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1

Boundedness and Dimension for Weighted Average Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The power considers a weighted average property of the type u(x sub 0) = (the integral over B of uwdx)/(the integral over B of wdx), B a ball in E superscript n with center x sub 0. A lemma constructing such functions is presented from which it follows th...

D. P. Stanford

1969-01-01

2

Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted hierarchical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work on the networks has focused on the weighted hierarchical networks that are significantly different from the un-weighted hierarchical networks. In this paper we study a family of weighted hierarchical networks which are recursively defined from an initial uncompleted graph, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale. Firstly, we study analytically the average weighted shortest path (AWSP) on the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a recursive method, we determine explicitly the AWSP. The obtained rigorous solution shows that the networks grow unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded. Then, depending on a biased random walk, we research the mean first-passage time (MFPT) between a hub node and any peripheral node. Finally, we deduce the analytical expression of the average of MFPTs for a random walker originating from any node to first visit to a hub node, which is named as the average receiving time (ART). The obtained result shows that ART is bounded or grows sublinearly with the network order relating to the number of initial nodes and the weighted factor or grows quadratically with the iteration.

Sun, Yu; Dai, Meifeng; Xi, Lifeng

3

SAS\\/OWA: ordered weighted averaging in SAS optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of the optimization procedures in SAS\\/OR software with application to the ordered weight averaging\\u000a (OWA) operators of decision-making units (DMUs). OWA was originally introduced by Yager (IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 18(1):183–190,\\u000a 1988) has gained much interest among researchers, hence many applications such as in the areas of decision making, expert systems,\\u000a data mining, approximate

Ali Emrouznejad

2010-01-01

4

Optimal local weighted averaging methods in contour smoothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several applications where binary contours are used to represent and classify patterns, smoothing must be performed to attenuate noise and quantization error. This is often implemented with local weighted averaging of contour point coordinates, because of the simplicity, low-cost and effectiveness of such methods. Invoking the “optimality” of the Gaussian filter, many authors will use Gaussian-derived weights. But generally

Raymond Legault; Ching Y. Suen

1997-01-01

5

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

6

An Excel macro for transformed and weighted averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Excel macro is presented for averaging spreadsheet data. The macro has several special features: (1) The data are weighted\\u000a by the inverse variance of each datum to decrease the contribution-of noisy outliers. (2) There is a provision for a power\\u000a or a log transform of the data before averaging. The rationale for transforming the data before averaging is discussed

Stanley A. Klein

1992-01-01

7

Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indicator value and ecological amplitude of a species with respect to a quantitative environmental variable can be estimated from data on species occurrence and environment. A simple weighted averaging (WA) method for estimating these parameters is compared by simulation with the more elaborate method of Gaussian logistic regression (GLR), a form of the generalized linear model which fits a

Cajo J. F. Braak; Caspar W. N. Looman

1986-01-01

8

Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect

In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.

Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.

1994-05-01

9

Molecular weight averages as criteria for quality assessment of heated oils and fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for quality assessment of heated oils and fats is described. The proposed method involves precise determination\\u000a of molecular weight averages (MWA)viz., the weight average molecular weight (\\u000a $$\\\\left( {\\\\bar {\\\\rm M}w} \\\\right)$$\\u000a ), the number average molecular weight (\\u000a $$\\\\left( {\\\\bar {\\\\rm M}n} \\\\right)$$\\u000a ) and the Z-average molecular weight (\\u000a $$\\\\left( {\\\\bar {\\\\rm M}z} \\\\right)$$\\u000a )

Sajid Husain; G. S. R. Sastry; N. Prasada Raju

1991-01-01

10

Latent-variable approaches to the Jamesian model of importance-weighted averages.  

PubMed

The individually importance-weighted average (IIWA) model posits that the contribution of specific areas of self-concept to global self-esteem varies systematically with the individual importance placed on each specific component. Although intuitively appealing, this model has weak empirical support; thus, within the framework of a substantive-methodological synergy, we propose a multiple-item latent approach to the IIWA model as applied to a range of self-concept domains (physical, academic, spiritual self-concepts) and subdomains (appearance, math, verbal self-concepts) in young adolescents from two countries. Tests considering simultaneously the effects of self-concept domains on trait self-esteem did not support the IIWA model. On the contrary, support for a normative group importance model was found, in which importance varied as a function of domains but not individuals. Individuals differentially weight the various components of self-concept; however, the weights are largely determined by normative processes, so that little additional information is gained from individual weightings. PMID:23150198

Scalas, L Francesca; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S

2013-01-01

11

Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

Warrens, Matthijs J.

2011-01-01

12

Rainfall Estimation Over Tropical Oceans. 1; Area Average Rain Rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multichannel dual polarization microwave radiometer SSM/I observations over oceans do not contain sufficient information to differentiate quantitatively the rain from other hydrometeors on a scale comparable to the radiometer field of view (approx. 30 km). For this reason we have developed a method to retrieve average rain rate over a mesoscale grid box of approx. 300 x 300 sq km area over the TOGA COARE region where simultaneous radiometer and radar observations are available for four months (Nov. 92 to Feb. 93). The rain area in the grid box, inferred from the scattering depression due to hydrometeors in the 85 Ghz brightness temperature, constitutes a key parameter in this method. Then the spectral and polarization information contained in all the channels of the SSM/I is utilized to deduce a second parameter. This is the ratio S/E of scattering index S, and emission index E calculated from the SSM/I data. The rain rate retrieved from this method over the mesoscale area can reproduce the radar observed rain rate with a correlation coefficient of about 0.85. Furthermore monthly total rainfall estimated from this method over that area has an average error of about 15%.

Cuddapah, Prabhakara; Cadeddu, Maria; Meneghini, R.; Short, David A.; Yoo, Jung-Moon; Dalu, G.; Schols, J. L.; Weinman, J. A.

1997-01-01

13

Sensitivity Analysis of Ordered Weighted Averaging Operator in Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research is to find the extent to which the minimal variability Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) model of seismic vulnerability assessment is sensitive to variation of optimism degree. There are a variety of models proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment. In order to examine the efficiency of seismic vulnerability assessment models, the stability of results could be analysed. Seismic vulnerability assessment is done to estimate the probable losses in the future earthquake. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been applied by a number of researchers to estimate the human, physical and financial losses in urban areas. The study area of this research is Tehran Metropolitan Area (TMA) which has more than eight million inhabitants. In addition, this paper assumes that North Tehran Fault (NTF) is activated and caused an earthquake in TMA. 1996 census data is used to extract the attribute values for six effective criteria in seismic vulnerability assessment. The results demonstrate that minimal variability OWA model of Seismic Loss Estimation (SLE) is more stable where the aggregated seismic vulnerability degree has a lower value. Moreover, minimal variability OWA is very sensitive to optimism degree in northern areas of Tehran. A number of statistical units in southern areas of the city also indicate considerable sensitivity to optimism degree due to numerous non-standard buildings. In addition, the change of seismic vulnerability degree caused by variation of optimism degree does not exceed 25 % of the original value which means that the overall accuracy of the model is acceptable.

Moradi, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Moshiri, B.

2013-09-01

14

Weighted Averaging of Species Indicator Values: Its Efficiency in Environmental Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common problem in applied ecology is to estimate values of an environmental variable from species incidence or abundance data. The method of weighted averaging is based on indicator values that summarize species' response curves with respect to the envi...

C. J. F. ter Braak L. G. Barendregt

1984-01-01

15

Analysis of Litter Size and Average Litter Weight in Pigs Using a Recursive Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and York- shire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM

Luis Varona; Daniel Sorensen; Robin Thompson

2007-01-01

16

An average weight-distance enumerator for binary expansions of Reed-Solomon codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An average Hamming weight enumerator is derived for the codewords at each Hamming distance from a received pattern in the set of all possible binary expansions of a Reed-Solomon code. Since these codes may be decoded by list decoders, such as those studied by Sudan (1997), the enumerator can be used to estimate the average number of codewords in the

Charles T. Retter

2002-01-01

17

Effects of error covariance structure on estimation of model averaging weights and predictive performance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

2013-01-01

18

Effects of error covariance structure on estimation of model averaging weights and predictive performance  

SciTech Connect

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cek resolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steven B.

2013-07-23

19

Effect of Temporal Residual Correlation on Estimation of Model Averaging Weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are always calculated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC. However, this method sometimes leads to an unrealistic situation in which one model receives overwhelmingly high averaging weight (even 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It is found in this study that the unrealistic situation is due partly, if not solely, to ignorance of residual correlation when estimating the negative log-likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. In the context of maximum-likelihood or least-square inverse modeling, the residual correlation is accounted for in the full covariance matrix; when the full covariance matrix is replaced by its diagonal counterpart, it assumes data independence and ignores the correlation. As a result, treating the correlated residuals as independent distorts the distance between observations and simulations of alternative models. As a result, it may lead to incorrect estimation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. This is illustrated for a set of surface complexation models developed to simulate uranium transport based on a series of column experiments. The residuals are correlated in time, and the time correlation is addressed using a second-order autoregressive model. The modeling results reveal importance of considering residual correlation in the estimation of model averaging weights.

Ye, M.; Lu, D.; Curtis, G. P.; Meyer, P. D.; Yabusaki, S.

2010-12-01

20

Effects of Spatial Correlation of Model Error on Calculation of Model Averaging Weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model averaging weights are the key variable in multimodel analysis for quantification of groundwater conceptual model uncertainty; one way of estimating the weights is to use model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC. However, it has been found in a number of studies that a large weight close to 100% is assigned to a model that is not significantly superior to other alternative models for matching calibration data. It is found in this study that the unrealistic situation is due partly, if not solely, to ignorance of the spatial correlation between model errors by using the diagonal weight matrix, when estimating the negative log-likelihood function. The problem can be resolved by using the full covariance matrix that includes the spatial correlation estimated using geostatistical techniques. In the test case of synthetic groundwater modeling, we explore the effect of replacing the full by the diagonal matrix on estimation of model parameters, parameter estimation uncertainty, model selection criteria, and model averaging weights. The new model averaging weight is consistent with the calibration results and hydrogeological understanding of the experimental study. These results are useful not only to model uncertainty analysis but also to data collection and monitoring network design.

Liu, P.; Ye, M.; Lu, D.; Tao, Y.; Shang, M.

2013-12-01

21

Analog CMOS implementation of order weight average operator for fuzzy logic controller chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family of Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) operators, as introduced by Yager, appear to be very useful in multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) and It provides a general class of parameterized aggregation operators that include the min, max, average operators. In this paper, we present Analog CMOS implementation of OWA operator in current-mode and 0.35 mum CMOS technologies for the first time.

K. Gheysari; A. Khoei; Kh. Hadidi; M. Mokarram

2008-01-01

22

An efficient fuzzy weighted average algorithm for the military UAV selecting under group decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuzzy weighted average (FWA), which is a function of fuzzy numbers and is useful as an aggregation method in engineering or management science based on fuzzy sets theory. It provides a discrete approximate solution by ?-cuts level representation of fuzzy sets and interval analysis. Since the FWA method has an exponential complexity, thus several researches have focused on reducing

Kuo-Ping Lin; Kuo-Chen Hung

2011-01-01

23

Enhancement of Fuzzy Weighted Average and Application to Military UAV Selected under Group Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuzzy weighted average (FWA), which is a function of fuzzy numbers and is useful as an aggregation method in management and engineering science based on fuzzy sets theory by Zadeh. It provides a discrete approximate solution by ¿-cuts level representation of fuzzy sets and interval analysis. Since the FWA method has an exponential complexity, thus several researches have focused

Kuo-Chen Hung; Kuo-Ping Lin; Michael Yin

2009-01-01

24

Estimates of weighted Hardy-Littlewood averages on the p-adic vector space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the p-adic vector space , we characterize those non-negative functions [psi] defined on for which the weighted Hardy-Littlewood average is bounded on (1[less-than-or-equals, slant]r[less-than-or-equals, slant][infinity]), and on . Also, in each case, we find the corresponding operator norm ||U[psi]||.

Rim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Jaesung

2006-12-01

25

75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...modified by the WTO Appellate Body, which found denial of offsets...obligations. The WTO Appellate Body also found denial of offsets...Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping...settlement panel or the Appellate Body finds in its report that a...

2010-12-28

26

A Markov Chain Model for the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markov chain approximation is used to determine the run length performance of a multivariate statistical process control chart. The Markov chain approach is widely used in the analysis of univariate control charts we extend the advantages of this type of analysis to a multivariate exponentially weighted moving averages control chart. The analysis can be applied whenever the multivariate control

George C. Runger; Sharad S. Prabhu

1996-01-01

27

Estimation of the global average temperature with optimally weighted point gauges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the minimum mean squared error (MSE) incurred in estimating an idealized Earth's global average temperature with a finite network of point gauges located over the globe. We follow the spectral MSE formalism given by North et al. (1992) and derive the optimal weights for N gauges in the problem of estimating the Earth's global average temperature. Our results suggest that for commonly used configurations the variance of the estimate due to sampling error can be reduced by as much as 50%.

Hardin, James W.; Upson, Robert B.

1993-01-01

28

Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined  

PubMed Central

A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly including the graph itself. In the case of phylogenetic trees, distances between extant species are frequently used to infer the phylogenetic trees by methods such as neighbor-joining. This paper proposes a tree-average distance for networks more general than trees. The notion requires a weight on each arc measuring the genetic change along the arc. For each displayed tree the distance between two leaves is the sum of the weights along the path joining them. At a hybrid vertex, each character is inherited from one of its parents. We will assume that for each hybrid there is a probability that the inheritance of a character is from a specified parent. Assume that the inheritance events at different hybrids are independent. Then for each displayed tree there will be a probability that the inheritance of a given character follows the tree; this probability may be interpreted as the probability of the tree. The tree-average distance between the leaves is defined to be the expected value of their distance in the displayed trees. For a class of rooted networks that includes rooted trees, it is shown that the weights and the probabilities at each hybrid vertex can be calculated given the network and the tree-average distances between the leaves. Hence these weights and probabilities are uniquely determined. The hypotheses on the networks include that hybrid vertices have indegree exactly 2 and that vertices that are not leaves have a tree-child.

2012-01-01

29

Finding Evidence of Transfer with Invention Activities: Teaching the Concept of Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coming to grips with the nature of measurement and uncertainty is often a common but implicit learning goal for many undergraduate physics labs. As educators, our intent is to have students be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations: we aim to transform novices into experts. In the first-year physics laboratory at UBC, our approach to teaching weighted averages-among other concepts-involves the use of invention activities. These invention activities actively engage the students, are intended to stimulate creative thinking, are particular in their brevity and high level of structure, and are designed to precede both explicit instruction and reinforcing practice. The merit of having students inspect the fundamental makeup of a problem before being taught to solve it has been shown as useful support for the formation of an initial orderly schema (i.e., preparation for future learning). The transfer of knowledge can be rather difficult to detect in a sequestered problem solving environment, but we claim to have found some evidence of its occurrence. In a situation for which a weighted average is required, we observe significantly more students paying attention to the uncertainty associated with the problem. Given the well-documented challenges associated with teaching the nature of measurement and uncertaintyâand while many students still fall short of remembering or applying the correct formula of a weighted averageâwe interpret this transfer of a concept as a small victory.

Day, James; Holmes, N. G.; Roll, Ido; Bonn, Doug A.

2014-01-30

30

A new state reconstructor for digital controls systems using weighted-average measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state reconstructor is presented for a linear continuous-time plant driven by a zero-order-hold. It takes a continuous-time output vector from the plant and convolutes it with a weighting-function matrix whose elements are time dependent. This result is integrated over T second intervals to generate weighted-averaged measurements, every T seconds, that are used in the state reconstruction process. If the plant is noise-free and can be modeled precisely, the output of this state reconstructor exactly equals the true state of the plant and accomplishes this without knowledge of the plant's initial state. If noise or modeling errors are a problem, it can be catenated with a state observer or a Kalman filter for a synergistic effect.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

31

Equating of Subscores and Weighted Averages under the NEAT Design. Research Report. ETS RR-11-01  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the literature has seen increasing interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic values; for example, one study suggested the report of weighted averages of a subscore and the total score, whereas others showed, for various operational and simulated data sets, that weighted averages, as compared to subscores, lead to more accurate…

Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby

2011-01-01

32

Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.

Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal

2013-04-01

33

A geometrical model of bound water permittivity based on weighted averages: the allophane analogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil permittivity is affected by the volume fractions of bound and free water, but also by the geometries of the soil components and the shape of water inclusions. Allophanic clays have a hollow spherical geometry with high water holding capacity, and thus representing an ideal system to investigate geometrical effects on the permittivity of water in porous media. A new weighted averaging procedure is developed which provides estimates of the permittivity of rotationally hindered water bonded to allophane spherules, and takes into account both the spherical shape of allophane and the number of water layers stored. This averaging procedure renders two distinct estimates for the inner and outer allophane water permittivity in agreement with previous experimental results. These distinctive dielectric constants for allophane water are shown to be relevant to most water content reading applications near and below the Gigahertz range. Is shown that presented averaging procedure may, more generally, serve as a simple mechanism to include geometrical effects on water absorbed to other non-planar structures such as micropores and soil particles of cylindrical or ellipsoidal geometry.

Regalado, C. M.

2006-01-01

34

Weighted average prediction for improving consensus performance of second-order delayed multi-agent systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, the weighted average prediction (WAP) is introduced into the existing consensus protocol for simultaneously improving the robustness to communication delay and the convergence speed of achieving the consensus. The frequency-domain analysis and algebra graph theory are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient condition guaranteeing the second-order delayed multi-agent systems applying the WAP-based consensus protocol to achieve the stationary consensus. It is proved that introducing the WAP with the proper length into the existing consensus protocol can improve the robustness against communication delay. Also, we prove that for two kinds of second-order delayed multi-agent systems: 1) the IR-ones with communication delay approaching zero and 2) the ones with communication delay approaching the maximum delay, introducing the WAP with the proper length into the existing consensus protocol can accelerate the convergence speed of achieving the stationary consensus. PMID:22453642

Wu, Zhihai; Fang, Huajing; She, Yingying

2012-10-01

35

Conductivity image enhancement in MREIT using adaptively weighted spatial averaging filter  

PubMed Central

Background In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we reconstruct conductivity images using magnetic flux density data induced by externally injected currents. Since we extract magnetic flux density data from acquired MR phase images, the amount of measurement noise increases in regions of weak MR signals. Especially for local regions of MR signal void, there may occur excessive amounts of noise to deteriorate the quality of reconstructed conductivity images. In this paper, we propose a new conductivity image enhancement method as a postprocessing technique to improve the image quality. Methods Within a magnetic flux density image, the amount of noise varies depending on the position-dependent MR signal intensity. Using the MR magnitude image which is always available in MREIT, we estimate noise levels of measured magnetic flux density data in local regions. Based on the noise estimates, we adjust the window size and weights of a spatial averaging filter, which is applied to reconstructed conductivity images. Without relying on a partial differential equation, the new method is fast and can be easily implemented. Results Applying the novel conductivity image enhancement method to experimental data, we could improve the image quality to better distinguish local regions with different conductivity contrasts. From phantom experiments, the estimated conductivity values had 80% less variations inside regions of homogeneous objects. Reconstructed conductivity images from upper and lower abdominal regions of animals showed much less artifacts in local regions of weak MR signals. Conclusion We developed the fast and simple method to enhance the conductivity image quality by adaptively adjusting the weights and window size of the spatial averaging filter using MR magnitude images. Since the new method is implemented as a postprocessing step, we suggest adopting it without or with other preprocessing methods for application studies where conductivity contrast is of primary concern.

2014-01-01

36

Fusion of pan-tropical biomass maps using weighted averaging and regional calibration data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass is a key environmental variable that influences many biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Recently, a number of biomass maps at national, regional and global scales have been produced using different approaches with a variety of input data, such as from field observations, remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets. However, the accuracy of these maps varies regionally and is largely unknown. This research proposes a fusion method to increase the accuracy of regional biomass estimates by using higher-quality calibration data. In this fusion method, the biases in the source maps were first adjusted to correct for over- and underestimation by comparison with the calibration data. Next, the biomass maps were combined linearly using weights derived from the variance-covariance matrix associated with the accuracies of the source maps. Because each map may have different biases and accuracies for different land use types, the biases and fusion weights were computed for each of the main land cover types separately. The conceptual arguments are substantiated by a case study conducted in East Africa. Evaluation analysis shows that fusing multiple source biomass maps may produce a more accurate map than when only one biomass map or unweighted averaging is used.

Ge, Yong; Avitabile, Valerio; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Wang, Jianghao; Herold, Martin

2014-09-01

37

Time-weighted average SPME analysis for in planta determination of cVOCs.  

PubMed

The potential of phytoscreening for plume delineation at contaminated sites has promoted interest in innovative, sensitive contaminant sampling techniques. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods have been developed, offering quick, undemanding, noninvasive sampling without the use of solvents. In this study, time-weighted average SPME (TWA-SPME) sampling was evaluated for in planta quantification of chlorinated solvents. TWA-SPME was found to have increased sensitivity over headspace and equilibrium SPME sampling. Using a variety of chlorinated solvents and a polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen (PDMS/CAR) SPME fiber, most compounds exhibited near linear or linear uptake over the sampling period. Smaller, less hydrophobic compounds exhibited more nonlinearity than larger, more hydrophobic molecules. Using a specifically designed in planta sampler, field sampling was conducted at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Sampling with TWA-SPME produced instrument responses ranging from 5 to over 200 times higher than headspace tree core sampling. This work demonstrates that TWA-SPME can be used for in planta detection of a broad range of chlorinated solvents and methods can likely be applied to other volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. PMID:22332592

Sheehan, Emily M; Limmer, Matt A; Mayer, Philipp; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Burken, Joel G

2012-03-20

38

Theoretical and empirical analysis of the average cross-sectional areas of breakup fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional area of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second approach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University

T. Hanada; J.-C. Liou

2011-01-01

39

Application of a weighted-averaging method for determining paleosalinity: a tool for restoration of south Florida's estuaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A molluscan analogue dataset is presented in conjunction with a weighted-averaging technique as a tool for estimating past salinity patterns in south Florida’s estuaries and developing targets for restoration based on these reconstructions. The method, here referred to as cumulative weighted percent (CWP), was tested using modern surficial samples collected in Florida Bay from sites located near fixed water monitoring stations that record salinity. The results were calibrated using species weighting factors derived from examining species occurrence patterns. A comparison of the resulting calibrated species-weighted CWP (SW-CWP) to the observed salinity at the water monitoring stations averaged over a 3-year time period indicates, on average, the SW-CWP comes within less than two salinity units of estimating the observed salinity. The SW-CWP reconstructions were conducted on a core from near the mouth of Taylor Slough to illustrate the application of the method.

Wingard, G. L.; Hudley, J. W.

2012-01-01

40

Uncertainty and variability in historical time-weighted average exposure data.  

PubMed

Beginning around 1940, private companies began processing of uranium and thorium ore, compounds, and metals for the Manhattan Engineer District and later the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Personnel from the AEC's Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL) visited many of the plants to assess worker exposures to radiation and radioactive materials. They developed a time-and-task approach to estimating "daily weighted average" (DWA) concentrations of airborne uranium, thorium, radon, and radon decay products. While short-term exposures greater than 10(5) dpm m(-3) of uranium and greater than 10(5) pCi L(-1) of radon were observed, DWA concentrations were much lower. The HASL-reported DWA values may be used as inputs for dose reconstruction in support of compensation decisions, but they have no numerical uncertainties associated with them. In this work, Monte Carlo methods are used retrospectively to assess the uncertainty and variability in the DWA values for 63 job titles from five different facilities that processed U, U ore, Th, or 226Ra-222Rn between 1948 and 1955. Most groups of repeated air samples are well described by lognormal distributions. Combining samples associated with different tasks often results in a reduction of the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the DWA to less than those GSD values typical of individual tasks. Results support the assumption of a GSD value of 5 when information on uncertainty in DWA exposures is unavailable. Blunders involving arithmetic, transposition, and transcription are found in many of the HASL reports. In 5 out of the 63 cases, these mistakes result in overestimates of DWA values by a factor of 2 to 2.5, and in 2 cases DWA values are underestimated by factors of 3 to 10. PMID:18188049

Davis, Adam J; Strom, Daniel J

2008-02-01

41

Theoretical and empirical analysis of the average cross-sectional areas of breakup fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional area of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second approach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. This new approach automatically classifies fragments into plate- or irregular-shapes based on their aspect ratio and thickness, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The comparison between the two approaches is demonstrated in the area-to-mass ratio ( A/m) distribution of fragments from two microsatellite impact experiments completed in early 2008. A major difference between the two approaches comes from the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of plates. In order to determine which of the two approaches provides a better description of the actual A/m distribution of breakup fragments, a theoretical analysis in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of an ideal plate is conducted. This paper also investigates the average cross-sectional area of multi-layer insulation fragments. The average cross-sectional area of 214 multi-layer insulation fragments was measured by a planimeter, and then the data were used to benchmark the average cross-sectional areas estimated by the two approaches. The uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area with the two approaches is also discussed in terms of size and thickness.

Hanada, T.; Liou, J.-C.

2011-05-01

42

76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR...FTA-2011-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation...Period AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA...proposing to amend its bus testing procedures to...passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads....

2011-05-19

43

Signal area extraction in range-gated images using average gray value information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel algorithm to extract signal area of range-gated images under the EBE effect. Besides the histogram information, this algorithm uses average gray value information to select threshold with iterative processing. With average gray value information, the edges of signal area can be segmented out accurately. The algorithm can handle images under the impact of EBE effect, reduce the noise in the images and segment the objects from the noise area effectively without many morphological operations which keeps the certain figure from distortion. Experiment result shows that the algorithm is effective to the signal areas extraction of images under EBE effect, signal areas can be segmented out accurately.

Wang, Guohua; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

2011-06-01

44

Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Average Cross-sectional Areas of Breakup Fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will compare two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional ar-eas of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second ap-proach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. This new approach automatically classifies fragments into plate-or irregular-shaped objects based on their aspect ratio and thickness, and then applies formulae for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The comparison between the two approaches will be demonstrated in the area-to-mass ratio (A/m) distribution of fragments from two microsatellite impact tests completed in early 2008. In order to determine which one of the two approaches provides a better description of the actual A/m distribution of breakup fragments, a theoretical analysis of two objects in ideal shape was conducted. The first one is an ideal plate. It is used to investigate the uncertainty of the formula described in the NASA standard breakup model. The second shape is an ideal cylinder. It is used to investigate the uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of needle-like fragments generated from the CFRP layers and side panels of the microsatellite tests. This paper will also investigate the average cross-sectional areas of multi-layer insulation (MLI) fragments. The average cross-sectional areas of 214 MLI fragments were measured by a planime-ter, and then the data were used to benchmark the average cross-sectional areas estimated by the two approaches. The uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area with the two approaches will also be discussed in terms of size and thickness.

Hanada, Toshiya; Liou, Jer-Chyi

45

Characteristics of Ozone in the Baltimore-Washington Area: 8-Hour Average Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project is to separate, analyze, and understand the climatological, annual, seasonal, and short-term fluctuations in peak ground-level ozone concentrations in the Baltimore-Washington area using 8-hour average ozone concentra...

F. M. Vukovich

2000-01-01

46

Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Average Cross-sectional Areas of Breakup Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will compare two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional ar-eas of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second ap-proach was developed jointly by the Kyushu

Toshiya Hanada; Jer-Chyi Liou

2010-01-01

47

Surveillance area as a multiplicatively weighted Voronoi diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the surveillance area as an ordered order-k multiplicatively weighted Voronoi diagram in R2. The boundaries between adjacent radars are the edges of the diagram, defined by the range ratio of radars taken pairwise. The radar range equation is used to describe the proximity rule necessary to generate the diagram. The proximity between a target and a radar

J. N. Portela; M. S. Alencar

2006-01-01

48

Weighted average flux method and flux limiters for the numerical simulation of shock waves in rigid porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one-dimensional flow field generated by the passage of a shock wave in a rigid, thermoelastic porous foam has been simulated using a two-phase mathematical model. The work presented here makes use of the weighted average flux method to solve the system of six equations that govern the problem. Spurious oscillations are eliminated through the application of total variation diminishing

R. Torrens; L. C. Wrobel

2002-01-01

49

The effect of capsule-filling machine vibrations on average fill weight.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the speed of capsule filling and the inherent machine vibrations on fill weight for a dosator-nozzle machine. The results show that increasing speed of capsule filling amplifies the vibration intensity (as measured by Laser Doppler vibrometer) of the machine frame, which leads to powder densification. The mass of the powder (fill weight) collected via the nozzle is significantly larger at a higher capsule filling speed. Therefore, there is a correlation between powder densification under more intense vibrations and larger fill weights. Quality-by Design of powder based products should evaluate the effect of environmental vibrations on material attributes, which in turn may affect product quality. PMID:23872302

Llusa, Marcos; Faulhammer, Eva; Biserni, Stefano; Calzolari, Vittorio; Lawrence, Simon; Bresciani, Massimo; Khinast, Johannes

2013-09-15

50

The average binary weight-enumerator for a class of generalized Reed-Solomon codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit weight-enumerator for the set of binary expansions of a class of generalized Reed-Solomon codes is derived. This enumerator is then used to show that most of these binary codes are asymptotically good, and to bound the rates of self-intersecting codes

Charles T. Retter

1991-01-01

51

An intercomparison of techniques to determine the area-averaged latent heat flux from individual in situ observations: A remote sensing approach using the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the area-averaged latent heat flux is necessary to validate large-scale model predictions of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces. This paper describes different procedures to obtain as a weighted average of ground-based observations. The weighting coefficients are obtained from remote sensing measurements. The remote sensing data used in this study consist of a Landsat thematic mapper image

H. Pelgrum; W. G. M. Bastiaanssen

1996-01-01

52

Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing.  

PubMed

Patellofemoral pain is a common and debilitating disorder. Elevated cartilage stress of the patellofemoral joint is hypothesized to play a role in the onset of pain. Estimating cartilage stress requires accurate measurements of contact area. The purpose of this study was to estimate patellofemoral joint contact areas in a group of healthy, pain-free subjects during upright, weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects (8 female, 8 male) were scanned in a GE Signa SP open configuration MRI scanner, which allowed subjects to stand or squat while reclining 25 degrees from vertical with the knee positioned at 0 degrees , 30 degrees , or 60 degrees of flexion. A custom-built backrest enabled subjects to be scanned without motion artifact in both weight-bearing (0.45 body weight per leg) and reduced loading conditions ('unloaded' at 0.15 body weight) at each knee flexion posture. Male subjects displayed mean unloaded patellofemoral joint contact areas of 210, 414, and 520 mm(2) at 0 degrees , 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, respectively. Female subjects' unloaded contact areas were similar at full extension (0 degrees ), but significantly smaller at 30 degrees and 60 degrees (p<0.01), with mean values of 269 and 396 mm(2), respectively. When normalized by patellar dimensions (heightxwidth), contact areas were not different between genders. Under weight-bearing conditions, contact areas increased by an average of 24% (p<0.05). This study highlights the differences in patellofemoral joint contact area between gender, knee flexion postures, and physiologic loading conditions. PMID:15734247

Besier, Thor F; Draper, Christine E; Gold, Garry E; Beaupré, Gary S; Delp, Scott L

2005-03-01

53

Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

1992-01-01

54

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

2006-10-01

55

Time-weighted average sampling of airborne propylene glycol ethers by a solid-phase microextraction device.  

PubMed

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a diffusive sampler for airborne propylene glycol ethers (PGEs), including propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME). Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) SPME fiber was selected for this study. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing was used as the holder, and the SPME fiber assembly was inserted into the tubing as a diffusive sampler. The diffusion path length and area of the sampler were 0.3 cm and 0.00086 cm(2), respectively. The theoretical sampling constants at 30°C and 1 atm for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME were 1.50 × 10(-2), 1.23 × 10(-2) and 1.14 × 10(-2) cm(3) min(-1), respectively. For evaluations, known concentrations of PGEs around the threshold limit values/time-weighted average with specific relative humidities (10% and 80%) were generated both by the air bag method and the dynamic generation system, while 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min were selected as the time periods for vapor exposures. Comparisons of the SPME diffusive sampling method to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) organic Method 99 were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 30°C for PGME. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used for sample analysis. The experimental sampling constants of the sampler at 30°C were (6.93 ± 0.12) × 10(-1), (4.72 ± 0.03) × 10(-1), and (3.29 ± 0.20) × 10(-1) cm(3) min(-1) for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME, respectively. The adsorption of chemicals on the stainless steel needle of the SPME fiber was suspected to be one of the reasons why significant differences between theoretical and experimental sampling rates were observed. Correlations between the results for PGME from both SPME device and OSHA organic Method 99 were linear (r = 0.9984) and consistent (slope = 0.97 ± 0.03). Face velocity (0-0.18 m/s) also proved to have no effects on the sampler. However, the effects of temperature and humidity have been observed. Therefore, adjustments of experimental sampling constants at different environmental conditions will be necessary. PMID:22651222

Shih, H C; Tsai, S W; Kuo, C H

2012-01-01

56

An analysis of the threshold method for measuring area-average rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental evidence shows that the area-average rain rate and the fractional area covered by rain rate exceeding a fixed threshold are highly correlated; that is, are highly linearly related. A precise theoretical explanation of this fact is given. The explanation is based on the observation that rain rate has a mixed distribution, one that is a mixture of a discrete distribution and a continuous distribution. Under a homogeneity assumption, the slope of the linear relationship depends only on the continuous part of the distribution and as such is found to be markedly immune to parameter changes. This is illustrated by certain slope surfaces obtained from three specific distributions. The threshold level can be chosen in an optimal way by minimizing a certain distance function defined over the threshold range. In general, the threshold level should be not too far from the mean rain rate conditional on rain. The so-called threshold method advocates measuring rainfall from fractional area exploiting the observed linear relationship of the later with the area average rain rate. The method is potentially useful for the estimation of rainfall from space via satellites.

Kedem, Benjamin; Chiu, Long S.; Karni, Zvi

1990-01-01

57

High surface area, low-weight composite nickel fiber electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy density and power density of lightweight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures have been intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages have been demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ˜28--32 ?m diameter. Work in our laboratory has investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 ?m diameter (available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures will be presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH) 2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties will be discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce T.

58

Hydrophone area-averaging correction factors in nonlinearly generated ultrasonic beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear propagation of an ultrasonic wave can be used to produce a wavefield rich in higher frequency components that is ideally suited to the calibration, or inter-calibration, of hydrophones. These techniques usually use a tone-burst signal, limiting the measurements to harmonics of the fundamental calibration frequency. Alternatively, using a short pulse enables calibration at a continuous spectrum of frequencies. Such a technique is used at PTB in conjunction with an optical measurement technique to calibrate devices. Experimental findings indicate that the area-averaging correction factor for a hydrophone in such a field demonstrates a complex behaviour, most notably varying periodically between frequencies that are harmonics of the centre frequency of the original pulse and frequencies that lie midway between these harmonics. The beam characteristics of such nonlinearly generated fields have been investigated using a finite difference solution to the nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation for a focused field. The simulation results are used to calculate the hydrophone area-averaging correction factors for 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm devices. The results clearly demonstrate a number of significant features observed in the experimental investigations, including the variation with frequency, drive level and hydrophone element size. An explanation for these effects is also proposed.

Cooling, M. P.; Humphrey, V. F.; Wilkens, V.

2011-02-01

59

Time scales and variability of area-averaged tropical oceanic rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A statistical analysis of time series of area-averaged rainfall over the oceans has been conducted around the diurnal time scale. The results of this analysis can be applied directly to the problem of establishing the magnitude of expected errors to be incurred in the estimation of monthly area-averaged rain rate from low orbiting satellites. Such statistics as the mean, standard deviation, integral time scale of background red noise, and spectral analyses were performed on time series of the GOES precipitation index taken at 3-hour intervals during the period spanning December 19, 1987 to March 31, 1988 over the central and eastern tropical Pacific. The analyses have been conducted on 2.5 x 2.5 deg and 5 x 5 deg grid boxes, separately. The study shows that rainfall measurements by a sun-synchronous satellite visiting a spot twice per day will include a bias due to the existence of the semidiurnal cycle in the SPCZ ranging from 5 to 10 percentage points. The bias in the ITCZ may be of the order of 5 percentage points.

Shin, Kyung-Sup; North, Gerald R.; Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Arkin, Phillip A.

1990-01-01

60

Radiation synthesis of low swelling acrylamide based hydrogels and determination of average molecular weight between cross-links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of determination of cross-link density ( ?e) of hydrogels by using swelling tests and mechanical measurements has been made. Poly(acrylamide/methacrylamide) P(AAm/MAAm) and poly(acrylamide/hydroxyethyl methacrylate) P(AAm/HEMA) hydrogels were prepared by using gamma rays and used as model hydrogel systems. The uniaxial compression test was applied to cylindrical gel samples in the swollen state at pH 7. Stress-strain curves of hydrogels were evaluated to calculate the shear modulus values. The average molecular weight between cross-links (M) and ?e obtained from mechanical measurements were significantly different than the values obtained from swelling experiments. Large differences were attributed to the uncertainty on the value of the ? parameter used in the Flory-Rehner equation. ±1% change in this parameter doubled or reduced the M value of hydrogel to half value.

Mahmudi, Naim; ?en, Murat; Rendevski, Stojan; Güven, Olgun

2007-12-01

61

A nonmonotone trust region method based on nonincreasing technique of weighted average of the successive function values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a nonmonotone trust region method. Unlike traditional nonmonotone trust region method, the nonmonotone technique applied to our method is based on the nonmonotone line search technique proposed by Zhang and Hager [A nonmonotone line search technique and its application to unconstrained optimization, SIAM J. Optim. 14(4) (2004) 1043-1056] instead of that presented by Grippo et al. [A nonmonotone line search technique for Newton's method, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 23(4) (1986) 707-716]. So the method requires nonincreasing of a special weighted average of the successive function values. Global and superlinear convergence of the method are proved under suitable conditions. Preliminary numerical results show that the method is efficient for unconstrained optimization problems.

Mo, Jiangtao; Liu, Chunyan; Yan, Shicui

2007-12-01

62

A new approach to combine climate change projections by ordered weighting averaging operator; applications to northwestern provinces of Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projections of the climate change by using General Climate Models (GCMs) are uncertain. Hence, combining the results of GCMs is now an effective solution to tackle this uncertainty. To evaluate the performance of GCMs, a new measure based on the similarity of the projections is defined. In defining this measure the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) approach is used. The relative weights of the GCMs projections in different stations, to be aggregated by the OWA operator, are obtained by regular increasing monotone fuzzy quantifiers, which model the risk preferences of the decision maker. To show the effectiveness of the approach, climate change in the northwestern provinces of Iran is studied by using the data of 15 synoptic stations. The weather generator of LARS-WG is used to downscale the GCMs under three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) for the period 2011 to 2030. The combined results, by using the similarity values, indicate a - 0.1 °C to + 4.5 °C change in temperature in the region. Precipitation is expected to increase in summer and fall. Changes in wintry precipitation depend on the location; however the precipitation in spring would have a medium change. The results of this study show the usefulness of OWA operator, which considers the risk attitudes of the decision maker. This approach could help water and environmental managers to tackle the climate uncertainties.

Amir Rahmani, Mohammad; Zarghami, Mahdi

2013-03-01

63

A New Sensitivity Analysis and Solution Method for Scintillometer Measurements of Area-Averaged Turbulent Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length l_o and refractive index structure function C_n^2 allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as l_o. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.

Gruber, Matthew; Fochesatto, Gilberto J.

2013-07-01

64

A new sensitivity analysis and solution method for scintillometer measurements of area-average turbulent fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length lo and refractive index structure function C2n allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as lo. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.

Gruber, Matthew

65

Saccadic amplitudes during combined saccade-vergence movements result from a weighted average of the target's locations in the two retinas.  

PubMed

Recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies have established that the saccadic amplitudes performed during combined saccade-vergence movements are unequal in the two eyes. These studies have not established, however, how the saccadic amplitude of each eye is determined. Our goal here is to fill this lacuna. We use three well-known metric attributes of saccadic movements as constraints and argue that the only quantitative model that obeys these constraints is one where each eye's saccadic amplitude is given by a weighted average of the target's locations in the two retinas. However, this theoretical result does not establish whether the weights in the weighted averaging operation are constant or whether they vary for different targets. To test the simpler of these two possibilities, namely the one of constant weights, we recorded combined saccade-vergence movements performed by human subjects. Our analysis of these movements shows that a constant-weights weighted averaging model provides an excellent description of their saccadic amplitudes. Overall, then, our conclusions are: (1) the two eyes' saccadic amplitudes are determined by weighted averages of the target's locations in the two retinas; (2) for targets within the oculomotor range of natural viewing, which was the range in our experiments, a weighted averaging model that uses constant weights accounts superbly for these saccadic amplitudes. We suggest that the weighted averaging operation that determines saccadic amplitudes is a by-product of a process whose purpose is to yoke the two eyes together. We provide a model explaining how this yoking may be achieved. PMID:24232858

Hendel, Tal; Gur, Moshe

2014-01-01

66

Direct and gradient-based average strain estimation by using weighted nearest neighbor cross-correlation peaks.  

PubMed

In this paper, two novel approaches, gradient-based and direct strain estimation techniques, are proposed for high-quality average strain imaging incorporating a cost function maximization. Stiffness typically is a continuous function. Consequently, stiffness of proximal tissues is very close to that of the tissue corresponding to a given data window. Hence, a cost function is defined from exponentially weighted neighboring pre- and post-compression RF echo normalized cross-correlation peaks in the lateral (for displacement estimation) or in both the axial and the lateral (for direct strain estimation) directions. This enforces a controlled continuity in displacement/strain and average displacement/strain is calculated from the corresponding maximized cost function. Axial stress causes lateral shift in the tissue. Therefore, a 1-D post-compression echo segment is selected by incorporating Poisson's ratio. Two stretching factors are considered simultaneously in gradient-based strain estimation that allow imaging the lesions properly. The proposed time-domain gradient-based and direct-strain-estimation-based algorithms demonstrate significantly better performance in terms of elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe), elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and mean structural similarity (MSSIM) than the other reported time-domain gradient-based and direct-strain-estimation techniques in finite element modeling (FEM) simulation and phantom experiments. For example, in FEM simulation, it has been found that the proposed direct strain estimation method can improve up to approximately 2.49 to 8.71, 2.2 to 6.63, 1.5 to 5, and 1.59 to 2.45 dB in the SNRe, CNRe, PSNR, and MSSIM compared with the traditional direct strain estimation method, respectively, and the proposed gradient-based algorithm demonstrates 2.99 to 16.26, 18.74 to 23.88, 3 to 9.5, and 0.6 to 5.36 dB improvement in the SNRe, CNRe, PSNR, and MSSIM, respectively, compared with a recently reported time-domain gradient-based technique. The range of improvement as noted above is for low to high applied strains. In addition, the comparative results using the in vivo breast data (including malignant or benign masses) also show that the lesion size is better defined by the proposed gradient-based average strain estimation technique. PMID:22899118

Hussain, Mohammad Arafat; Abu Anas, Emran Mohammad; Alam, S Kaisar; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

2012-08-01

67

BiSON data preparation: a correction for differential extinction and the weighted averaging of contemporaneous data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximize the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimizing the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio, we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide greater constraint on changes in the oscillation spectrum with solar activity. In addition, the analysis of the low-frequency region suggests that we have achieved a noise level that may allow us to improve estimates of the upper limit of g-mode amplitudes.

Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Hale, S. J.

2014-07-01

68

Analysis of trace contaminants in hot gas streams using time-weighted average solid-phase microextraction: proof of concept.  

PubMed

Time-weighted average (TWA) passive sampling using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography was investigated as a new method of collecting, identifying and quantifying contaminants in process gas streams. Unlike previous TWA-SPME techniques using the retracted fiber configuration (fiber within needle) to monitor ambient conditions or relatively stagnant gases, this method was developed for fast-moving process gas streams at temperatures approaching 300 °C. The goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method of analyzing low concentrations of contaminants in hot gas streams without performing time-consuming exhaustive extraction with a slipstream. This work in particular aims to quantify trace tar compounds found in a syngas stream generated from biomass gasification. This paper evaluates the concept of retracted SPME at high temperatures by testing the three essential requirements for TWA passive sampling: (1) zero-sink assumption, (2) consistent and reliable response by the sampling device to changing concentrations, and (3) equal concentrations in the bulk gas stream relative to the face of the fiber syringe opening. Results indicated the method can accurately predict gas stream concentrations at elevated temperatures. Evidence was also discovered to validate the existence of a second boundary layer within the fiber during the adsorption/absorption process. This limits the technique to operating within reasonable mass loadings and loading rates, established by appropriate sampling depths and times for concentrations of interest. A limit of quantification for the benzene model tar system was estimated at 0.02 g m(-3) (8 ppm) with a limit of detection of 0.5 mg m(-3) (200 ppb). Using the appropriate conditions, the technique was applied to a pilot-scale fluidized-bed gasifier to verify its feasibility. Results from this test were in good agreement with literature and prior pilot plant operation, indicating the new method can measure low concentrations of tar in gasification streams. PMID:23398991

Woolcock, Patrick J; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

2013-03-15

69

Calculation of wastewater effluent leakage to pristine water sources by the weighted average of multiple tracer approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

methodology used to estimate the percentage of wastewater effluent in an otherwise pristine water site is proposed on the basis of the weighted mean of the level of a consortium of indicator pollutants. This method considers the levels of uncertainty in the evaluation of each of the indicators in the site, potential effluent sources, and uncontaminated surroundings. A detailed demonstrative study was conducted on a site that is potentially subject to wastewater leakage. The research concentrated on several perched springs that are influenced to an unknown extent by agricultural communities. A comparison was made to a heavily contaminated site receiving wastewater effluent and surface water runoff. We investigated six springs in two nearby ridges where fecal contamination was detected in the past; the major sources of pollution in the area have since been diverted to a wastewater treatment system. We used chloride, acesulfame, and carbamazepine as domestic pollution tracers. Good correlation (R2 > 0.86) was observed between the mixing ratio predictions based on the two organic tracers (the slope of the linear regression was 1.05), whereas the chloride predictions differed considerably. This methodology is potentially useful, particularly for cases in which detailed hydrological modeling is unavailable but in which quantification of wastewater penetration is required. We demonstrate that the use of more than one tracer for estimation of the mixing ratio reduces the combined uncertainty level associated with the estimate and can also help to disqualify biased tracers.

Gasser, Guy; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Glazman, Hillel; Lev, Ovadia

2014-05-01

70

Income inequality and weight status in US metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior empirical studies have demonstrated an association between income inequality and general health endpoints such as mortality and self-rated health, and findings have been taken as support for the hypothesis that inequality is detrimental to individual health. Unhealthy weight statuses may function as an intermediary link between inequality and more general heath endpoints. Using individual-level data from the 1996-98 Behavioral

Virginia W. Changa; Nicholas A. Christakisf

71

Levels and differentials in weight, height and body mass index among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study examined the variation in weight, height and body mass index of 1048 mothers living in a rural area of Bangladesh in relation to age, education, number of previous pregnancies, number of dead children, religion, family type, family size, and amount of land owned by the household. Multiple regression analysis revealed a positive relationship of education with all three variables. Moslem mothers were on average in better condition than Hindus. The number of dead children showed a negative relationship with height, weight and body mass index. PMID:8425883

Bhuiya, A; Mostafa, G

1993-01-01

72

Characteristics of Ozone in the Baltimore-Washington Area: 1-Hour Average Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was develop a 15-year climatology (1981-1995) for the 1-hour diurnal maximum ozone concentration (DMOC) at the surface for the Baltimore-Washington area. The area was divided into four regions: Baltimore, Washington, non-urban Ma...

F. M. Vukovich R. Wayland

1998-01-01

73

WACALIB version 3.3 — a computer program to reconstruct environmental variables from fossil assemblages by weighted averaging and to derive sample-specific errors of prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program for reconstructing environmental variables (e.g. lake-water pH) from fossil assemblages (e.g. diatoms) by weighted averaging regression and calibration is described. The estimation of sample-specific errors of prediction by bootstrapping is outlined. The program runs on IBM-compatible personal computers.

J. M. Line; Cajo J. E ter Braak; H. J. B. Birks

1994-01-01

74

No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between the average daily weight gain (from approximately 4 to 20 weeks of age) and the serological responses to respiratory infections was examined in a longitudinal study including 825 pigs from eight chronically infected herds. Pigs were bled every 4th week (starting from approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and

Margit Andreasen; Jan Mousing; Lars Krogsgaard Thomsen

2001-01-01

75

Weighting for Recognition: Accounting for Advanced Placement and Honors Courses when Calculating High School Grade Point Average  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Honors and advanced placement (AP) courses are commonly viewed as more demanding than standard high school offerings. Schools employ a range of methods to account for such differences when calculating grade point average and the associated rank in class for graduating students. In turn, these statistics have a sizeable impact on college admission…

Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

2007-01-01

76

Influence of Clenching Intensity on Bite Force Balance, Occlusal Contact Area, and Average Bite Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been difficult for investigators to simultaneously and reliably evaluate bite force in the intercuspal position with the area and location of occlusal contacts. This study was designed to investigate the variations in these parameters with respect to two factors: three levels of clenching and the preferred chewing side. Human subjects with normal occlusion were examined with a recently

O. Hidaka; M. Iwasaki; M. Saito; T. Morimoto

1999-01-01

77

Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

78

Residence in coal-mining areas and low-birth-weight outcomes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother's residence in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005-2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were from the US Department of Energy. Covariates regarding mothers' demographics, behaviors, and insurance coverage were included. We used nested logistic regression (SUDAAN Proc Multilog) to conduct the study. Mothers who were older, unmarried, less educated, smoked, did not receive prenatal care, were on Medicaid, and had recorded medical risks had a greater risk of low birth weight. After controlling for covariates, residence in coal mining areas of West Virginia posed an independent risk of low birth weight. Odds ratios for both unadjusted and adjusted findings suggest a dose-response effect. Adjusted findings show that living in areas with high levels of coal mining elevates the odds of a low-birth-weight infant by 16%, and by 14% in areas with lower mining levels, relative to counties with no coal mining. After covariate adjustment, the persistence of a mining effect on low-birth-weight outcomes suggests an environmental effect resulting from pollution from mining activities. Air and water quality assessments have been largely missing from mining communities, but the need for them is indicated by these findings. PMID:20091110

Ahern, Melissa; Mullett, Martha; Mackay, Katherine; Hamilton, Candice

2011-10-01

79

Residence in CoalMining Areas and Low-Birth-Weight Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight.\\u000a We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother’s residence\\u000a in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005–2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were

Melissa Ahern; Martha Mullett; Katherine MacKay; Candice Hamilton

80

Racial Residential Segregation and Low Birth Weight in Michigan's Metropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the influence of racial residential segregation, independent of neighborhood economic factors, on the overall and specific etiological risks of low birth weight. Methods. We geocoded all singleton births in Michigan metropolitan areas during 2000 to census tracts. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate the association between low birth weight (< 2500 g) and neighborhood-level economic and racial segregation, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed competing risks of the 2 etiologies of low birth weight: intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Results. Living in a Black segregated area was associated with increased odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.29; P < .05) of low birth weight after adjusting for individual- and tract-level measures. The analysis suggested that the association between low birth weight and racial segregation was attributable primarily to increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.37; P < .05). Conclusions. Odds of low birth weight are higher in racially segregated Black neighborhoods in Michigan's metropolitan areas, independent of economic factors. The association appears to operate through intrauterine growth restriction rather than preterm birth.

Bader, Michael D. M.

2011-01-01

81

Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area.  

PubMed

The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age < or =5 years (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.003), a hematocrit < or =29% (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, P = 0.037), and a body weight < or =9.6 kg (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-20, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of FFBW > or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138

Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A

2007-07-01

82

LightWeight and Large-Area Solar Cell Production Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production technologies for light-weight, large-area and flexible solar cells are reviewed. Roll-to-roll processes including an originally developed stepping-roll deposition process are used to fabricate large-area hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar cells in succession on plastic film substrates. A unique monolithic device structure for the insulating film substrates having through-hole contacts was developed and applied to simplify the production processes and to

Akihiro Takano; Tomoyoshi Kamoshita

2004-01-01

83

Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

Young, Beverly S.

84

Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

2008-06-01

85

Discrimination thresholds for haptic perception of volume, surface area, and weight.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the human ability to discriminate the size of 3-D objects by touch. Experiment 1 measured the just noticeable differences (JNDs) for three tasks: (1) discrimination of volume without availability of weight information, (2) discrimination of volume with weight information available, and (3) discrimination of surface area. Stimuli consisted of spheres, cubes, and tetrahedrons. For all shapes, two reference sizes were used (3.5 and 12 cm(3)). No significant effect of task on the discriminability of objects was found, but the effects of shape and size were significant, as well as the interaction between these two factors. Post hoc analysis revealed that for the small reference, the Weber fractions for the tetrahedron were significantly larger than the fractions for the cube and the sphere. In Experiment 2, the JNDs for haptic perception of weight were measured for the same objects as those used in Experiment 1. The shape of objects had no significant effect on the Weber fractions for weight, but the Weber fractions for the small stimuli were larger than the fractions for the large stimuli. Surprisingly, a comparison between the two experiments showed that the Weber fractions for weight were significantly larger than the fractions for volume with availability of weight information. Taken together, the results reveal that volume and weight information are not effectively combined in discrimination tasks. This study provides detailed insight into the accuracy of the haptic system in discriminating objects' size. This substantial set of data satisfies the need for more fundamental knowledge on haptic size perception, necessary for a greater understanding of the perception of related properties, as well as of more general perceptual processes. PMID:21870206

Kahrimanovic, Mirela; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

2011-11-01

86

WRAP: A weighted random value protocol for multiuser wireless body area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a weighted-random-value based resource allocation protocol, WRAP, for multiuser wireless body area network (WBAN) is proposed. WRAP will simultaneously allocate intra and inter WBAN resources by considering both the quality of service (QoS) control in a single WBAN and priority differences among WBANs. Simulation results show that WRAP algorithm can effectively allocate data slots to meet WBAN

ChingYao Huang; MeiLing Liu; ShihHeng Cheng

2010-01-01

87

Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether girls and boys categorized from body mass index (BMI) values as overweight or obese for their age have lower bone mineral content (BMC) or lower bone area in relation to total body weight than children of normal adiposity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in a university bone research unit.SUBJECTS: Two hundred girls and 136 boys aged 3–19 y recruited

A Goulding; RW Taylor; IE Jones; KA McAuley; PJ Manning; SM Williams

2000-01-01

88

Iron superoxide dismutase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: average hydrophobicity and amino acid weight are involved in the adaptation of proteins to extreme environments.  

PubMed

The iron-superoxide dismutase in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has a homodimeric structure with a metal content of 0.7 atom of iron per subunit. The enzyme is insensitive to cyanide inhibition, sensitive to inactivation by H2O2 and is the most heat resistant SOD known so far being its half-life 2 h at 100 degrees C. Its primary structure was determined by a profitable combination of advanced mass spectrometry and automated sequence analysis of peptides obtained after cleavage of the purified protein. The enzyme subunit is composed of 210 amino acid residues accounting for a relative molecular mass of 24,112. It does not contain cysteine residues and has a high average of both hydrophobicity and amino acid weight. Vice versa, the hydrophobicity is lower in halophilic SODs. Therefore, it seems that the average hydrophobicity is involved in the adaptation of proteins to extreme environments. The multiple alignment of the primary structure of archaeal and thermophilic eubacterial SODs indicated that archaeal SODs evolved separately from the thermophilic eubacterial SODs and that halophiles originated from a gene different from that of thermophilic archaea. PMID:9428655

Dello Russo, A; Rullo, R; Nitti, G; Masullo, M; Bocchini, V

1997-11-14

89

Costs Associated with Low Birth Weight in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is prevalent in low-income countries. Even though the economic evaluation of interventions to reduce this burden is essential to guide health policies, data on costs associated with LBW are scarce. This study aims to estimate the costs to the health system and to the household and the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) arising from infant deaths associated with LBW in Southern Mozambique. Methods and Findings Costs incurred by the households were collected through exit surveys. Health system costs were gathered from data obtained onsite and from published information. DALYs due to death of LBW babies were based on local estimates of prevalence of LBW (12%), very low birth weight (VLBW) (1%) and of case fatality rates compared to non-LBW weight babies [for LBW (12%) and VLBW (80%)]. Costs associated with LBW excess morbidity were calculated on the incremental number of hospital admissions in LBW babies compared to non-LBW weight babies. Direct and indirect household costs for routine health care were 24.12 US$ (CI 95% 21.51; 26.26). An increase in birth weight of 100 grams would lead to a 53% decrease in these costs. Direct and indirect household costs for hospital admissions were 8.50 US$ (CI 95% 6.33; 10.72). Of the 3,322 live births that occurred in one year in the study area, health system costs associated to LBW (routine health care and excess morbidity) and DALYs were 169,957.61 US$ (CI 95% 144,900.00; 195,500.00) and 2,746.06, respectively. Conclusions This first cost evaluation of LBW in a low-income country shows that reducing the prevalence of LBW would translate into important cost savings to the health system and the household. These results are of relevance for similar settings and should serve to promote interventions aimed at improving maternal care.

Sicuri, Elisa; Bardaji, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Macete, Eusebio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara

2011-01-01

90

MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (super)computing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

2013-12-01

91

An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production efficiency and consumer knowledge of growth-enhancing technology use, WTP decreased by 12%-leading to a decrease in social acceptability. Results demonstrated that improved efficiency also improved environmental impact, but impacts on economic viability and social acceptability are highly dependent on consumer and producer behavioral responses to efficiency improvements. PMID:24146151

White, R R; Capper, J L

2013-12-01

92

A Study on Maximum Fluctuation Width within a few Hours regarding Ensemble Average Insolation Observed at Multi-points in Large Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the past studies regarding the insolation fluctuation, the smoothing effect of insolation among different locations would not be enough for the longer cycle than a few ten minutes. This study evaluated the maximum fluctuation width (MFW) within at most 120 min of ensemble average insolation of 40 points, its clearness index, and ensemble average insolation excluding sun-position dependent component. As the results, when the weather condition became worse after the noon in almost all area, the ensemble average insolation significantly reduced, resulting in MFW of 540W/m2 within 120 min. As other example, when the weather recovered during the morning in many areas, MFW was also large. By using the data observed for 6 months, this study calculated the cumulative frequency distribution of MFW of ensemble average insolation, its clearness index, and ensemble average insolation excluding sun-position dependent component. As the results, the absolute value of MFW of ensemble average insolation calculated with 120 min width window ranges mainly between 200-300W/m2. The absolute value of MWF of insolation excluding sun-position dependent component evaluated with 120 min width window is smaller than 200W/m2 in most days, and is not so different from MWF evaluated with 60 min width window. Finally, this study discussed the practical usability of insolation forecast.

Kumazawa, Shinsuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Masakazu; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

93

50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table...660, Subpart Câ2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

2010-10-01

94

50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table...660, Subpart Câ2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

2010-10-01

95

50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, and Beyond, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false 2010, and Beyond, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table...Subpart Gâ2010, and Beyond, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

2009-10-01

96

50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table...660, Subpart Gâ2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

2009-10-01

97

Effects of Average Signed Area Between Two Item Characteristic Curves and Test Purification Procedures on the DIF Detection via the Mantel-Haenszel Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated the effects of the average signed area (ASA) between the item characteristic curves of the reference and focal groups and three test purification procedures on the uniform differential item functioning (DIF) detection via the Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) method through Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that ASA,…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Ya-Hui

2004-01-01

98

An Exploration of Discontinuous Time Synchronous Averaging for Helicopter HUMS Using Cruise and Terminal Area Vibration Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research using NASA Ames AH-1 and OH-58C helicopters, and NASA Glenn test rigs, has shown that in-flight vibration data are typically non-stationary [l-4]. The nature and extent of this non-stationarity is most likely produced by several factors operating simultaneously. The aerodynamic flight environment and pilot commands provide continuously changing inputs, with a complex dynamic response that includes automatic feedback control from the engine regulator. It would appear that the combined effects operate primarily through an induced torque profile, which causes concomitant stress modulation at the individual internal gear meshes in the transmission. This notion is supported by several analyses, which show that upwards of 93% of the vibration signal s variance can be explained by knowledge of torque alone. That this relationship is stronger in an AH-1 than an OH-58, where measured non-stationarity is greater, suggests that the overall mass of the vehicle is an important consideration. In the lighter aircraft, the unsteady aerodynamic influences transmit relatively greater unsteady dynamic forces on the mechanical components, quite possibly contributing to its greater non-stationarity . In a recent paper using OH-58C pinion data [5], the authors have shown that in computing a time synchronous average (TSA) for various single-value metric computations, an effective trade-off can be obtained between sample size and measured stationarity by using data from only a single mesh cycle. A mesh cycle, which is defined as the number of rotations required for the gear teeth to return to their original mating position, has the property of representing all of the discrete phase angles of the opposing gears exactly once in the average. Measured stationarity is probably maximized because a single mesh cycle of the pinion gear occurs over a very short span of time, during which time-dependent non-stationary effects are kept to a minimum. Clearly, the advantage of local stationarity diminishes as the temporal duration of the cycle increases. This is most evident for a planetary mesh cycle, which can take several minutes to complete.

Huff, Edward M.; Mosher, Marianne; Barszcz, Eric

2002-01-01

99

The Weighted Average Method 'WAM' for Dental Age Estimation: A simpler method for children at the 10 year threshold: "It is vain to do with more when less will suffice" William of Ockham 1288-1358.".  

PubMed

The mathematical principle of weighting averages to determine the most appropriate numerical outcome is well established in economic and social studies. It has seen little application in forensic dentistry. This study re-evaluated the data from a previous study of age assessment at the 10 year threshold. A semiautomatic process of weighting averages by n-td, x-tds, sd-tds, se-tds, 1/sd-tds, 1/se-tds was prepared in an Excel worksheet and the different weighted mean values reported. In addition the Fixed Effects and Random Effects models for Meta-Analysis were used and applied to the same data sets. In conclusion it has been shown that the most accurate age estimation method is to use the Random Effects Model for the mathematical procedures. PMID:25066175

Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Lucas, Victoria S

2014-08-01

100

Average Speed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is not an inquiry activity but will help students understand the meaning of average velocity. Students do not easily understand from a textbook that an object's velocity changes over a period of acceleration. They have difficulty understanding wh

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

101

Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on

Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka

2004-01-01

102

Fixation of chondral fracture of the weight-bearing area of the lateral femoral condyle in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Purely chondral fractures of the distal femur associated with patellar dislocation are uncommon, and treatment varies from fixation to debridement and marrow stimulation techniques. The unusual case reported here involves an adolescent who underwent fixation of a purely chondral fracture involving a large weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. Chondral fracture healing was confirmed on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic examination. This case suggests that fixation of purely chondral fractures can be successful in weight-bearing areas of the knee. Level of evidence V. PMID:24414379

Chan, Chung Ming; King, Joseph J; Farmer, Kevin W

2014-06-01

103

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND ASSOCIATED MATERNAL FACTORS IN AN URBAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and its association with maternal factors Design: Cohort study. Setting: Urban community. Subjects: Cohort of 210 pregnant women. Results: The LBW prevalence was 30.3%. On multivariate analyses the maternal factors significantly associated with LBW were anemia (OR-4.81), low socioeconomic status (OR-3.96), short birth interval (OR-3.84), tobacco exposure (OR-3.14), height (OR-2.78),

J. S. Deshmukh; D. D. Motghare; S. P. Zodpey; S. K. Wadhva

104

Frequency weightings for fore-and-aft vibration at the back: effect of contact location, contact area, and body posture.  

PubMed

Fore-and-aft vibration of a backrest can influence discomfort and the risk of injury associated with whole-body vibration. Relevant standards (BS 6841:1987 and ISO2631-1:1997) recommend the W(c) frequency weighting for evaluating fore-and-aft vibration of backrests, but do not specify the precise location for measuring vibration. This study determined equivalent comfort contours for fore-and-aft vibration of the backs of seated persons from 2 to 80 Hz using the method of magnitude estimation, examining the effect of input location, contact area, and body posture. The equivalent comfort contours indicate decreased sensitivity to vibration acceleration at frequencies greater than 8 Hz. Equivalent comfort contours with a full backrest were similar to those with contact at only the highest location on the back. The derived frequency weightings are broadly consistent with frequency weighting W(c) but suggest somewhat greater sensitivity at frequencies greater than 30 Hz and vary in shape with changes in vibration magnitude. It is concluded that with low and moderate magnitudes of vibration the severity of fore-and-aft vibration of a backrest can be assessed from the frequency-weighted fore-and-aft acceleration measured at the highest point of contact between the backrest and the body if the frequency weighting W(c) is employed in the evaluation. PMID:20953071

Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

2010-01-01

105

Scaling effects on area-averaged fraction of vegetation cover derived using a linear mixture model with two-band spectral vegetation index constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an area-averaged FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic area-averaged FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ?, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.

Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.

2014-01-01

106

Summary Documentation of Selected Activities from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Machine Editing; Imputation; Sampling Weight Calibration; Small Area Estimation; Table Production; Disclosure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the major project operations for the 2001 National Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), in the following areas: Machine editing, imputation, sampling weight calibration, small area estimation, table production, and disclosure. Topics pre...

2003-01-01

107

Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.

Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

2004-01-01

108

High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol) have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol) or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol) amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P = 0.03) and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P = 0.03), compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P = 0.01) and density (4%, P = 0.002) of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P = 0.01) and stiffness (P = 0.002). However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.

Huot, Pedro S. P.; Dodington, David W.; Mollard, Rebecca C.; Reza-Lopez, Sandra A.; Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Cho, Clara E.; Kuk, Justin; Ward, Wendy E.; Anderson, G. Harvey

2013-01-01

109

50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table...660, Subpart Gâ2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link to...

2010-10-01

110

Forecasting Sales by Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of computers for mechanized inventory control and production planning has brought with it the need for explicit forecasts of sales and usage for individual products and materials. These forecasts must be made on a routine basis for thousands of products, so that they must be made quickly, and, both in terms of computing time and information storage,

Peter R. Winters

1960-01-01

111

Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching  

PubMed Central

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (?95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities.

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-01-01

112

Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.  

PubMed

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (? 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-03-01

113

Diffusion-weighted imaging-based probabilistic segmentation of high- and low-proliferative areas in high-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Abstract The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) correlates inversely with tumor proliferation rates. High-grade gliomas are typically heterogeneous and the delineation of areas of high and low proliferation is impeded by partial volume effects and blurred borders. Commonly used manual delineation is further impeded by potential overlap with cerebrospinal fluid and necrosis. Here we present an algorithm to reproducibly delineate and probabilistically quantify the ADC in areas of high and low proliferation in heterogeneous gliomas, resulting in a reproducible quantification in regions of tissue inhomogeneity. We used an expectation maximization (EM) clustering algorithm, applied on a Gaussian mixture model, consisting of pure superpositions of Gaussian distributions. Soundness and reproducibility of this approach were evaluated in 10 patients with glioma. High- and low-proliferating areas found using the clustering correspond well with conservative regions of interest drawn using all available imaging data. Systematic placement of model initialization seeds shows good reproducibility of the method. Moreover, we illustrate an automatic initialization approach that completely removes user-induced variability. In conclusion, we present a rapid, reproducible and automatic method to separate and quantify heterogeneous regions in gliomas.

Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Thieke, Christian; Klein, Jan; Parzer, Peter; Weber, Marc-Andre; Stieltjes, Bram

2012-01-01

114

Ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge estimates for calendar year 2000 and average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow by hydrographic area, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nevada's reliance on ground-water resources has increased because of increased development and surface-water resources being fully appropriated. The need to accurately quantify Nevada's water resources and water use is more critical than ever to meet future demands. Estimated ground-water pumpage, artificial and natural recharge, and interbasin flow can be used to help evaluate stresses on aquifer systems. In this report, estimates of ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge during calendar year 2000 were made using data from a variety of sources, such as reported estimates and estimates made using Landsat satellite imagery. Average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow were compiled from published reports. An estimated 1,427,100 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in Nevada during calendar year 2000. This total was calculated by summing six categories of ground-water pumpage, based on water use. Total artificial recharge during 2000 was about 145,970 acre-feet. At least one estimate of natural recharge was available for 209 of the 232 hydrographic areas (HAs). Natural recharge for the 209 HAs ranges from 1,793,420 to 2,583,150 acre-feet. Estimates of interbasin flow were available for 151 HAs. The categories and their percentage of the total ground-water pumpage are irrigation and stock watering (47 percent), mining (26 percent), water systems (14 percent), geothermal production (8 percent), self-supplied domestic (4 percent), and miscellaneous (less than 1 percent). Pumpage in the top 10 HAs accounted for about 49 percent of the total ground-water pumpage. The most ground-water pumpage in an HA was due to mining in Pumpernickel Valley (HA 65), Boulder Flat (HA 61), and Lower Reese River Valley (HA 59). Pumpage by water systems in Las Vegas Valley (HA 212) and Truckee Meadows (HA 87) were the fourth and fifth highest pumpage in 2000, respectively. Irrigation and stock watering pumpage accounted for most ground-water withdrawals in the HAs with the sixth through ninth highest pumpage. Geothermal production accounted for most pumpage in the Carson Desert (HA 101). Reinjection of ground water pumped for geothermal energy production accounted for about 64 percent (93,310 acre-feet) of the total artificial recharge. The only artificial recharge by water systems was in Las Vegas Valley, where 29,790 acre-feet of water from the Colorado River was injected into the aquifer system. Artificial recharge by mining totaled 22,870 acre-feet. Net ground-water flow was estimated only for the 143 HAs with available estimates of both natural recharge and interbasin flow. Of the 143 estimates, 58 have negative net ground-water flow, indicating that ground-water storage could be depleted if pumpage continues at the same rate. The State has designated HAs where permitted ground-water rights approach or exceed the estimated average annual recharge. Ten HAs were identified that are not designated and have a net ground-water flow between -1,000 to -35,000 acre-feet. Due to uncertainties in recharge, the water budgets for these HAs may need refining to determine if ground-water storage is being depleted.

Lopes, Thomas J.; Evetts, David M.

2004-01-01

115

An assessment of the effect of horizontal soil moisture heterogeneity on the area-average measurement of cosmic-ray neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic-ray neutron probe measures soil moisture over tens of hectares, thus averaging spatially variable soil moisture fields. A previous paper described how variable soil moisture profiles affect the integrated cosmic-ray neutron signal from which depth-average soil moisture is computed. Here, we investigate the effect of horizontal heterogeneity on the relationship between neutron counts and average soil moisture. Observations from a distributed sensor network at a site in southern Arizona indicate that the horizontal component of the total variance of the soil moisture field is less variably in time than the vertical component. Using results from neutron particle transport simulations we show that 1-D binary distributions of soil moisture may affect both the mean and variance of neutron counts of a cosmic-ray neutron detector placed arbitrarily in a soil moisture field, potentially giving rise to an underestimate of the footprint average soil moisture. Similar simulations that used 1-D and 2-D Gaussian soil moisture fields indicate consistent mean and variances of a randomly placed detector if the correlation length scales are short (less than ˜30 m) and/or the soil moisture field variance is small (<0.032 m6 m-6). Taken together, these soil moisture observations and neutron transport simulations show that horizontal heterogeneity likely has a small effect on the relationship between mean neutron counts and average soil moisture for soils under natural conditions.

Franz, Trenton E.; Zreda, M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Rosolem, R.

2013-10-01

116

Study of Double-Weighted Graph Model and Optimal Path Planning for Tourist Scenic Area Oriented Intelligent Tour Guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When tourists visiting multiple tourist scenic spots, the travel line is usually the most effective road network according to the actual tour process, and maybe the travel line is different from planned travel line. For in the field of navigation, a proposed travel line is normally generated automatically by path planning algorithm, considering the scenic spots' positions and road networks. But when a scenic spot have a certain area and have multiple entrances or exits, the traditional described mechanism of single point coordinates is difficult to reflect these own structural features. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on the influence on the process of path planning caused by scenic spots' own structural features such as multiple entrances or exits, and then proposes a doubleweighted Graph Model, for the weight of both vertexes and edges of proposed Model can be selected dynamically. And then discusses the model building method, and the optimal path planning algorithm based on Dijkstra algorithm and Prim algorithm. Experimental results show that the optimal planned travel line derived from the proposed model and algorithm is more reasonable, and the travelling order and distance would be further optimized.

Shi, Y.; Long, Y.; Wi, X. L.

2014-04-01

117

Description of Magnetic Tape Containing Average Elevations of Topography in California and Adjacent Regions for Areas of 1x1 Minute and 3x3 Minutes in Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average elevations of about 199,000 1x1 minute and 51,000 3x3 minute 'compartments' in California and vicinity are recorded on a magnetic tape. The 1x1 minute coverage extends about 15 miles and the 3x3 minute about 100 miles in all directions beyond the ...

S. L. Robbins H. W. Oliver D. Plouff

1973-01-01

118

Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

1973-01-01

119

Repair of articular cartilage defect in non-weight bearing areas using adipose derived stem cells loaded polyglycolic acid mesh.  

PubMed

The current study was designed to observe chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) on fibrous polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold stabilized with polylactic acid (PLA), and to further explore the feasibility of using the resulting cell/scaffold constructs to repair full thickness articular cartilage defects in non-weight bearing area in porcine model within a follow-up of 6 months. Autologous ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were expanded and seeded on the scaffold to fabricate ASCs/PGA constructs. Chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs in the constructs under chondrogenic induction was monitored with time by measuring the expression of collagen type II (COL II) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The constructs after being in vitro induced for 2 weeks were implanted to repair full thickness articular cartilage defects (8mm in diameter, deep to subchondral bone) in femur trochlea (the experimental group), while scaffold alone was implanted to serve as the control. Histologically, the generated neo-cartilage integrated well with its surrounding normal cartilage and subchondral bone in the defects of experimental group at 3 months post-implantation, whereas only fibrous tissue was filled in the defects of control group. Immunohistochemical and toluidine blue staining confirmed the similar distribution of COL II and GAG in the regenerated cartilage as the normal one. A vivid remolding process with post-operation time was also witnessed in the neo-cartilage as its compressive moduli increased significantly from 50.55% of the normal cartilage at 3 months to 88.05% at 6 months. The successful repair thus substantiates the potentiality of using chondrogenic induced ASCs and PGA/PLA scaffold for cartilage regeneration. PMID:19217157

Cui, Lei; Wu, Yaohao; Cen, Lian; Zhou, Heng; Yin, Shuo; Liu, Guangpeng; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin

2009-05-01

120

The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

Young, Beverly S.

121

Estimation of areally-averaged surface fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of blending height is used to estimate areally averaged surface fluxes of momentum and heat in a stratified, horizontally inhomogeneous surface-layer flow. This concept is based on the assumption that at sufficiently large heights above a heterogeneous surface, subsequent surface modifications will not be recognizable in the flow individually, but overall flux and mean profiles will represent the surface condition of a large area. The height at which the flow becomes approximately independent of horizontal position is called blending height according to Wieringa (1986). Here, it is proposed to classify the ground surface in a surface-layer grid box of a larger-scale model into several land-use categories. Surface momentum and heat fluxes should be estimated for each category at the blending height. The grid-averaged surface fluxes are to be obtained by the average of surface fluxes on each land-use surface weighted by its fractional area. The postulate of computing the surface fluxes at the blending height leads to a new formulation of turbulent transfer coefficients. The proposed parameterization has been tested by employing a small-scale numerical model as a surface-layer grid box of a hypothesized larger-scale model. Several quite different flow configurations have been studied in order to investigate the performance of the new parameterization. Generally, the relative errors of estimated averaged surface fluxes are found to be well within ±10%.

Claussen, Martin

1991-03-01

122

Targeted leptin receptor blockade: role of ventral tegmental area and nucleus of the solitary tract leptin receptors in body weight homeostasis.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (leptin antagonist). Leptin antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to similar extents over 14 days in rats. Simultaneous overexpression of leptin in VTA with antagonist in MBH resulted in food intake and body weight gain that were less than with control treatment but greater than with leptin alone in VTA. Notably, leptin overexpression in VTA increased P-STAT3 in MBH along with VTA, and leptin antagonist overexpression in the VTA partially attenuated P-STAT3 levels in MBH. Interestingly, leptin antagonist overexpression elevated body weight gain, but leptin overexpression in the NTS failed to modulate either food intake or body weight despite increased P-STAT3. These data suggest that leptin function in the VTA participates in the chronic regulation of food consumption and body weight in response to stimulation or blockade of VTA leptin receptors. Moreover, one component of VTA-leptin action appears to be independent of the MBH, and another component appears to be related to leptin receptor-mediated P-STAT3 activation in the MBH. Finally, leptin receptors in the NTS are necessary for normal energy homeostasis, but mostly they appear to have a permissive role. Direct leptin activation of NTS slightly increases UCP1 levels, but has little effect on food consumption or body weight. PMID:24920667

Matheny, M; Strehler, K Y E; King, M; Tümer, N; Scarpace, P J

2014-07-01

123

Estimation of Relationship Between Hot Carcass Weight and Eye Muscle Area Which Effects on Meat Production of Black Bengal Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 16 castrated male goats were taken to measure hot carcass wt and eye muscle area to estimate meat production of goats. These goats were 12 months of age. In this experiment significant (0.1%) correlation was found between Hot carcass wt. and eye muscle area.

2007-01-01

124

Spatio-temporal Patterning of Small Area Low Birth Weight Incidence and Its Correlates: A Latent Spatial Structure Approach  

PubMed Central

Low birth weight (LBW) defined as infant weight at birth of less than 2500g is a useful health outcome for exploring spatio-temporal variation and the role of covariates. LBW is a key measure of population health used by local, national and international health organizations. Yet its spatio-temporal patterns and their dependence structures are poorly understood. In this study we examine the use of flexible latent structure models for the analysis of spatio-temporal variation in LBW. Beyond the explanatory capabilities of well-known predictors, we observe spatio-temporal effects, which are not directly observable using conventional modeling approaches. Our analysis shows that for county-level counts of LBW in Georgia and South Carolina the proportion of black population is a positive risk factor while high-income is a negative risk factor. Two dominant residual temporal components are also estimated. Finally our proposed method provides a better goodness-of-fit to these data than the conventional space-time models.

Kirby, Russell S.; Liu, Jihong; Lawson, Andrew B.; Choi, Jungsoon; Cai, Bo; Hossain, Md Monir

2011-01-01

125

Average balance equations for granular materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general weighted space-time averaging procedure is developed and utilized to obtain the average balance equations for granular materials. The method is applicable to both solid-like (quasi-static) and fluid-like (granular flow) modes of granular material behavior. The average balance equations take the same mathematical form while all average quantities involved in these equations retain the same clear physical meaning whether

Marijan Babic

1997-01-01

126

PAC-Bayesian model averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAC-Bayesian learning methods combine theinformative priors of Bayesian methods withdistribution-free PAC guarantees. Building onearlier methods for PAC-Bayesian model selection,this paper presents a method for PACBayesianmodel averaging. The method constructsan optimized weighted mixture of conceptsanalogous to a Bayesian posterior distribution.Although the main result is stated forbounded loss, a preliminary analysis for unboundedloss is also given.1 INTRODUCTIONA PAC-Bayesian...

David A. McAllester; Shannon Labs

1999-01-01

127

WEIGHTED EXPONENTIAL INEQUALITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sucient conditions on weight pairs are found for the validity of a class of weighted exponential inequalities involving certain classical operators. Among the operators considered are the Hardy averaging operator and its variants in one and two dimensions, as well as the Laplace transform. Discrete analogues yield characterizations of weighted forms of Carleman's inequality.

H. P. HEINIG; R. KERMAN; M. KRBEC

128

Neutron resonance averaging  

SciTech Connect

The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Chrien, R.E.

1986-10-01

129

Efficient Algorithms for Average Completion Time Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the competitive ratio of algorithms for minimizing (weighted) average completion time on identical parallel machines and prove that the well-known shortest remaining processing time algorithm (SRPT) is 5/4-competitive w.r.t. the average completion time objective. For weighted completion times we give a deterministic algorithm with competitive ratio 1.791 + o(m). This ratio holds for preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling.

Sitters, René

130

Updates on the relation of weight excess and reproductive function in men: sleep apnea as a new area of interest  

PubMed Central

Obesity has a negative effect on male reproductive function. It is associated with low testosterone levels and alteration in gonadotropin secretion. Male obesity has been linked to reduced male fertility. Data regarding the relation of obesity to sperm parameters are conflicting in terms of the nature and magnitude of the effect. New areas of interest are emerging that can help explain the variation in study results, such as genetic polymorphism and sleep apnea. Sleep disorders have been linked to altered testosterone production and hypogonadism in men. It was also correlated to erectile dysfunction. The relation of sleep disorders to male fertility and sperm parameters remains to be investigated. Men with hypogonadism and infertility should be screened for sleep apnea. Treatment of obesity and sleep apnea improves testosterone levels and erectile function.

Hammoud, Ahmad O; Carrell, Douglas T; Gibson, Mark; Matthew Peterson, C; Wayne Meikle, A

2012-01-01

131

Walks on Weighted Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square displacement are calculated for two walks on the Barrat-Barthélemy-Vespignani (BBV) networks. It is found that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.

Wu, An-Cai; Xu, Xin-Jian; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Ying-Hai

2007-02-01

132

Control Chart Tests Based on Geometric Moving Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometrical moving average gives the most recent observation the greatest weight, and all previous observations weights decreasing in geometric progression from the most recent back to the first. A graphical procedure for generating geometric moving averages is described in which the most recent observation is assigned a weight r. The properties of control chart tests based on geometric moving

S. W. Roberts

1959-01-01

133

Threaded Average Temperature Thermocouple.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A threaded average temperature thermocouple is provided to measure the average temperature of a situs in a test material. A ceramic insulator rod with two parallel holes through its length is securely fitted in a cylinder, which is bored along the longitu...

S. W. Ward

1988-01-01

134

The average eye.  

PubMed

For statistical and other purposes one needs to be able to determine an average eye. An average of refractive errors is readily calculated as an average of dioptric power matrices. A refractive error, however, is not so much a property of the eye as a property of the compensating lens in front of the eye. As such, it ignores other aspects of the optical character of the eye. This paper discusses the difficulties of finding a suitable average that fully accounts for the first-order optics of a set of optical systems. It proposes an average based on ray transferences and logarithms and exponentials of matrices. Application to eyes in particular is discussed. PMID:15491486

Harris, W F

2004-11-01

135

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

136

Threaded average temperature thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

137

Diatoms Classification with Weighted Averaging Fuzzy Operators for Eutrophication Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The level of nutrients determines the triggering point of the eutrophication process, so it is very important to monitor these\\u000a levels. Diatoms react rapidly on nutrient changes and that makes them ideal eutrophication bio-indicators. In the relevant\\u000a literature there is known ecological reference for some diatoms, but for many of them these indicator features remain unidentified.\\u000a In order to fill

Andreja Naumoski; Kosta Mitreski

138

Dynamic Shapes Average.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for computing shape statistics in general, and average in particular, for dynamic shapes is introduced in this paper. Given a metric d(-,-) on the set of static shapes, the empirical mean of N static shapes, C(sub 1),...,C(sub N), is defined b...

P. Maurel G. Sapiro

2005-01-01

139

The Average Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the U.S. Current Population Survey and the Schools and Staffing Survey indicate that the average public school teacher is 42 years old, female, and white, with a bachelor's degree, 15 years of teaching experience, and an annual salary of $39,346. About 74 percent of teachers surveyed plan to stay in teaching as long as possible, 69…

Teacher Magazine, 2002

2002-01-01

140

Average Rate of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2005-04-21

141

Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality as Adopted by the 94th National Conference on Weights and Measures 2009 and 95th National Conference on Weights and Measures 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook compiles the latest Uniform Laws and Regulations and related interpretations and guidelines adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). At the 1983 Annual Meeting, the NCWM voted to change the title of Handbook 1...

2011-01-01

142

Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively.

Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

2013-01-01

143

An Average Lunch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This statistics activity requires students to find the mean using their TI-10 or TI-15 Explorer calculators. The task asks students to read part of Sideways Stories of Wayside School by Louis Sachar and find different combinations of lunches that would give an average price of $1.85. This resource includes a three-page PDF lesson plan with guiding questions, data collection page, and calculator instructions.

2008-06-09

144

Fast Weight Loss May Mean Muscle Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fast Weight Loss May Mean Muscle Loss Study volunteers eating 500 ... their diets, both groups had similar levels of weight loss. The average weight loss was a little over ...

145

Analysis of Time Series by Moving Averages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program for estimation of trends in longitudinal research based on the moving average was presented and applied to a sample set of data. The program allows both standard and weighted procedures for supression of incidental variation. (Author/JKS)

Krus, David J.; Ceurvorst, Robert W.

1978-01-01

146

42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MA-PD plans included in the national average bid a weight based...assigned zero weight). (c) Geographic adjustment. (1) Upon...appropriate methodology, the national average monthly bid amount...2) CMS does not apply any geographic adjustments if CMS...

2013-10-01

147

Assessment of Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight Deliveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of a higher than average incidence of low birth weight (LBW) deliveries in areas of Eastern Pennsylvania led to an analysis of more than 5,500 deliveries in one of the region's hospital systems to investigate the predictors of LBW in that population. Results of multivariate analysis indicate key variables that contribute to LBW: in particular, racial\\/ethnic background and specific

JUDITH N. LASKER; BONNIE COYLE; KUANG LI; MICHAEL ORTYNSKY

2005-01-01

148

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss Expectations and Goals share Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss No matter what your weight loss ... Read full story >> share 3 Steps for Setting Physical Activity Goals Think about the "big picture" of your ...

149

Aggregation operators for linguistic weighted information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to model the processes of the aggregation of weighted information in a linguistic framework. Three aggregation operators of weighted linguistic information are presented: linguistic weighted disjunction operator, linguistic weighted conjunction operator, and linguistic weighted averaging operator. A study of their axiomatics is presented to demonstrate their rational aggregation

Francisco Herrera; Enrique Herrera-Viedma

1997-01-01

150

On fast Birkhoff averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the pointwise behavior of Birkhoff sums S_nphi(x) on subshifts of finite type for Hölder continuous functions phi. In particular, we show that for a given equilibrium state mu associated to a Hölder continuous potential, there are points x such that S_nphi(x) - n mathbb{E}_mu phi ˜ a n(beta) for any a>0 and 0< beta <1. Actually the Hausdorff dimension of the set of such points is bounded from below by the dimension of mu and it is attained by some maximizing equilibrium state nu such that mathbb{E}_nu phi = mathbb{E}_mu phi. On such points the ergodic average n(-1) S_nphi(x) converges more rapidly than predicted by the Birkhoff Theorem, the Law of the Iterated Logarithm and the Central Limit Theorem. All these sets, for different choices (a, beta), are distinct but have the same dimension. This reveals a rich multifractal structure of the symbolic dynamics. As a consequence, we prove that the set of uniform recurrent points, which are close to periodic points, has full dimension. Applications are also given to the study of syndetic numbers, Hardy-Weierstraß functions and lacunary Taylor series.

Fan, Ai-Hua; Schmeling, Jörg

2003-11-01

151

Combining remotely sensed and other measurements for hydrologic areal averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for combining measurements of hydrologic variables of various sampling geometries and measurement accuracies to produce an estimated mean areal value over a watershed and a measure of the accuracy of the mean areal value. The method provides a means to integrate measurements from conventional hydrological networks and remote sensing. The resulting areal averages can be used to enhance a wide variety of hydrological applications including basin modeling. The correlation area method assigns weights to each available measurement (point, line, or areal) based on the area of the basin most accurately represented by the measurement. The statistical characteristics of the accuracy of the various measurement technologies and of the random fields of the hydrologic variables used in the study (water equivalent of the snow cover and soil moisture) required to implement the method are discussed.

Johnson, E. R.; Peck, E. L.; Keefer, T. N.

1982-01-01

152

Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality as Adopted by the 93rd National Conference on Weights and Measures 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook compiles the latest Uniform Laws and Regulations and related interpretations and guidelines adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). At the 1983 Annual Meeting, the NCWM voted to change the title of Handbook 1...

2009-01-01

153

Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality as Adopted by the 92nd National Conference on Weights and Measures 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook compiles the latest Uniform Laws and Regulations and related interpretations and guidelines adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). At the 1983 Annual Meeting, the NCWM voted to change the title of Handbook 1...

C. Hockert L. Crown L. Sebring L. Warfield T. Coleman

2007-01-01

154

Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality as Adopted by the 89th National Conference on Weights and Measures 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook compiles the latest Uniform Laws and Regulations and related interpretations and guidelines adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). At the 1983 Annual Meeting, the NCWM voted to change the title of Handbook 1...

H. Oppermann K. Dresser L. Crown T. Coleman

2004-01-01

155

Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality as Adopted by the 96th National Conference on Weights and Measures. 2012 edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Uniform Laws and Regulations in this handbook comprise all of those adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). The NCWM is supported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which provides its Executi...

D. Sefcik L. Crown L. Warfield

2012-01-01

156

Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality as Adopted by the 90th National Conference on Weights and Measures 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook compiles the latest Uniform Laws and Regulations and related interpretations and guidelines adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). At the 1983 Annual Meeting, the NCWM voted to change the title of Handbook 1...

K. Dresser L. Crown L. Sebring T. Coleman

2005-01-01

157

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PVTR = Weighted-average MACT model point value for tooling resin used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MTR = Mass of tooling resin used in the past 12 months, megagrams. PVTG = Weighted-average MACT model point value...

2013-07-01

158

Crosswind Weighting Functions for Direct-Fire Projectiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a theoretical analysis of the crosswind weighting functions for high-speed direct-fire projectiles. These weighting functions are analogous to the path averaging weighting functions of an optical crosswind sensor. The wind weighting functio...

D. L. Walters

1975-01-01

159

Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 178 kilograms per second per square meter (6.5(lb/sec)/(sq ft))  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

1973-01-01

160

50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660. Subt. G, Table 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart Gâ2010, Specifications of...

2010-10-01

161

Multi-attribute Decision Analysis in GIS: Weighted Linear Combination and Ordered Weighted Averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision analysis can be defined as a set of systematic procedures for analysing complex decision problems. Differences between the desired and the actual state of real world geographical system is a spatial decision problem, which can be approached systematically by means of multi-criteria decision making. Many real-world spatially related problems give rise to geographical information system based multi-criteria decision making.

Samo Drobne; Anka Lisec

2009-01-01

162

76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is proposing to amend its bus testing regulation to more...mandate of verifying that the bus can withstand the rigors of regular transit service, and testing a bus up to its GVWR but no...

2011-03-14

163

77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...have amended the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) bus testing regulation to increase...require FTA to work with bus manufacturers and transit agencies to establish a new pass/ fail standard for the bus testing program, which...

2012-12-14

164

Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: To determine which area based socioeconomic measures can meaningfully be used, at which level of geography, to monitor socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health in the US. Design: Cross sectional analysis of birth certificate and childhood lead poisoning registry data, geocoded and linked to diverse area based socioeconomic measures that were generated at three geographical levels: census tract, block

N Krieger; J T Chen; P D Waterman; M-J Soobader; S V Subramanian; R Carson

2003-01-01

165

The Use of CASES-97 Observations to Assess and Parameterize the Impact of Land-Surface Heterogeneity on Area-Average Surface Heat Fluxes for Large-Scale Coupled Atmosphere-Hydrology Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the effects of land-surface heterogeneity and the interactions between the land-surface and the planetary boundary layer at different scales, we develop a multiscale data set. This data set, based on the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES97) observations, includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface observations obtained from a dense observation network covering a large region on the order of 100 km. We use this data set to drive three land-surface models (LSMs) to generate multi-scale (with three resolutions of 1, 5, and 10 kilometers) gridded surface heat flux maps for the CASES area. Upon validating these flux maps with measurements from surface station and aircraft, we utilize them to investigate several approaches for estimating the area-integrated surface heat flux for the CASES97 domain of 71x74 square kilometers, which is crucial for land surface model development/validation and area water and energy budget studies. This research is aimed at understanding the relative contribution of random turbulence versus organized mesoscale circulations to the area-integrated surface flux at the scale of 100 kilometers, and identifying the most important effective parameters for characterizing the subgrid-scale variability for large-scale atmosphere-hydrology models.

Chen, Fei; Yates, David; LeMone, Margaret

2001-01-01

166

Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.  

PubMed

Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607

Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2013-01-01

167

The Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymer Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various methods for the determination of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of different polymer samples are presented. The study shows that the molecular weight averages and distribution of a polymerization completely depend on the characteristics of the reaction itself.

Horta, Arturo; Pastoriza, M. Alejandra

2007-01-01

168

Weight Discrimination  

MedlinePLUS

... Journal of Health Psychology follows an analysis of "stigma diaries" that were kept by 50 overweight and ... The researchers say these findings suggest that weight stigma may be much more common than previously thought. ...

169

Weight simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

170

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

171

Direct Linearization and Adjoint Approaches to Evaluation of Atmospheric Weighting Functions and Surface Partial Derivatives: General Principles, Synergy and Areas of Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

Ustino, Eugene A.

2006-01-01

172

Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

2010-01-01

173

A visibility graph averaging aggregation operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of aggregation is of considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compared with the classic aggregation operators, it shows its advantage that it not only implements the aggregation of the data purely, but also conserves the time information. Meanwhile, the determination of the weights is more reasonable.

Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

2014-06-01

174

MIT BLOSSOMS - Flaws of Averages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning video presents an introduction to the Flaws of Averages using three exciting examples: the “crossing of the river” example, the “cookie” example, and the “dance class” example. Averages are often worthwhile representations of a set of data by a single descriptive number. The objective of this module, however, is to simply point out a few pitfalls that could arise if one is not attentive to details when calculating and interpreting averages. Most students at any level in high school can understand the concept of the flaws of averages presented here. The essential prerequisite knowledge for this video lesson is the ability to calculate an average from a set of numbers. Materials needed include: pen and paper for the students; and a blackboard or equivalent. During this video lesson, students will learn about three flaws of averages: (1) The average is not always a good description of the actual situation, (2) The function of the average is not always the same as the average of the function, and (3) The average depends on your perspective. To convey these concepts, the students are presented with the three real world examples mentioned above. The total length of the four in-class video segments is 12 minutes, leaving lots of time in a typical class session for the teacher to work with the students on their own learning examples (such as those from the supplementary notes) to firm up the ideas presented here on the flaws of averages.

Blossoms, Mit

2011-06-23

175

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... for your specific condition. ©1995-2010, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com hp180102 Last reviewed: 09/01/2010 4 You can use the graph on the previous page to find your BMI. Find your weight on the bottom of the ...

176

Birth Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because the parents are big, or the mother has diabetes during pregnancy. These babies may be at a higher risk of birth injuries and problems with blood ...

177

Baby Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use a rule of thumb about the weight of babies to practice doubling and halving numbers. They complete an organized table and compare data using vertical and horizontal double bar graphs. The lesson includes a student activity sheet and extension ideas.

Cook, Marcy

2008-01-01

178

Average Speed and Unit Conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.

2009-01-01

179

Predictor Selection for Model Averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a number of distinct models is available for prediction, choice of a single model can offer unstable results. In regression, stochastic search vari- able selection with Bayesian model averaging is a solution for this robustness issue but utilizes very many predictors. Here we look at Bayesian model averag- ing that incorporates variable selection for prediction and use decision theory

MARINA VANNUCCI; PHILIP J. BROWN; TOM FEARN

2001-01-01

180

Changes of Average Maternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a report in NATURE of March 18 of an address delivered by Dr. L. S. Penrose to the Industrial Section of the British Psychological Society on February 8, the following sentence occurs: ``When the birth-rate is falling, the average maternal age [average age at child-birth] will probably become greater''. In support of this view it is stated that Dr.

R. S. Barclay; W. O. Kermack

1939-01-01

181

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation  

PubMed Central

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior.

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

182

Weighted PCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified form of pulse-code modulation, called weighted pcm, is described in which the relative amplitudes of the pulses within the pulse-code groups are adjusted so as to minimize the noise power in the reconstructed signal due to errors in transmission. A performance analysis shows the knee of the output signal-to-noise ratio curve to be moved 1.4 db to the

E. Bedrosian

1958-01-01

183

Lorcaserin for weight management.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m(2) or ?27 kg/m(2) with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

2013-01-01

184

Lorcaserin for weight management  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m2 or ?27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity.

Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

2013-01-01

185

Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation probabilistic data The Brier Score (BS) and Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) were used. Finally comparison between BMA calibrated data and data from ensemble members will be displayed.

Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

186

High average power pockels cell  

DOEpatents

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01

187

Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and several radiative forcing Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Ultimately, the goal of the framework is to advise better methods for ensemble averaging models and create better climate predictions.

Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick

2014-05-01

188

Risk factors associated with the loss of cartilage volume on weight-bearing areas in knee osteoarthritis patients assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify, on a symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) cohort, the risk factors associated with the progression of the disease. More specifically, we investigated the correlation between knee cartilage volume loss from subregions over the span of 24 months by means of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) with demographic, clinical, radiological, and MRI structural changes. A cohort of 107 patients with knee OA selected from a large trial evaluating the effect of a bisphosphonate underwent x-rays and MRI of the knee at baseline and 24 months. Joint space width (JSW) and joint space narrowing (JSN) and cartilage volume loss over time in subregions of the tibial plateaus and femoral condyles were quantitated. Structural changes in the subchondral bone (hypersignal) and in the menisci (tear and extrusion) were also evaluated. The greatest cartilage volume loss was found in the medial compartment, and risk factors included female gender, JSW, meniscal lesions, and bone changes at baseline. Subregion analysis revealed that the greatest cartilage volume loss at 24 months was found in the central area of the medial tibial plateau (15%; p < 0.0001) and of the medial femoral condyle (12%; p < 0.0001). These findings were associated with the presence at baseline of meniscal extrusion, particularly severe meniscal extrusion, medial and severe meniscal tear, bone hypersignal, high body mass index (BMI), smaller JSW, increases in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and patient global scores over time, and greater JSN. Parameters predicting medial central femoral condyle cartilage volume loss at 24 months were lateral meniscal tear, SF-36 and BMI at baseline, and JSN. At the medial central tibial plateau, the parameters were severe meniscal extrusion, severe lateral meniscal tear, and bone hypersignal in the lateral compartment at baseline, and WOMAC pain change. Meniscal damage and bone changes are the features most closely associated with the greatest subregional cartilage volume loss. Interestingly, for the first time, JSN was strongly associated with cartilage loss in the central areas of plateaus and condyles. This study also further confirms the correlation between cartilage volume loss and JSN and symptomatic changes at 24 months. PMID:17672891

Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Berthiaume, Marie-Josée; Abram, François; Choquette, Denis; Haraoui, Boulos; Beary, John F; Cline, Gary A; Meyer, Joan M; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne

2007-01-01

189

Combining forecast weights: Why and how?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

2012-09-01

190

Optimal averaging of seasonal sea surface temperatures and associated confidence intervals (1860-1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal averaging (OA) is used to compute the area-average seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) for a variety of areas from 1860 to 1989. The OA gives statistically improved averages and the objective assignment of confidence intervals to these averages. For the global average, the early part of the record (1860-1890) and the times of the two world wars have largest

Thomas M. Smith; C. F. Ropelewski; R. W. Reynolds

1994-01-01

191

Urban Bias in Area-averaged Surface Air Temperature Trends.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data set derived from the United States Historical Climate Network has been compared to two global land-based temperature data sets that have been commonly cited in connection with the detection of the greenhouse effect and in other studies of climate change. Results indicate that in the United States the two global land-based temperature data sets have an urban bias between +6.1°C and +0.4°C over the twentieth century (1901-84). This bias is as large or larger than the overall temperature trend in the United States during this time period, +0.16°C/84 yr. Temperature trends indicate an increasing temperature from the turn of the century to the 1930s but a decrease thereafter. By comparison, the global temperature trends during the same period are between +0.4°C/84 yr and +0.6°C/84 yr. At this time, we can only speculate on the magnitude of the urban bias in the global land-based data sets for other parts of the globe, but the magnitude of the bias in the United States compared to the overall temperature trend underscores the need for a thorough global study.

Karl, Thomas R.; Jones, Philip D.

1989-03-01

192

Determining GPS average performance metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

Moore, G. V.

1995-01-01

193

Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.

Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.

2012-12-01

194

Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

Buchert, T.

195

Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

Buchert, T.

196

ARMA (Autoregressive Moving Average) Identification,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In view of recent results on the asymptotic behavior of the prediction error covariance for a state variable system (see Ref. 1), an identification scheme for autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes is proposed. The coefficients of the d-step predi...

G. Algengrin R. S. Bucy J. M. Moura J. Pages M. I. Ribeiro

1987-01-01

197

Ultrahigh molecular weight aromatic siloxane polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The condensation of a diol with a silane in toluene yields a silphenylene-siloxane polymer. The reaction of stiochiometric amounts of the diol and silane produced products with molecular weights in the range 2.0 - 6.0 x 10 to the 5th power. The molecular weight of the product was greatly increased by a multistep technique. The methodology for synthesis of high molecular weight polymers using a two step procedure was refined. Polymers with weight average molecular weights in excess of 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power produced by this method. Two more reactive silanes, bis(pyrrolidinyl)dimethylsilane and bis(gamma butyrolactam)dimethylsilane, are compared with the dimethyleminodimethylsilane in ability to advance the molecular weight of the prepolymer. The polymers produced are characterized by intrinsic viscosity in tetrahydrofuran. Weight and number average molecular weights and polydispersity are determined by gel permeation chromatography.

Ludwick, L. M.

1982-01-01

198

Cosmological measures without volume weighting  

SciTech Connect

Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

Page, Don N, E-mail: don@phys.ualberta.ca [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)

2008-10-15

199

Abortion weights.  

PubMed

Professor Walker (June 13, p. 1319) is right in saying that it is best to use both the weight of the fetus and its presumed gestational age as the criteria for the registration of a stillbirth, and that any fetus delivered before the end of the 22nd week, and weighing less than 500 g, can be assumed to have had no chance of survival and should therefore be regarded as an abortion and not as a stillbirth. The difficulty when using the dates alone, "fairly and honestly and properly assessed," in order to determine the legality of a procured abortion is that it is seldom easy to be be sure that they have been accurately reported, depending as they often do upon the word of the mother. Most of the distressing stories of aborted fetuses crying, or showing other signs of life, before 24 weeks probably mean that they were considerably older than was originally supposed. A medical practitioner responsible for procuring an abortion under the 1967 Act, who honestly believed that the child was incapable of surviving, and therefore not protected under the Infant Life (Preservation) Act 1929, would not be guilty of an offense if this belief turned out to have been mistaken, provided it had been formed in good faith after proper inquiries, and provided that everything possible had been done to save the child as soon as it was realized that it might have had a chance of survival. If the child had been viable, and had died as a in the belief that it was not, then it cannot be regarded as an abortion and thus be excluded from the perinatal mortality statistics. To make sure that this will not happen, the regulations would have to be amended to require that the notification sent to the (CMO) Chief Medical Officer should record not only the date of the last menstrual period (as to the present) but also the weight of the fetus at delivery. If this is under 500 g, it can be counted as an abortion, but if it is above the figure there ought to be an independent postmortem examination, with a report to the CMO as to whether, and, if so, why (e.g., because the lungs were not inflatable) the fetus was considered not to have been viable. Failing such positive evidence of inviability, any child over, say 500 g, which dies before or after a procured "abortion" ought to be recorded as a perinatal death. PMID:6113390

Goodhart, C B

1981-06-27

200

New applications for high average power beams  

SciTech Connect

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

1993-08-01

201

The influence of aquariums on weight in individuals with dementia.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether individuals with dementia who observe aquariums increase the amount of food they consume and maintain body weight. The sample included 70 residents in dementia units within 3 extended care facilities in 2 states. The intervention included the introduction of an aquarium into each common dining area. A total increase of 196.9 g of daily food intake (25.0%) was noted from baseline to the end of the 10-week study. Resident body weight increased an average of 2.2 pounds during the study. Eight of 70 residents experienced a weight loss ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=1.89 lbs). People with advanced dementia responded to aquariums in their environment documenting that attraction to the natural environment is so innate that it survives dementia. PMID:23138175

Edwards, Nancy E; Beck, Alan M

2013-01-01

202

F-IF Average Cost  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: John makes DVDs of his friendâs shows. He has realized that, because of his fixed costs, his average cost per DVD depends on the number of DVDs he prod...

203

Ensemble averaging of acoustic data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

Stefanski, P. K.

1982-01-01

204

A pure bending exact nodal-averaged shear strain method for finite element plate analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An averaged shear strain method, based on a nodal integration approach, is presented for the finite element analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates. In this work, we combine the shear interpolation method from the MITC4 plate element with an area-weighted averaging technique for the nodal integration of shear energy to relieve shear locking in the thin plate analysis as well as to pass the pure bending patch test. In order to resolve the numerical instability caused by the direct nodal integration, the bending strain field is computed by a sub-domain nodal integration approach based on the Sub-domain Stabilized Conforming Integration and a modified curvature smoothing scheme. The resulting nodally integrated smoothed strain formulation is shown to contain only the primitive variables and thus can be easily implemented in the existing displacement-based finite element plate formulation. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method.

Wu, C. T.; Guo, Y.; Wang, D.

2014-05-01

205

Is the Tail Area Useful as an Approximate Bayes Factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequalities are given relating the tail area for a nested sharp hypothesis to the Bayes factor based on the event of “significance” considered as data. This Bayes factor based on an insufficient statistic is, in turn, expressed as a weighted average of full-data Bayes factors. Lindley's “statistical paradox” is generalized and other comparisons made in the normal sampling context. A

James M. Dickey

1977-01-01

206

Analysis of Average Radiation Widths of Neutron Resonances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the available data on parameters of neutron resonances average values of radiation widths (GITAsub( gamma )) are calculated for a wide range of nuclei in the 50 upto 250 atomic weight range. Experimental values are compared with different ...

H. Malezki A. B. Popov K. Trzeciak

1982-01-01

207

Differential absorption lidar signal averaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents experimental results using an atmospheric backscatter dual CO2 laser DIAL. It is shown that DIAL signals can be averaged to obtain an N exp -1/2 dependence decrease in the standard deviation of the ratio of backscattered returns from two lasers, where N is the number of DIAL signals averaged, and that such a lidar system can make measurements of gas concentrations with a precision of 0.7 percent in absorptance over 75 m in a short measurement time when the signal strength is high. Factors that eventually limit the rate of improvement in the SNR, such as changes in the ratio of the absorption and/or backscatter at the two laser frequencies and background noise, are discussed. In addition, it is noted that DIAL measurements made using hard-target backscatter often show departures from N exp -1/2 dependence improvement in the standard deviation because they are further limited by the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and speckle (since the relative reproducibility of the speckle pattern on the receiver gives rise to correlations of the lidar signals).

Grant, William B.; Brothers, Alan M.; Bogan, James R.

1988-01-01

208

Using Bayes Model Averaging for Wind Power Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For operational purposes predictions of the forecasts of the lumped output of groups of wind farms spread over larger geographic areas will often be of interest. A naive approach is to make forecasts for each individual site and sum them up to get the group forecast. It is however well documented that a better choice is to use a model that also takes advantage of spatial smoothing effects. It might however be the case that some sites tends to more accurately reflect the total output of the region, either in general or for certain wind directions. It will then be of interest giving these a greater influence over the group forecast. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical post-processing method for producing probabilistic forecasts from ensembles. Raftery et al. [1] show how BMA can be used for statistical post processing of forecast ensembles, producing PDFs of future weather quantities. The BMA predictive PDF of a future weather quantity is a weighted average of the ensemble members' PDFs, where the weights can be interpreted as posterior probabilities and reflect the ensemble members' contribution to overall forecasting skill over a training period. In Revheim and Beyer [2] the BMA procedure used in Sloughter, Gneiting and Raftery [3] were found to produce fairly accurate PDFs for the future mean wind speed of a group of sites from the single sites wind speeds. However, when the procedure was attempted applied to wind power it resulted in either problems with the estimation of the parameters (mainly caused by longer consecutive periods of no power production) or severe underestimation (mainly caused by problems with reflecting the power curve). In this paper the problems that arose when applying BMA to wind power forecasting is met through two strategies. First, the BMA procedure is run with a combination of single site wind speeds and single site wind power production as input. This solves the problem with longer consecutive periods where the input data does not contain information, but it has the disadvantage of nearly doubling the number of model parameters to be estimated. Second, the BMA procedure is run with group mean wind power as the response variable instead of group mean wind speed. This also solves the problem with longer consecutive periods without information in the input data, but it leaves the power curve to also be estimated from the data. [1] Raftery, A. E., et al. (2005). Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles. Monthly Weather Review, 133, 1155-1174. [2]Revheim, P. P. and H. G. Beyer (2013). Using Bayesian Model Averaging for wind farm group forecasts. EWEA Wind Power Forecasting Technology Workshop,Rotterdam, 4-5 December 2013. [3]Sloughter, J. M., T. Gneiting and A. E. Raftery (2010). Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging. Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 105, No. 489, 25-35

Preede Revheim, Pål; Beyer, Hans Georg

2014-05-01

209

On quantum averaging, quantum KAM, and quantum diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems and their quantizations this paper discusses properties of the quantized systems whose classical analogues constitute the subject of KAM theory and related areas: averaging theory, Nekhoroshev stability, and diffusion. Bibliography: 31 titles.

Kuksin, Sergei B.; Neishtadt, Anatolii I.

2013-04-01

210

High liveborn birth weights in the Faroes: a comparison between birth weights in the Faroes and in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average birth weight of 10 132 liveborn infants delivered in the Faroes during the period 1969-81 was 3610 grams, which is the highest average weight reported by 33 countries from which we were able to obtain information. Comparison of live births only between the Faroes and Denmark shows a displacement between their birth weight curves of 225 grams. A

S F Olsen; H D Joensen

1985-01-01

211

Analytical spatially-averaged photochemical nonsteady state urban ozone model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Analytical Spatially-averaged Photochemical (ASP) air quality model is presented for predicting daytime time-dependent volume-averaged ozone concentrations in urban areas. The ASP model is designed for screening air pollution control strategies, particularly in urban areas in developing countries where data, computer, and monetary constraints preclude using complex advection-diffusion-transformation airshed models. The ASP model is an analytical time-dependent box model, developed

1984-01-01

212

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15

213

Flexible time domain averaging technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

214

Weight Loss Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

215

Longitudinal Study of Body Weight Changes in Children: Who Is Gaining and Who Is Losing Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight\\/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight\\/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight\\/fat

Donald A. Williamson; Hongmei Han; William D. Johnson; Tiffany M. Stewart; David W. Harsha

2011-01-01

216

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

217

Upper Limit of Weights in Tai Computation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The international reference time scan TAI computed by the BIPM relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is ...

C. Thomas J. Azoubib

1995-01-01

218

Judging body weight from faces: the height-weight illusion.  

PubMed

Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670

Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian

2012-01-01

219

Informed Test Component Weighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

Rudner, Lawrence M.

2001-01-01

220

Effect of intermittent kangaroo mother care on weight gain of low birth weight neonates with delayed weight gain.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132

Samra, Nashwa M; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

2013-01-01

221

Quantitative comparison of plantar foot shapes under different weight-bearing conditions.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the plantar foot shape alteration under weight bearing can offer implications for the design and construction of a comfortable and functional foot support. The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in three-dimensional foot shape under different weight-bearing conditions. The plantar foot shapes of 16 normal feet were collected by an impression casting method under three weight-bearing conditions: non-weight bearing, semi-weight bearing, and full-weight bearing. An optical digitizing system was used to capture the three-dimensional plantar surface shape of the foot cast. Measurements and comparisons from the digitized shapes were conducted for the whole foot and regions of the foot. The data showed that increased weight bearing significantly increased the contact area, foot length, foot width, and rearfoot width, while it decreased average height, arch height, and arch angle. Compared with the non-weight-bearing foot shape, the semi-weight-bearing condition would produce increases in the contact area of 35.1% +/- 21.6 %, foot length of 2.7% +/- 1.2%, foot width of 2.9% +/- 2.4%, and rearfoot width of 5.9% +/- 4.8%, and decreases in the arch height of 15.4% +/- 7.8% and arch angle of 21.7% +/- 17.2%. The full-weight-bearing condition would produce increases in the contact area of 60.4% +/- 33.2%, foot length of 3.4% +/- 1.3%, foot width of 6.0% +/- 2.1%, and rearfoot width of 8.7% +/- 4.9%, and decreases in the arch height of 20.0% +/- 9.2% and arch angle of 41.2% +/- 16.2%. The findings may be useful for considering the change of foot shape in the selection of shoe size and shoe or insole design. PMID:15077664

Tsung, Bonnie Yuk San; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu Bo; Boone, David Alan

2003-01-01

222

Weight Gain during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... weight gain during pregnancy? Use our weight-gain tracking chart to follow your progress. For more information ... During Pregnancy Last reviewed September 2009 See also: Tracking your weight gain , How your baby grows Most ...

223

The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

2013-03-01

224

Compact, high-average-power, injection-locked magnetron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presently working to reduce the size and weight of the Varian-ARL, conventional- emission, high-power magnetron by redesigning the magnetron to incorporate a permanent magnet. As part of this effort, the average power capability of this 50-MW, S-band magnetron is being increased by an order of magnitude. This paper reports on the compact magnetron design and new results from

Todd A. Treado; Paul D. Brown; Charles Antosh

1994-01-01

225

Placental Morphometry Determines the Birth Weight  

PubMed Central

Background: Placental morphometry determines the foetal development and adulthood disease pattern. Hence, in the present study the influence of placental weight, volume, surface area, and thickness were studied in different groups of birth weight by sex of the newborn. Material and Methods: Present study was conducted on 164 consecutive singleton deliveries from a teaching hospital of Northern Karnataka, India. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed by maximum likelihood method after checking the linearity. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of regression models were computed to exhibit their utility for physicians. Results: Gestational age exhibited positive relationship with birth weight. Placental parameters showed a positive and significant relationship (p<0.001) with birth weight and higher values in males. The birth weight was estimated by regression models using sex of the newborn and placental morphometry; weight (R2=0.474), surface area (R2=0.420), and volume (R2=0.477) at 95% confidence interval. Low birth weight babies in the study were correctly identified by placental weight, surface area, volume and sex of the newborn. Their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values have been specified. Conclusion: Placental morphometry: weight, surface area, volume and sex of the baby determined the birth weight efficiently to initiate the corrective measures for planning better maternal care and to pacify mothers and their relatives.

Balihallimath, Rupa L; Shirol, Veereshkumar S; Gan, Anita M; Tyagi, Naresh Kumar; Bandankar, Manisha R

2013-01-01

226

Placental morphometry determines the birth weight.  

PubMed

Background: Placental morphometry determines the foetal development and adulthood disease pattern. Hence, in the present study the influence of placental weight, volume, surface area, and thickness were studied in different groups of birth weight by sex of the newborn. Material and Methods: Present study was conducted on 164 consecutive singleton deliveries from a teaching hospital of Northern Karnataka, India. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed by maximum likelihood method after checking the linearity. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of regression models were computed to exhibit their utility for physicians. Results: Gestational age exhibited positive relationship with birth weight. Placental parameters showed a positive and significant relationship (p<0.001) with birth weight and higher values in males. The birth weight was estimated by regression models using sex of the newborn and placental morphometry; weight (R(2)=0.474), surface area (R(2)=0.420), and volume (R(2)=0.477) at 95% confidence interval. Low birth weight babies in the study were correctly identified by placental weight, surface area, volume and sex of the newborn. Their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values have been specified. Conclusion: Placental morphometry: weight, surface area, volume and sex of the baby determined the birth weight efficiently to initiate the corrective measures for planning better maternal care and to pacify mothers and their relatives. PMID:24392363

Balihallimath, Rupa L; Shirol, Veereshkumar S; Gan, Anita M; Tyagi, Naresh Kumar; Bandankar, Manisha R

2013-11-01

227

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17

228

Low birth-weight and malarial infection of the placenta  

PubMed Central

In a study carried out in Kampala, Uganda, among 570 parturient African women it was shown that 5.6% had infected peripheral blood and 16.1% had a placenta infected with malaria. The dominant infecting Plasmodium was P. falciparum. Only one case of congenital malaria was seen among the neonates. The average weight of 92 babies born from mothers with infected placentae was 263 g less that that of 478 babies born of non-infected mothers. This difference is statistically highly significant (P<0.001). The lowering of weight in the infected group was not affected by the sex of the neonate or by possible genetic differences. Primiparae had a higher frequency of infected placentae (21.7%) than the multiparous women (14.7%); this difference is attributed to the over-all younger age of these women. It is suggested that routine malarial prophylaxis should be considered for administration to pregnant women in endemic malarial areas.

Jelliffe, E. F. Patricia

1968-01-01

229

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk  

PubMed Central

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

230

Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.  

PubMed

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-12-01

231

Urban\\/rural differences in body weight: Evidence for social selection and causation hypotheses in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average body weight differences between urban and rural areas have been reported in many countries, but it is unknown whether these are due to effects of social selection or social causation. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI) predicted selective urban\\/rural migration over a 21-year period and whether urban\\/rural living over the same period predicted differences in BMI increase

Markus Jokela; Mika Kivimäki; Marko Elovainio; Jorma Viikari; Olli T. Raitakari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2009-01-01

232

Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.  

PubMed

To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

2014-01-01

233

NIST Handbook 130: Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Areas of Legal Metrology and Engine Fuel Quality, as adopted by the 97th National Conference on Weights and Measures, 2012, 2013 Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook compiles the latest Uniform Laws and Regulations and related interpretations and guidelines adopted by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, Inc. (NCWM). At the 1983 Annual Meeting, the NCWM voted to change the title of Handbook 1...

D. Sefcik L. Crown L. Warfield

2012-01-01

234

Molecular weight determinations of biosolubilized coals  

SciTech Connect

We have compared several different methods for determining the molecular weight of biosolubilized coals: Aqueous gel permeation Chromatography (GPC), organic GPC, preparative GPC, dynamic laser light scattering (LLS), static LLS, static LLS, mass spectrometry, vapor phase osmometry (VPO) and ultrafiltration. We have found that careful consideration must be given to the molecular weight result obtained from each method. The average molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution were found to be dependent upon many factors, including the technique used; molecular weight standards, pH, and the percentage of sample analyzed. Weight average molecular weights, M{sub w}, obtained for biosolubilized leonardite range from 800,000 daltons for neutral pH aqueous GPC based on polyethylene glycol molecular weight standards to 570 daltons for pH 11.5 buffered aqueous GPC based on a fulvic acid standard. It is clear that the state of association of the biocoal analyte, as well as the interactions of sample with the separation matrix, can have large influence of the observed result, and these must be understood before reliable GPC measurements can be made. Furthermore, a uniform set of molecular weight standards for biodegraded coals is needed. 10 refs., 1 tab.

Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.; Bean, R.; Campbell, J.

1991-05-01

235

Preventing Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... Calculator Children's BMI Tool for Schools Child and Teen - About BMI Measuring Children's Height and Weight Accurately At Home Balancing Calories Other Factors in Weight Gain Preventing Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping it Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ...

236

How well the Reliable Ensemble Averaging Method (REA) for 15 CMIP5 GCMs simulations works for Mexico?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

15 CMIP5 GCMs precipitation simulations were combined in a weighted ensemble using the Reliable Ensemble Averaging (REA) method, obtaining the weight of each model. This was done for a historical period (1961-2000) and for the future emissions based on low (RCP4.5) and high (RCP8.5) radiating forcing for the period 2075-2099. The annual cycle of simple ensemble of the historical GCMs simulations, the historical REA average and the Climate Research Unit (CRU TS3.1) database was compared in four zones of México. In the case of precipitation we can see the improvements by using the REA method, especially in the two northern zones of México where the REA average is more close to the observations (CRU) that the simple average. However in the southern zones although there is an improvement it is not as good as it is in the north, particularly in the southeast where instead of the REA average is able to reproduce qualitatively good the annual cycle with the mid-summer drought it was greatly underestimated. The main reason is because the precipitation is underestimated for all the models and the mid-summer drought do not even exists in some models. In the REA average of the future scenarios, as we can expected, the most drastic decrease in precipitation was simulated using the RCP8.5 especially in the monsoon area and in the south of Mexico in summer and in winter. In the center and southern of Mexico however, the same scenario in autumn simulates an increase of precipitation.

Colorado, G.; Salinas, J. A.; Cavazos, T.; de Grau, P.

2013-05-01

237

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations  

SciTech Connect

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

238

WERITAS: weighted ensemble of regional image textures for ASM segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present WERITAS, which is based in part on the traditional Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation system. WERITAS generates multiple statistical texture features, and finds the optimal weighted average of those texture features by maximizing the correlation between the Euclidean distance to the ground truth and the Mahalanobis distance to the training data. The weighted average is

Robert Toth; Scott Doyle; Mark Rosen; Arjun Kalyanpur; Sona Pungavkar; B. Nicolas Bloch; Elizabeth Genega; Neil Rofsky; Robert Lenkinski; Anant Madabhushi

2009-01-01

239

Size and Weight of Shortest Path Trees with Exponential Link Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the distribution of the number of links and the average weight for the shortest path tree (SPT) rooted at an arbitrary node to m uniformly chosen nodes in the complete graph of size N with i.i.d. exponential link weights. We rely on the fact that the full shortest path tree to all destinations (i.e., m = N ?

Remco Van Der Hofstad; Gerard Hooghiemstra; Piet Van Mieghem

2006-01-01

240

Optimal Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal birth weight and outcome are influenced by maternal weight gain. Low gestational weight gain is associated with poor\\u000a fetal growth and risk of preterm delivery. Excessive weight gain affects infant growth, body fatness in childhood, and the\\u000a potential for postpartum weight retention and future obesity. Guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommend that a woman\\u000a with a normal body

Grace A. Falciglia; Kristin H. Coppage

241

The Scatter in Tropical Average Precipitation Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical mean precipitation anomalies ^P9& for 3-month averages appear quite scattered in relation to tropical average sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies ^& , based on examination of a number of observational T9 s datasets and of atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) results. Even though SST is locally important for determining precipitation, for a given warm SST anomaly, the tropical average

HUI S UA; NDJ. DAVID NEELIN

2003-01-01

242

The average predictive validity of intimate partner violence risk assessment instruments.  

PubMed

The field of intimate partner violence (IPV) risk assessment (predicting recidivism, lethality) is fast growing, and the majority of research examining the predictive validity of IPV risk assessment instruments has been conducted in the past decade. This study examines the average predictive validity weighted by sample size of five stand alone IPV risk assessment instruments that have been validated in multiple research studies using the Receiver Operating Characteristic Area Under the Curve (AUC). The Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA) has the highest average weighted AUC (=.666, k=5) followed, in order of most to least predictive, by the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA; AUC=.628, k=6), the Danger Assessment (DA; AUC=.618, k=4), the Domestic Violence Screening Inventory (DVSI; AUC=.582, k=3), and the Kingston Screening Instrument for Domestic Violence (K-SID; AUC=.537, k=2). The effect size for the average AUCs for IPV risk assessment instruments is small, with the exception of a medium effect size for the ODARA. Of the 20 measures of predictive validity included in this analysis, the risk assessment was administered correctly in nine (45%). IPV risk assessment is relatively new, and the use of proxy instruments and utilization of risk assessment instruments in settings for which they were not created is widespread. While waiting for a more rigorous body of research, factors in addition to predictive validity must be taken into consideration (e.g., setting, outcome, skills of the assessor, access to information) when choosing which risk assessment instrument is appropriate for use in a particular practice setting. PMID:23262817

Messing, Jill Theresa; Thaller, Jonel

2013-05-01

243

High-average-power picosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a cladding-pumped, ytterbium-doped large-core-area fiber amplifier that is capable of generating 51.2 W of average power at a 1064-nm center wavelength, an 80-MHz repetition rate, and a 10-ps pulse duration. In an ytterbium-doped large-mode-area fiber these pulses could be amplified up to 43.2 W with diffraction-limited beam quality (M2 ~ 1.3). Power scaling limitations that arise from

J. Limpert; A. Liem; T. Gabler; H. Zellmer; A. Tünnermann; S. Unger; S. Jetschke; H.-R. Müller

2001-01-01

244

Recovery of petroleum with chemically treated high molecular weight polymers  

SciTech Connect

Plugging of reservoirs with high molecular weight polymers, e.g. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, is overcome by chemically treating a polymer having an excessively high average molecular weight prior to injection into a reservoir with an oxidizing chemical, e.g. sodium hypochlorite, and thereafter incorporating a reducing chemical, e.g., sodium sulfite, to stop degradation of the polymer when a desired lower average molecular weight and flooding characteristics are attained.

Gibb, C.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

1980-11-18

245

Field study of indoor average radon-daughter estimation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Technical Measurements Center conducted an Indoor Field Study during January 1984 through April 1985, using 44 sampling stations located in 28 structures in the Grand Junction, Colorado, area. The purpose of the study was to evaluate year-long measurement methods used to estimate the annual average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in a structure under actual occupancy conditions. The basis for

J. L. George; G. H. Jr. Langner

1986-01-01

246

The average distances in random graphs with given expected degrees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random graph theory is used to examine the "small-world phenomenon"; any two strangers are connected through a short chain of mutual acquaintances. We will show that for certain families of random graphs with given expected degrees the average distance is almost surely of order log n/log , where is the weighted average of the sum of squares of the expected degrees. Of particular interest are power law random graphs in which the number of vertices of degree k is proportional to 1/k for some fixed exponent . For the case of > 3, we prove that the average distance of the power law graphs is almost surely of order log n/log ? < 3 for which the power law random graphs have average distance almost surely of order log log n, but have diameter of order log n (provided having some mild constraints for the average distance and maximum degree). In particular, these graphs contain a dense subgraph, which we call the core, having nc/log log n vertices. Almost all vertices are within distance log log n of the core although there are vertices at distance log n from the core.


Chung, Fan; Lu, Linyuan

2002-12-01

247

Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

248

Prenatal Exposure to Wood Fuel Smoke and Low Birth Weight  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal exposure to wood fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth due to hypoxia and or oxidative stress from smoke constituents such as carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Objectives We studied the risk of low birth weight (LBW) and reduced mean birth weight in relation to reported use of wood for cooking during the prenatal period, compared with natural gas (NG). Methods We studied a historical cohort of women who had a singleton live birth in the years 2000–2002, from a semirural area of Pakistan. Infant’s birth weight was obtained from records, and prenatal records had data for maternal body mass index and parity. Cooking habits, daytime sleep habits, and type of fuel used during the pregnancies in 2000–2002 were ascertained by a survey done in 2004–2005. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression modeling using propensity scores to adjust for confounding variables. Results Unadjusted mean (± SD) birth weight was 2.78 ± 0.45 kg in wood users, and 2.84 ± 0.43 kg (p < 0.06) in NG users. Infants born to wood users averaged 82 g lighter than infants born to NG users when weight was adjusted for confounders (p < 0.07). The rate of LBW (< 2,500 g) was 22.7% among wood users compared with 15.0% in NG users (p < 0.01), for an adjusted relative risk of 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.34). The population attributable risk for LBW explained by wood use was estimated to be 24%. Conclusion Cooking with wood fuel during pregnancy, a potentially modifiable exposure, was associated with LBW and marginally lower mean birth weight compared with using NG.

Siddiqui, Amna R.; Gold, Ellen B.; Yang, Xiaowei; Lee, Kiyoung; Brown, Kenneth H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

2008-01-01

249

Analysis of photosynthate translocation velocity and measurement of weighted average velocity in transporting pathway of crops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The translocation profile pattern of (sup 14)C-photosynthate along the transporting pathway in crops were monitored by pulse-labelling a mature leaf with (sup 14)CO(sub 2). The progressive spreading of translocation profile pattern along the sheath or ste...

Ge Cailin Luo Shishi Gong Jian Zhang Hao Ma Fei

1996-01-01

250

Detecting DDoS Attacks Using Dispersible Traffic Matrix and Weighted Moving Average  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have become significant threats on Internet according to the development of network\\u000a infrastructure and recent communication technology. There are various types of DDoS attacks with different characteristics.\\u000a These differences have made very difficult to detect such attacks. Furthermore, the sophisticated the evolution of DDoS attacks\\u000a techniques and the enhanced scale of Botnet encourage attackers

Tae Hwan Kim; Dong Seong Kim; Sang Min Lee; Jong Sou Park

2009-01-01

251

MEASUREMENT ERROR REDUCTION USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD FOR REPEATED MEASUREMENTS FROM HETEROGENEOUS INSTRUMENTS. (R827994)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

252

Evaluation system based on dynamic weighted averaging algorithm and its application in WebGIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ion systems based on Web is a convenient way for tourists to Understanding the attractions. However, many common Web-based evaluation systems have a shortcoming that there is no logical correlation between the total score and evaluation indicators or correlation is too simple. Obviously, only use the arithmetic mean value of evaluation indicators as the total score\\/star rating is difficult to

La Lei; Guo Qiao; Yang Dequan; Cao Qimin

2011-01-01

253

77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organization (``WTO'') dispute settlement reports have found that the United States' application...has adopted the dispute settlement panel reports, as modified by the WTO Appellate Body...D) of the URAA, the USTR submitted a report to the House Ways and Means and...

2012-02-14

254

A New Anytime Classifier Basing on AAPE: Anytime Averaged Probabilistic with Weight Estimator (AAPWE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the before researches, most researchers often address on the classifying problem how to get higher accuracy and more efficiency. Then they have proposed some algorithms for this intention [W.S. Yerazunis, 2004; L. Androutsopoulos et al., 2000; G.L. Webb et al., 2005]. Mostly, these algorithms need very strong resource to calculate the predicted probability of each class label and to

Bei Hui; Yue Wu

2008-01-01

255

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

256

Average-cost based robust structural control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

Hagood, Nesbitt W.

1993-01-01

257

Therapy and Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Mind > Dealing With Problems > Therapy and Weight Management Print A A A Text Size What's in ... This is where counselors (like psychologists or weight-management social workers) can help. They are trained to ...

258

Weight-loss medications  

MedlinePLUS

Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider if any are right for you. About 5 to ... whether the cost, side effects, and the small weight loss you can expect are worth it to you. ...

259

Pregnancy and Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... News Spotlights Media Resources Selected Profiles & Interviews Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links ... that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for ...

260

Weighted network modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

2007-06-01

261

Neutron resonance averaging with filtered beams  

SciTech Connect

Neutron resonance averaging using filtered beams from a reactor source has proven to be an effective nuclear structure tool within certain limitations. These limitations are imposed by the nature of the averaging process, which produces fluctuations in radiative intensities. The fluctuations have been studied quantitatively. Resonance averaging also gives us information about initial or capture state parameters, in particular the photon strength function. Suitable modifications of the filtered beams are suggested for the enhancement of non-resonant processes.

Chrien, R.E.

1985-01-01

262

High average power active-mirror amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operation of the first high average power Nd:glass active-mirror amplifier, a scalable laser device that may be used to configure solid-state laser systems with high average power output into the kilowatt regime, is reported. An extractable average power of over 120 W was achieved at the device laser material fracture limit, and at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

Brown, D. C.; Lee, K. K.; Bowman, R.; Menders, J.; Kuper, J.

1986-03-01

263

Averaging in GR using Cartan scalars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Averaging problem in GR and cosmology is of fundamental importance. It is still not clear how to unambiguously average Einstein equations and the metric tensor (despite some promising attempts). Here we will present a new approach to this problem using the theory of the Cartan scalars. After short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, averaging procedure is presented and some examples are given.

Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

2012-07-01

264

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation  

SciTech Connect

A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

Stroud, P.

1994-02-01

265

Calculating Molecular Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

2013-06-17

266

[Weight management in general practice].  

PubMed

Weight excess is an increasingly frequent disorder of nutritional origin in industrialized areas. In Belgium, 40% of the population suffers from weight overload (BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2) and 10 to 15% are obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). The overweight is responsible for increased morbidity, in particular cardiovascular, and surmortality mainly among patients less than 60 years. The causes of the overweight are related to many interdependent determinants: food, sedentarity, socio-economical environment, genetic, psychological and behavioral characteristics. This complexity explains partly the difficulties of the medical follow-up of these patients. The role of the general practitioner (GP) in this Community health problem is essential at two levels: 1) Treatment of weight excess: a moderate and sustained loss, such as of 5 to 10% of the initial body weight, already significantly decreases the risks of morbi-mortality. The first role of GP will be to target the patients at particular risk and to treat them while adapting to their motivation. 2) Systematic prevention: all patients, all families, must have access through their GP to information of quality concerning the nutrition and the management of weight. This information should be adapted to each patient, according to the various stages of life. Nutritional imbalances and sedentarity should be detected systematically. PMID:17091904

Kacenelenbogen, N

2006-09-01

267

76 FR 74853 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...terms or specify what weight to give each...when controlling for weight and size. A philosophical...NHTSA's 2011 analysis to calculate specific estimates of...horsepower and power to weight ratio. The SVM was required...models to be used to calculate a fleet average...

2011-12-01

268

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01

269

Weights and measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual museum presents the role of the United States government in the development and standardization of weights and measures. Produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the exhibit displays objects in eight virtual rooms: America Before Standard Weights and Measures; Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler; The Office of Weights and Measures in the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1836-1901; The Mendenhall Order; The Founding of the National Bureau of Standards in 1901; From Artifacts to Physical Constants; The Dissemination of Standard Weights and Measures; and A Social History of Weights and Measures. Text as well as images relate the history.

Greenhouse, Lisa; National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2001-01-01

270

Bayes model averaging with selection of regressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a number of distinct models contend for use in prediction, the choice of a single model can offer rather unstable predictions. In regression, stochastic search variable selection with Bayesian model averaging offers a cure for this robustness issue but at the expense of requiring very many predictors. Here we look at Bayes model averaging incorporating variable selection for prediction.

P. J. Brown; M. Vannucci; T. Fearn

2002-01-01

271

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

272

Averages in vector spaces over finite fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in Rn when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number of model cases.

ANTHONY CARBERY; BRENDAN STONES; JAMES WRIGHT

2008-01-01

273

Whatever Happened to the Average Student?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandated state testing, college entrance exams and their perceived need for higher and higher grade point averages have raised the anxiety levels felt by many of the average students. Too much focus is placed on state test scores and college entrance standards with not enough focus on the true level of the students. The author contends that…

Krause, Tom

2005-01-01

274

Compact, high-average-power, injection-locked magnetron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are presently working to reduce the size and weight of the Varian-ARL, conventional- emission, high-power magnetron by redesigning the magnetron to incorporate a permanent magnet. As part of this effort, the average power capability of this 50-MW, S-band magnetron is being increased by an order of magnitude. This paper reports on the compact magnetron design and new results from an experiment which was performed with an all-tungsten anode magnetron at continuous, high repetition rates.

Treado, Todd A.; Brown, Paul D.; Antosh, Charles

1994-05-01

275

Yogurt and weight management.  

PubMed

A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887

Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

2014-05-01

276

Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss  

PubMed Central

Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success.

Gardner, C D

2012-01-01

277

High liveborn birth weights in the Faroes: a comparison between birth weights in the Faroes and in Denmark.  

PubMed Central

The average birth weight of 10 132 liveborn infants delivered in the Faroes during the period 1969-81 was 3610 grams, which is the highest average weight reported by 33 countries from which we were able to obtain information. Comparison of live births only between the Faroes and Denmark shows a displacement between their birth weight curves of 225 grams. A less active elective delivery in the Faroes could not explain this considerable difference. When standardisation is made with respect to discrepancies in maternal age and marital status in the two populations, the difference between their average birth weights is increased by 5% and 9% respectively. A matching for maternal parity yields a difference between the averages which is 23% below the one between the total populations. Other factors must be responsible. Both environmental and genetic factors plus the possibility of the Faroes being closer to having an optimal birth weight than other countries are discussed.

Olsen, S F; Joensen, H D

1985-01-01

278

Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale [lambda] a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when [lambda] is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time [tau] but not for less than [tau]. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits.

Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))

1994-08-01

279

High surface area tetragonal zirconia and processes for synthesizing same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A zirconia-containing composition and processes for synthesizing same. The composition comprises least about 99.9 percent tetragonal phase zirconia, based on the total crystalline zirconia in the zirconia-containing composition as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition also has a substantially spherical morphology and comprises less than 100 wppm chlorine, based on the total weight of the zirconia-containing composition. The zirconia-containing composition has an average surface area of at least 80 m.sup.2/g and an average particle size of less than about 10 microns.

2010-04-27

280

Spatial Averaging of Water Content by Time Domain Reflectometry: Implications for Twin Rod Probes with and without Dielectric Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The averaging of apparent relative dielectric permittivities by time domain reflectometry (TDK) is examined for properties varying along TDK waveguides and in the plane perpendicular to a TDR probe. A square root averaging model with uniform weighting factors describes the measured apparent relative dielectric permittivity for axially varying materials; variations in the transverse plane are described by an inverse averaging

P. A. Ferré; D. L. Rudolph; R. G. Kachanoski

1996-01-01

281

Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways of dealing with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. In the first one, the correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example, the leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show the non-triviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

Kašpar, P.; Svítek, O.

2014-05-01

282

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.  

PubMed

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

283

Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant biochemistry using Bayesian model averaging with variable and band selection  

SciTech Connect

Model specification remains challenging in spectroscopy of plant biochemistry, as exemplified by the availability of various spectral indices or band combinations for estimating the same biochemical. This lack of consensus in model choice across applications argues for a paradigm shift in hyperspectral methods to address model uncertainty and misspecification. We demonstrated one such method using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which performs variable/band selection and quantifies the relative merits of many candidate models to synthesize a weighted average model with improved predictive performances. The utility of BMA was examined using a portfolio of 27 foliage spectral–chemical datasets representing over 80 species across the globe to estimate multiple biochemical properties, including nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, cellulose, lignin, chlorophyll (a or b), carotenoid, polar and nonpolar extractives, leaf mass per area, and equivalent water thickness. We also compared BMA with partial least squares (PLS) and stepwise multiple regression (SMR). Results showed that all the biochemicals except carotenoid were accurately estimated from hyerspectral data with R2 values > 0.80.

Zhao, Kaiguang; Valle, Denis; Popescu, Sorin; Zhang, Xuesong; Malick, Bani

2013-05-15

284

Theory of optimal weighting of data to detect climatic change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for climatic change predicted by climate models can easily yield unconvincing results because of 'climatic noise,' the inherent, unpredictable variability of time-average atmospheric data. A weighted average of data that maximizes the probability of detecting predicted climatic change is presented. To obtain the optimal weights, an estimate of the covariance matrix of the data from a prior data set is needed. This introduces additional sampling error into the method. This is presently taken into account. A form of the weighted average is found whose probability distribution is independent of the true (but unknown) covariance statistics of the data and of the climate model prediction.

Bell, T. L.

1986-01-01

285

Optimal Properties of Exponentially Weighted Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exponentially weighted average can be interpreted as the expected value of a time series made up of two kinds of random components: one lasting a single time period (transitory) and the other lasting through all subsequent periods (permanent). Such a time series may, therefore, be regarded as a random walk with “noise” superimposed. It is also shown that, for

John F. Muth

1960-01-01

286

A study of T2-weighted MR image texture features and diffusion-weighted MR image features for computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to study T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image texture features and diffusionweighted (DW) MR image features in distinguishing prostate cancer (PCa) from normal tissue. We collected two image datasets: 23 PCa patients (25 PCa and 23 normal tissue regions of interest [ROIs]) imaged with Philips MR scanners, and 30 PCa patients (41 PCa and 26 normal tissue ROIs) imaged with GE MR scanners. A radiologist drew ROIs manually via consensus histology-MR correlation conference with a pathologist. A number of T2-weighted texture features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features were investigated, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to combine select strong image features. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to characterize feature effectiveness in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue ROIs. Of the features studied, ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average yielded AUC values (+/-standard error) of 0.95+/-0.03, 0.94+/-0.03, and 0.85+/-0.05 on the Phillips images, and 0.91+/-0.04, 0.89+/-0.04, and 0.70+/-0.06 on the GE images, respectively. The three-feature combination yielded AUC values of 0.94+/-0.03 and 0.89+/-0.04 on the Phillips and GE images, respectively. ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average, are effective in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue, and appear robust in images acquired from Phillips and GE MR scanners.

Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Antic, Tatjana; Giger, Maryellen L.; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

2013-02-01

287

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS  

SciTech Connect

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10

288

A Stochastic Model of Space-Time Variability of Mesoscale Rainfall: Statistics of Spatial Averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. A previously developed spectral model of rain statistics that is designed to capture this property, predicts power law scaling behavior for the second moment statistics of area-averaged rain rate on the averaging length scale L as L right arrow 0. In the present work a more efficient method of estimating the model parameters is presented, and used to fit the model to the statistics of area-averaged rain rate derived from gridded radar precipitation data from TOGA COARE. Statistical properties of the data and the model predictions are compared over a wide range of averaging scales. An extension of the spectral model scaling relations to describe the dependence of the average fraction of grid boxes within an area containing nonzero rain (the "rainy area fraction") on the grid scale L is also explored.

Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, Thomas L.

2003-01-01

289

Averaging methods in nonlinear dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: Basic material. Asymptotics of slow-time processes, first steps. The theory of averaging. Attraction. Averagingover spatial variables: systems with slowly varying frequency and passage through resonance. Normal forms. Hamiltonian systems. Appendices.

J. A. Sanders; F. Verhulst

1985-01-01

290

Generalization to stochastic averaging in random vibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stochastic Averaging is applied to a class of randomly excited single- degree-of-freedom oscillators possessing linear damping and nonlinear stiffness terms. The assumed excitation form involves an externally applied evolutionary Gaussian stochastic proce...

J. R. Red-Horse

1992-01-01

291

40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...

2013-07-01

292

Average Atom Model of Partial Ionization, Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The average atom model of partial ionization discussed by Zeldovich and Raizer provides an approximate solution to the Saha equation. As originally derived the model contains several approximations and ad hoc assumptions and violates one of the Maxwell eq...

M. J. Clauser

1975-01-01

293

Modeling Plants With Moving-Average Outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three discrete-state-variable representations derived. Paper discusses mathematical modeling of digital control systems for plants in which outputs include combinations of instantaneous and moving-average-prefiltered measurements.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

294

Heuristic approach to capillary pressures averaging  

SciTech Connect

Several methods are available to average capillary pressure curves. Among these are the J-curve and regression equations of the wetting-fluid saturation in porosity and permeability (capillary pressure held constant). While the regression equation seem completely empiric, the J-curve method seems to be theoretically sound due to its expression based on a relation between the average capillary radius and the permeability-porosity ratio. An analysis is given of each of these methods.

Coca, B.P.

1980-10-01

295

Climatology of globally averaged thermospheric mass density  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a climatological analysis of daily globally averaged density data, derived from orbit data and covering the years 1967–2007, along with an empirical Global Average Mass Density Model (GAMDM) that encapsulates the 1986–2007 data. The model represents density as a function of the F10.7 solar radio flux index, the day of year, and the Kp geomagnetic activity index. We

J. T. Emmert; J. M. Picone

2010-01-01

296

Applications of high average power nonlinear optics  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

1996-02-05

297

On the average genus of a graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all rational numbers are possibilities for the average genus of an individual graph. The smallest such numbers are determined,\\u000a and varied examples are constructed to demonstrate that a single value of average genus can be shared by arbitrarily many\\u000a different graphs. It is proved that the number 1 is a limit point of the set of possible values for

Jonathan L. Gross; E. Ward Klein; Robert G. Rieper

1993-01-01

298

Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.  

PubMed

The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

Fernando, K Vince

2008-10-01

299

A Weighted and Directed Interareal Connectivity Matrix for Macaque Cerebral Cortex  

PubMed Central

Retrograde tracer injections in 29 of the 91 areas of the macaque cerebral cortex revealed 1,615 interareal pathways, a third of which have not previously been reported. A weight index (extrinsic fraction of labeled neurons [FLNe]) was determined for each area-to-area pathway. Newly found projections were weaker on average compared with the known projections; nevertheless, the 2 sets of pathways had extensively overlapping weight distributions. Repeat injections across individuals revealed modest FLNe variability given the range of FLNe values (standard deviation <1 log unit, range 5 log units). The connectivity profile for each area conformed to a lognormal distribution, where a majority of projections are moderate or weak in strength. In the G29 × 29 interareal subgraph, two-thirds of the connections that can exist do exist. Analysis of the smallest set of areas that collects links from all 91 nodes of the G29 × 91 subgraph (dominating set analysis) confirms the dense (66%) structure of the cortical matrix. The G29 × 29 subgraph suggests an unexpectedly high incidence of unidirectional links. The directed and weighted G29 × 91 connectivity matrix for the macaque will be valuable for comparison with connectivity analyses in other species, including humans. It will also inform future modeling studies that explore the regularities of cortical networks.

Markov, N. T.; Ercsey-Ravasz, M. M.; Ribeiro Gomes, A. R.; Lamy, C.; Magrou, L.; Vezoli, J.; Misery, P.; Falchier, A.; Quilodran, R.; Gariel, M. A.; Sallet, J.; Gamanut, R.; Huissoud, C.; Clavagnier, S.; Giroud, P.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Barone, P.; Dehay, C.; Toroczkai, Z.; Knoblauch, K.; Van Essen, D. C.; Kennedy, H.

2014-01-01

300

A re-averaged WENO reconstruction and a third order CWENO scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A WENO re-averaging (or re-mapping) technique is developed that converts function averages on one grid to another grid to high order. Nonlinear weighting gives the essentially non-oscillatory property to the re-averaged function values. The new reconstruction grid is used to obtain a standard high order WENO reconstruction of the function averages at a select point. By choosing the reconstruction grid to include the point of interest, a high order function value can be reconstructed using only positive linear weights. The re-averaging technique is applied to define two variants of a classic CWENO3 scheme that combines two linear polynomials to obtain formal third order accuracy. Such a scheme cannot otherwise be defined, due to the nonexistence of linear weights for third order reconstruction at the center of a grid element. The new scheme uses a compact stencil of three solution averages, and only positive linear weights are used. The scheme extends easily to problems in higher space dimensions, essentially as a tensor product of the one-dimensional scheme. The scheme maintains formal third order accuracy in higher dimensions. Numerical results show that this CWENO3 scheme is third order accurate for smooth problems and gives good results for non-smooth problems, including those with shocks.

Huang, Chieh-Sen; Arbogast, Todd; Hung, Chen-Hui

2014-04-01

301

Accumulative weights program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program provides capability of assessing weight above given structural station planes for inert and variable masses for any selected loading condition. Output is produced that yeilds weight data concentrated on and/or cantilevered from stations along Saturn 5 vehicle's verticle axis. Input data availability limits program's function to vertical structures.

Pate, W. B.; Pincha, P. J.

1971-01-01

302

METHOD OF WEIGHT DETERMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate method for measuring the weight of large masses of material ; such as oil, molten metals, rubber, water, and other liquids during processing is ; patented. A short-lived radioisotope is added to the material, whose weight is ; to be determined, and uniformly dispersed in the material. A sample is taken ; from the material and weighed, and

1963-01-01

303

The weighted oblimin rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cureton & Mulaik (1975) proposed the Weighted Varimax rotation so that Varimax (Kaiser, 1958) could reach simple solutions when the complexities of the variables in the solution are larger than one. In the present paper the weighting procedure proposed by Cureton & Mulaik (1975) is applied to Direct Oblimin (Clarkson & Jennrich, 1988), and the rotation method obtained is called

Urbano Lorenzo-Seva

2000-01-01

304

The Meaning of Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

Iona, Mario

1975-01-01

305

Weight and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

306

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

307

Deciphering faces: quantifiable visual cues to weight.  

PubMed

Body weight plays a crucial role in mate choice, as weight is related to both attractiveness and health. People are quite accurate at judging weight in faces, but the cues used to make these judgments have not been defined. This study consisted of two parts. First, we wanted to identify quantifiable facial cues that are related to body weight, as defined by body mass index (BMI). Second, we wanted to test whether people use these cues to judge weight. In study 1, we recruited two groups of Caucasian and two groups of African participants, determined their BMI and measured their 2-D facial images for: width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio. All three measures were significantly related to BMI in males, while the width-to-height and cheek-to-jaw-width ratios were significantly related to BMI in females. In study 2, these images were rated for perceived weight by Caucasian observers. We showed that these observers use all three cues to judge weight in African and Caucasian faces of both sexes. These three facial cues, width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio, are therefore not only related to actual weight but provide a basis for perceptual attributes as well. PMID:20301846

Coetzee, Vinet; Chen, Jingying; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

2010-01-01

308

Areas, Volumes, Surface Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

Manura, David

2002-10-18

309

When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

Ebenstein, Avraham

2009-01-01

310

Comparison of average stress drop measures for ruptures with heterogeneous stress change and implications for earthquake physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress drop, a measure of static stress change in earthquakes, is the subject of numerous investigations. Stress drop in an earthquake is likely to be spatially varying over the fault, creating a stress drop distribution. Representing this spatial distribution by a single number, as commonly done, implies averaging in space. In this study, we investigate similarities and differences between three different averages of the stress drop distribution used in earthquake studies. The first one, overline{? ? }_M, is the commonly estimated stress drop based on the seismic moment and fault geometry/dimensions. It is known that overline{? ? }_M corresponds to averaging the stress drop distribution with the slip distribution due to uniform stress drop as the weighting function. The second one, overline{? ? }_A, is the simplest (unweighted) average of the stress drop distribution over the fault, equal to the difference between the average stress levels on the fault before and after an earthquake. The third one, overline{? ? }_E, enters discussions of energy partitioning and radiation efficiency; we show that it corresponds to averaging the stress drop distribution with the actual final slip at each point as the weighting function. The three averages, overline{? ? }_M, overline{? ? }_A, and overline{? ? }_E, are often used interchangeably in earthquake studies and simply called `stress drop'. Yet they are equal to each other only for ruptures with spatially uniform stress drop, which results in an elliptical slip distribution for a circular rupture. Indeed, we find that other relatively simple slip shapes-such as triangular, trapezoidal or sinusoidal-already result in stress drop distributions with notable differences between overline{? ? }_M, overline{? ? }_A, and overline{? ? }_E. Introduction of spatial slip heterogeneity results in further systematic differences between them, with overline{? ? }_E always being larger than overline{? ? }_M, a fact that we have proven theoretically, and overline{? ? }_A almost always being the smallest. In particular, the value of the energy-related overline{? ? }_E significantly increases in comparison to the moment-based overline{? ? }_M with increasing roughness of the slip distribution over the fault. Previous studies used overline{? ? }_M in place of overline{? ? }_E in computing the radiation ratio ?R that compares the radiated energy in earthquakes to a characteristic part of their strain energy change. Typical values of ?R for large earthquakes were found to be from 0.25 to 1. Our finding that overline{? ? }_E ge overline{? ? }_M allows us to interpret the values of ?R as the upper bound. We determine the restrictions placed by such estimates on the evolution of stress with slip at the earthquake source. We also find that overline{? ? }_E can be approximated by overline{? ? }_M if the latter is computed based on a reduced rupture area.

Noda, Hiroyuki; Lapusta, Nadia; Kanamori, Hiroo

2013-06-01

311

The Effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating Intervention on Weight Management in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention on weight management. Design Random control trial. Setting Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention The intervention, using 6 weekly 2 hour small group sessions, focused on reducing calorie and fat intake when eating out through education, behavior change strategies, and mindful eating meditations. Main Outcome Measures Weight, waist circumference, self-reported daily calorie and fat intake, self-reported calories and fat consumed when eating out, emotional eating, diet related self-efficacy, and barriers to weight management when eating out. Analysis General linear models examined change from baseline to final endpoint to determine differences in outcomes between the intervention and control group. Results Participants in the intervention group lost significantly more weight (P =.03), had lower average daily caloric (P =.002) and fat intake (P =.001), had increased diet related self-efficacy (P =.02), and had fewer barriers to weight management when eating out (P =.001). Conclusions and Implications Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention was effective in promoting weight management in perimenopausal women.

Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

2011-01-01

312

Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

2008-11-01

313

High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser  

SciTech Connect

We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

2001-05-23

314

Perceiving the average hue of color arrays  

PubMed Central

The average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g. to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g. perceptual vs. cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g. categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two colors shown alternated in spatial arrays. Observers adjusted the components until the average equaled a specified reference hue. Matches for red, blue-red, or yellow-green were consistent with the arithmetic mean chromaticity, while blue-green settings deviated toward blue. The settings show little evidence for categorical coding, and cannot be predicted from the scaled appearances of the individual components.

Webster, Jacquelyn; Kay, Paul; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

315

Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

Sun, Ye; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke

2014-01-01

316

Psychological effects of weight retained after pregnancy.  

PubMed

This study is a prospective investigation of the effect of weight retained after pregnancy on weight satisfaction, self-esteem and depressive affect, utilising the framework provided by expectancy-value theory. Self-report data were obtained from 115 women who were in the last month of their first pregnancy, and then again a month following the birth. On average women were heavier four weeks after having their baby than they were prior to becoming pregnant, and were less satisfied with their post-natal weight and shape. They were also slightly heavier than they had anticipated, particularly in the case of the younger women. Actual post-natal weight proved the most important predictor of psychological well-being following birth. PMID:9253140

Jenkin, W; Tiggemann, M

1997-01-01

317

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

2013-11-01

318

On the Average Pairing Energy in Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macroscopic-microscopic method is applied to calculate the nuclear energies, especially the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. The single-particle levels are obtained with the Yukawa folded mean-field potential. The macroscopic energy is evaluated using the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop model. The shell corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky method with smoothing in nucleon number space. The average nuclear pairing energy is also determined by folding the BCS sums in nucleon number space. The average pairing energy dependence on the nuclear elongation is investigated.

Nerlo-Pomorska, Bo?ena; Pomorski, Krzysztof

319

Flexibility in weight management.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between changes in flexible vs. rigid restraints of eating during weight management, as well as how changes in the cognitive restraint of eating were related to psychological well-being and flexibility. The data includes information on 49 overweight persons who participated in a weight loss and maintenance (WLM) intervention and a follow-up assessment after 8-9months. An increase in flexible cognitive restraint during the weight loss intervention was related to better weight loss maintenance and well-being. The more flexible restraint increased during the WLM intervention, the more psychological distress decreased. Moreover, larger reduction of rigid restraint during the follow-up period (between the WLM intervention and the follow-up assessment) was related to a better maintenance of improved psychological well-being at the follow-up endpoint. These results suggest that increasing flexible control while reducing rigid control of eating after an active weight loss phase improves success in weight management and the psychological well-being of weight losers. PMID:24854807

Sairanen, Essi; Lappalainen, Raimo; Lapveteläinen, Anja; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila

2014-04-01

320

Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging for Non-Uniqueness and Uncertainty Analysis of Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been widely used to estimate concentration of chemicals in groundwater systems. However, estimation uncertainty is rarely discussed in the literature. Uncertainty in ANN output stems from three sources: ANN inputs, ANN parameters (weights and biases), and ANN structures. Uncertainty in ANN inputs may come from input data selection and/or input data error. ANN parameters are naturally uncertain because they are maximum-likelihood estimated. ANN structure is also uncertain because there is no unique ANN model given a specific case. Therefore, multiple plausible AI models are generally resulted for a study. One might ask why good models have to be ignored in favor of the best model in traditional estimation. What is the ANN estimation variance? How do the variances from different ANN models accumulate to the total estimation variance? To answer these questions we propose a Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging (HBMA) framework. Instead of choosing one ANN model (the best ANN model) for estimation, HBMA averages outputs of all plausible ANN models. The model weights are based on the evidence of data. Therefore, the HBMA avoids overconfidence on the single best ANN model. In addition, HBMA is able to analyze uncertainty propagation through aggregation of ANN models in a hierarchy framework. This method is applied for estimation of fluoride concentration in the Poldasht plain and the Bazargan plain in Iran. Unusually high fluoride concentration in the Poldasht and Bazargan plains has caused negative effects on the public health. Management of this anomaly requires estimation of fluoride concentration distribution in the area. The results show that the HBMA provides a knowledge-decision-based framework that facilitates analyzing and quantifying ANN estimation uncertainties from different sources. In addition HBMA allows comparative evaluation of the realizations for each source of uncertainty by segregating the uncertainty sources in a hierarchical framework. Fluoride concentration estimation using the HBMA method shows better agreement to the observation data in the test step because they are not based on a single model with a non-dominate weights.

Fijani, E.; Chitsazan, N.; Nadiri, A.; Tsai, F. T.; Asghari Moghaddam, A.

2012-12-01

321

Average Values of Mean Squares in Factorials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumptions appropriate to the application of analysis of variance to specific examples, and the effects of these assumptions on the resulting interpretations, are today a matter of very active discussion. Formulas for average values of mean squares play a central role in this problem, as do assumptions about interactions. This paper presents formulas for crossed (and, incidentally, for nested

Jerome Cornfield; John W. Tukey

1956-01-01

322

Science of NHL Hockey: Statistics & Averages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being a top goalie in the NHL takes more than quick reflexes and nerves of steel, it also requires a firm grip on the numbers. Namely, the key averages and statistics of goaltending. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

323

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

324

Average configuration of the induced venus magnetotail  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss the interaction of the solar wind flow with Venus and describe the morphology of magnetic field line draping in the Venus magnetotail. In particular, we describe the importance of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) X-component in controlling the configuration of field draping in this induced magnetotail, and using the results of a recently developed technique, we examine the average magnetic configuration of this magnetotail. The derived J x B forces must balance the average, steady state acceleration of, and pressure gradients in, the tail plasma. From this relation the average tail plasma velocity, lobe and current sheet densities, and average ion temperature have been derived. In this study we extend these results by making a connection between the derived consistent plasma flow speed and density, and the observational energy/charge range and sensitivity of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) plasma analyzer, and demonstrate that if the tail is principally composed of O/sup +/, the bulk of the plasma should not be observable much of the time that the PVO is within the tail. Finally, we examine the importance of solar wind slowing upstream of the obstacle and its implications for the temperature of pick-up planetary ions, compare the derived ion temperatures with their theoretical maximum values, and discuss the implications of this process for comets and AMPTE-type releases.

McComas, D.J.; Spence, H.E.; Russell, C.T.

1985-01-01

325

Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

2010-01-01

326

Average Annual Rainfall Over the Globe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts1 1.74×10 J of solar radiation per second and it is divided over various channels as given in Table 1. It keeps our planet warm and maintains its average temperature2 of 288 K with the help of the atmosphere in such a way that life can survive. It also recycles the water in the oceans/rivers/ lakes by initial evaporation and subsequent precipitation; the average annual rainfall over the globe is around one meter. According to M. King Hubbert1 the amount of solar power going into the evaporation and precipitation channel is 4.0×10 W. Students can verify the value of average annual rainfall over the globe by utilizing this part of solar energy. This activity is described in the next section.

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-12-01

327

Methodology for Bayesian Model Averaging: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard practice of selecting a single model from some class of models and then making inferences based on this model ignores model uncertainty. Ignoring model uncertainty can im- pair predictive performance and lead to overstatement of the strength of evidence via p-values that are too small. Bayesian model averaging provides a coherent approach for accounting for model uncertainty. A

Jennifer A. Hoeting

328

Profile of Hired Farmworkers, 1998 Annual Averages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An average of 875,000 persons 15 years of age and older did hired farmwork each week as their primary job in 1998. An additional 63,000 people did hired farmwork each week as their secondary job. Hired farmworkers were more likely than the typical U.S. wa...

J. L. Runyan

2000-01-01

329

Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

Sturrock, Alan

1997-01-01

330

Distributed averaging on asynchronous communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Distributed algorithms for averaging have at- tracted interest in the control and sensing literature. However, previous works have not addressed some practical concerns that will arise in actual implementations on packet-switched communication networks such as the Internet. In this paper, we present several implementable algorithms that are robust to asynchronism and dynamic topology changes. The algorithms do not require

M. Mehyar; D. Spanos; J. Pongsajapan; S. H. Low; R. M. Murray

2005-01-01

331

Why do Noninvertible Estimated Moving Averages Occur.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The positive probability that an estimated moving average process is noninvertible is studied for maximum likelihood estimation of a univariate process. Upper and lower bounds for the probability in the first-order case are obtained as well as limits when...

A. Takemura T. W. Anderson

1984-01-01

332

The Average Height of Planted Plane Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An asymptotic expression for the average height of a planted plane tree is derived, based on an asymptotic series for sums such as the Summation (k > or = 1) of (2n, N + K) d(k) and the Summation (k > or = 1) of (e to the (-k squared/n) power) d(k), where...

D. E. Knuth N. G. de Bruijn S. O. Rice

1971-01-01

333

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

334

Average case analysis of dynamic graph algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for edge updates with restricted randomness in dynamic graph algorithms and a general technique for analyzing the expected running time of an update operation. This model is able to capture the average case in many applications, since (1) it allows restrictions on the set of edges which can be used for insertions and (2) the type

David Alberts; Monika Rauch Henzinger

1995-01-01

335

Importance Ratings and Weighting: Old Concerns and New Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes key concepts, reviews empirical findings, and discusses important issues related to the use of subjective importance ratings and importance weighting. The review of empirical findings focuses on weighting achieved via the multiplicative model and on 3 areas in which weighting is commonly used: quality of life, self-esteem,…

Russell, Lara B.; Hubley, Anita M.

2005-01-01

336

MAPPING PROPERTIES OF INTEGRAL AVERAGING OPERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizations are obtained for those pairs of weight functions u and v for which the operators Tf(x) = Rb(x) a(x) f(t)dt with a and b certain non-negative functions are bounded from Lpu(0;1) to L q v(0;1), 0 < p;q <1, p 1. Sucient conditions are given for T to be bounded on the cones of monotone functions. The results are

H. P. Heinig; G. Sinnamon

1997-01-01

337

Behavior of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure and Body Weight under Peak Physical Exertion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weight, blood pressure and intraocular pressure were measured in healthy young men prior to, and after a 50-km walk. Comparative tables show that on an average the weight and intraocular pressure decreases, while blood pressure increases. (Author)

R. Kern

1972-01-01

338

Prizes for weight loss.  

PubMed Central

A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health.

Englberger, L.

1999-01-01

339

Weighted Fano threefold hypersurfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study birational transformations into elliptic fibrations and birational automorphisms of quasismooth anticanonically embedded weighted Fano 3-fold hypersur- faces with terminal singularities classified by A. R. Iano-Fletcher, J. Johnson, J. Kollar, and M. Reid.

BerlinNew York

340

Weight gain - unintentional  

MedlinePLUS

... changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (Hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling due to a ...

341

Your Child's Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese. Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

342

Sleep Apnea and Weight  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... of a small study published in the journal Sleep Medicine that suggests that when moderately obese apnea patients lose just 5% of their body weight they can stop early-stage disease from getting worse. Starting in 2004, researchers tracked ...

343

Average static stress drops for heterogeneous slip distributions: Comparison of several measures and implications for energy partition in earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static stress drop is often estimated using the seismic moment and rupture area based on a model for uniform stress drop distribution; we denote this estimate by ??_M. ??_M is sometimes interpreted as the spatial average of stress change over the ruptured area, denoted here as ??_A, and used accordingly, for example, to discuss the relation between recurrence interval and the healing of the frictional surface in a system with one degree of freedom [e.g., Marone, 1998]. ??_M is also used to estimate available energy (defined as the strain energy change computed using the final stress state as the reference one) and radiation efficiency [e.g., Venkataraman and Kanamori, 2004]. In this work, we define a stress drop measure, ??_E, that would enter the exact computation of available energy and radiation efficiency. The three stress drop measures - ??_M that can be estimated from observations, ??_A, and ??_E - are equal if the static stress change is spatially uniform, and that motivates substituting ??_M for the other two quantities in applications. However, finite source inversions suggest that the stress change is heterogeneous in natural earthquakes [e.g., Bouchon, 1997]. Since ??_M is the average of stress change weighted by slip distribution due to a uniform stress drop [Madariaga, 1979], ??_E is the average of stress change weighted by actual slip distribution in the event (this work), and ??_A is the simple spatial average of stress change, the three measures should, in general, be different. Here, we investigate the effect of heterogeneity aiming to understand how to use the seismological estimates of stress drop appropriately. We create heterogeneous slip distributions for both circular and rectangular planar ruptures using the approach motivated by Liu-Zeng et al. [2005] and Lavalleé et al [2005]. We find that, indeed, the three stress drop measures differ in our scenarios. In particular, heterogeneity increases ??_E and thus the available energy when the seismic moment (and hence ??_M) is preserved. So using ??_M instead of ??_E would underestimate available energy and hence overestimate radiation efficiency. For a range of parameters, ??_E is well-approximated by the seismic estimate ??_M if the latter is computed using a modified (decreased) rupture area that excludes low-slipped regions; a qualitatively similar procedure is already being used in practice [Somerville et al, 1999].

Noda, H.; Lapusta, N.; Kanamori, H.

2010-12-01

344

The Economic Impact of Weight Regain  

PubMed Central

Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1% ± 10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n = 10). Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000?USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery.

Sheppard, Caroline E.; Lester, Erica L. W.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

345

History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates  

PubMed Central

Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed.

Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

2007-01-01

346

History of smoking and postcessation weight gain among weight loss surgery candidates.  

PubMed

Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N=67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and were weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 lb, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868

Levine, Michele D; Kalarchian, Melissa A; Courcoulas, Anita P; Wisinski, Meghan S C; Marcus, Marsha D

2007-10-01

347

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

348

Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

Mathias, Lon J.

1983-01-01

349

On the Weighted Mean Value Theorem for Integrals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals is a powerful tool, which can be used to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and to obtain the average value of a function on an interval. On the other hand, its weighted version is very useful for evaluating inequalities for definite integrals. This article shows the solutions on applying the weighted

Polezzi, M.

2006-01-01

350

Weight loss in overweight patients maintained on atypical antipsychotic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Weight gain and associated medical morbidity offset the reduction of extrapyramidal side effects associated with atypical antipsychotics. Efforts to control weight in antipsychotic-treated patients have yielded limited success.Methods:We studied the impact of an intensive 24-week program of diet, exercise, and counseling in 17 chronically psychotic patients (10 women, seven men) who entered at high average body weight (105.0±18.4 kg) and

F Centorrino; J J Wurtman; K A Duca; V H Fellman; K V Fogarty; J M Berry; D M Guay; M Romeling; J Kidwell; S L Cincotta; R J Baldessarini

2006-01-01

351

Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

2012-01-01

352

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.  

SciTech Connect

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01

353

Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.

Vladimirov, A. P.

2014-05-01

354

High average power free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the first free-electron laser (FEL) was both conceived and demonstrated in the 1970s at Stanford, it has attracted much attention as a promising foundation for a high average power light source. Since its light is produced from free electrons, an FEL can be designed to lase at virtually any wavelength. Furthermore, since its light is generated from a relativistic beam that is continually replenished, its gain medium cannot be damaged by any conventional means. Accordingly, as there have been several ambitious attempts to design and construct high average power FELs over the past several decades, we chronicle some of these efforts. Additionally, we provide an overview of FEL technology and theory, discuss some of the obstacles that remain in the construction of a high-power FEL, and provide a road map toward a megawatt-class device.

Blau, Joseph; Cohn, Keith; Colson, William B.

2013-02-01

355

Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

Bolejko, Krzysztof [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Andersson, Lars, E-mail: bolejko@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)

2008-10-15

356

Model Averaging with Discrete Bayesian Network Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of perform- ing classification by model-averaging over a class of discrete Bayesian network structures consistent with a partial ordering and with bounded in-degree k. We show that for N nodes this class contains in the worst-case at least ›( ¡N=2 k ¢N=2 ) distinct network structures, but we show that this summation can be per-

Denver Dash; Gregory F. Cooper

357

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing.

Canavan

1991-01-01

358

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

359

Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

Ballatore, P.

360

A Simple Algorithm for Averaging Spike Trains  

PubMed Central

Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

2013-01-01

361

Modern average global sea-surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1993-01-01

362

Examining the Impacts of Oxygen and Carbon System Variability on Fossil Benthic Foraminiferal Shell Weight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminiferal shell weight can be impacted by environmental factors both during initial shell formation and as the result of post mortem preservation. An improved understanding of what determines this relationship can lead to both an understanding of foraminiferal calcite production in modern oceans and proxy development for past environmental conditions. Significantly, foraminiferal shell weight has been linked to carbonate ion concentration in both laboratory culture (of both planktic and benthic species) and in the modern and fossil record (in planktic foraminifera). This study explores the relationship between shell weight and changes in oxygenation and carbonate saturation in fossil benthic foraminifera from a high-resolution sedimentary record (MV0811-15JC; 34°36.930' N, 119°12.920' W; 418m water depth; 16.1-3.4 ka; sedimentation rate 44-100 cm kyr-1) from Santa Barbara Basin, CA (SBB). Ongoing work in SBB has described rapid biotic reorganization through the recent deglaciation in response to changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations, which are used here to create a semi quantitative oxygenation history for site MV0811-15JC. In modern Oxygen Minimum Zones, decreases in oxygen closely covary with increases in Total Carbon (with a corresponding decrease in the carbonate saturation state). We interpret that records from SBB of the average size-normalized test weight of Uvigerinid and Bolivinid foraminifera show that shell weight responds to these changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Multiple metrics of 'size normalization' including by length, geometric estimation of surface area and volume, and tracing of individual silhouettes are tested. Regardless of method utilized, the size normalized shell weight of all species fluctuates with abrupt changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Although all species respond to large-scale environmental changes, the weight records of Bolivinids and Uvigerinids reveal distinct differences, indicating that processes governing shell weight may vary across taxonomic groups.

Davis, C. V.; Hill, T. M.; Moffitt, S. E.

2013-12-01

363

Average recovery time from a standardized intravenous sedation protocol and standardized discharge criteria in the general dental practice setting.  

PubMed Central

Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed.

Lepere, A. J.; Slack-Smith, L. M.

2002-01-01

364

Stratified doubly robust estimators for the average causal effect.  

PubMed

Suppose we are interested in estimating the average causal effect from an observational study. A doubly robust estimator, which is a hybrid of the outcome regression and propensity score weighting, is more robust than estimators obtained by either of them in the sense that, if at least one of the two models holds, the doubly robust estimator is consistent. However, a doubly robust estimator may still suffer from model misspecification since it is not consistent if neither of them is correctly specified. In this article, we propose an alternative estimator, called the stratified doubly robust estimator, by further combining propensity score stratification with outcome regression and propensity score weighting. This estimator allows two candidate models for the propensity score and is more robust than existing doubly robust estimators in the sense that it is consistent either if the outcome regression holds or if one of the two models for the propensity score holds. Asymptotic properties are examined and finite sample performance of the proposed estimator is investigated by simulation studies. Our proposed method is illustrated with the Tone study, which is a community survey conducted in Japan. PMID:24571129

Hattori, Satoshi; Henmi, Masayuki

2014-06-01

365

Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

Dirks, Jean; And Others

1983-01-01

366

Reciprocity of weighted networks.  

PubMed

In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation. PMID:24056721

Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

2013-01-01

367

Popular weight reduction diets.  

PubMed

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

368

Analysis on traffic accessibility of worst-hit areas in Sichuan by the May 12th Wenchuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessibility of regional traffic in the worst-hit areas of Sichuan should be viewed with some concern. The difficulty of disaster relief work in May 12th Earthquake had showed unsubstantial traffic condition of the disaster area. Approach of weighted average travel time is adopted in this paper to calculate accessibility of 3 main traffic manners, i.e. highway, railway and aviation, and

Shen Xing-ju; Su Chun-jiang; Yang Zhong-xian

2009-01-01

369

Generalized constructive tree weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

370

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

371

Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1–3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity.

Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

2006-01-01

372

Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps.  

PubMed

Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1-3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

2006-01-01

373

Averaging over multiple or continuous scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several important physical systems with microstructures that vary spatially and/or temporally are examined. The appropriate averaging schemes are developed to derive effective equations and parameters describing the long- term, long-range behavior of the systems studied. For a general time-periodic linear planar flow, it is shown that the large-time, time-average transport of a pulse of localized solute can be described by classical anisotropic diffusion. The constant effective diffusion tensor is derived as a function of frequency, amplitude and flow topology. Statistical averaging of similar advection-diffusion problem with a random velocity field possessing certain stochastic properties is carried out. An extension of earlier exact renormalization theory to the case of two and three dimensional homogeneous stationary isotropic turbulence allows the derivation of integral-scale effective transport equation and the associated effective diffusivity, which is time-dependent in general, in terms of parameters defining the velocity statistics. With the Kolmogorov velocity spectrum, the developed theory predicts both time-evolution of the mean-square displacement of fluid particles and the infinite-time asymptotic value of eddy diffusivity in turbulent pipe and channel flows with acceptable accuracy in a wide range of Reynolds number. A macroscopic disjoining pressure near a triple contact line for an arbitrary air/liquid interface is derived from the attractive van der Waals forces by a renormalized coarse-graining scheme. It is then used to obtain the dynamic contact angles for partially-wetting fluids. For glycerine on Plexiglas, the predicted critical capillary number for the onset of rolling motion is in good agreement with fingering experiments both for gravity-driven flow and during spin coating. The resulting dynamic contact angle for Santicizer 405 on silicone treated glass is in quantitative agreement with Hoffman's capillary data and, at low spreading speeds, with earlier asymptotic theories.

Indeikina, Alexandra E.

374

Bogus Weight Loss Claims  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

Battles, Carol

2009-11-19

375

Reagents, Compositions, Weight Loss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short experimental study of what happens to aluminum hydroxide, silicic acid, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate (or reagents of instructors choice) when they are heated to 110 and 1200 degrees. Students determine the formula and calculate the mole percent and weight percent of each element and oxide in each reagent. They heat the samples and calculate percentage weight loss or gain. Finally, they write a lab report summarizing their results. Be sure to have students save their samples for later use in a lab that introduces X-ray diffraction.

Perkins, Dexter

376

Low-pass filters for signal averaging  

SciTech Connect

Detailed comparison of the settling time-noise bandwidth products of 31 types of low-pass filters demonstrates that the settling time-noise bandwidth product is the figure of merit for such filters when the goal is averaging. Common filters such as Butterworth, elliptic, and Chebyshev are found to be unusable for such purposes while others, such as Bessel filters, offer only moderate figures of merit. The best reported analog low-pass filter differs from ideality by only about 11%. The optimum analog low-pass filter, having continuous, rational transfer function, is unknown.

Voigtman, E.; Winefordner, J.D.

1986-05-01

377

High average power laser for EUV lithography  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated the operation of a high average power, all solid state laser and target system for EUV lithography. The laser operates at 1.06 {mu}m with a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz. Each pulse contains up to 400 mJ of energy and is less than 10 ns in duration. The ELTV conversion efficiency measured with the laser is independent of the laser repetition rate. Operating at 200 Hz, the laser has been used for lithography using a 3 bounce Kohler illuminator.

Kania, D.R.; Gaines, D.P.; Hermann, M.; Honig, J.; Hostetler, R.; Levesque, R.; Sommargren, G.E.; Spitzer, R.C.; Vernon, S.P.

1995-01-19

378

Average prime-pair counting formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking r>0 , let ?_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p? x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that ?_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ?_{2r}(x)=?_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for ?(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ?_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

2010-04-01

379

Trapping on Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks with Small-World Property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present weighted tetrahedron Koch networks depending on a weight factor. According to their self-similar construction, we obtain the analytical expressions of the weighted clustering coefficient and average weighted shortest path (AWSP). The obtained solutions show that the weighted tetrahedron Koch networks exhibits small-world property. Then, we calculate the average receiving time (ART) on weighted-dependent walks, which is the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at the trap located at a hub node. We find that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order.

Dai, Meifeng; Xie, Qi; Xi, Lifeng

2013-04-01

380

The average number of weighings to locate a counterfeit coin (Corresp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution is obtained to the problem of finding the minimum of the average number of weighings, using a balance, needed to locate one light coin from amongncoins of whichn - 1are genuine and of the same weight. Optimal strategies are determined, and the anomaly that it may be better to work withn + 1coins rather thannis examined and explained.

D. Mead

1979-01-01

381

Orthopedic stretcher with average-sized person can pass through 18-inch opening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified Robinson stretcher for vertical lifting and carrying, will pass through an opening 18 inches in diameter, while containing a person of average height and weight. A subject 6 feet tall and weighing 200 pounds was lowered and raised out of an 18 inch diameter opening in a tank to test the stretcher.

Lothschuetz, F. X.

1966-01-01

382

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PVTG = Weighted-average MACT model point value for tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MTG = Mass of tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. (c) At the end of every month, use equation 2...

2009-07-01

383

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PVTG = Weighted-average MACT model point value for tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MTG = Mass of tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. (c) At the end of every month, use equation 2...

2010-07-01

384

Generation of high-average-power ultrabroad-band infrared pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of analytical and numerical studies on a novel technique that is capable of providing high average power ultra broadband radiation that extends from approximately 2 to 16 ?m. Such a spectrum has several potential applications, including telecommunications and remote sensing. Additional attractive features of the new source are its anticipated compact size, light weight, ruggedness,

C. A. Kapetanakos; B. Hafizi; H. M. Milehberg; P. Sprangle; R. F. Hubbard; A. Ting

1999-01-01

385

MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

Kevin Jordan; Trent Allison; Richard Evans; James Coleman; Albert Grippo

2003-05-01

386

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

387

Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers  

PubMed Central

Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception.

Jeewon, Rajesh

2013-01-01

388

Alternative Weighting Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texaco Inc.'s experiences with mined iron oxide used as an alternative weighting material for barite are presented. This paper discusses laboratory studies made before field application of this product. Also included are test results of a SWACO choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Some abrasion appears to occur in the highvelocity fluid regimes. This is particularly true in smallhole drilling

C. O. Walker

1983-01-01

389

Weight Training Adds Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

Nutter, June

1995-01-01

390

Weighted Fano threefold hypersurfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study birational transformations into elliptic fibrations and birational\\u000aautomorphisms of quasismooth anticanonically embedded weighted Fano 3-fold\\u000ahypersurfaces having terminal singularities classified by A.R. Iano-Fletcher,\\u000aJ. Johnson, J. Kollar, and M. Reid.

Ivan Cheltsov; Jihun Park

2006-01-01

391

Barrel Weight Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The soldier on the battlefield carriers a lot of equipment into combat. The weapon weight is a burden to our soldiers. Using the MK46 barrel as a baseline and implementing the use of a full Stellite liner and state-of-the- art UltraCem nickel-boride coati...

G. Livermore, L. Sadowski

2005-01-01

392

Weight and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... bariatric surgery) is the most effective treatment for weight loss in women with a BMI greater than 40. If I have been told that I have infertilty related to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), is there any additional treatment I can try? ...

393

Mass/Weight Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will recognize that the mass of an object is a measure that is independent of gravity. If they can effectively complete the guided inquiry activity as well as the short writing summary to reinforce what they learned, they will gain a foundation for understanding the difference between mass and weight.

King, Lance

2011-07-26

394

Weight For It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

Cosi

2009-01-01

395

Depth weighted scatter estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

General depth weighted scatter estimators are introduced and investigated. For general depth functions, we find out that these affine equivariant scatter estimators are Fisher consistent and unbiased for a wide range of multivariate distributions, and show that the sample scatter estimators are strong and \\\\sqrtn-consistent and asymptotically normal, and the influence functions of the estimators exist and are bounded in

Yijun Zuo; Hengjian Cui

2005-01-01

396

Weighted Multiplex Networks  

PubMed Central

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragon, Raul J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

397

A theoretical account of cue averaging in the rodent head direction system  

PubMed Central

Head direction (HD) cell responses are thought to be derived from a combination of internal (or idiothetic) and external (or allothetic) sources of information. Recent work from the Jeffery laboratory shows that the relative influence of visual versus vestibular inputs upon the HD cell response depends on the disparity between these sources. In this paper, we present simulation results from a model designed to explain these observations. The model accurately replicates the Knight et al. data. We suggest that cue conflict resolution is critically dependent on plastic remapping of visual information onto the HD cell layer. This remap results in a shift in preferred directions of a subset of HD cells, which is then inherited by the rest of the cells during path integration. Thus, we demonstrate how, over a period of several minutes, a visual landmark may gain cue control. Furthermore, simulation results show that weaker visual landmarks fail to gain cue control as readily. We therefore suggest a second longer term plasticity in visual projections onto HD cell areas, through which landmarks with an inconsistent relationship to idiothetic information are made less salient, significantly hindering their ability to gain cue control. Our results provide a mechanism for reliability-weighted cue averaging that may pertain to other neural systems in addition to the HD system.

Page, Hector J. I.; Walters, Daniel M.; Knight, Rebecca; Piette, Caitlin E.; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Stringer, Simon M.

2014-01-01

398

Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to calibrate probabilistic surface temperature forecasts over Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM), with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME) of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009) over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data. The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.

Soltanzadeh, I.; Azadi, M.; Vakili, G. A.

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? 60.1755 Section 60...SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use the equation...

2013-07-01

400

Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.

Buchele, Donald R.

1988-01-01

401

Reliability of Calculating Average Soil Composition of Apollo Landing Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar soil, i.e., the fine fraction of the lunar regolith, is the ground truth available for calibrating remotely sensed properties of virtually atmosphere-free planetary bodies. Such properties include albedo, IR-VIS-UV spectra, and secondary XRF, which are used to characterize the chemical and mineralogical compositions of planetary crusts. The quality of calibration, however, is dependent on the degree to which the ground truth is represented in the remotely sensed properties. The footprints and spatial resolution of orbital and Earth-based observations are much larger than the sampling areas at the landing sites. Yet an average composition of soils at each landing site is our best approximation for testing calibration. Previously, we have compiled chemical compositions of lunar soils and estimated the best average composition (CC) for each landing site. We have now compiled and estimated the best average mineralogical composition (MC) of soils (9 150-p n fraction) at each Apollo landing site. In this paper, we examine how these two estimates (Tables 1 and 2) compare and how representative they may be. For the purpose of comparison, we have calculated the normative mineralogy of each site (from Table 1) and recast them on a quartz-apatite-pyrite-free basis, i.e., in terms of feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite + chromite (Table 3).

Basu, Abhijit; Riegsecker, Sue E.

1998-01-01

402

High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System  

SciTech Connect

Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

Messerly, M J

2007-11-13

403

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

1992-07-01

404

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C.T. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States))

1992-01-01

405

Rapid distortion analysis of compressible turbulence in ideal gas: Part 2 - Density averaged moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform rapid distortion analysis of linearized, inviscid Favre-averaged Navier Stokes equation. This study - Favre-averaged Rapid Distortion Theory (F-RDT)- investigates the evolution of density weighted fluctuating moments. The fluid is assumed to be an ideal gas. The F-RDT formulation comprises of a closed set of 65 ordinary differential equations for the case of homogenous mean shear field. With S / S RT . - RT as compressibility parameter (S=magnitude of mean shear, R=gas constant, T=density weighted mean temperature), the versatility of the formulation is demonstrated by recovering both the incompressible and Burgers limit behaviors. Results for several intermediate cases-between the above two extreme limits-are also obtained. Favre-averaged Reynolds stresses, temperature variance, density variance and various cross-correlations will be discussed.

Suman, Sawan; Yu, Huidan; Girimaji, Sharath; Lavin, Tucker

2006-11-01

406

Effect of climate changes on the precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of water in a climate transition zone: Case of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a climatic transition zone such as the Eastern Mediterranean Sea area, in which storm tracks and moisture origin is quite varied, the most important cause for a shift in the isotopic composition of meteoric waters appears to be a modification in the weighting factor in the annual average for each contributing synoptic pathway (each with its distinct isotopic signature).

Joel R. Gat; Israel Carmi

407

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition  

PubMed Central

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

408

Irregular patterns in the daily weight chart at night predict body weight regain.  

PubMed

This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc 75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight. PMID:15388890

Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie

2004-10-01

409

Equal weights but different weight perceptions among US adolescents.  

PubMed

We investigate sex and race/ethnic differences in adolescents' perceptions of the same objectively measured weight in a nationally representative US sample. At the same BMI z-score, girls perceive themselves as heavier than boys. Regardless of sex and relative to Whites, African-Americans perceive the same BMI z-score as leaner and Native Americans are more likely to perceive objectively heavier weights as 'about the right weight'. Asian boys consider a narrower weight range to be 'about the right weight' relative to White boys, and Asian girls are less likely than White girls to perceive objectively lower weights as 'about the right weight'. PMID:20460406

Martin, Molly A; May, Ashleigh L; Frisco, Michelle L

2010-05-01

410

Drop-Weight-Tear-Test Equipment Energy Calibration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Drop-Weight-Tear-Test (DWTT) energy absorption has not previously been considered as a measure of fracture toughness from this test. The DWTT was originally planned to define the fracture appearance transition temperature of line pipe. The test has been very successfully used for this purpose for the past 20 years. During this period of DWTT usage, the need for a toughness measurement to control ductile fracture propagation has seen the application of a Charpy shelf-energy in addition to a DWTT or Charpy shear area requirement in the specification of line-pipe properties. The purpose of exploring energy measurements in the DWTT is to determine if both fracture appearance and toughness can be obtained from a single test. To this end, a number of individual steel companies and gas-transmission companies have been examining the use of a DWTT energy measurement. Also, the Round Robin Program on the precracked drop-weight-tear test (DWTT) indicated that the energy measurements by the 12 participating laboratories had a coefficient of variation (standard deviation/average) that is about 30 percent larger than for the Charpy V-notch test. Also, the average energy variations between the various laboratories were quite large. This suggested that there was a need for calibrating the equipment used for energy measurements. It also suggested that equipment design may be a contributing factor. The objective of this program is to obtain reference steels that are uniform and of varying energy levels so that reference specimens can be supplied to a laboratory to assess the accuracy and precision of their DWTT energy measuring equipment. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Eiber, R.J.

1988-10-01

411

Herd-level and territorial-level factors influencing average herd somatic cell count in France in 2005 and 2006.  

PubMed

Mastitis is a multifactorial disease and the most costly dairy production issue. In spite of extensive literature on udder-health risk factors, effects of metabolic diseases, farmers' competencies and livestock farming system on somatic cells count (SCC) are sparsely described. Herd-level or territorial-level factors affecting monthly composite milk weighted mean cow SCC (CMSCC) were analysed with a linear mixed effect model. The average CMSCC was 266,000 cells/ml. Half of the herds had CMSCC >300,000 cells/ml for 2-6 months a year, and 15% of herds for more than 7 months a year. CMSCC was positively associated with the number of cows, having a beef or fattening herd in addition to the dairy herd, the monthly average days in milk, the yearly age at first calving, the yearly proportion of purchased cows and the yearly culling rate. Moreover, a positive association is reported between CMSCC and the monthly proportion of cows probably with subacute ruminal acidosis (fat percentage minus protein percentage ?0·30%, for Holstein) and negative energy balance (protein to fat ratio ?0·66, for Holstein), the yearly average calving interval, having at least one dead cow and the mean monthly temperature. The association was negative for a predominant breed other than Holstein, the monthly milk production, the yearly dry-off period length, the monthly first calving cow proportion, having an autumn calving peak, being a Good Breeding Practices member, the monthly number of days with rain, the altitude and the territorial cattle density. CMSCC varied widely among the 11 dairy production areas. In conclusion, this study showed the average CMSCC for the French dairy cows, compared with international results. Moreover, it quantified the contribution of several factors to CMSCC, in particular metabolic diseases and the farm environment. PMID:22687283

Raboisson, Didier; Dervillé, Marie; Herman, Nicolas; Cahuzac, Eric; Sans, Pierre; Allaire, Gilles

2012-08-01

412

Weight management and weight loss strategies of professional jockeys.  

PubMed

Jockeys are required to maintain very low body weight and precise weight control during competition. This study examined the weight loss and weight management strategies of professional horseracing jockeys in the state of Victoria, Australia. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was administered (55% response rate, n = 116). Almost half (43%) reported that maintaining riding weight was difficult or very difficult, with 75% routinely skipping meals. In preparation for racing, 60% reported that they typically required additional weight loss, with 81% restricting food intake in the 24 hours prior to racing. Additionally, sauna-induced sweating (29%) and diuretics (22%) were frequently employed to further aid in weight loss prior to racing. These rapid weight loss methods did not differ between the 51% of jockeys who followed a weight management plan compared to those who did not. The impact of these extreme weight loss practices on riding performance and health remains unknown. PMID:11993617

Moore, Jan M; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A; Burns, Cate M; Cameron-Smith, David

2002-03-01

413

Low birth weight and residential proximity to PCB-contaminated waste sites.  

PubMed

Previous investigations have shown that women exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are at increased risk of giving birth to an infant with low birth weight (< 2,500 g), and that this relationship is stronger for male than for female infants. We have tested the hypothesis that residents in a zip code that contains a PCB hazardous waste site or abuts a body of water contaminated with PCBs are at increased risk of giving birth to a low-birth-weight baby. We used the birth registry of the New York State Vital Statistics to identify all births between 1994 and 2000 in New York State except for New York City. This registry provides information on the infant, mother, and father together with the zip code of the mother's residence. The 865 state Superfund sites, the 86 National Priority List sites, and the six Areas of Concern in New York were characterized regarding whether or not they contain PCBs as a major contaminant. We identified 187 zip codes containing or abutting PCB-contaminated sites, and these zip codes were the residences of 24.5% of the 945,077 births. The birth weight in the PCB zip codes was on average 21.6 g less than in other zip codes (p < 0.001). Because there are many other risk factors for low birth weight, we have adjusted for these using a logistic regression model for these confounders. After adjusting for sex of the infant, mother's age, race, weight, height, education, income, marital status, and smoking, there was still a statistically significant 6% increased risk of giving birth to a male infant of low birth weight. These observations support the hypothesis that living in a zip code near a PCB-contaminated site poses a risk of exposure and giving birth to an infant of low birth weight. PMID:12896858

Baibergenova, Akerke; Kudyakov, Rustam; Zdeb, Michael; Carpenter, David O

2003-08-01

414

Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight

D. L. Greene; J. C. Liang

1988-01-01

415

Relationship between smoking, weight and attitudes to weight in adolescent schoolgirls.  

PubMed Central

A total of 1,932 schoolgirls aged 11-18 from seven schools in the South London area were surveyed using questionnaires which addressed eating patterns, body weight history, attitudes to body weight and shape, menstrual history and current smoking behaviour. They were also weighed and their height was measured. Twelve per cent of the girls were regular smokers and 10% smoked seven or more cigarettes over a 4 day period. Amongst girls aged 14 and over, 15% smoked regularly and a further 9% occasionally. A significant relationship was found between smoking and weight. Smokers were more likely to be moderately overweight in relation to their peers and to have been worried about their weight at some stage. There were differences between girls in state schools and those in independent schools with regard to smoking behaviour and weight. The findings have implications for anti-smoking strategies and health education generally.

Halek, C.; Kerry, S.; Humphrey, H.; Crisp, A. H.; Hughes, J. M.

1993-01-01

416

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends.

2013-01-01

417

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

418

Maternal Weight and Body Composition during Pregnancy Are Associated with Placental and Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh12  

PubMed Central

Placental growth is a strong predictor of fetal growth, but little is known about maternal predictors of placental growth in malnourished populations. Our objective was to investigate in a prospective study the associations of maternal weight and body composition [total body water (TBW) estimated by bioelectrical impedance and fat and fat-free mass derived from upper arm fat and muscle areas (UAFA, UAMA)] and changes in these with placental and birth weights. Within a cluster-randomized trial of maternal micronutrient supplementation, a subsample of 350 women was measured 3 times across gestation. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine independent associations of ?10-wk measurements and ?10–20 wk and ?20–32 wk changes with birth outcomes. Weight, TBW, and UAMA, but not UAFA, at ?10 wk were each positively and independently associated with placental weight and birth weight (P < 0.05). Of the maternal ?10–20 wk changes in measurements, only TBW change and placental weight, and maternal weight and birth weight were positively associated (P < 0.05). Gains in weight, TBW, and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively and UAFA gain was negatively associated with placental weight (P ? 0.01). Gains in weight and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively associated with birth weight (P ? 0.01). Overall, higher maternal weight and measures of fat-free mass at ?10 wk gestation and gains from 20 to 32 wk are independently associated with higher placental and birth weight.

Gernand, Alison D.; Christian, Parul; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P.

2012-01-01

419

Light weight aluminum optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

1985-09-01

420

(Bessel-) weighted asymmetries  

SciTech Connect

Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments allow us to probe the motion of quarks inside the proton in terms of so-called transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), but the information is convoluted with fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) and soft factors. It has long been known that weighting the measured event counts with powers of the hadron momentum before forming angular asymmetries de-convolutes TMD PDFs and TMD FFs in an elegant way, but this also entails an undesirable sensitivity to high momentum contributions. Using Bessel functions as weights, we find a natural generalization of weighted asymmetries that preserves the de-convolution property and features soft-factor cancellation, yet allows us to be less sensitive to high transverse momenta. The formalism also relates to TMD quantities studied in lattice QCD. We briefly show preliminary lattice results from an exploratory calculation of the Boer-Mulders shift using lattices generated by the MILC and LHP collaborations at a pion mass of 500 MeV.

Bernhard Musch, Alexey Prokudin

2011-11-01

421

Characterization of weighted complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To account for possible distinct functional roles played by different nodes and links in complex networks, we introduce and analyze a class of weighted scale-free networks. The weight of a node is assigned as a random number, based on which the weights of links are defined. We utilize the concept of betweenness to characterize the weighted networks and obtain the

Kwangho Park; Ying-Cheng Lai; Nong Ye

2004-01-01

422

Liquid chromatography/proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry average composition analysis of fuels  

SciTech Connect

The use of a NMR spectrometer as a continuous flow liquid chromatographic detector (LC//sup 1/H NMR) generates a proton spectrum of each hydrocarbon class present in the sample. A detailed set of equations is presented which permits LC//sup 1/H NMR integration data from petroleum fuels to be interpreted as an average composition for each chromatographic fraction. Quantities calculated for each aromatic fraction include: the number average molecular weight, average degree of substitution on aromatic rings, the absolute number of moles of each structural type of carbon, an average structure (devoid of stereoisomer information), the total number of moles of carbon in each chromatographic fraction, and numerous other properties of interest in fuel characterization. The method is demonstrated for artifical fuels of known composition, for two experimental aviation fuels, and for a fuel blending stock sample which had been fully characterized at an independent laboratory by gas chromatography and GC/MS. The LC//sup 1/H NMR average composition method is shown to be very accurate for the monocyclic aromatic (substituted benzenes and tetralins) and dicyclic aromatic (substituted naphthalenes and acenaphthenes) fractions of petroleum fuels. Average molecular weights for these fractions can be routinely determined at an accuracy of +/-4 daltons. The other quantities are also determined at a high degree of accuracy. The applicability of the LC//sup 1/H NMR method to the aliphatic fraction of fuel samples is restricted by difficulties in accounting for quaternary carbons and cycloalkanes.

Haw, J.F.; Glass, T.E.; Dorn, H.C.

1983-01-01

423

Flux-Averaged and Volume-Averaged Concentrations in Continuum Approaches to Solute Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformations between volume-averaged pore fluid concentrations and flux-averaged concentrations are presented which show that both modes of concentration obey convective-dispersive transport equations of identical mathematical form for nonreactive solutes. The pertinent boundary conditions for the two modes, however, do not transform identically. Solutions of the convection-dispersion equation for a semi-infinite system during steady flow subject to a first-type inlet boundary condition is shown to yield flux concentrations, while solutions subject to a third-type boundary condition yield volume-averaged concentrations. These solutions may be applied with reasonable impunity to finite as well as semi-infinite media if back mixing at the exit is precluded. Implications of the distinction between resident and flux concentrations to laboratory and field studies of solute transport are discussed. It is suggested that perceived limitations of the convection-dispersion model for media with large variations in pore water velocities may in certain cases be attributable to a failure to distinguish between volume-averaged and flux-averaged concentrations.

Parker, J. C.; van Genuchten, M. Th.

1984-07-01

424

Weighting by Inverse Variance or by Sample Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the statistical procedures in meta-analysis are based on the estimation of average effect sizes from a set of primary studies. The optimal weight for averaging a set of independent effect sizes is the inverse variance of each effect size, but in prac- tice these weights have to be estimated, being affected by sampling error. When as- suming a

F. Marin-Martinez; J. Sanchez-Meca

2010-01-01

425

Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite  

SciTech Connect

The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2006-07-15

426

Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

1996-01-01

427

Averaging and globalising quotients of informetric and scientometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the particular case of the average impact factor of a subfield versus the impact factor of this subfield as a whole, the difference is studied between an average of quotients, denoted as AQ, and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages, and denoted as GQ. In the case of impact factors, AQ becomes the average impact

Leo Egghe; Ronald Rousseau

1996-01-01

428

Uncertainty of GHz-band Whole-body Average SARs in Infants based on their Kaup Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously showed that a strong correlation exists between the absorption cross section and the body surface area of a human for 0.3-2GHz far field exposure, and proposed a formula for estimating whole-body-average specific absorption rates (WBA-SARs) in terms of height and weight. In this study, to evaluate variability in the WBA-SARs in infants based on their physique, we derived a new formula including Kaup indices of infants, which are being used to check their growth, and thereby estimated the WBA-SARs in infants with respect to their age from 0 month to three years. As a result, we found that under the same height/weight, the smaller the Kaup indices are, the larger the WBA-SARs become, and that the variability in the WBA-SARs is around 15% at the same age. To validate these findings, using the FDTD method, we simulated the GHz-band WBA-SARs in numerical human models corresponding to infants with age of 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, which were obtained by scaling down the anatomically based Japanese three-year child model developed by NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology). Results show that the FDTD-simulated WBA-SARs are smaller by 20% compared to those estimated for infants having the median height and the Kaup index of 0.5 percentiles, which provide conservative WBA-SARs.

Miwa, Hironobu; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

429

Comparison of regression and kriging techniques for mapping the average annual precipitation of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of annual precipitation is important for many applications in hydrology, climatology, agronomy, ecology and other environmental sciences. In this study, we compared five different statistical methods to predict spatially the average annual precipitation of Turkey using point observations of annual precipitation at meteorological stations and spatially exhaustive covariate data (i.e. elevation, aspect, surface roughness, distance to coast, land use and eco-region). The methods compared were multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), universal kriging (UK), and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Average annual precipitation of Turkey from 1970 to 2006 was measured at 225 meteorological stations that are fairly uniformly distributed across the country, with a somewhat higher spatial density along the coastline. The observed annual precipitation varied between 255 mm and 2209 mm with an average of 628 mm. The annual precipitation was highest along the southern and northern coasts and low in the centre of the country, except for the area near the Van Lake, Keban and Ataturk Dams. To compare the performance of the interpolation techniques the total dataset was first randomly split in ten equally sized test datasets. Next, for each test data set the remaining 90% of the data comprised the training dataset. Each training dataset was then used to calibrate and apply the spatial prediction model. Predictions at the test dataset locations were compared with the observed test data. Validation was done by calculating the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-square and Standardized MSE (SMSE) values. According to these criteria, universal kriging is the most accurate with an RMSE of 178 mm, an R-square of 0.61 and an SMSE of 1.06, whilst multiple linear regression performed worst (RMSE of 222 mm, R-square of 0.39, and SMSE of 1.44). Ordinary kriging, UK using only elevation and geographically weighted regression are intermediate with RMSE values of 201 mm, 212 mm and 211 mm, and an R-square of 0.50, 0.44 and 0.45, respectively. The RK results are close to those of UK with an RMSE of 186 mm and R-square of 0.57. The spatial extrapolation performance of each method was also evaluated. This was done by predicting the annual precipitation in the eastern part of Turkey using observations from the western part. Results showed that MLR, GWR and RK performed best with little differences between these methods. The large prediction error variances confirmed that extrapolation is more difficult than interpolation. Whilst spatial extrapolation benefits most from covariate information as shown by an RMSE reduction of about 60 mm, in this study covariate information was also valuable for spatial interpolation because it reduced the RMSE with on average 30 mm.

Bostan, P. A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Akyurek, S. Z.

2012-10-01

430

Relation of Poisson's ratio on average with Young's modulus. Auxetics on average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear relation between the Poisson's ratio averaged along the transverse directions and Young's modulus of the tensed cubic crystal is established. It is found that the coefficients of the linear relation in the dimensionless form depend on two dimensionless elastic parameters combined from three compliance coefficients. By virtue of this fact, the form of angular regions of the crystal orientation with negative Poisson's ratio on average varies as the magnitude of one dimensionless coefficient and the sign of the other one. We find the critical value of the dimensionless parameter at which there is the topological change in the structure of the angular regions occurs is established.

Goldstein, R. V.; Gorodtsov, V. A.; Lisovenko, D. S.

2012-04-01

431

Comparing human observer performance in detecting microcalcifications with energy weighting and photon counting breast CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast CT (BCT) using a photon counting detector (PCD) has a number of advantages that can potentially improve clinical performance. Previous computer simulation studies showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for microcalcifications is higher with energy weighted photon counting BCT as compared to cesium iodide energy integrating detector (CsI-EID) based BCT. CsI-EID inherently weighs the incident x-ray photons in direct proportion to the energy (contradicting the information content) which is not an optimal approach. PCD do not inherently weigh the incident photons. By choosing optimal energy weights, higher SNR can be achieved for microcalcifications and hence better detectability. In this simulation study, forward projection data of a numerical breast phantom with microcalcifications inserted were acquired using CsI-EID and PCD. The PCD projections were optimally weighed, and reconstructed using filtered back-projection. We compared observer performance in identifying microcalcifications in the reconstructed images using ROC analysis. ROC based results show that the average area(s) under curve(s) (AUC) for AUCPCD based methods are higher than the average AUCCsI-EID method.

Kalluri, Kesava; Mahd, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

2012-02-01

432

Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

433

The association between adverse life events and body weight change: results of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Stress has been shown to be a determinant of weight change and risk for obesity. To date, there is scarce evidence that stressful life events and their severity contribute to changes in body weight. We studied the association between the occurrence, impact of and adaptation to adverse life events and weight change and the role of initial weight status. Methods Analyses were based on data from a population-based cohort of 2789 adults. Adverse life events, their impact and adaptation were measured retrospectively after baseline and follow-up weight and height measurements. Results Over six years, participants gained an average of 2.8 kg. There were no differences in weight change between those who had experienced an adverse life event versus those who had not. However, the impact of life events had a significant interaction with initial weight status. Adults with a healthy weight showed an average weight reduction of 0.2 kg (95% CIs: -0.7 - 0.2), and overweight adults showed an average weight gain of 0.4 kg (95% CIs: -0.3 - 1.1) for each point increase in impact after experiencing an adverse life event. Further, a slower adaptation to events was significantly associated with greater weight loss among those who lost weight. Conclusions We found no proof for an association between life events and weight change in the entire study sample, but we found that adults at a healthy weight responded differently to adverse life events than those who were overweight.

2013-01-01

434

Optimal estimation of the diffusion coefficient from non-averaged and averaged noisy magnitude data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude operation changes the signal distribution in MRI images from Gaussian to Rician. This introduces a bias that must be taken into account when estimating the apparent diffusion coefficient. Several estimators are known in the literature. In the present paper, two novel schemes are proposed. Both are based on simple least squares fitting of the measured signal, either to the median (MD) or to the maximum probability (MP) value of the Probability Density Function (PDF). Fitting to the mean (MN) or a high signal-to-noise ratio approximation to the mean (HS) is also possible. Special attention is paid to the case of averaged magnitude images. The PDF, which cannot be expressed in closed form, is analyzed numerically. A scheme for performing maximum likelihood (ML) estimation from averaged magnitude images is proposed. The performance of several estimators is evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We focus on typical clinical situations, where the number of acquisitions is limited. For non-averaged data the optimal choice is found to be MP or HS, whereas uncorrected schemes and the power image (PI) method should be avoided. For averaged data MD and ML perform equally well, whereas uncorrected schemes and HS are inadequate. MD provides easier implementation and higher computational efficiency than ML. Unbiased estimation of the diffusion coefficient allows high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and may therefore help solving the problem of crossing fibers encountered in white matter tractography.

Kristoffersen, Anders

2007-08-01

435

Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions  

PubMed Central

The placental weight ratio (PWR) is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA). The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n = 41441). Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants.

Macdonald, Erin M.; Koval, John J.; Natale, Renato; Regnault, Timothy; Campbell, M. Karen

2014-01-01

436

Alternate weighting material  

SciTech Connect

Texaco's experiences using mined iron oxide as an alternate weighting material for barite are presented in this paper. The initial portion of the paper discusses laboratory studies made prior to the field application of this product. Also included are the results of tests using a Swaco choke assembly to simulate field conditions. Mined iron oxide was used as the weighting agent during the drilling of five wells located in Louisiana, southeast Texas, and west Texas. In each case, a water-based fluid was used. The potentially abrasive character of this iron-containing product was of primary interest in each of these applications. As a result, the data collected and presented in this paper include bit and crossover sub measurements, wear of pump liners and valves, and bit life. No attempt was made to determine whether improved penetration rates or reduced mud costs would occur from the use of this product. It was concluded that the mined iron oxide material was more abrasive than barite, but only under certain conditions.

Walker, C.O.

1982-09-01

437

Field study of indoor average radon-daughter estimation methods  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Measurements Center conducted an Indoor Field Study during January 1984 through April 1985, using 44 sampling stations located in 28 structures in the Grand Junction, Colorado, area. The purpose of the study was to evaluate year-long measurement methods used to estimate the annual average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in a structure under actual occupancy conditions. The basis for evaluation was whether a method using an instrument could provide reasonable assurance of compliance with RDC standards, and whether the precision represented by the coefficient of variation of the instrument was 15% or less. The instruments evaluated were: Kodak-Pathe alpha-track film, Terradex SF detectors, Terradex type SO detectors, Technical Associates passive environmental radon monitor (PERM), EDA Instruments PERM, EML radon progeny integrating sampling unit (RPISU), EDA Instruments RPISU, and Eberline WLM-1. Conclusions and recommendations are given for each instrument.

George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1986-08-01

438

Recent advances to nonlinear minimum average correlation energy filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent advances in the development of nonlinear extensions to the minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter. The MACE filter and its variations have been applied to the area of automatic target detection and recognition. Nonlinear extensions (Fisher and Principe, 1994) have been presented based on a statistical formulation of the optimization criterion, of which the linear MACE filter is a special case. The method by which nonlinear topologies can be incorporated into the filter design is reviewed. We present recent advances to this nonlinear method as well as new experimental results applying the technique to inverse synthetic aperture radar data. The methods described result in faster convergence times and significantly better classification performance.

Fisher, John W.; Principe, Jose C.

1997-10-01

439

[Weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination of water environmental sensitive spots in Jiashan].  

PubMed

For the safety of the water environment in Jiashan county in Zhejiang Province, one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality models are established based on three large-scale monitoring of hydrology and water quality in Jiashan county, three water environmental sensitive spots including Hongqitang dam Chijia hydrological station and Luxie pond are selected to investigate weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination. Results indicate as follows (1) Internal pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than the external, the average weight parameters of internal chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution is 55.3%, internal ammonia nitrogen (NH(4+)-N) is 67.4%, internal total phosphor (TP) is 63.1%. Non-point pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than point pollution impact, the average weight parameters of non-point COD pollutions is 53.7%, non-point NH(4+)-N is 65.9%, non-point TP is 57.8%. (2) The risk of Hongqitang dam and Chijia hydrological station are in the middle risk. The risk of Luxie pond is also in the middle risk in August, and in April and December the risk of Luxie pond is low. The strategic decision will be suggested to guarantee water environment security and social and economic security in the study. PMID:23002597

Xie, Rong-Rong; Pang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Ke; Sun, Ming-Yuan

2012-07-01

440

Interpreting multiple risk scales for sex offenders: evidence for averaging.  

PubMed

This study tested 3 decision rules for combining actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders into an overall evaluation of risk. Based on a 9-year follow-up of 940 adult male sex offenders, we found that Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), Static-99R, and Static-2002R predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism and provided incremental information for the prediction of all 3 outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, the incremental effect of RRASOR was positive for sexual recidivism but negative for violent and general recidivism. Averaging risk ratios was a promising approach to combining these risk scales, showing good calibration between predicted (E) and observed (O) recidivism rates (E/O index = 0.93, 95% CI [0.79, 1.09]) and good discrimination (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI [0.69, 0.77]) for sexual recidivism. As expected, choosing the lowest (least risky) risk tool resulted in underestimated sexual recidivism rates (E/O = 0.67, 95% CI [0.57, 0.79]) and choosing the highest (riskiest) resulted in overestimated risk (E/O = 1.37, 95% CI [1.17, 1.60]). For the prediction of violent and general recidivism, the combination rules provided similar or lower discrimination compared with relying solely on the Static-99R or Static-2002R. The current results support an averaging approach and underscore the importance of understanding the constructs assessed by violence risk measures. PMID:23730829

Lehmann, Robert J B; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

2013-09-01

441

Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain  

PubMed Central

Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate.

Lowe, Michael R.; Doshi, Sapna D.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Feig, Emily H.

2013-01-01

442

Weight and balance calculator for aircraft  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hand-held computer that displays the aircraft floor plan with passenger and baggage compartments shown on a pad, with which a pilot can calculate the Center of Gravity (CG) of an aircraft by simply entering the load weights for different areas of an airplane. The floor plan can be changed for different aircraft. Next to each section of the plane is a button that, when pressed, allows a pilot to enter data for that section. As the pilot adds weight to each section, the computer can calculate the CG for the loaded aircraft. The computer can display the total weight, CG and other data related to the plane. The device can also printout the data for use as a manifest or for other documentation purposes. The device is the size and shape of a clipboard. In one version, the floor plan is fixed. In a second version, the floor plan can be changed for different aircraft.

2001-08-14

443

Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We report that when tissue images are formed via a small solid angle in the backward direction (i.e., back-directional gating), the image intensity is dominantly determined by tissue scattering anisotropy. Thus, this configuration allows for scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging that can provide an intrinsic contrast by capturing tissue structures and organizations. To demonstrate the immediate feasibility, we apply scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging to tissue blocks including basal-cell carcinomas as a pilot study. The main feature of our imaging approach is the high sensitivity to tumor locations and the simplicity for large-area visualization. We further envision that scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging could potentially be used to visualize tissue microenvironments in a mesoscopic (between microscopic and macroscopic) imaging setting.

Xu, Zhengbin; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kim, Young L.

2012-01-01

444

Efficacy of Zotrim: a herbal weight loss preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consumer survey was undertaken to test the efficacy of Zotrim, a herbal preparation commercially available as an over the counter weight loss aid. A total of 48 subjects completed a 28-day trial of Zotrim, taken in tablet form just prior to main meals. The results showed a self-assessed average weight loss of 2.3kg (0.6kg per week). Questionnaire data suggested

C. H. S. Ruxton

2004-01-01

445

Ensemble average TIRM for imaging amperometry.  

PubMed

Colloidal particles can function as probes of local electrochemical current density if a functional relationship between the response of the particles and the electric field in the vicinity of the particles can be established. The nanometer scale movement of a single colloidal particle during cyclic voltammetry can be observed with the aid of total internal reflection microscopy. The intensity of scattered light can be related back to the current density local to that particle, and hence the method is called imaging amperometry. Data acquisition and optical constraints, however, make a single-particle method impractical for analysis of macro-scale (~1 cm(2)) surfaces covered by several hundred thousand particles. Subdivision of the electrode into small patches, each containing an ensemble of particles, solves this problem if the scattering from the ensembles can be related to the local electric field. For example, a 100×100 array of square 100 ?m patches each containing approximately two dozen particles would form a mosaic of electrochemical activity with 0.01% area resolution on a 1cm(2) electrode having location-dependent electrocatalytic properties. The focus of this contribution, therefore, is adaptation of the method from single particles to particle ensembles. The algebraic relationship between current density and scattering intensity for single particles holds for ensembles if the mean scattering intensity is corrected to its mode. Currents calculated from particle light scattering at different locations on a single ITO/gold patterned electrode agree well with currents measured on these two electrode materials, which have quite different electrocatalytic properties. PMID:23683956

Rock, Reza M; Sides, Paul J; Prieve, Dennis C

2013-08-01

446

To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space  

SciTech Connect

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

2007-01-15

447

Weight-Control Information Network  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources About WIN Facebook Welcome to WIN The Weight-control Information Network provides the general public, health professionals, ... with up-to-date, science-based information on weight control, obesity, physical activity, and related nutritional issues. Be ...

448

Your Weight on Other Worlds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource from the Exploratorium calculates your weight on other bodies in our solar system and offers an explanation of mass and weight and the relationship between gravity, mass, and distance.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-10-21

449

Geophysical weight loss diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

Schatten, Kenneth

1984-04-01

450

Weighted prediction for HEVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HEVC is the new video coding standard developed in a joint effort (JCT-VC) by ISO MPEG and ITU-T VCEG. As other state-of-the-art block-based inter-prediction codec, it is very sensitive to illumination variations in-between frames. To cope with this limitation, the weighted prediction (WP) tool has been proposed. A comparison of the performance of WP in HEVC and MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 is carried out. The efficiency of WP is very dependent on the quality of the estimated WP parameters. The different stages of state-of-art WP parameters estimators are discussed and a new algorithm is proposed. It is based on histogram matching with global motion compensation. Several options are evaluated and comparison is made with other existing methods.

Bordes, Philippe; Thoreau, Dominique; Salmon, Philippe; Andrivon, Pierre

2012-02-01

451

Control of average spacing of OMCVD grown gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic nanostructures and their applications is a rapidly expanding field. Nobel metals such as silver and gold have historically been used to demonstrate plasmon effects due to their strong resonances, which occur in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) produces an enhanced electromagnetic field at the interface between a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and the surrounding dielectric. This enhanced field can be used for metal-dielectric interfacesensitive optical interactions that form a powerful basis for optical sensing. In addition to the surrounding material, the LSPR spectral position and width depend on the size, shape, and average spacing between these particles. Au NP LSPR based sensors depict their highest sensitivity with optimized parameters and usually operate by investigating absorption peak: shifts. The absorption peak: of randomly deposited Au NPs on surfaces is mostly broad. As a result, the absorption peak: shifts, upon binding of a material onto Au NPs might not be very clear for further analysis. Therefore, novel methods based on three well-known techniques, self-assembly, ion irradiation, and organo-meta1lic chemical vapour deposition (OMCVD) are introduced to control the average-spacing between Au NPs. In addition to covalently binding and other advantages of OMCVD grown Au NPs, interesting optical features due to their non-spherical shapes are presented. The first step towards the average-spacing control is to uniformly form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as resists for OMCVD Au NPs. The formation and optimization of the OTS SAMs are extensively studied. The optimized resist SAMs are ion-irradiated by a focused ion beam (Fill) and ions generated by a Tandem accelerator. The irradiated areas are refilled with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to provide nucleation sites for the OMCVD Au NP growth. Each step during sample preparation is monitored by using surface characterization methods such as contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). Keywords: Absorption, Array, Average Spacing, Binary Mixture, Density, Deposition, Dose, Fm, Gold Nanoparticle, Growth, Ion Irradiation, LSPR, Nanolithography, Nearest Neighbour Distance, OMCVD, Optical Response, OTS, Polarization, Refilling, Resist, SAM, Self-assembly, SEM Image Analysis, Sensing, Surface, Thin Film, Transparent Substrate.

Rezaee, Asad

452

Symbolic analysis methods for averaged modeling of switching power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic analysis methods for the averaged modeling of switching power converters are presented in this paper. A general averaging method suitable for computer-aided modeling is discussed first. Then, a symbolic analysis package that uses this averaging method to automatically generate an analytical averaged model for a switching power converter is described. The package is implemented using the computer algebra system

Jian Sun; Horst Grotstollen

1997-01-01

453

Extensions of averaging theory for power electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends averaging theory for power electronic systems to include feedback controlled converters. New averaging techniques based on the integral equation description provide theoretical justification for commonly used averaging methods. The new theory provides a basis for answering fundamental questions about the averaging approximation. A ripple estimate expression is presented, along with the simulation results for a feedback controlled

Brad Lehman; Richard M. Bass

1996-01-01