight, average, overweight and obese) could not explain the differences between the low- and high-risk groups. Knowing that a child is trying to lose weight can aid in identifying youth at risk for disordered eating, and can provide an opportunity for preventive education. PMID:19183713

Gusella, Joanne; Goodwin, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Erica

2008-01-01

463

'I want to lose weight': Early risk for disordered eating?

The present study examined the risk of disordered eating and its relation to attempts to lose weight by surveying a Maritime Canadian sample of 247 girls and boys in grades 6, 7 and 8. Current attempts to lose weight were highest in grade 8 girls (41% of girls and 9% of boys) compared with grade 6 (14% of girls and 24% of boys) and grade 7 (21% of girls and 13% of boys) children. Of those trying to lose weight, 71.4% were in the average range for weight and height, 12.2% were overweight and 16.3% were obese. The Children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to assess eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used as a measure of self-esteem. The results showed that 8.5% of the children fell in the high-risk group for disordered eating (ChEAT score 20 or higher). Those in the high-risk group were significantly more likely to fear being overweight (90%), to have tried to lose weight in the past (81%), to be currently trying to lose weight (76%), and to have engaged in binge eating (38%) and self-induced vomiting (24%). The best predictor of membership in the high-risk group for girls was current attempts at weight loss and having lower self-esteem. Only two boys fell in the high-risk group. Body mass index and current weight category (underweight, average, overweight and obese) could not explain the differences between the low- and high-risk groups. Knowing that a child is trying to lose weight can aid in identifying youth at risk for disordered eating, and can provide an opportunity for preventive education. PMID:19183713

Gusella, Joanne; Goodwin, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Erica

2008-02-01

464

Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

1989-01-01

465

Average path length for Sierpinski pentagon

In this paper,we investigate diameter and average path length(APL) of Sierpinski pentagon based on its recursive construction and self-similar structure.We find that the diameter of Sierpinski pentagon is just the shortest path lengths between two nodes of generation 0. Deriving and solving the linear homogenous recurrence relation the diameter satisfies, we obtain rigorous solution for the diameter. We also obtain approximate solution for APL of Sierpinski pentagon, both diameter and APL grow approximately as a power-law function of network order $N(t)$, with the exponent equals $\\frac{\\ln(1+\\sqrt{3})}{\\ln(5)}$. Although the solution for APL is approximate,it is trusted because we have calculated all items of APL accurately except for the compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1,3}$), which is obtained approximately by least-squares curve fitting. The compensation($\\Delta_{t}$) is only a small part of total distances between non-adjacent branches($\\Lambda_t^{1...

Peng, Junhao

2011-01-01

466

Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite

The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2006-07-15

467

Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01