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1

This digital data release consists of seven data files of soil attributes for the United States and the District of Columbia. The files are derived from National Resources Conservations Service’s (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The data files can be linked to the raster datasets of soil mapping unit identifiers (MUKEY) available through the NRCS’s Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) database (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/geo/?cid=nrcs142p2_053628). The associated files, named DRAINAGECLASS, HYDRATING, HYDGRP, HYDRICCONDITION, LAYER, TEXT, and WTDEP are area- and depth-weighted average values for selected soil characteristics from the SSURGO database for the conterminous United States and the District of Columbia. The SSURGO tables were acquired from the NRCS on March 5, 2014. The soil characteristics in the DRAINAGE table are drainage class (DRNCLASS), which identifies the natural drainage conditions of the soil and refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods. The soil characteristics in the HYDRATING table are hydric rating (HYDRATE), a yes/no field that indicates whether or not a map unit component is classified as a "hydric soil". The soil characteristics in the HYDGRP table are the percentages for each hydrologic group per MUKEY. The soil characteristics in the HYDRICCONDITION table are hydric condition (HYDCON), which describes the natural condition of the soil component. The soil characteristics in the LAYER table are available water capacity (AVG_AWC), bulk density (AVG_BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KSAT), vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KV), soil erodibility factor (AVG_KFACT), porosity (AVG_POR), field capacity (AVG_FC), the soil fraction passing a number 4 sieve (AVG_NO4), the soil fraction passing a number 10 sieve (AVG_NO10), the soil fraction passing a number 200 sieve (AVG_NO200), and organic matter (AVG_OM). The soil characteristics in the TEXT table are percent sand, silt, and clay (AVG_SAND, AVG_SILT, and AVG_CLAY). The soil characteristics in the WTDEP table are the annual minimum water table depth (WTDEP_MIN), available water storage in the 0-25 cm soil horizon (AWS025), the minimum water table depth for the months April, May and June (WTDEPAMJ), the available water storage in the first 25 centimeters of the soil horizon (AWS25), the dominant drainage class (DRCLSD), the wettest drainage class (DRCLSWET), and the hydric classification (HYDCLASS), which is an indication of the proportion of the map unit, expressed as a class, that is "hydric", based on the hydric classification of a given MUKEY. (See Entity_Description for more detail). The tables were created with a set of arc macro language (aml) and awk (awk was created at Bell Labsin the 1970s and its name is derived from the first letters of the last names of its authors – Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan) scripts. Send an email to mewieczo@usgs.gov to obtain copies of the computer code (See Process_Description.) The methods used are outlined in NRCS's "SSURGO Data Packaging and Use" (NRCS, 2011). The tables can be related or joined to the gSSURGO rasters of MUKEYs by the item 'MUKEY.' Joining or relating the tables to a MUKEY grid allows the creation of grids of area- and depth-weighted soil characteristics. A 90-meter raster of MUKEYs is provided which can be used to produce rasters of soil attributes. More detailed resolution rasters are available through NRCS via the link above.

Wieczorek, Michael E.

2014-01-01

2

Scaling of average receiving time and average weighted shortest path on weighted Koch networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present weighted Koch networks based on classic Koch networks. A new method is used to determine the average receiving time (ART), whose key step is to write the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes to absorption at the trap located at a hub node as a recursive relation. We show that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information. Moreover, average weighted shortest path (AWSP) is calculated. In the infinite network order limit, the AWSP depends on the scaling factor. The weighted Koch network grows unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded.

Dai, Meifeng; Chen, Dandan; Dong, Yujuan; Liu, Jie

2012-12-01

3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

2014-04-01

4

Describing Average- and Longtime-Behavior by Weighted MSO Logics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weighted automata model quantitative aspects of systems like memory or power consumption. Recently, Chatterjee, Doyen, and Henzinger introduced a new kind of weighted automata which compute objectives like the average cost or the longtime peak power consumption. In these automata, operations like average, limit superior, limit inferior, limit average, or discounting are used to assign values to finite or infinite words. In general, these weighted automata are not semiring weighted anymore. Here, we establish a connection between such new kinds of weighted automata and weighted logics. We show that suitable weighted MSO logics and these new weighted automata are expressively equivalent, both for finite and infinite words. The constructions employed are effective, leading to decidability results for the weighted logic formulas considered.

Droste, Manfred; Meinecke, Ingmar

5

Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model

The indicator value and ecological amplitude of a species with respect to a quantitative environmental variable can be estimated from data on species occurrence and environment. A simple weighted averaging (WA) method for estimating these parameters is compared by simulation with the more elaborate method of Gaussian logistic regression (GLR), a form of the generalized linear model which fits a

Cajo J. F. Braak; Caspar W. N. Looman

1986-01-01

6

Scaling of average sending time on weighted Koch networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random walks on weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, have attracted considerable interest in the past. But the efficiency of a hub sending information on scale-free small-world networks has been addressed less. In this paper, we study random walks on a class of weighted Koch networks with scaling factor 0 < r ? 1. We derive some basic properties for random walks on the weighted Koch networks, based on which we calculate analytically the average sending time (AST) defined as the average of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) from a hub node to all other nodes, excluding the hub itself. The obtained result displays that for 0 < r < 1 in large networks the AST grows as a power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by log 43r+1/r, and for r = 1 in large networks the AST grows with network order as N ln N, which is larger than the linear scaling of the average receiving time defined as the average of MFPTs for random walks to a given hub node averaged over all starting points.

Dai, Meifeng; Liu, Jie

2012-10-01

7

Method of Successive Weighted Averages (MSWA) and Self-Regulated Averaging Schemes for Solving

patterns from the later iterations. We further develop a self-regulated averaging method, in which the step and auxiliary point. The proposed step size sequences in both MSWA and self-regulated averaging method satisfy by minimizing Fisk's (1980) objective function. Maher (1998) developed alternative optimized step size choice

Levinson, David M.

8

POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT

POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading form of macromolecules They are compounds of high molecular weight formed by combining a large number. Molecular Weight The physical properties of polymers depend heavily on their molecular weights, which vary

Weston, Ken

9

Obtaining the properly weighted average albedo of orbital debris from optical and radar data

Like any average, the proper weighting to obtain an average albedo of orbital debris depends upon the application of this average and the limitations of the data used to obtain individual orbital debris albedos. The most frequent application of the average orbital debris albedo is to transform number or flux as a function of observed orbital debris brightness into number

D. J Kessler; K. S Jarvis

2004-01-01

10

The effect of whey protein hydrolyzate average molecular weight on the lactic acid fermentation

Summary The batch fermentation of whey permeate to lactic acid was improved by supplementing the broth with enzyme-hydrolyzed whey protein. Hydrolyzates prepared with endoprotease were more stimulatory to acid production rates than were those prepared with exo\\/endo protease. The effect of hydrolyzate average molecular weight on acid production is presented. Results show that the hydrolyzate having an average molecular weight

Mel Berezny Leh; Marvin Charles

1989-01-01

11

Latent-variable approaches to the Jamesian model of importance-weighted averages.

The individually importance-weighted average (IIWA) model posits that the contribution of specific areas of self-concept to global self-esteem varies systematically with the individual importance placed on each specific component. Although intuitively appealing, this model has weak empirical support; thus, within the framework of a substantive-methodological synergy, we propose a multiple-item latent approach to the IIWA model as applied to a range of self-concept domains (physical, academic, spiritual self-concepts) and subdomains (appearance, math, verbal self-concepts) in young adolescents from two countries. Tests considering simultaneously the effects of self-concept domains on trait self-esteem did not support the IIWA model. On the contrary, support for a normative group importance model was found, in which importance varied as a function of domains but not individuals. Individuals differentially weight the various components of self-concept; however, the weights are largely determined by normative processes, so that little additional information is gained from individual weightings. PMID:23150198

Scalas, L Francesca; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S

2013-01-01

12

Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children.

Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male/female), obesity status (obese/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary/upper elementary) were considered. Obese children were significantly more likely to engage in dieting behaviors, to express concern about their weight, to restrain their eating, and to exhibit more dissatisfaction with their body image than average-weight children. Girls were more likely to exhibit these behaviors than were boys. These findings suggest the importance of studying the emergence of disordered eating habits in childhood. PMID:11023018

Vander Wal, J S; Thelen, M H

2000-01-01

13

Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

Warrens, Matthijs J.

2011-01-01

14

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess association between rows of proximity matrices, H. de Vries (1993) introduces weighted average and row-wise average variants for Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank correlation. For all three, the absolute value of the first variant is greater than or equal to the second. (SLD)

Krijnen, Wim P.

1994-01-01

15

Rainfall Estimation Over Tropical Oceans. 1; Area Average Rain Rate

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multichannel dual polarization microwave radiometer SSM/I observations over oceans do not contain sufficient information to differentiate quantitatively the rain from other hydrometeors on a scale comparable to the radiometer field of view (approx. 30 km). For this reason we have developed a method to retrieve average rain rate over a mesoscale grid box of approx. 300 x 300 sq km area over the TOGA COARE region where simultaneous radiometer and radar observations are available for four months (Nov. 92 to Feb. 93). The rain area in the grid box, inferred from the scattering depression due to hydrometeors in the 85 Ghz brightness temperature, constitutes a key parameter in this method. Then the spectral and polarization information contained in all the channels of the SSM/I is utilized to deduce a second parameter. This is the ratio S/E of scattering index S, and emission index E calculated from the SSM/I data. The rain rate retrieved from this method over the mesoscale area can reproduce the radar observed rain rate with a correlation coefficient of about 0.85. Furthermore monthly total rainfall estimated from this method over that area has an average error of about 15%.

Cuddapah, Prabhakara; Cadeddu, Maria; Meneghini, R.; Short, David A.; Yoo, Jung-Moon; Dalu, G.; Schols, J. L.; Weinman, J. A.

1997-01-01

16

Synthesis of Ultrahigh Weight Average Molecular Mass of Poly-L-lactide

High purity in high yield L-lactide was prepared using a new purification method, and poly-L-lactide (PLLA) with ultra-high weight average molecular mass and narrow polydispersity index was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization. The effects of the purification method on the purity and yield of L-lactide were investigated, and the influences of initiator concentration, polymerization temperature and polymerization time on the weight

Z. H. Zhou; X. P. Liu; L. H. Liu

2008-01-01

17

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cek resolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steven B.

2013-07-23

18

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek obtained from the iterative two-stage method also improved predictive performance of the individual models and model averaging in both synthetic and experimental studies.

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

2013-01-01

19

A Gradient Based Weighted Averaging Method for Estimation of Fingerprint Orientation Fields

A Gradient Based Weighted Averaging Method for Estimation of Fingerprint Orientation Fields Yi Wang of orientation fields is an essential module in a fingerprint recognition system. Conventional gradient based with other gradient based methods. 1. Introduction Fingerprints are constructed by ridges and furrows

Hu, Jiankun

20

Approximation Schemes for Minimizing Average Weighted Completion Time with Release Dates

We consider the problem of scheduling jobs with re- lease dates on machines so as to minimize their average weighted completion time. We present the first known poly- nomial time approximation schemes for several variants of this problem. Our results include PTASs for the case of identical parallel machines and a constant number of unre- lated machines with and without

Foto N. Afrati; Evripidis Bampis; Chandra Chekuri; David R. Karger; Claire Kenyon; Sanjeev Khanna; Ioannis Milis; Maurice Queyranne; Martin Skutella; Clifford Stein; Maxim Sviridenko

1999-01-01

21

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, C?

Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

2013-09-01

22

Wetland Boundary Determination in the Great Dismal Swamp Using Weighted Averages

A weighted average method was used to analyze transition zone vegetation in the Great Dismal Swamp to determine if a more uniform determination of wetland boundaries can be made nationwide. The method was applied to vegetation data collected on four transects and three vertical layers across the wetland-to-upland transition zone of the swamp. Ecological index values based on water tolerance were either taken from the literature or derived from local species tolerances. Wetland index values were calculated for 25-m increments using species cover and rankings based on the ecological indices. Wetland index values were used to designate increments as either wetland, transitional, or upland, and to examine the usefulness of a provisional wetland-upland break-point. The weighted average method did not provide for an objective placement of an absolute wetland boundary, but did serve to focus attention on the transitional boundary zone where supplementary information is necessary to select a wetland-upland breakpoint.

Carter, Virginia; Garrett, Mary Keith; Gammon, Patricia T.

1988-01-01

23

US average Phoenix Area(1000sq.km.)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 US average Phoenix average Closest to Phoenix Phoenix contiguous that autumnal flooding may be partially responsible for this shift. P h h 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0

Hall, Sharon J.

24

Depth perception involves combining multiple, possibly conflicting, sensory measurements to estimate the 3D structure of the viewed scene. Previous work has shown that the perceptual system combines measurements using a statistically optimal weighted average. However, the system should only combine measurements when they come from the same source. We asked whether the brain avoids combining measurements when they differ from one another: that is, whether the system is robust to outliers. To do this, we investigated how two slant cues—binocular disparity and texture gradients—influence perceived slant as a function of the size of the conflict between the cues. When the conflict was small, we observed weighted averaging. When the conflict was large, we observed robust behavior: perceived slant was dictated solely by one cue, the other being rejected. Interestingly, the rejected cue was either disparity or texture, and was not necessarily the more variable cue. We modeled the data in a probabilistic framework, and showed that weighted averaging and robustness are predicted if the underlying likelihoods have heavier tails than Gaussians. We also asked whether observers had conscious access to the single-cue estimates when they exhibited robustness and found they did not, i.e. they completely fused despite the robust percepts. PMID:19761341

Girshick, Ahna R.; Banks, Martin S.

2010-01-01

25

A new state reconstructor for digital controls systems using weighted-average measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state reconstructor is presented for a linear continuous-time plant driven by a zero-order-hold. It takes a continuous-time output vector from the plant and convolutes it with a weighting-function matrix whose elements are time dependent. This result is integrated over T second intervals to generate weighted-averaged measurements, every T seconds, that are used in the state reconstruction process. If the plant is noise-free and can be modeled precisely, the output of this state reconstructor exactly equals the true state of the plant and accomplishes this without knowledge of the plant's initial state. If noise or modeling errors are a problem, it can be catenated with a state observer or a Kalman filter for a synergistic effect.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

26

Calculation of weighted averages approach for the estimation of ping tolerance values

A biotic index was created and proposed as a tool to assess water quality in the Upper Mae Ping sub-watersheds. The Ping biotic index was calculated by utilizing Ping tolerance values. This paper presents the calculation of Ping tolerance values of the collected macroinvertebrates. Ping tolerance values were estimated by a weighted averages approach based on the abundance of macroinvertebrates and six chemical constituents that include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate. Ping tolerance values range from 0 to 10. Macroinvertebrates assigned a 0 are very sensitive to organic pollution while macroinvertebrates assigned 10 are highly tolerant to pollution.

Silalom, S.; Carter, J.L.; Chantaramongkol, P.

2010-01-01

27

Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.

Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal

2013-04-01

28

A Novel Adaptive-Weighted-Average Framework for Blood Glucose Prediction

Abstract Background Blood glucose (BG) prediction plays a very important role in daily BG management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Several algorithms, such as autoregressive (AR) models and artificial neural networks, have been proposed for BG prediction. However, every algorithm has its own subject range (i.e., one algorithm might work well for one diabetes patient but poorly for another patient). Even for one individual patient, this algorithm might perform well during the preprandial period but poorly during the postprandial period. Materials and Methods A novel framework was proposed to combine several BG prediction algorithms. The main idea of the novel framework is that an adaptive weight is given to each algorithm where one algorithm's weight is inversely proportional to the sum of the squared prediction errors. In general, this framework can be applied to combine any BG prediction algorithms. Results As an example, the proposed framework was used to combine an AR model, extreme learning machine, and support vector regression. The new algorithm was compared with these three prediction algorithms on the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) readings of 10 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients; the CGMS readings of each patient included 860 CGMS data points. For each patient, the algorithms were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error, relative error, Clarke error-grid analysis, and J index. Of the 40 evaluations, the new adaptive-weighted algorithm achieved the best prediction performance in 37 (92.5%). Conclusions Thus, we conclude that the adaptive-weighted-average framework proposed in this study can give satisfactory predictions and should be used in BG prediction. The new algorithm has great robustness with respect to variations in data characteristics, patients, and prediction horizons. At the same time, it is universal. PMID:23883406

Wu, Xiangwei; Mo, Xue

2013-01-01

29

Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. PMID:25136677

Merigó, José M.

2014-01-01

30

Judging whether multiple events will co-occur is an important aspect of everyday decision making. The underlying probabilities of occurrence are usually unknown and have to be inferred from experience. Using a rigorous, quantitative model comparison, we investigate how people judge the conjunctive probabilities of multiple events to co-occur. In 2 experiments, participants had to repeatedly choose between pairs of 2 conjunctive events (represented as 2 gambles). To estimate the probability that both events occur, they had access to a small sample of information. The 1st experiment consisted of a balanced set of gambles, whereas in the 2nd experiment, the gambles were constructed such that the models maximally differed in their predictions. A hierarchical Bayesian approach used for estimating the models' parameters and for testing the models against each other showed that the majority of participants were best described by the configural weighted average model. This model performed best in predicting people's choices, and it assumes that constituent probabilities are ranked by importance, weighted accordingly, and added up. The cognitive modeling approach provides an understanding of the cognitive processes underlying people's conjunctive probability judgments. PMID:24128388

Jenny, Mirjam A; Rieskamp, Jörg; Nilsson, Håkan

2014-01-01

31

12498 Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 50 / Tuesday, March 16, 2010 / Notices Country Company Weighted-Average Margin (Percent) India Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver

32

A molluscan analogue dataset is presented in conjunction with a weighted-averaging technique as a tool for estimating past salinity patterns in south Florida’s estuaries and developing targets for restoration based on these reconstructions. The method, here referred to as cumulative weighted percent (CWP), was tested using modern surficial samples collected in Florida Bay from sites located near fixed water monitoring stations that record salinity. The results were calibrated using species weighting factors derived from examining species occurrence patterns. A comparison of the resulting calibrated species-weighted CWP (SW-CWP) to the observed salinity at the water monitoring stations averaged over a 3-year time period indicates, on average, the SW-CWP comes within less than two salinity units of estimating the observed salinity. The SW-CWP reconstructions were conducted on a core from near the mouth of Taylor Slough to illustrate the application of the method.

Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.

2012-01-01

33

Uncertainty and variability in historical time-weighted average exposure data.

Beginning around 1940, private companies began processing of uranium and thorium ore, compounds, and metals for the Manhattan Engineer District and later the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Personnel from the AEC's Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL) visited many of the plants to assess worker exposures to radiation and radioactive materials. They developed a time-and-task approach to estimating "daily weighted average" (DWA) concentrations of airborne uranium, thorium, radon, and radon decay products. While short-term exposures greater than 10(5) dpm m(-3) of uranium and greater than 10(5) pCi L(-1) of radon were observed, DWA concentrations were much lower. The HASL-reported DWA values may be used as inputs for dose reconstruction in support of compensation decisions, but they have no numerical uncertainties associated with them. In this work, Monte Carlo methods are used retrospectively to assess the uncertainty and variability in the DWA values for 63 job titles from five different facilities that processed U, U ore, Th, or 226Ra-222Rn between 1948 and 1955. Most groups of repeated air samples are well described by lognormal distributions. Combining samples associated with different tasks often results in a reduction of the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the DWA to less than those GSD values typical of individual tasks. Results support the assumption of a GSD value of 5 when information on uncertainty in DWA exposures is unavailable. Blunders involving arithmetic, transposition, and transcription are found in many of the HASL reports. In 5 out of the 63 cases, these mistakes result in overestimates of DWA values by a factor of 2 to 2.5, and in 2 cases DWA values are underestimated by factors of 3 to 10. PMID:18188049

Davis, Adam J; Strom, Daniel J

2008-02-01

34

Predictive performance models are important tools that support system sizing, capacity planning, and systems management exercises. We introduce the Weighted Average Method (WAM) to improve the accuracy of analytic predictive performance models for systems with bursts of concurrent customers. WAM considers the customer population distribution at a system to reflect the impact of bursts. The WAM approach is robust with

Diwakar Krishnamurthy; Jerry Rolia; Min Xu

2011-01-01

35

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dumping and assessment rate. Where the weighted...formatting, document conversion, access on the Internet...margin and assessment rate in certain antidumping...margin and assessment rate, will not increase antidumping duty...

2010-12-28

36

Global Self-Esteem: Its Relation to Weighted Averages of Specific Facets of Self-Concept.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory and common sense posit that the effect of a specific facet of self-concept on Global Esteem will vary with the importance placed on that facet, but no support for this interactive hypothesis was found. Unweighted averages of 12 distinct dimensions of self-concept from the Self Description Questionnaire III correlated about .7 with Global…

Marsh, Herbert W.

37

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and average normal values and does not offset the amount of dumping that is found with...assessment rates in a manner which provides offsets for non-dumped comparisons while using...dumping in a review, the Department did not offset the results of the comparisons for...

2012-02-14

38

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify area-average evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in area-average evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and area-average evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on average, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.

Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.

2009-12-01

39

High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

1993-01-01

40

In motor control, prediction of future events is vital for overcoming sensory-motor processing delays and facilitating rapid and accurate responses in a dynamic environment. In human ocular pursuit this is so pervasive that prediction of future target motion cannot easily be eliminated by randomizing stimulus parameters. We investigated the prediction of temporally randomized events during pursuit of alternating constant-velocity (ramp) stimuli in which the timing of direction changes varied unpredictably over a given range. Responses were not reactive; instead, smooth eye velocity began to decelerate in anticipation of each target reversal. In the first experiment, using a continuous-motion stimulus, we found that the time at which this occurred was relatively constant regardless of ramp duration, but increased as mean ramp duration of the range increased. Regression analysis revealed a quantitative association between deceleration timing and the previous two or three ramp durations in a trial, suggesting that recent stimulus history was used to create a running average of anticipatory timing. In the second experiment, we used discrete motion stimuli, with intervening periods of fixation, which allowed both target velocity and reversal timing to be varied, thereby decoupling ramp duration and displacement. This enabled us to confirm that the timing of anticipatory deceleration was based on the history of timing, rather than displacement, within the stimulus. We conclude that this strategy is used to minimize error amid temporal uncertainty, while simultaneously overcoming inherent delays in visuomotor processing. PMID:19846718

Collins, C J S; Barnes, Graham R

2009-10-21

41

Mass selection by independent culling levels (YB subline) for below-average birth weight (BWT) and high yearling weight (YWT) was com- pared with single-trait mass selection (YW subline) for high YWT in the inbred population of Line 1 Hereford cattle at Miles City, Montana. There were 4.2 generations of selection in YB and YW. Heritabil- ity estimates for the base population

M. D. MacNeil; J. J. Urick; W. M. Snelling

42

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a diffusive sampler for airborne propylene glycol ethers (PGEs), including propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME). Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) SPME fiber was selected for this study. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing was used as the holder, and the SPME fiber assembly was inserted into the tubing as a diffusive sampler. The diffusion path length and area of the sampler were 0.3 cm and 0.00086 cm(2), respectively. The theoretical sampling constants at 30°C and 1 atm for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME were 1.50 × 10(-2), 1.23 × 10(-2) and 1.14 × 10(-2) cm(3) min(-1), respectively. For evaluations, known concentrations of PGEs around the threshold limit values/time-weighted average with specific relative humidities (10% and 80%) were generated both by the air bag method and the dynamic generation system, while 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min were selected as the time periods for vapor exposures. Comparisons of the SPME diffusive sampling method to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) organic Method 99 were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 30°C for PGME. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used for sample analysis. The experimental sampling constants of the sampler at 30°C were (6.93 ± 0.12) × 10(-1), (4.72 ± 0.03) × 10(-1), and (3.29 ± 0.20) × 10(-1) cm(3) min(-1) for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME, respectively. The adsorption of chemicals on the stainless steel needle of the SPME fiber was suspected to be one of the reasons why significant differences between theoretical and experimental sampling rates were observed. Correlations between the results for PGME from both SPME device and OSHA organic Method 99 were linear (r = 0.9984) and consistent (slope = 0.97 ± 0.03). Face velocity (0-0.18 m/s) also proved to have no effects on the sampler. However, the effects of temperature and humidity have been observed. Therefore, adjustments of experimental sampling constants at different environmental conditions will be necessary. PMID:22651222

Shih, H C; Tsai, S W; Kuo, C H

2012-01-01

43

Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

1992-01-01

44

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

2006-10-01

45

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new simple retrieval algorithm for estimating area-time averaged rain rates over tropical oceans by using single channel microwave measurements from satellites. The algorithm was tested by using the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer and a simple microwave radiative transfer model to retrieve seasonal 5-deg x 5-deg area averaged rainrate over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific from December 1973 to November 1974. The brightness temperatures were collected and analyzed into histograms for each season and in each grid box from December 1973 to November 1974. The histograms suggest a normal distribution of background noise plus a skewed rain distribution at the higher brightness temperatures. By using a statistical estimation procedure based upon normally distributed background noise, the rain distribution was separated from the raw histogram. The radiative transfer model was applied to the rain-only distribution to retrieve area-time averaged rainrates throughout the tropics. Despite limitations of single channel information, the retrieved seasonal rain rates agree well in the open ocean with expectations based upon previous estimates of tropical rainfall over the oceans.

Shin, Kyung-Sup; Riba, Phil E.; North, Gerald R.

1990-01-01

46

An analysis of the threshold method for measuring area-average rainfall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental evidence shows that the area-average rain rate and the fractional area covered by rain rate exceeding a fixed threshold are highly correlated; that is, are highly linearly related. A precise theoretical explanation of this fact is given. The explanation is based on the observation that rain rate has a mixed distribution, one that is a mixture of a discrete distribution and a continuous distribution. Under a homogeneity assumption, the slope of the linear relationship depends only on the continuous part of the distribution and as such is found to be markedly immune to parameter changes. This is illustrated by certain slope surfaces obtained from three specific distributions. The threshold level can be chosen in an optimal way by minimizing a certain distance function defined over the threshold range. In general, the threshold level should be not too far from the mean rain rate conditional on rain. The so-called threshold method advocates measuring rainfall from fractional area exploiting the observed linear relationship of the later with the area average rain rate. The method is potentially useful for the estimation of rainfall from space via satellites.

Kedem, Benjamin; Chiu, Long S.; Karni, Zvi

1990-01-01

47

[Management of weight-bearing area fracture of acetabulum].

Acetabulum, as the important factor for weight bearing of the upper body, has its unique anatomic features and complicated physiological function. The integrity and stability of the lunata articular surface in the dome region of acetabulum, is the important base to bear the physiological function of acetabulum. The fracture related to this part will cause relation change of contact area and stress between head of femur and acetabulum. Furthermore, the deep anatomical position of the dome region, the complicated surrounding anatomical relation, and the irregular bony structure will also increase the difficulty of surgical treatment. Especially for some complicated comminuted or compressed fracture, even with good explosions, it is hard to get satisfied anatomical reduction. Consequently,forward traumatic arthritis has greater probability of occurrence. Therefore, the clinical research on the fracture in the dome region of acetabulum was getting more and more attention worldly. This paper intended to review the relation of fracture classifications and anatomic features, physiological function,diagnostic criteria,and also its clinical treating countermeasure. PMID:21438324

Zhang, Yun-tong; Wang, Pan-feng; Zhang, Chun-cai

2011-02-01

48

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the integration of GIS and an extension of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) using quantifier-guided ordered weighted averaging (OWA) procedure. AHP_OWA is a multicriteria combination operator. The nature of the AHP_OWA depends on some parameters, which are expressed by means of fuzzy linguistic quantifiers. By changing the linguistic terms, AHP_OWA can generate a wide range of decision strategies. We propose a GIS-multicriteria evaluation (MCE) system through implementation of AHP_OWA within ArcGIS, capable of integrating linguistic labels within conventional AHP for spatial decision making. We suggest that the proposed GIS-MCE would simplify the definition of decision strategies and facilitate an exploratory analysis of multiple criteria by incorporating qualitative information within the analysis.

Boroushaki, Soheil; Malczewski, Jacek

2008-04-01

49

A diffusive sampling method with water as absorbent was examined in comparison with 3 conventional methods of diffusive sampling with carbon cloth as absorbent, pumping through National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) charcoal tubes, and pumping through NIOSH silica gel tubes to measure time-weighted average concentration of dimethylformamide (DMF). DMF vapors of constant concentrations at 3-110 ppm were generated by bubbling air at constant velocities through liquid DMF followed by dilution with fresh air. Both types of diffusive samplers could either absorb or adsorb DMF in proportion to time (0.25-8 h) and concentration (3-58 ppm), except that the DMF adsorbed was below the measurable amount when carbon cloth samplers were exposed at 3 ppm for less than 1 h. When both diffusive samplers were loaded with DMF and kept in fresh air, the DMF in water samplers stayed unchanged for at least for 12 h. The DMF in carbon cloth samplers showed a decay with a half-time of 14.3 h. When the carbon cloth was taken out immediately after termination of DMF exposure, wrapped in aluminum foil, and kept refrigerated, however, there was no measurable decrease in DMF for at least 3 weeks. When the air was drawn at 0.2 l/min, a breakthrough of the silica gel tube took place at about 4,000 ppm.min (as the lower 95% confidence limit), whereas charcoal tubes could tolerate even heavier exposures, suggesting that both tubes are fit to measure the 8-h time-weighted average of DMF at 10 ppm. PMID:1577523

Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, M

1992-01-01

50

Quantum black hole wave packet: Average area entropy and temperature dependent width

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the average mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's area entropy is formulated using the

Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

2014-09-01

51

Hydrophone area-averaging correction factors in nonlinearly generated ultrasonic beams

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear propagation of an ultrasonic wave can be used to produce a wavefield rich in higher frequency components that is ideally suited to the calibration, or inter-calibration, of hydrophones. These techniques usually use a tone-burst signal, limiting the measurements to harmonics of the fundamental calibration frequency. Alternatively, using a short pulse enables calibration at a continuous spectrum of frequencies. Such a technique is used at PTB in conjunction with an optical measurement technique to calibrate devices. Experimental findings indicate that the area-averaging correction factor for a hydrophone in such a field demonstrates a complex behaviour, most notably varying periodically between frequencies that are harmonics of the centre frequency of the original pulse and frequencies that lie midway between these harmonics. The beam characteristics of such nonlinearly generated fields have been investigated using a finite difference solution to the nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation for a focused field. The simulation results are used to calculate the hydrophone area-averaging correction factors for 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm devices. The results clearly demonstrate a number of significant features observed in the experimental investigations, including the variation with frequency, drive level and hydrophone element size. An explanation for these effects is also proposed.

Cooling, M. P.; Humphrey, V. F.; Wilkens, V.

2011-02-01

52

Time scales and variability of area-averaged tropical oceanic rainfall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A statistical analysis of time series of area-averaged rainfall over the oceans has been conducted around the diurnal time scale. The results of this analysis can be applied directly to the problem of establishing the magnitude of expected errors to be incurred in the estimation of monthly area-averaged rain rate from low orbiting satellites. Such statistics as the mean, standard deviation, integral time scale of background red noise, and spectral analyses were performed on time series of the GOES precipitation index taken at 3-hour intervals during the period spanning December 19, 1987 to March 31, 1988 over the central and eastern tropical Pacific. The analyses have been conducted on 2.5 x 2.5 deg and 5 x 5 deg grid boxes, separately. The study shows that rainfall measurements by a sun-synchronous satellite visiting a spot twice per day will include a bias due to the existence of the semidiurnal cycle in the SPCZ ranging from 5 to 10 percentage points. The bias in the ITCZ may be of the order of 5 percentage points.

Shin, Kyung-Sup; North, Gerald R.; Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Arkin, Phillip A.

1990-01-01

53

Income inequality and weight status in US metropolitan areas

Prior empirical studies have demonstrated an association between income inequality and general health endpoints such as mortality and self-rated health, and findings have been taken as support for the hypothesis that inequality is detrimental to individual health. Unhealthy weight statuses may function as an intermediary link between inequality and more general heath endpoints. Using individual-level data from the 1996-98 Behavioral

Virginia W. Changa; Nicholas A. Christakisf

54

Area-preserving maps models of gyro-averaged ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport

Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.

J. D. da Fonseca; D. del-Castillo-Negrete; I. L. Caldas

2014-09-10

55

Acetabular roof arc angles and anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area

Background: Acetabular fracture involves whether superior articular weight bearing area and stability of the hip are assessed by acetabular roof arc angles comprising medial, anterior and posterior. Many previous studies, based on clinical, biomechanics and anatomic superior articular surface of acetabulum showed different degrees of the angles. Anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area (ABSAWBA) of the femoral head can be identified as radiographic subchondral bone density at superior acetabular dome. The fracture passes through ABSAWBA creating traumatic hip arthritis. Therefore, acetabular roof arc angles of ABSAWBA were studied in order to find out that the most appropriate degrees of recommended acetabular roof arc angles in the previous studies had no ABSAWBA involvement. Materials and Methods: ABSAWBA of femoral head was identified 68 acetabular fractures and 13 isolated pelvic fractures without unstable pelvic ring injury were enrolled. Acetabular roof arc angle was measured on anteroposterior, obturator and iliac oblique view radiographs of normal contralateral acetabulum using programmatic automation controller digital system and measurement tools. Results: Average medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles of the ABSAWBA of 94 normal acetabulum were 39.09 (7.41), 42.49 (8.15) and 55.26 (10.08) degrees, respectively. Conclusions: Less than 39°, 42° and 55° of medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles involve ABSAWBA of the femoral head. Application of the study results showed that 45°, 45° and 62° from the previous studies are the most appropriate medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles without involvement of the ABSAWBA respectively. PMID:25298555

Harnroongroj, Thossart; Wattanakaewsripetch, Montri; Sudjai, Narumol; Harnroongroj, Thos

2014-01-01

56

Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing

Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing Thor F. Besier a° from vertical with the knee positioned at 0°, 30°, or 60° of flexion. A custom-built backrest enabled) and reduced loading con- ditions (ÔunloadedÕ at 0.15 body weight) at each knee flexion posture. Male subjects

Stanford University

57

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) previously spiked with performance reference compounds were exposed in wastewater. After 6 days of exposure, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in SPMDs. Exchange rate constants and time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of SPMD-available PAHs in water were calculated. The bias of using SPMDs to estimate an actual TWA concentration if the concentration in water fluctuates,

Catherine Gourlay-Francé; Catherine Lorgeoux; Marie-Hélène Tusseau-Vuillemin

2008-01-01

58

A computer program for reconstructing environmental variables (e.g. lake-water pH) from fossil assemblages (e.g. diatoms) by weighted averaging regression and calibration is described. The estimation of sample-specific errors of prediction by bootstrapping is outlined. The program runs on IBM-compatible personal computers.

J. M. Line; Cajo J. E ter Braak; H. J. B. Birks

1994-01-01

59

A new cryogenic integrative air sampler (patent application number 08/00669), able to overcome many of the limitations in current volatile organic compounds and odour sampling methodologies is presented. The sample is spontaneously collected in a universal way at 15 mL/min, selectively dried (reaching up to 95% of moisture removal) and stored under cryogenic conditions. The sampler performance was tested under time weighted average (TWA) conditions, sampling 100L of air over 5 days for determination of NH(3), H(2)S, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in the ppm(v) range. Recovery was 100% (statistically) for all compounds, with a concentration factor of 5.5. Furthermore, an in-field evaluation was done by monitoring the TWA inmission levels of BTEX and dimethylethylamine (ppb(v) range) in an urban area with the developed technology and comparing the results with those monitored with a commercial graphitised charcoal diffusive sampler. The results obtained showed a good statistical agreement between the two techniques. PMID:19230895

Juarez-Galan, Juan M; Valor, Ignacio

2009-04-10

60

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

61

Deviation of ergodic averages for area-preserving flows on surfaces of higher genus

We prove a substantial part of a conjecture of Kontsevich and Zorich on the Lyapunov exponents of the Teichmuller geodesic flow on the deviation of ergodic averages for generic conservative flows on higher genus surfaces. The result on the Teichmuller flow is formulated in terms of a (symplectic) cocycle on the real cohomology bundle over the moduli space of holomorphic

Giovanni Forni

2004-01-01

62

A method for deriving the site-specific and subgrid area wind speed and friction velocity from regional model output and detailed land type information is developed. The “subgrid velocity scale” is introduced to account for generation of turbulent fluxes by subgrid motions. The grid vector averaged wind speed is adjusted by adding the subgrid velocity scale. This is to account for

Leiming Zhang; Jeffrey R Brook

2001-01-01

63

Mean skin temperature weighted by skin area, heat transfer coefficients and thermal sensitivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formulas for calculating the mean skin temperature are described by a general form - the sum total of the product of both the regional skin temperature and the weighting factor concerned with the region. The weighting factor in these formulas was classified into five groups from the point of the content and the concrete values were compared. Based on the heat equilibrium between man and his environment, a mean skin temperature formula weighted by skin areas and the heat transfer coefficients was derived. With reference to the thermal sensitivity coefficients given, a new formula, which is weighted by three important factors - the skin area, the heat transfer coefficients and the thermal sensitivity, was proposed. As the result of a comparison run against formulas reported previously, the weighting factors of the skin area heat transfer coefficient formula are similar to those of the Hardy - DuBois formula, and the weighting factors of the formula by the skin area, the heat transfer coefficients and the thermal sensitivity are similar to those of the formula by Nadel et al.

Mochida, T.

1983-07-01

64

Residence in coal-mining areas and low-birth-weight outcomes.

The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother's residence in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005-2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were from the US Department of Energy. Covariates regarding mothers' demographics, behaviors, and insurance coverage were included. We used nested logistic regression (SUDAAN Proc Multilog) to conduct the study. Mothers who were older, unmarried, less educated, smoked, did not receive prenatal care, were on Medicaid, and had recorded medical risks had a greater risk of low birth weight. After controlling for covariates, residence in coal mining areas of West Virginia posed an independent risk of low birth weight. Odds ratios for both unadjusted and adjusted findings suggest a dose-response effect. Adjusted findings show that living in areas with high levels of coal mining elevates the odds of a low-birth-weight infant by 16%, and by 14% in areas with lower mining levels, relative to counties with no coal mining. After covariate adjustment, the persistence of a mining effect on low-birth-weight outcomes suggests an environmental effect resulting from pollution from mining activities. Air and water quality assessments have been largely missing from mining communities, but the need for them is indicated by these findings. PMID:20091110

Ahern, Melissa; Mullett, Martha; Mackay, Katherine; Hamilton, Candice

2011-10-01

65

Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area.

The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age < or =5 years (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.003), a hematocrit < or =29% (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, P = 0.037), and a body weight < or =9.6 kg (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-20, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of FFBW > or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138

Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A

2007-07-01

66

The use of sampling weights in Bayesian hierarchical models for small area estimation

Hierarchical modeling has been used extensively for small area estimation. However, design weights that are required to reflect complex surveys are rarely considered in these models. We develop computationally efficient, Bayesian spatial smoothing models that acknowledge the design weights. Computation is carried out using the integrated nested Laplace approximation, which is fast. A simulation study is presented that considers the effects of non-response and non-random selection of individuals. We examine the impact of ignoring the design weights and the benefits of spatial smoothing. The results show that, when compared with standard approaches, mean squared error can be greatly reduced with the proposed models. Bias reduction occurs through the inclusion of the design weights, with variance reduction being achieved through hierarchical smoothing. We analyze data from the Washington State 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The models are easily and quickly fitted within the R environment, using existing packages. PMID:25457595

Chen, Cici; Wakefield, Jon; Lumely, Thomas

2015-01-01

67

Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) using Double Weight (DW) codes for local area network

This paper describes the performance evaluation of the Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) technique using Double Weight (DW) Code. This technique was implemented in local area environment which is applied in ring network and the performance analysis was carried out using optical communication simulation software. Details of the simulation result on OCDMA in terms of bit error rate (BER),

H. K. Dayang; S. A. Aljunid

2010-01-01

68

Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

Young, Beverly S.

69

This paper presents a GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approach for evaluating the suitability for landfill site selection in the Polog Region, Macedonia. The multi-criteria decision framework considers environmental and economic factors which are standardized by fuzzy membership functions and combined by integration of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and ordered weighted average (OWA) techniques. The AHP is used for the elicitation of attribute weights while the OWA operator function is used to generate a wide range of decision alternatives for addressing uncertainty associated with interaction between multiple criteria. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by different OWA scenarios that report landfill suitability on a scale between 0 and 1. The OWA scenarios are intended to quantify the level of risk taking (i.e., optimistic, pessimistic, and neutral) and to facilitate a better understanding of patterns that emerge from decision alternatives involved in the decision making process. PMID:22030279

Gorsevski, Pece V; Donevska, Katerina R; Mitrovski, Cvetko D; Frizado, Joseph P

2012-02-01

70

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff estimation and water budget in ungauged basins is a challenge for hydrological researchers and planners. The principal aim of this study was the application and validation of the Kennessey method, which is a physiography-based indirect process for determining the average annual runoff coefficient and the basin-scale water balance. The coefficient can be calculated using specific physiographic characteristics (slope, permeability and vegetation cover) and a parameter that defines climatic conditions and does not require instrumental data. One of the main purposes of this study was to compare the average annual runoff coefficient obtained using the Kennessey method with the coefficients calculated using data from 30 instrumented drainage basins in Sardinia (Italy) over 71 years (from 1922 to 1992). These measurements represent an important and complete historical dataset from the study area. Using the runoff coefficient map, the method was also applied to assess the effective annual recharge rate of the aquifers of the Calich hydrogeological basin in the Nurra Plain (Alghero, NW Sardinia-Italy). The groundwater recharge rate was compared with rates calculated using the standard water balance method. The implementation of the method at the regional and basin scales was supported by GIS analyses. The results of the method are promising but show some discrepancies with other methodologies due to the higher weights given to the physiographic parameters than to the meteorological parameters. However, even though the weights assigned to the parameters require improvements, the Kennessey method is a useful tool for evaluating hydrologic processes, particularly for water management in areas where instrumental data are not available.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele

2014-11-01

71

integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average integrative sampler and the solid-phase extraction for estimating herbicide time-weighted average for detecting episodic or short-term pollution events (e.g. increased herbicide concentrations during a flood

Boyer, Edmond

72

Mapping Human Cortical Areas in vivo Based on Myelin Content as Revealed by T1- and T2-weighted MRI

Non-invasively mapping the layout of cortical areas in humans is a continuing challenge for neuroscience. We present a new method of mapping cortical areas based on myelin content as revealed by T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. The method is generalizable across different 3T scanners and pulse sequences. We use the ratio of T1w/T2w image intensities to eliminate the MR-related image intensity bias and enhance the contrast to noise ratio for myelin. Data from each subject was mapped to the cortical surface and aligned across individuals using surface-based registration. The spatial gradient of the group average myelin map provides an observer-independent measure of sharp transitions in myelin content across the surface—i.e. putative cortical areal borders. We found excellent agreement between the gradients of the myelin maps and the gradients of published probabilistic cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas that were registered to the same surface-based atlas. For other cortical regions, we used published anatomical and functional information to make putative identifications of dozens of cortical areas or candidate areas. In general, primary and early unimodal association cortices are heavily myelinated and higher, multi-modal, association cortices are more lightly myelinated, but there are notable exceptions in the literature that are confirmed by our results. The overall pattern in the myelin maps also has important correlations with the developmental onset of subcortical white matter myelination, evolutionary cortical areal expansion in humans compared to macaques, postnatal cortical expansion in humans, and maps of neuronal density in non-human primates. PMID:21832190

Glasser, Matthew F.; Van Essen, David C.

2011-01-01

73

Boosting with Averaged Weight Vectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the previous base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. Some researchers have pointed out the intuition that it is probably better to construct a distribution that is orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous base models, but that this is not always possible. We present an algorithm that attempts to come as close as possible to this goal in an efficient manner. We present experimental results demonstrating significant improvement over AdaBoost and the Totally Corrective boosting algorithm, which also attempts to satisfy this goal.

Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

74

Even though size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with post column addition of calcofluor (SEC-calcofluor) has been used for the determination of cereal ?-glucan molar mass in foods for many years, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the method. To address this issue a set of suitable ?-glucan standards were generated by preparative SEC and their molar mass characteristics were determined by analytical multi-detection SEC (refractive index (RI), light scattering). Each standard was then analysed by SEC-calcofluor at three different labs. As a direct comparison, the analyses were repeated with a RI detector. For SEC-calcofluor accurate measurements of weight average molar mass (Mw) can be made for ?-glucan populations within 10-500×10(3)g/mol. Above this molar mass threshold there is an increasing tendency for underestimation of Mw. Precipitation of some ?-glucan-calcofluor complexes may have delayed their transport into the detector. PMID:25839819

Rieder, Anne; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Ulset, Ann-Sissel T; Christensen, Bjørn E; Andersson, Roger; Mikkelson, Atte; Tuomainen, Päivi; Maina, Ndegwa; Ballance, Simon

2015-06-25

75

Innervation of three weight-bearing areas of the foot: an anatomic study and clinical implications.

The aim of this cadaver study is to improve our knowledge on the anatomy of the sensory fibres of the three weight-bearing areas of the plantar region. Previous studies mainly focused on the innervation of the heel but the innervation of the other two weight-bearing areas over the most medial and lateral metatarses have been neglected and are not well known. The study was carried out on 10 feet of five male cadavers. The tibial nerve was dissected down to the fat pads over the heel and the first and fifth metatarsal heads under the microscope. The distances of the branching point of the tibial nerve and origins of the medial and inferior calcaneal nerves to a line drawn from the centre of the medial malleolus to the centre of the calcaneous were all measured. The tibial nerve was divided into two branches called the lateral and medial plantar nerves 23.45 mm proximal to the predefined axis. The medial plantar nerve passed underneath the abductor hallucis muscle and gave two sensory branches to the fat pad over the first metatarsal head. The lateral plantar nerve coursed beneath the abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis muscles and supplied innervation of the fat pad over the fifth metatarsal head. The sensory innervation of the heel was provided by medial calcaneal and inferior calcaneal nerves. The medial calcaneal nerve originated from the tibial nerve 41.89 mm proximal to the axis. It divided into two or three branches innervating the fat pad over the heel. The inferior calcaneal nerve originated from the lateral plantar nerve (70%) or the medial calcaneal nerve (30%) 10.66 mm proximal to the axis. This study describes the sensory fibres to the heel and the previously neglected weight-bearing areas over the first and fifth metatarses. Reconstruction of defects in these areas is very difficult so every attempt should be made to protect the sensory fibres during any surgical procedure. PMID:17400530

Unlü, Ramazan Erkin; Orbay, Hakan; Kerem, Metin; Esmer, Ali Firat; Tüccar, Eray; Sensöz, Omer

2008-01-01

76

MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (super)computing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

2013-12-01

77

The objectives of this study were: (1) to quantify the errors associated with saturation air quality monitoring in estimating the long-term (i.e., annual and 5 yr) mean at a given site from four 2-week measurements, once per season; and (2) to develop a sampling strategy to guide the deployment of mobile air quality facilities for characterizing intraurban gradients of air pollutants, that is, to determine how often a given location should be visited to obtain relatively accurate estimates of the mean air pollutant concentrations. Computer simulations were conducted by randomly sampling ambient monitoring data collected in six Canadian cities at a variety of settings (e.g., population-based sites, near-roadway sites). The 5-yr (1998-2002) dataset consisted of hourly measurements of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and CO. The strategy of randomly selecting one 2-week measurement per season to determine the annual or long-term average concentration yields estimates within 30% of the true value 95% of the time for NO2, PM10 and NOx. Larger errors, up to 50%, are expected for NO, SO2, PM2.5, and CO. Combining concentrations from 85 random 1-hr visits per season provides annual and 5-yr average estimates within 30% of the true value with good confidence. Overall, the magnitude of error in the estimates was strongly correlated with the variability of the pollutant. A better estimation can be expected for pollutants known to be less temporally variable and/or over geographic areas where concentrations are less variable. By using multiple sites located in different settings, the relationships determined for estimation error versus number of measurement periods used to determine long-term average are expected to realistically portray the true distribution. Thus, the results should be a good indication of the potential errors one could expect in a variety of different cities, particularly in more northern latitudes. PMID:18069463

Xu, Xiaohong; Brook, Jeffrey R; Guo, Yanshan

2007-11-01

78

A comparison of spatial smoothing methods for small area estimation with sampling weights.

Small area estimation (SAE) is an important endeavor in many fields and is used for resource allocation by both public health and government organizations. Often, complex surveys are carried out within areas, in which case it is common for the data to consist only of the response of interest and an associated sampling weight, reflecting the design. While it is appealing to use spatial smoothing models, and many approaches have been suggested for this endeavor, it is rare for spatial models to incorporate the weighting scheme, leaving the analysis potentially subject to bias. To examine the properties of various approaches to estimation we carry out a simulation study, looking at bias due to both non-response and non-random sampling. We also carry out SAE of smoking prevalence in Washington State, at the zip code level, using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The computation times for the methods we compare are short, and all approaches are implemented in R using currently available packages. PMID:24959396

Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Chen, Cici; Lumley, Thomas

2014-05-01

79

Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) previously spiked with performance reference compounds were exposed in wastewater. After 6 days of exposure, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in SPMDs. Exchange rate constants and time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of SPMD-available PAHs in water were calculated. The bias of using SPMDs to estimate an actual TWA concentration if the concentration in water fluctuates, as can be expected in wastewater, was studied with numerical simulations. The bias increased with the exchange rate constant. However, most exchange rate constants evaluated in SPMDs exposed in wastewater were small enough for SPMDs to estimate a TWA concentration of PAHs even when the water concentration varied. TWA-SPMD-available concentrations were always below total dissolved (operationally defined as 0.7 microm) concentrations, indicating that part of the dissolved PAHs was not available for sampling. In situ partitioning coefficients K(DOC) were computed and found to be slightly higher than data from the literature. This confirms that only truly dissolved PAHs should be sampled by SPMDs in wastewater. PMID:18768206

Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

2008-11-01

80

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using remote sensing data to study the characteristics of PM2.5 (particles smaller than 2.5µm in size) especially in areas not covered by ground monitoring networks has attracted much interest due to multiple health outcomes related to its exposure. To accurately predict PM2.5 exposure, successfully modeling the relationship between PM2.5 concentration and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as other environmental parameters, is crucial. Most of currently reported models are global methods without considering local variations, which might introduce significant errors into prediction results. In this paper, a geographically weighted regression model (GWR) was developed to model the relationship among PM2.5, AOT, and meteorological parameters such as mixing height, surface air temperature, relative humidity, and surface wind speed. GWR is capable of estimating local parameters instead of global parameters in terms of the geographical location, and all coefficients vary geographically to indicate the spatial variation. The study area is centered around Atlanta Metro area, and the data from 2001 to 2007 was collected from various sources. After developing the model, cross-validation techniques were implemented to assess the accuracy of our model. The results indicated that GWR, due to its ability of explaining local variations, has the potential to generate a better fit and can provide a promising alternative in PM2.5 exposure estimation.

Hu, X.; Waller, L.; Liu, Y.

2010-12-01

81

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is an ongoing and complicated problem for both residents and policy makers. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the geographic source and fate of organic pollutants in a dynamic urban environment. Natural and artificial hydrophobic substrates were employed for the passive monitoring and mapping of ground-level organic pollutants in the San Francisco Bay area. We focused specifically on volatile and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds are proxies for a broad range of combustion related air pollutants derived from local, regional, and global combustion sources. PAHs include several well-studied carcinogens and can be measured easily and accurately across a broad range of concentrations. Estimates of time-integrated vapor phase and particle deposition were made from measuring accumulated PAHs in the leaves of several widely distributed tree species (including the Quercus agrifolia and Sequoia sempervirens) and an artificial wax film. Samples were designed to represent pollutant exposure over a period of one to several months. The selective sampling and analysis of hydrophobic substrates providess insight into the average geographic distribution of ground-level air pollutants in a simple and inexpensive way. However, accumulated organics do not directly correlated with human exposure and the source signature of PAHs may be obscured by transport, deposition, and flux processes. We attempted to address some of these complications by studying 1) PAH accumulation rates within substrates in a controlled microcosm, 2) differences in PAH abundance in different substrate types at the same locality, and 3) samples near long-term high volume air sampling stations. We also set out to create a map of PAH concentrations based on our measurements. This map can be directly compared with interpolated data from high-volume sampling stations and used to address questions concerning atmospheric heterogeneity of these pollutants (i.e. due to both source localization and dominant wind patterns). Our initial results indicate that exposure to PAHs in the bay area is geographically heterogeneous and individual exposure may vary by more than two orders of magnitude. The signatures of PAH contamination also varies considerably, indicating different sources and differing transportation mechanisms may be important at different sites and times.

Yu, C.; Zinniker, D. A.; Moldowan, J.

2010-12-01

82

The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (?0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (?0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ?800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (?800 d). The earliest AFC group (?749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (?8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm-specific herd management. The MY is a very important factor for dairy farm profitability. The group of farms having the highest MY achieved the highest net profit despite having greater fertility problems. PMID:25064657

Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

2014-10-01

83

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape-scale fluxes are derived using an energy balance model with remotely sensed input data at different pixel resolutions. The model explicitly evaluates energy flux contributions from the soil and vegetation using remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to define key model variables. The remotely sensed data used in the model were collected as part of the Washita '92 Experiment conducted in the Little Washita watershed, a subhumid catchment in southwest Oklahoma. Near-surface soil moisture maps covering approximately an 800 km2 area at 0.2 km resolution were generated using aircraft-based passive microwave observations from the L band electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR). A spatially distributed NDVI map was derived from a SPOT satellite image. Daily values of the midday Bowen ratio (BO, ratio of sensible to latent heat flux) computed by the model indicated that areas with low vegetation cover or bare soil and senescent vegetation were drying out significantly (i.e., dramatic increases in BO) while other areas with higher vegetation cover showed smaller increases in BO in response to a drying soil surface. After a few days of drying, BO values computed by the model ranged from ˜0.1 to values ?2 over the image. The resulting spatially distributed maps of BO suggested a heterogeneous surface at the field or patch scale. A satellite-based L band ESTAR would have a pixel resolution on the order of 101 km or larger (i.e., landscape scale). Since fluxes are nonlinearly related to model input variables/parameters, defining model inputs at resolutions significantly larger than the patch scale may cause significant errors in flux calculations. Potential errors in flux calculations were investigated by evaluating differences in area-averaged flux estimates for the ˜18 × 45 km study area using the model with the remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture and NDVI data at the following pixel resolutions: (1) 0.2 km (original pixel resolution), (2) 9 km, and (3) the whole image, which has an effective pixel resolution on the order of 28 km. Differences in the area- averaged sensible and latent fluxes computed by the model at the three resolutions were within 10%. Such minor discrepancies in the area-average fluxes suggests that the heterogeneity in soil moisture and vegetation type and cover was not of the type to affect regional flux predictions using significantly coarser resolution information. There was a consistent decrease in area-averaged latent heat flux estimates at the coarser resolution caused by biases in area-averaged values of the other three energy flux components. The consistent decrease in area-average latent heat flux caused the area-averaged midday BO to increase with decreasing pixel resolution resulting in ?15% increase from 200 m to using the full image. These results, however, depended on the method used in aggregating leaf area index to the coarser resolutions, indicating that techniques for scaling up key model parameters have a significant effect on area-average flux predictions.

Kustas, William P.; Jackson, Thomas J.

1999-05-01

84

Linear measurements combined with surface area and volume calculations were used to develop formulas t o estimate body weight (BW) in beef cattle. These measurements were evaluated directly or estimated using a lase r remote caliper (LRC) and digital imaging software. Seventy-two dry, late gestation beef cows aged 3-13 years were measured and weighed Six measurements for each cow were

Sarah Core; Stephen Miller; Matthew Kelly

85

The phase separation of fractionated poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 was determined by silicone oil addition. Polymer fractionation by preparative size exclusion chromatography afforded five different microsphere batches. Average molecular weight determined the existence, width, and displacement of the "stability window" inside the phase diagrams, and also microsphere characteristics such as core loading and amount released over 6 hr. Further, the gyration and hydrodynamic radii were measured by light scattering. It is concluded that the polymer-solvent affinity is largely modified by the variation of average molecular weights owing to different levels of solubility. The lower the average molecular weight is, the better methylene chloride serves as a solvent for the coating material. However, a paradoxical effect due to an increase in free carboxyl and hydroxyl groups is noticed for polymers of 18,130 and 31,030 SEC (size exclusion chromatography) Mw. For microencapsulation, polymers having an intermediate molecular weight (47,250) were the most appropriate in terms of core loading and release purposes. PMID:2235892

Ruiz, J M; Busnel, J P; Benoît, J P

1990-09-01

86

Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085

Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru

2014-01-01

87

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research using NASA Ames AH-1 and OH-58C helicopters, and NASA Glenn test rigs, has shown that in-flight vibration data are typically non-stationary [l-4]. The nature and extent of this non-stationarity is most likely produced by several factors operating simultaneously. The aerodynamic flight environment and pilot commands provide continuously changing inputs, with a complex dynamic response that includes automatic feedback control from the engine regulator. It would appear that the combined effects operate primarily through an induced torque profile, which causes concomitant stress modulation at the individual internal gear meshes in the transmission. This notion is supported by several analyses, which show that upwards of 93% of the vibration signal s variance can be explained by knowledge of torque alone. That this relationship is stronger in an AH-1 than an OH-58, where measured non-stationarity is greater, suggests that the overall mass of the vehicle is an important consideration. In the lighter aircraft, the unsteady aerodynamic influences transmit relatively greater unsteady dynamic forces on the mechanical components, quite possibly contributing to its greater non-stationarity . In a recent paper using OH-58C pinion data [5], the authors have shown that in computing a time synchronous average (TSA) for various single-value metric computations, an effective trade-off can be obtained between sample size and measured stationarity by using data from only a single mesh cycle. A mesh cycle, which is defined as the number of rotations required for the gear teeth to return to their original mating position, has the property of representing all of the discrete phase angles of the opposing gears exactly once in the average. Measured stationarity is probably maximized because a single mesh cycle of the pinion gear occurs over a very short span of time, during which time-dependent non-stationary effects are kept to a minimum. Clearly, the advantage of local stationarity diminishes as the temporal duration of the cycle increases. This is most evident for a planetary mesh cycle, which can take several minutes to complete.

Huff, Edward M.; Mosher, Marianne; Barszcz, Eric

2002-01-01

88

We examined changes in dry weight and leaf area within Dactylis glomerata L. plants using allometric analysis to determine whether observed patterns were truly affected by [CO2] and N supply or merely reflect ontogenetic drift. Plants were grown hydroponically at four concentrations of{\\\\rm NO}^{\\\\minus}_{3}in controlled environment cabinets at ambient (360?ll?1) or elevated (680?ll?1) atmospheric [CO2]. Both CO2and N enrichment stimulated

H. Harmens; C. M. Stirling; C. Marshall; J. F. Farrar

2000-01-01

89

Standardized uptake values(SUVs) arewidelyusedto measure 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake in venoustumors.ft has beenreported thatnormalization ofFDGuptake forpatient body weight(SUV@) overestimates FDGuptake inheavypatients, as theirfraclionof bodyfat (wfthlow FDGuptake)is oftenin creased. The objecth,eofthusstudywas to determineifâ€œnormal izalionof FDGuptake for the body surface areaâ€ (SUV@)is independentofthe patient'sbodysize and is morereliablethan SUVbW.Methods: FDG-PET images were acquired on 44 pa tients (body walght range: 45â€\\

Chun K. Kim; Naresh C. Gupta; B. Chandramouli; Abass Alavi

90

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux-weighted average cross-sections of the natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction with the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 45, 50, 55, and 60 MeV were determined by activation and the off-line ?-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL). The natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction cross-sections as a function of the photon energy were estimated from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS 1.6 computer code. The flux-weighted average cross-sections at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 45-60MeV were obtained from the literature data and the theoretical data based on the mono-energetic photons. We found that the present data and the flux-weighted theoretical values for the natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction increase sharply from their threshold values to certain energies where other reaction channels are opened. Then, the first reaction remains constant until the second one reaches its maximum. Thereafter, the first reaction decreases slowly with an increase in the end-point bremsstrahlung energy due to the opening of different reaction channels.

Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Kwangsoo; Yang, Sung-Chul; Shahid, Muhammad; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun

2015-01-01

91

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855

2014-01-01

92

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

2014-10-01

93

A Light Weight Protocol to Provide Location Privacy in Wireless Body Area networks

Location privacy is one of the major security problems in a Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). An eavesdropper can keep track of the place and time devices are communicating. To make things even worse, the attacker does not have to be physically close to the communicating devices, he can use a device with a stronger antenna. The unique hardware address of a mobile device can often be linked to the identity of the user operating the device. This represents a violation of the user's privacy. The user should decide when his/her location is revealed and when not. In this paper, we first categorize the type of eavesdroppers for WBANs, and then we propose a new scheme to provide the location privacy in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).

Mana, Mohammed; Bensaber, Boucif Amar; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3201

2011-01-01

94

The methods of obtaining the average spectral shape in a low statistics regime are presented. Different approaches to averaging are extensively tested with simulated spectra, based on the ASCA responses. The issue of binning up the spectrum before fitting is discussed together with the choice of statistic used to model the spectral shape. The best results are obtained with methods in which input data are represented by probability density functions. Application of weights, representing the coverage between the input and output bins, slightly improves the resolution of averaging.

Piotr Lubinski

2004-01-27

95

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners compare the number of letters in the names of the people in their families or group of friends. Learners write out the names in graph paper, with one letter in each square, and cut out the names. Learners sort the names from shortest to longest and then find the average length of the names by cutting and scrambling up the letters. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

2014-09-19

96

Weighted averages, uniform distribution, and strict ergodicity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A circle of problems related to the application of the Riesz and Voronoi summation methods in ergodic theory, number theory, and probability theory is considered. The first digit paradox is discussed, strengthenings of the classical result of Weyl on the uniform distribution of the fractional parts of the values of a polynomial are indicated, and the possibility of sharpening the Birkhoff-Khinchin ergodic theorem is considered. In conclusion, some unsolved problems are listed.

Kozlov, Valerii V.

2005-12-01

97

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

1973-01-01

98

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

1973-01-01

99

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When tourists visiting multiple tourist scenic spots, the travel line is usually the most effective road network according to the actual tour process, and maybe the travel line is different from planned travel line. For in the field of navigation, a proposed travel line is normally generated automatically by path planning algorithm, considering the scenic spots' positions and road networks. But when a scenic spot have a certain area and have multiple entrances or exits, the traditional described mechanism of single point coordinates is difficult to reflect these own structural features. In order to solve this problem, this paper focuses on the influence on the process of path planning caused by scenic spots' own structural features such as multiple entrances or exits, and then proposes a doubleweighted Graph Model, for the weight of both vertexes and edges of proposed Model can be selected dynamically. And then discusses the model building method, and the optimal path planning algorithm based on Dijkstra algorithm and Prim algorithm. Experimental results show that the optimal planned travel line derived from the proposed model and algorithm is more reasonable, and the travelling order and distance would be further optimized.

Shi, Y.; Long, Y.; Wi, X. L.

2014-04-01

100

Nevada's reliance on ground-water resources has increased because of increased development and surface-water resources being fully appropriated. The need to accurately quantify Nevada's water resources and water use is more critical than ever to meet future demands. Estimated ground-water pumpage, artificial and natural recharge, and interbasin flow can be used to help evaluate stresses on aquifer systems. In this report, estimates of ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge during calendar year 2000 were made using data from a variety of sources, such as reported estimates and estimates made using Landsat satellite imagery. Average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow were compiled from published reports. An estimated 1,427,100 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in Nevada during calendar year 2000. This total was calculated by summing six categories of ground-water pumpage, based on water use. Total artificial recharge during 2000 was about 145,970 acre-feet. At least one estimate of natural recharge was available for 209 of the 232 hydrographic areas (HAs). Natural recharge for the 209 HAs ranges from 1,793,420 to 2,583,150 acre-feet. Estimates of interbasin flow were available for 151 HAs. The categories and their percentage of the total ground-water pumpage are irrigation and stock watering (47 percent), mining (26 percent), water systems (14 percent), geothermal production (8 percent), self-supplied domestic (4 percent), and miscellaneous (less than 1 percent). Pumpage in the top 10 HAs accounted for about 49 percent of the total ground-water pumpage. The most ground-water pumpage in an HA was due to mining in Pumpernickel Valley (HA 65), Boulder Flat (HA 61), and Lower Reese River Valley (HA 59). Pumpage by water systems in Las Vegas Valley (HA 212) and Truckee Meadows (HA 87) were the fourth and fifth highest pumpage in 2000, respectively. Irrigation and stock watering pumpage accounted for most ground-water withdrawals in the HAs with the sixth through ninth highest pumpage. Geothermal production accounted for most pumpage in the Carson Desert (HA 101). Reinjection of ground water pumped for geothermal energy production accounted for about 64 percent (93,310 acre-feet) of the total artificial recharge. The only artificial recharge by water systems was in Las Vegas Valley, where 29,790 acre-feet of water from the Colorado River was injected into the aquifer system. Artificial recharge by mining totaled 22,870 acre-feet. Net ground-water flow was estimated only for the 143 HAs with available estimates of both natural recharge and interbasin flow. Of the 143 estimates, 58 have negative net ground-water flow, indicating that ground-water storage could be depleted if pumpage continues at the same rate. The State has designated HAs where permitted ground-water rights approach or exceed the estimated average annual recharge. Ten HAs were identified that are not designated and have a net ground-water flow between -1,000 to -35,000 acre-feet. Due to uncertainties in recharge, the water budgets for these HAs may need refining to determine if ground-water storage is being depleted.

Lopes, Thomas J.; Evetts, David M.

2004-01-01

101

Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

2010-01-01

102

Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted regression results suggest spatial variability in effects, and also indicate that some rural communities may be impacted by upstream urban discharges. Conclusions There is evidence that permitted surface water chemical discharges are related to population mortality. Toxicity weights and upstream discharges are important for understanding some mortality effects. Chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may nevertheless play a role in contributing to cancer mortality risk. Spatial models allow for the examination of geographic variability not captured through the regression models. PMID:22471926

2012-01-01

103

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is essential in communicative situations for teachers and students to have comparable percepts. A paucity of information is available on the percepts held by children regarding quantities and intervals of distance, height, weight, time, temperature and volume or on improvement (if any) that occurs as children mature. Teachers cannot be…

Swan, Malcolm D.; Jones, Orville E.

104

A novel method for the calculations of 1-octanol\\/water partition coefficient (log P) of organic molecules has been presented here. The method, SLOGP v1.0, estimates the log P values by summing the contribution of atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) and correction factors. Altogether 100 atom\\/ group types were used to classify atoms with different chemical environments, and two correlation factors

T. J. Hou; X. J. Xu

2003-01-01

105

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 531 4) The 10-minute, or even longer others, who had concerns about increased unscheduled power flow over their ties, adamantly ad- vocated. Therefore, the resulting L10 for all control areas became significantly larger than Ld, the limit imposed

Gross, George

106

Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P??0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

2014-01-01

107

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

Francis, Richard L.

1992-01-01

108

from kidbar until weaning. Kids of both groups B and C were abruptly weaned at 6 weeks of age. The live weight of kids at 10 weeks of age was 12.1, 13.1 and 12.1 kg on an average in Groups A, B and C, respectively. Kid performances were satisfactory in all groups. However, abrupt weaned kids (Group C) exhibited

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Kriging without negative weights

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

110

The method of calculating average skidding distance

By analyzing the existing average skidding distance formulae and the shape of the landing area, the authors put forward that\\u000a the average skidding distance is the shortest when the ratio of length and width is 1, and the landing collection area is\\u000a in proportion to of average geometrical skidding distance. The new models of calculating average distance are presented.

Zhang Zhixian; Feng Zhili

1997-01-01

111

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resource’s worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2011-05-24

112

Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in 3 local climate regions (i.e., Taiwan’s central western and southwestern regions, and the Kinmen Islands). Relative humidity correlates positively with incidence in Southwestern Taiwan and the Kinmen Islands. The number of wet days correlates positively with incidence in Southwestern Taiwan. The duration of sunshine correlates positively with incidence in Central Western Taiwan, as well as the Kinmen and Matou Islands. In addition, the 10 local climatic regions can be classified into the following 3 groups, based on the warm-cold seasonal fluctuations in scrub typhus incidence: (a) Type 1, evident in 5 local climate regions (Taiwan’s northern, northwestern, northeastern, and southeastern regions, as well as the mountainous area); (b) Type 2 (Taiwan’s central western and southwestern regions, and the Pescadore Islands); and (c) Type 3 (the Kinmen and Matou Islands). In the GWR models, the response variable of the SIR-district scrub typhus has a statistically significantly positive association with 2 explanatory variables (farm worker population density and timber management). In addition, other explanatory variables (recreational forests, natural reserves, and “other purpose” areas) show positive or negative signs for parameter estimates in various locations in Taiwan. Negative signs of parameter estimates occurred only for the explanatory variables of national protectorates, plantations, and clear-cut areas. Conclusion The results of this study show that scrub typhus in Taiwan can be classified into 3 types. Type 1 exhibits no climatic effect, whereas the incidence of Type 2 correlates positively with higher temperatures during the warm season, and the incidence of Type 3 correlates positively with higher surface temperatures and longer hours of sunshine. The results also show that in the mountainous township areas of Taiwan’s central and southern regions, as well as in Southeastern Taiwan, higher SIR values for scrub typhus are associated with the following variables: farm worker popul

2013-01-01

113

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None; )

2005-12-11

114

Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

115

The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of full-thickness defects repair in porcine articular cartilage (AC) weight-bearing area using chondrogenic differentiated autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with a follow-up of 3 and 6 months, which is successive to our previous study on nonweight-bearing area. The isolated ASCs were seeded onto the phosphoglycerate/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) with chondrogenic induction in vitro for 2 weeks as the experimental group prior to implantation in porcine AC defects (8?mm in diameter, deep to subchondral bone), with PGA/PLA only as control. With follow-up time being 3 and 6 months, both neo-cartilages of postimplantation integrated well with the neighboring normal cartilage and subchondral bone histologically in experimental group, whereas only fibrous tissue in control group. Immunohistochemical and toluidine blue staining confirmed similar distribution of COL II and glycosaminoglycan in the regenerated cartilage to the native one. A vivid remolding process with repair time was also witnessed in the neo-cartilage as the compressive modulus significantly increased from 70% of the normal cartilage at 3 months to nearly 90% at 6 months, which is similar to our former research. Nevertheless, differences of the regenerated cartilages still could be detected from the native one. Meanwhile, the exact mechanism involved in chondrogenic differentiation from ASCs seeded on PGA/PLA is still unknown. Therefore, proteome is resorted leading to 43 proteins differentially identified from 20 chosen two-dimensional spots, which do help us further our research on some committed factors. In conclusion, the comparison via proteome provided a thorough understanding of mechanisms implicating ASC differentiation toward chondrocytes, which is further substantiated by the present study as a perfect supplement to the former one in nonweight-bearing area. PMID:24044689

Gong, Lunli; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Yaohao; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Heng; Guo, Fangfang

2014-01-01

116

Temperature: Decadal Averages Map

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map allows students to experiment with decadal average temperature projections. Overall temperatures are expected to rise throughout the century and this tool demonstrates those projected measurements.

California Energy Commission

117

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2006-06-01

118

Non-genetic factors affecting live weight and daily gain weight in Serrana Transmontano kids

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some non-genetic factors on birth weight, weaning weight and daily gain weight in Serrana Transmontano kids. Data from 8930 records were analysed. Results showed that birth weight (BW), adjusted live weight at 30 days of age (W30), adjusted weaning weight at 60 days of age (WW), average daily gain

M. R. Jiménez-Badillo; S. Rodrigues; C. Sañudo; A. Teixeira

2009-01-01

119

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying vegetation patterns remotely, the objective is to draw inferences on the development of specific or general land surface phenology (LSP) as a function of space and time by determining the behavior of a parameter (in our case NDVI), when the parameter estimate may be biased by noise, data dropouts and obfuscations from atmospheric and other effects. We describe the underpinning concepts of a procedure for a robust interpolation of NDVI data that does not have the limitations of other mathematical approaches which require orthonormal basis functions (e.g. Fourier analysis). In this approach, data need not be uniformly sampled in time, nor do we expect noise to be Gaussian-distributed. Our approach is intuitive and straightforward, and is applied here to the refined modeling of LSP using 7 years of weekly and biweekly AVHRR NDVI data for a 150 x 150 km study area in central Nevada. This site is a microcosm of a broad range of vegetation classes, from irrigated agriculture with annual NDVIvalues of up to 0.7 to playas and alkali salt flats with annual NDVI values of only 0.07. Our procedure involves a form of parameter estimation employing Bayesian statistics. In utilitarian terms, the latter procedure is a method of statistical analysis (in our case, robustified, weighted least-squares recursive curve-fitting) that incorporates a variety of prior knowledge when forming current estimates of a particular process or parameter. In addition to the standard Bayesian approach, we account for outliers due to data dropouts or obfuscations because of clouds and snow cover. An initial "starting model" for the average annual cycle and long term (7 year) trend is determined by jointly fitting a common set of complex annual harmonics and a low order polynomial to an entire multi-year time series in one step. This is not a formal Fourier series in the conventional sense, but rather a set of 4 cosine and 4 sine coefficients with fundamental periods of 12, 6, 3 and 1.5 months. Instabilities during large time gaps in the data are suppressed by introducing an expectation of minimum roughness on the fitted time series. Our next significant computational step involves a constrained least squares fit to the observed NDVI data. Residuals between the observed NDVI value and the predicted starting model are computed, and the inverse of these residuals provide the weights for a weighted least squares analysis whereby a set of annual eighth-order splines are fit to the 7 years of NDVI data. Although a series of independent 8-th order annual functionals over a period of 7 years is intrinsically unstable when there are significant data gaps, the splined versions for this specific application are quite stable due to explicit continuity conditions on the values and derivatives of the functionals across contiguous years, as well as a priori constraints on the predicted values vis-a-vis the assumed initial model. Our procedure allows us to robustly interpolate original unequally-spaced NDVI data with a new time series having the most-appropriate, user-defined time base. We apply this approach to the temporal behavior of vegetation in our 150 x 150 km study area. Such a small area, being so rich in vegetation diversity, is particularly useful to view in map form and by animated annual and multi-year time sequences, since the interrelation between phenology, topography and specific usage patterns becomes clear.

Hermance, J. F.; Jacob, R. W.; Bradley, B. A.; Mustard, J. F.

2005-12-01

120

Aggregation operators for linguistic weighted information

The aim of this paper is to model the processes of the aggregation of weighted information in a linguistic framework. Three aggregation operators of weighted linguistic information are presented: linguistic weighted disjunction operator, linguistic weighted conjunction operator, and linguistic weighted averaging operator. A study of their axiomatics is presented to demonstrate their rational aggregation

Francisco Herrera; Enrique Herrera-Viedma

1997-01-01

121

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2006-11-01

122

On the limit of large couplings and weighted averaged dynamics

earlier reported supermodeling results. Further- more, we explore the behavior in partially coupled crickets, fir- ing neurons and applauding audiences [10]. Similar phenomena occur in multi-agent systems

Selten, Frank

123

... Loss Expectations and Goals share Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss No matter what your weight loss ... Read full story >> share 3 Steps for Setting Physical Activity Goals Think about the "big picture" of your ...

124

Locally Weighted Learning Christopher G. Atkeson \\Lambda , Andrew W. Moore y , and Stefan Schaal z

. Weighted average local models average the outputs of nearby points, inversely weighted by their distance dis cusses distance functions, smoothing parameters, weighting functions, local model structures weighted regression, LOESS, LWR, lazy learning, memory based learning, least commitment learning, distance

125

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.

2005-04-21

126

Locally Weighted Learning Christopher G. Atkeson, Andrew W. Moorey

average the outputs of nearby points, inversely weighted by their distance to the query point. Locally distance functions, smoothing parameters, weighting functions, local model structures, regularization weighted regression ts a surface to nearby points using a distance weighted regression. Weighted averages

Schaal, Stefan

127

Weight and weddings: women's weight ideals and weight management behaviors for their wedding day.

We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey to examine wedding-specific body weight ideals and weight management behaviors among women preparing for their wedding (n=272). The average bride-to-be was overweight according to clinical body mass index standards and idealized a significantly lower wedding weight. Most were attempting to lose weight and reported a small but significant weight loss using a combination of weight loss behaviors. Many women used one or more extreme weight loss behaviors. Additionally, some women reported purchasing a smaller-sized wedding dress, potentially to constrain behavior. Prior to weddings, interventions promoting a healthy, sustainable lifestyle may be useful to discourage extreme weight loss behaviors and emphasize healthy long-term weight management. PMID:18160128

Neighbors, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2008-01-01

128

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an empirical investigation of 14 real world networks, which can be described by bipartite graphs. We show that the basic elements (the actor nodes) in all the networks cooperate and compete in some acts (activities, organizations, or events). Each node is assigned by a 'node weight', which denotes the obtained competition result. We are interested in the distribution and disparity of the node weight and propose three parameters for the description. Firstly, empirically we observe that the total node weight distributions of all the systems may be fitted by the so-called 'shifted power law' function form. The key parameters of the function, ? and ?, can be used to describe the disparity. Secondly, a 'node weight disparity', Y, is defined for the same purpose. The empirical relationships among the parameters Y, ? and ?, are obtained. From the relationships between Y and ? as well as Y and ?, one can deduce the relationship between a and ?, which is in a good agreement with the empirically obtained relationship. The results show that the node weight distribution is very uneven.

Fu, Chun-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Lian; Liu, Ai-Fen; Wu, Yong-Ping; Shen, Dan; Liu, Shui-Jing; Qian, Xia; Feng, Ya-Chao; Wei, Cheng-Liang; He, Da-Ren

2008-11-01

129

The Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymer Samples

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various methods for the determination of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of different polymer samples are presented. The study shows that the molecular weight averages and distribution of a polymerization completely depend on the characteristics of the reaction itself.

Horta, Arturo; Pastoriza, M. Alejandra

2007-01-01

130

Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607

Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2013-01-01

131

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

1973-01-01

132

Keeping a healthy weight is crucial. If you are underweight, overweight, or obese, you may have a higher risk of certain health problems. ... U.S. are overweight or obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure ...

133

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

Clarke, Doug

1990-01-01

134

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weights and measures may not be the first thing that most people wake up in the morning thinking about, but such matters are terribly important. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has created this site to provide information to concerned stakeholders about the work of their Office of Weights and Measures. The mission of the Office is to promote "uniformity in U.S. weights and measures laws, regulations, and standards to achieve equity between buyers and sellers in the marketplaces." On the right hand side of the page, visitors can look over a Resources area. Here they will find educational materials, information on the National Conference on Weights and Measures, past newsletters, and a rather fine digital exhibit that traces "the struggle to achieve weights and measures standardization" in the United States. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can learn more about price verification, packaging and labeling, and the metric system.

2012-05-18

135

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11

136

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

137

Study objectives: To determine which area based socioeconomic measures can meaningfully be used, at which level of geography, to monitor socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health in the US. Design: Cross sectional analysis of birth certificate and childhood lead poisoning registry data, geocoded and linked to diverse area based socioeconomic measures that were generated at three geographical levels: census tract, block

N Krieger; J T Chen; P D Waterman; M-J Soobader; S V Subramanian; R Carson

2003-01-01

138

... loss strategy that works best for you and start feeling better now. Assess Your Lifestyle Use our tools in this section to assess your current lifestyle. From there, you can decide which steps to take toward a healthier weight. Getting Started ...

139

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

Ustino, Eugene A.

2006-01-01

140

Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

2012-09-01

141

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Reflected Solar Radiation)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Tom Bridgman

2001-06-20

142

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the effects of land-surface heterogeneity and the interactions between the land-surface and the planetary boundary layer at different scales, we develop a multiscale data set. This data set, based on the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES97) observations, includes atmospheric, surface, and sub-surface observations obtained from a dense observation network covering a large region on the order of 100 km. We use this data set to drive three land-surface models (LSMs) to generate multi-scale (with three resolutions of 1, 5, and 10 kilometers) gridded surface heat flux maps for the CASES area. Upon validating these flux maps with measurements from surface station and aircraft, we utilize them to investigate several approaches for estimating the area-integrated surface heat flux for the CASES97 domain of 71x74 square kilometers, which is crucial for land surface model development/validation and area water and energy budget studies. This research is aimed at understanding the relative contribution of random turbulence versus organized mesoscale circulations to the area-integrated surface flux at the scale of 100 kilometers, and identifying the most important effective parameters for characterizing the subgrid-scale variability for large-scale atmosphere-hydrology models.

Chen, Fei; Yates, David; LeMone, Margaret

2001-01-01

143

Ultrahigh molecular weight aromatic siloxane polymers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The condensation of a diol with a silane in toluene yields a silphenylene-siloxane polymer. The reaction of stiochiometric amounts of the diol and silane produced products with molecular weights in the range 2.0 - 6.0 x 10 to the 5th power. The molecular weight of the product was greatly increased by a multistep technique. The methodology for synthesis of high molecular weight polymers using a two step procedure was refined. Polymers with weight average molecular weights in excess of 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power produced by this method. Two more reactive silanes, bis(pyrrolidinyl)dimethylsilane and bis(gamma butyrolactam)dimethylsilane, are compared with the dimethyleminodimethylsilane in ability to advance the molecular weight of the prepolymer. The polymers produced are characterized by intrinsic viscosity in tetrahydrofuran. Weight and number average molecular weights and polydispersity are determined by gel permeation chromatography.

Ludwick, L. M.

1982-01-01

144

Correlated responses in reproductive and carcass traits from a line of Landrace pigs selected for increased 200-d weight along with a randomly selected control line were studied in 195 litters (109 select, 86 control) and 285 pigs (132 select, 153 control). Reproductive and maternal traits studied included litter sizes born, born alive, and alive at 21 d and litter weights at birth and at 21 d. Carcass traits studied were carcass length, longissimus area, average backfat thickness, 10th-rib backfat thickness, specific gravity, weights of closely trimmed ham, loin, and shoulder, belly weight, subjective scoring of the longissimus muscle for color and marbling, estimated percentage of muscle, and lean growth. Total weighted cumulative selection differential for 200-d weight over six generations was 88.7 kg. The realized heritability for 200-d weight was .26 +/- .08, and the change in 200-d weight was 4.2 +/- 1.3 kg per generation. None of the regression coefficients for reproductive traits differed significantly from zero. Ham weight, belly weight, marbling score, and lean growth increased by .069 +/- .027 kg, .051 +/- .020 kg, .045 +/- .012 points, and .0042 +/- .0007 kg/d, respectively, per generation. Specific gravity decreased by -.00063 +/- .00023 per generation in response to the selection for 200-d weight. The increase in lean growth in the select line was the result of an increased growth rate and not from an improvement in percentage of lean in carcasses from pigs from the select line. PMID:8463145

Kuhlers, D L; Jungst, S B

1993-03-01

145

A visibility graph averaging aggregation operator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of aggregation is of considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compared with the classic aggregation operators, it shows its advantage that it not only implements the aggregation of the data purely, but also conserves the time information. Meanwhile, the determination of the weights is more reasonable.

Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

2014-06-01

146

Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation probabilistic data The Brier Score (BS) and Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) were used. Finally comparison between BMA calibrated data and data from ensemble members will be displayed.

Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

2014-05-01

147

Optimal averaging (OA) is used to compute the area-average seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) for a variety of areas from 1860 to 1989. The OA gives statistically improved averages and the objective assignment of confidence intervals to these averages. For the global average, the early part of the record (1860-1890) and the times of the two world wars have largest

Thomas M. Smith; C. F. Ropelewski; R. W. Reynolds

1994-01-01

148

Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

2010-01-01

149

Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation

Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724

FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

2014-01-01

150

The online measurement of hemodialysis dose (Kt): Clinical outcome as a function of body surface area.BackgroundRecent advances enable the direct measurement of small molecule clearance, Kecn, during each dialysis. Average Kecn and treatment length, t, are multiplied giving total clearance, Kt. The body surface area (BSA) is a fixed transformation of height and weight and is a well recognized measure

Edmund G. Lowrie; ZHENSHENG LI; NORMA OFSTHUN; J. Michael Lazarus

2005-01-01

151

Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.

Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.

2012-12-01

152

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

153

Convergence of polynomial ergodic averages

We prove theL\\u000a 2 convergence for an ergodic average of a product of functions evaluated along polynomial times in a totally ergodic system.\\u000a For each set of polynomials, we show that there is a particular factor, which is an inverse limit of nilsystems, that controls\\u000a the limit behavior of the average. For a general system, we prove the convergence for

Bernard Host; Bryna Kra

2005-01-01

154

Self-Efficacy and Weight Control.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature on the use of the self-efficacy model for weight control raised several areas of concern, including differences between losing weight and maintaining weight loss, ethical questions, and misguided interpretations of the model's effectiveness. The need for comprehensive, well-planned research is stressed. (CB)

Desmond, Sharon M.; Price, James H.

1988-01-01

155

A pure bending exact nodal-averaged shear strain method for finite element plate analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An averaged shear strain method, based on a nodal integration approach, is presented for the finite element analysis of Reissner-Mindlin plates. In this work, we combine the shear interpolation method from the MITC4 plate element with an area-weighted averaging technique for the nodal integration of shear energy to relieve shear locking in the thin plate analysis as well as to pass the pure bending patch test. In order to resolve the numerical instability caused by the direct nodal integration, the bending strain field is computed by a sub-domain nodal integration approach based on the Sub-domain Stabilized Conforming Integration and a modified curvature smoothing scheme. The resulting nodally integrated smoothed strain formulation is shown to contain only the primitive variables and thus can be easily implemented in the existing displacement-based finite element plate formulation. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method.

Wu, C. T.; Guo, Y.; Wang, D.

2014-05-01

156

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

157

Correlated responses in reproductive and carcass traits from a line of Duroc pigs selected for increased 200-d weight along with a randomly selected control line were studied in 189 litters (116 select, 73 control) and 191 pigs (106 select, 85 control), respectively. Reproductive and maternal traits studied included litter sizes born, born alive, and alive at 21 d and litter weight at birth and at 21 d. Carcass traits studied were carcass length, longissimus muscle area, average backfat thickness, 10th rib backfat thickness, specific gravity, weights of closely trimmed ham, loin, and shoulder, belly weight, subjective scoring of the longissimus muscle for color and marbling, estimated percentage of muscle and lean gain per day. Total weighted cumulative selection differential for 200-d weight was 81.7 kg. The realized heritability for 200-d weight was .18 +/- .08, and the change in 200-d weight was 2.5 +/- 1.2 kg per generation. The regression coefficient of litter size born on generation was -.29 +/- .12 (P less than .10) pigs per generation. None of the other regression coefficients for the reproductive traits differed from zero. Average backfat thickness, 10th rib backfat thickness, and belly weight increased by .093 +/- .016 cm, .122 +/- .029 cm, and .089 +/- .040 kg, respectively, per generation. Specific gravity, ham weight, shoulder weight, color score, and percentage of muscle decreased -.00086 +/- .00024, -.165 +/- .013 kg, -.104 +/- .011 kg, -.035 +/- .015 points, and -.47 +/- .12%, respectively, per generation in response to the selection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1399885

Kuhlers, D L; Jungst, S B

1992-09-01

158

40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production-weighted fleet average carbon-related exhaust emissions...1818-12. The model type carbon-related exhaust emission...production-weighted fleet average carbon-related exhaust emissions...manufacturer must show that they have offset any exceedence of the...

2010-07-01

159

Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

Glenn, Nicole M

2013-03-01

160

Determining GPS average performance metrics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

Moore, G. V.

1995-01-01

161

Correlated responses in reproductive and carcass traits were studied in 181 litters and 218 pigs from a line of Landrace pigs selected six generations for increased weight at 70 d of age and a contemporaneous, randomly selected control line. The reproductive and maternal traits studied included litter sizes born, born alive, and alive at 21 d and litter weight at birth and at 21 d. Carcass traits studied were carcass length, longissimus muscle area, average backfat thickness, 10th-rib backfat thickness, specific gravity, weights of closely trimmed ham, loin, and shoulder, belly weight, subjective scoring of the longissimus muscle for color and marbling, estimated percentage of muscle, and lean gain per day. Total weighted cumulative selection differential for 70-d weight was 30.2 kg. The realized heritability for 70-d weight was .13 +/- .06, and the change in 70-d weight was .65 +/- .29 kg per generation. The regression coefficient of litter size at 21 d on generation was .24 +/- .10 (P less than .10) pigs per generation. None of the other regression coefficients for the reproductive traits differed from zero. Carcass length, specific gravity, and ham weight decreased (P less than .10) -.075 +/- .036 cm, -.00054 +/- .00027, and -.102 +/- .048 kg, respectively, per generation. Color score and lean gain per day increased .046 +/- .021 points and .0032 +/- .0013 kg/d, respectively, each generation in response to the selection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1548198

Kuhlers, D L; Jungst, S B

1992-02-01

162

Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniël

2015-01-01

163

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

2013-03-01

164

Topological quantization of ensemble averages

We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schrödinger operators. The generalization given here may be

Emil Prodan

2009-01-01

165

Averaging of globally coupled oscillators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a specific system of symmetrically coupled oscillators using the method of averaging. The equations describe a series array of Josephson junctions. We concentrate on the dynamics near the splay-phase state (also known as the antiphase state, ponies on a merry-go-round, or rotating wave). We calculate the Floquet exponents of the splay-phase periodic orbit in the weak-coupling limit, and find that all of the Floquet exponents are purely imaginary; in fact, all the Floquet exponents are zero except for a single complex conjugate pair. Thus, nested two-tori of doubly periodic solutions surround the splay-phase state in the linearized averaged equations. We numerically integrate the original system, and find startling agreement with the averaging results on two counts: The observed ratio of frequencies is very close to the prediction, and the solutions of the full equations appear to be either periodic or doubly periodic, as they are in the averaged equations. Such behavior is quite surprising from the point of view of generic dynamical systems theory-one expects higher-dimensional tori and chaotic solutions. We show that the functional form of the equations, and not just their symmetry, is responsible for this nongeneric behavior.

Swift, James W.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

1992-03-01

166

Bayesian Model Averaging: A Tutorial

Standard statistical practice ignores model uncertainty. Data analysts typically select a model from some class of models and then proceed as if the selected model had generated the data. This approach ignores the uncertainty in model selection, leading to over-confident in- ferences and decisions that are more risky than one thinks they are. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) provides a coherent

Jennifer A. Hoeting; David Madigan; Adrian E. Raftery; Chris T. Volinsky

167

Average of Synthetic Exact Filters

This paper introduces a class of correlation filters called Average of Synthetic Exact Filters (ASEF). For ASEF, the correlation output is completely specified for each training image. This is in marked contrast to prior methods such as Synthetic Discriminant Functions (SDFs) which only spec- ify a single output value per training image. Advantages of ASEF training include: insenitivity to over-fitting,

David S. Bolme; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge

2009-01-01

168

Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132

Samra, Nashwa M.; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

2013-01-01

169

Using Bayes Model Averaging for Wind Power Forecasts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For operational purposes predictions of the forecasts of the lumped output of groups of wind farms spread over larger geographic areas will often be of interest. A naive approach is to make forecasts for each individual site and sum them up to get the group forecast. It is however well documented that a better choice is to use a model that also takes advantage of spatial smoothing effects. It might however be the case that some sites tends to more accurately reflect the total output of the region, either in general or for certain wind directions. It will then be of interest giving these a greater influence over the group forecast. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical post-processing method for producing probabilistic forecasts from ensembles. Raftery et al. [1] show how BMA can be used for statistical post processing of forecast ensembles, producing PDFs of future weather quantities. The BMA predictive PDF of a future weather quantity is a weighted average of the ensemble members' PDFs, where the weights can be interpreted as posterior probabilities and reflect the ensemble members' contribution to overall forecasting skill over a training period. In Revheim and Beyer [2] the BMA procedure used in Sloughter, Gneiting and Raftery [3] were found to produce fairly accurate PDFs for the future mean wind speed of a group of sites from the single sites wind speeds. However, when the procedure was attempted applied to wind power it resulted in either problems with the estimation of the parameters (mainly caused by longer consecutive periods of no power production) or severe underestimation (mainly caused by problems with reflecting the power curve). In this paper the problems that arose when applying BMA to wind power forecasting is met through two strategies. First, the BMA procedure is run with a combination of single site wind speeds and single site wind power production as input. This solves the problem with longer consecutive periods where the input data does not contain information, but it has the disadvantage of nearly doubling the number of model parameters to be estimated. Second, the BMA procedure is run with group mean wind power as the response variable instead of group mean wind speed. This also solves the problem with longer consecutive periods without information in the input data, but it leaves the power curve to also be estimated from the data. [1] Raftery, A. E., et al. (2005). Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles. Monthly Weather Review, 133, 1155-1174. [2]Revheim, P. P. and H. G. Beyer (2013). Using Bayesian Model Averaging for wind farm group forecasts. EWEA Wind Power Forecasting Technology Workshop,Rotterdam, 4-5 December 2013. [3]Sloughter, J. M., T. Gneiting and A. E. Raftery (2010). Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging. Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 105, No. 489, 25-35

Preede Revheim, Pål; Beyer, Hans Georg

2014-05-01

170

Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.

Jensen, Brian J.

1991-01-01

171

Application of [superscript 1]H DOSY for Facile Measurement of Polymer Molecular Weights

To address the practical issues of polymer molecular weight determination, the first accurate polymer weight-average molecular weight determination method in diverse living/controlled polymerization via DOSY (diffusion-ordered ...

Li, Weibin

172

76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels...prior to a change in the assumed average weight per person standard that will become...

2011-05-19

173

Effect of clothing weight on body weight

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

174

The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath?Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters

Eva Orvanová

1990-01-01

175

Molecular relaxation study of polystyrene: influence of temperature, draw rate and molecular weight

Molecular relaxation study of polystyrene: influence of temperature, draw rate and molecular weight different polystyrene samples, four monodisperse of weight-average molecular weight ranging from 210 000 relaxation time (t1), which is of the order of seconds, is independent of average molecular weight (Mw

Pezolet, Michel

176

Placental Morphometry Determines the Birth Weight

Background: Placental morphometry determines the foetal development and adulthood disease pattern. Hence, in the present study the influence of placental weight, volume, surface area, and thickness were studied in different groups of birth weight by sex of the newborn. Material and Methods: Present study was conducted on 164 consecutive singleton deliveries from a teaching hospital of Northern Karnataka, India. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed by maximum likelihood method after checking the linearity. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of regression models were computed to exhibit their utility for physicians. Results: Gestational age exhibited positive relationship with birth weight. Placental parameters showed a positive and significant relationship (p<0.001) with birth weight and higher values in males. The birth weight was estimated by regression models using sex of the newborn and placental morphometry; weight (R2=0.474), surface area (R2=0.420), and volume (R2=0.477) at 95% confidence interval. Low birth weight babies in the study were correctly identified by placental weight, surface area, volume and sex of the newborn. Their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values have been specified. Conclusion: Placental morphometry: weight, surface area, volume and sex of the baby determined the birth weight efficiently to initiate the corrective measures for planning better maternal care and to pacify mothers and their relatives. PMID:24392363

Balihallimath, Rupa L; Shirol, Veereshkumar S; Gan, Anita M; Tyagi, Naresh Kumar; Bandankar, Manisha R

2013-01-01

177

... Conditions > Obesity > Weight Loss Programs Health Issues Listen Weight Loss Programs Article Body Commercial weight-loss programs ... and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based ...

178

Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

2014-01-01

179

Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age?=?43.25, SD?=?13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

2014-01-01

180

Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Behrend, Juliane, E-mail: I.Brown@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: Juliane.Behrend@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2009-04-15

181

Ensemble averaging of acoustic data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

Stefanski, P. K.

1982-01-01

182

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

183

Objective: To examine the role of television (TV) viewing in long-term maintenance of weight loss.Research Methods and Procedures: All subjects (N = 1422) were enrolled in the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a national sample of adults who have maintained a minimum weight loss of 13.6 kg for at least 1 year. Participants self-reported the average number of hours of

Douglas A. Raynor; Suzanne Phelan; James O. Hill; Rena R. Wing

2006-01-01

184

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

185

Statistical properties of the moving average price in dollar-yen exchange rates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a weighted-moving-average analysis for the tick-by-tick data of yen-dollar exchange rates. The weights are determined automatically for given data by applying the Yule-Walker formula for autoregressive model. Although the data are non-stationary, the resulting moving average gives a quite nice property that the deviation around the moving-average becomes a white noise. The weights decay exponentially with time scale less than 2 min implying that dealers are watching only very recent market state.

Ohnishi, Takaaki; Mizuno, Takayuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki

2004-12-01

186

Mood and Weight Loss in a Behavioral Treatment Program.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the relationship between mood and weight loss for 76 patients participating in two consecutive behavioral treatment programs. Weight losses averaged 12.2 pounds (5.55 kg) during the 10-week program. Positive changes in mood were reported during this interval, and these changes appeared to be related to changes in weight. (Author/RC)

Wing, Rena R.; And Others

1983-01-01

187

The influence of molecular weight on plasticizer retention

The influence of molecular weight on plasticizer retention A key change to specification PGI-ll 04, which requires an average plasticizer molecular weight greater than or equal to 400 to ensure long- cizer are retained by the PYC material after mi- gration ifa minimum mol- ecular weight is used

188

An adaptive inverse-distance weighting spatial interpolation technique

One of the most frequently used deterministic models in spatial interpolation is the inverse-distance weighting (IDW) method. It is relatively fast and easy to compute, and straightforward to interpret. Its general idea is based on the assumption that the attribute value of an unsampled point is the weighted average of known values within the neighborhood, and the weights are inversely

George Y. Lu; David W. Wong

2008-01-01

189

76 FR 19275 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2007-0030] RIN 1625-AB20 Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements...its regulations governing the maximum weight and number of passengers that may safely...including increasing the Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP) to 185 lb. The...

2011-04-07

190

A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control Among Rural Kansas Women

Objective To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary care providers around weight control. Design Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting and Participants Six focus groups among 31 women from 3 separate communities of rural Kansas during the fall, 2006. Intervention Two focus groups in each community, each of two-hour duration. A focus group moderator’s guide was used to explore the roles of individuals, primary care practice teams, and communities around weight control. Main Outcome Measures and Analysis This study used a qualitative analysis with an iterative process and standard techniques. The analysis team summarized central findings, descriptive topic areas, and general themes. Results There were five broad themes that emerged from these focus groups. These are lack of support from primary care providers, primary care offices as community resources, lack of resources for promoting dietary change but adequate resources for physical activity, the importance of group support and inclusiveness, and a need for more intensive interventions for weight control. Conclusions and Implications Rural populations have an above-average prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. Rural communities need better approaches for addressing the obesity epidemic. PMID:19411055

Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

2009-01-01

191

Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships\\u000a with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of

Amy L Ahern; Ashley D Olson; Louise M Aston; Susan A Jebb

2011-01-01

192

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

193

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

194

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.

2001-01-01

195

Monthly Average Temperature for Boston, MA

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is monthly average temperature data for Boston, MA from March 1872 until September 2000. In addition to monthly averages, the National Weather Service table also shows the yearly average temperature.

196

PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

197

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

15 CMIP5 GCMs precipitation simulations were combined in a weighted ensemble using the Reliable Ensemble Averaging (REA) method, obtaining the weight of each model. This was done for a historical period (1961-2000) and for the future emissions based on low (RCP4.5) and high (RCP8.5) radiating forcing for the period 2075-2099. The annual cycle of simple ensemble of the historical GCMs simulations, the historical REA average and the Climate Research Unit (CRU TS3.1) database was compared in four zones of México. In the case of precipitation we can see the improvements by using the REA method, especially in the two northern zones of México where the REA average is more close to the observations (CRU) that the simple average. However in the southern zones although there is an improvement it is not as good as it is in the north, particularly in the southeast where instead of the REA average is able to reproduce qualitatively good the annual cycle with the mid-summer drought it was greatly underestimated. The main reason is because the precipitation is underestimated for all the models and the mid-summer drought do not even exists in some models. In the REA average of the future scenarios, as we can expected, the most drastic decrease in precipitation was simulated using the RCP8.5 especially in the monsoon area and in the south of Mexico in summer and in winter. In the center and southern of Mexico however, the same scenario in autumn simulates an increase of precipitation.

Colorado, G.; Salinas, J. A.; Cavazos, T.; de Grau, P.

2013-05-01

198

Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.

Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

199

Bayesian Model Averaging Using Ensemble Particle Filtering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual watershed models are a valuable tool for streamflow prediction, but it is also acknowledged that no single model structure can capture all the details of a watershed. Therefore, ensembles of models are employed, and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is increasingly being used to combine the predictions of multiple different models into a single forecast that is supposed to exhibit better predictive capability then any of the individual models. Successful implementation of BMA depends on the choice of the conditional distribution used to specify uncertainty of each ensemble member. Most often this distribution is assumed Gaussian. Here we introduce a four step approach that retrieves the conditional distribution for each model and time. First, we create a suite of watershed models by calibrating one conceptual model to different parts of the hydrograph. Then, a particle filter is used for each model to recursively derive the posterior probability density function of streamflow. The particle filter explictly incorporates uncertainty in measurement and model states. Then, a cross-entropy method is employed to retrieve closed form mathematical descriptions of these respective probability distributions. Finally, the BMA weights are estimated from these closed-form distributions using the DREAM algorithm. For the extremely diverse suite of watershed models, the RMSE for the BMA model is not necessarily better then that of the single best model. The treatment of model and measurement uncertainties in the particle filter, however, allows much better predictions than the calibrated models alone can provide.

Rings, J.; Vrugt, J. A.; Huisman, J. A.; Schoups, G.; Vereecken, H.

2010-12-01

200

An analysis of beef cattle weights and gains measured at varying intervals

by Kincaid (1953), Koch et al. (1958), and Ellis et al. (1962) for evaluating individual animals. Kincaid (1953) concluded that an average of three weights taken at 14-day intervals gave approximately twice the precision in terms of absolute weights... days since these weights would be more independent than consecutive daily weights. Comparing three weights taken at weekly intervals with weights taken on two consecutive days, Ellis et al. (1962) concluded that the use of the weekly weights would...

Fox, James David

1967-01-01

201

Psychological Effects of Weight Retained After Pregnancy

This study is a prospective investigation of the effect of weight retained after pregnancy on weight satisfaction, self-esteem and depressive affect, utilising the framework provided by expectancy-value theory. Self-report data were obtained from 115 women who were in the last month of their first pregnancy, and then again a month following the birth. On average women were heavier four weeks

Wendy Jenkin; Marika Tiggemann

1997-01-01

202

Scaling of Organic Weight and Energy Content of Arthropod Eggs

Among echinoderm species the average energy content (Ee) and organic weight (OW) of eggs scale in direct proportion with average egg volume (Jaeckle, 1995). The scaling of OW and Ee was evaluated for decapod crustacean and arachnid arthropods (26 species) using average values taken from the literature. This data set includes taxa that exhibit a variety of life history strategies

Kimberly Nielsen

1999-01-01

203

During 1976-81 we weighed several thousands of wild Mallard, Gadwall, and Blue-winged Teal in central North Dakota to examine duckling growth patterns, adult weights, and the factors influencing them. One-day-old Mallard and Gadwall averaged 32.4 and 30.4 g, respectively, a reduction of 34% and 29% from fresh egg weights. In all three species, the logistic growth curve provided a good fit for duckling growth patterns. Except for the asymptote, there was no difference in growth curves between males and females of a species. Mallard and Gadwall ducklings were heavier in years when wetland area was extensive or had increased from the previous year. Weights of after-second-year females were greater than yearlings for Mallard but not for Gadwall or Blue-winged Teal. Adult Mallard females lost weight continuously from late March to early July. Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal females, which nest later than Mallard, gained weight after spring arrival, lost weight from the onset of nesting until early July, and then regained some weight. Females of all species captured on nests were lighter than those captured off nests at the same time. Male Mallard weights decreased from spring arrival until late May. Male Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal weights increased after spring arrival, then declined until early June. Males of all three species then gained weight until the end of June. Among adults, female Gadwall and male Mallard and Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years when wetland area had increased from the previous year; female Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years with more wetland area.

Lokemoen, J.T.; Johnson, D.H.; Sharp, D.E.

1990-01-01

204

Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment, December 2000

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Metropolitain Area Employment and Unemployment, in December 2000, 215 metropolitan areas recorded unemployment rates below the US average of 3.7 percent. However, 106 areas reported rates higher than the US average.

205

Effect of molecular weight on fibrous PVA produced by electrospinning

The effects of polymer weight average molecular weight (MW) on the fiber structure of electrospun polyvinylalcohol (PVA) have been studied. PVA with a degree of hydrolysis of 98–99% and with molecular weights ranging from 9000 to 186,000 g\\/mol was dissolved in water. The concentration (C) of the polymer in the solution was varied depending on the molecular weight. The solution

A. Koski; K. Yim; S. Shivkumar

2004-01-01

206

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17

207

Do diurnal aerosol changes affect daily average radiative forcing?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Pekour, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph; Lantz, Kathy; Hodges, Gary

2013-06-01

208

BACKGROUND: Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and

Catherine Lombard; Amanda Deeks; Damien Jolley; Helena J Teede

2009-01-01

209

... your pre-pregnancy weight. Healthy eating It's no secret that a key part of losing weight is ... information they need to have healthy pregnancies and families. march of dimes More than 6000 people used ...

210

... still feel full. FACT SHEET Proven Weight loss Methods the diabetes prevention program (dpp) In this large ... 2 diabetes. www.hormone.org proven Weight loss methods fact sheet What other strategies can help you ...

211

Weighted and controlled frames

Weighted and controlled frames have been introduced recently to improve the numerical efficiency of iterative algorithms for inverting the frame operator. In this paper we develop systematically these notions, including their mutual relationship. We will show that controlled frames are equivalent to standard frames and so this concept gives a generalized way to check the frame condition, while offering a numerical advantage in the sense of preconditioning. Next, we investigate weighted frames, in particular their relation to controlled frames. We consider the special case of semi-normalized weights, where the concepts of weighted frames and standard frames are interchangeable. We also make the connection with frame multipliers. Finally we analyze weighted frames numerically. First we investigate three possibilities for finding weights in order to tighten a given frame, i.e., decrease the frame bound ratio. Then we examine Gabor frames and how well the canonical dual of a weighted frame is approximated by the inversely weighted dual frame.

Peter Balazs; Jean-Pierre Antoine; Anna Grybos

2009-02-12

212

... probably gain weight. That’s because metabolism (how you burn the calories you eat) can slow down with ... as you eat and drink. ? To lose weight, burn more calories than you eat and drink. ? To ...

213

... a diet, it's a lifestyle! Share Compartir Preventing Weight Gain If you're currently at a healthy ... of cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful ...

214

... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Weight gain during pregnancy When you’re pregnant, you ... in sight! Be careful about the amount of weight you gain during your pregnancy. Gaining too much ...

215

Weighted Watson-Crick automata

There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-07-10

216

Weighted Watson-Crick automata

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

2014-07-01

217

Jackson-type inequalities for spherical neural networks with doubling weights.

Recently, the spherical data processing has emerged in many applications and attracted a lot of attention. Among all the methods for dealing with the spherical data, the spherical neural networks (SNNs) method has been recognized as a very efficient tool due to SNNs possess both good approximation capability and spacial localization property. For better localized approximant, weighted approximation should be considered since different areas of the sphere may play different roles in the approximation process. In this paper, using the minimal Riesz energy points and the spherical cap average operator, we first construct a class of well-localized SNNs with a bounded sigmoidal activation function, and then study their approximation capabilities. More specifically, we establish a Jackson-type error estimate for the weighted SNNs approximation in the metric of L(p) space for the well developed doubling weights. PMID:25481671

Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Zongben

2015-03-01

218

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weight Control System, a set of linked computer programs which provides weight and balance reports from magnetic tape files, provides weight control and reporting on launch vehicle programs. With minor format modifications the program is applicable to aerospace, marine, automotive and other land transportation industries.

Dyer, A., Jr.; Ferrara, P. W.; Luke, H. P.

1969-01-01

219

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

220

Over the years ideal or desirable weights have been associated with the lowest mortality and defined in a number of ways. The widely used height-weight tables of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, developed in the 1940s, have been supplanted in the last decade by new weight standards based on findings of several population-based studies that compared body weight to mortality. The Quetelet or body mass index (BMI), now used as the de facto criterion for defining a desirable weight index, indicates relative fatness and is only minimally correlated with height. However, the optimal BMI or weight for longevity remains to be defined for a number of methodological reasons. This article reviews the strength of the evidence for increased mortality in adults who are overweight or underweight based on standard BMI ranges and in those who reported a change in body weight. Epidemiological studies show that excess body weight is associated with increased mortality, depending on fat patterning, gender, and age. A similar increase is shown for subjects with body weight below the relative weight range, although here associated life-style factors are greater contributors. Preliminary data suggest that change in body weight may also be associated with increased mortality. Overall, carefully measured weight and height remain the most easily performed and useful determinants of nutritional status and predictors of mortality for the general population. PMID:8332284

Kushner, R F

1993-05-01

221

Osteoarthritis and body weight

Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most common type of arthritis, and is a significant source of pain and disability. Osteoarthritis has multiple risk factors, including some that are potentially modifiable, such as body weight. Increased body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Relatively minor weight loss can effectively decrease the risk of the onset of

Patrick M. Foye; Todd P. Stitik; Boqing Chen; Scott F. Nadler

2000-01-01

222

Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss

Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success. PMID:25089189

Gardner, C D

2012-01-01

223

Theory of optimal weighting of data to detect climatic change

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for climatic change predicted by climate models can easily yield unconvincing results because of 'climatic noise,' the inherent, unpredictable variability of time-average atmospheric data. A weighted average of data that maximizes the probability of detecting predicted climatic change is presented. To obtain the optimal weights, an estimate of the covariance matrix of the data from a prior data set is needed. This introduces additional sampling error into the method. This is presently taken into account. A form of the weighted average is found whose probability distribution is independent of the true (but unknown) covariance statistics of the data and of the climate model prediction.

Bell, T. L.

1986-01-01

224

on Molecular Weight R. Joseph Kline, Michael D. McGehee,*, Ekaterina N. Kadnikova, Jinsong Liu, Jean M. J. Fre-average molecular weight (MW) of the conjugated polymer regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene). Atomic force microscopy mobility of P3HT has been related to the regioregularity,18 number- average molecular weight (MW),19

McGehee, Michael

225

Data Point Averaging for Computational Fluid Dynamics Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method for generating fluid flow parameter data for use in aerodynamic heating analysis. Computational fluid dynamics data is generated for a number of points in an area on a surface to be analyzed. Sub-areas corresponding to areas of the surface for which an aerodynamic heating analysis is to be performed are identified. A computer system automatically determines a sub-set of the number of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas and determines a value for each of the number of sub-areas using the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The value is determined as an average of the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The resulting parameter values then may be used to perform an aerodynamic heating analysis.

Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

226

High-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) is a powerful technique for determining molecular weight (MW) distributions of aquatic humic substances (HS). Previous researchers have shown that HPSEC can provide values of weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), and polydispersity (?) that are comparable to values determined by other techniques such as vapor pressure osmometry and field flow

Qunhui Zhou; Stephen E. Cabaniss; Patricia A. Maurice

2000-01-01

227

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual museum presents the role of the United States government in the development and standardization of weights and measures. Produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the exhibit displays objects in eight virtual rooms: America Before Standard Weights and Measures; Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler; The Office of Weights and Measures in the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1836-1901; The Mendenhall Order; The Founding of the National Bureau of Standards in 1901; From Artifacts to Physical Constants; The Dissemination of Standard Weights and Measures; and A Social History of Weights and Measures. Text as well as images relate the history.

Lisa Greenhouse

2001-01-01

228

A Weighted and Directed Interareal Connectivity Matrix for Macaque Cerebral Cortex

Retrograde tracer injections in 29 of the 91 areas of the macaque cerebral cortex revealed 1,615 interareal pathways, a third of which have not previously been reported. A weight index (extrinsic fraction of labeled neurons [FLNe]) was determined for each area-to-area pathway. Newly found projections were weaker on average compared with the known projections; nevertheless, the 2 sets of pathways had extensively overlapping weight distributions. Repeat injections across individuals revealed modest FLNe variability given the range of FLNe values (standard deviation <1 log unit, range 5 log units). The connectivity profile for each area conformed to a lognormal distribution, where a majority of projections are moderate or weak in strength. In the G29 × 29 interareal subgraph, two-thirds of the connections that can exist do exist. Analysis of the smallest set of areas that collects links from all 91 nodes of the G29 × 91 subgraph (dominating set analysis) confirms the dense (66%) structure of the cortical matrix. The G29 × 29 subgraph suggests an unexpectedly high incidence of unidirectional links. The directed and weighted G29 × 91 connectivity matrix for the macaque will be valuable for comparison with connectivity analyses in other species, including humans. It will also inform future modeling studies that explore the regularities of cortical networks. PMID:23010748

Markov, N. T.; Ercsey-Ravasz, M. M.; Ribeiro Gomes, A. R.; Lamy, C.; Magrou, L.; Vezoli, J.; Misery, P.; Falchier, A.; Quilodran, R.; Gariel, M. A.; Sallet, J.; Gamanut, R.; Huissoud, C.; Clavagnier, S.; Giroud, P.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Barone, P.; Dehay, C.; Toroczkai, Z.; Knoblauch, K.; Van Essen, D. C.; Kennedy, H.

2014-01-01

229

Adaptive Game Playing Using Multiplicative Weights

We present a simple algorithm for playing a repeated game. We show that a player using this algorithm suffers average loss that is guaranteed to come close to the minimum loss achievable by any fixed strategy. Our bounds are nonasymptotic and hold for any opponent. The algorithm, which uses the multiplicative-weight methods of Littlestone and Warmuth, is analyzed using the

Yoav Freund; Robert E. Schapire

1999-01-01

230

Abstract Average Distances of Pyramid Networks

For an interconnection network, calculating average distance of it is in general more difficult than determining its diameter. Diameters of pyramid networks are well known. This study calculates average distances of pyramid networks.

Hsien-jone Hsieh; Dyi-rong Duh

231

Average-Case Analysis Using Kolmogorov Complexity

This expository paper demonstrates how to use Kolmogorov complexityto do the average-case analysis via four examples, and exhibits a surprisingproperty of the celebrated associated universal distribution. The four examplesare: average case analysis of Heapsort [17, 15], average nni-distance betweentwo binary rooted leave-labeled trees [20], compact routing in computernetworks [3], average-case analysis of an adder algorithm [4]. The propertyis that the

Ming Li; Paul M. B. Vitányi

1997-01-01

232

Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.

Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar

2015-02-01

233

Abstract Background: Highland child populations show low growth rates. Aim: To evaluate the variation of size, mass and body surface area of Jujenean infants (1-4 years) as a function of geographic altitude. Subjects and methods: Nutritional status of 8059 healthy infants was determined based on weight and height data; body mass index, ponderal index, body surface area, body surface area/mass and ectomorphy were calculated. Variables were standardized with a provincial mean and WHO references. Data were grouped by age, sex and geographic altitude: Highlands (?2500?masl) and Lowlands (<2500?masl). Chi-square, correlation and t-tests were applied. Results: Highlands infants had higher prevalence of stunting, reduced height, weight, body surface area and ectomorphy; also higher body mass index, ponderal index and body surface area/mass. The population average z-score for height, weight and body surface area was positive in Lowlands and negative in Highlands. The opposite happened with body mass index, ponderal index and body surface area/mass. In Highlands and Lowlands the average z-score reference was negative for weight and height and positive for body mass index. Correlations between indices were high and significant, higher in Highlands. Conclusion: Jujenean children differ in size, mass and body surface area based on the geographical altitude and adverse nutritional and socioeconomic factors. PMID:25456210

Román, Estela María; Bejarano, Ignacio Felipe; Alfaro, Emma Laura; Abdo, Guadalupe; Dipierri, José Edgardo

2014-12-01

234

Effects of Average Childhood Dairy Intake on Adolescent Bone Health

Objective To evaluate the effects of usual childhood dairy intake on adolescent bone health. Study design Dietary data collected in the Framingham Children's Study over 12 years were used to evaluate usual dairy consumption and adolescent bone health. Each child's average Food Pyramid servings were estimated from yearly sets of 3-day diet records. Bone mineral content (BMC) and area (BA)

LYNN L. MOORE; M. LORING BRADLEE; MARTHA R. SINGER

235

Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

1993-01-01

236

Average-Time Games on Timed Automata

An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-time games. This complements our results for reachability-time games and partially solves a problem posed by Bouyer et al., to design an algorithm for solving average-price games on priced timed automata. The paper also establishes the exact computational complexity of solving average-time games: the problem is EXPTIME-complete for timed automata with at least two clocks.

Jurdzinski, Marcin

2009-01-01

237

Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

Sun, Ye; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke

2014-01-01

238

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between chil- dren with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP amplitudes and peak latencies decreased as reading skills in- creased. Furthermore, hemisphere differences

Dennis L. Molfese; A. F. Key; S. Kelly; N. Cunningham; S. Terrell; M. Ferguson; V. J. Molfese; T. Bonebright

2006-01-01

239

Implications of the method of capital cost payment on the weighted average cost of capital.

The author develops a theoretical and mathematical model, based on published financial management literature, to describe the cost of capital structure for health care delivery entities. This model is then used to generate the implications of changing the capital cost reimbursement mechanism from a cost basis to a prospective basis. The implications are that the cost of capital is increased substantially, the use of debt must be restricted, interest rates for borrowed funds will increase, and, initially, firms utilizing debt efficiently under cost-basis reimbursement will be restricted to the generation of funds from equity only under a prospective system. PMID:3525468

Boles, K E

1986-01-01

240

Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ?12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that heterogeneity of variances in ADG is prevalent in feedlot performance and indicate potential sources of heteroskedasticity. Further investigation of factors associated with heteroskedasticity in feedlot performance is warranted to increase consistency and uniformity in commercial beef cattle production and subsequent profitability. PMID:23482583

Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

2013-06-01

241

Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

242

Birth Weight Statistical Models

and birth defect rates are very high for low birth weight babies. A woman's behavior during pregnancy of carrying the baby to term and, consequently, of delivering a baby of normal weight. The goal of this study) dummy or design variables for a polytomous variable with k categories. Each dummy variable equals 1

243

Remarks on Grammatical Weight.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "end-weight," long, complex phrases that tend to come at the end of clauses. Corpus data on heavy noun phrase shift, the dative alternation, and particle movement indicate that there are several structural measures of weight highly correlated with constituent ordering. (38 references) (Author/CK)

Wasow, Thomas

1997-01-01

244

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

245

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

246

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

247

Weight discrimination and bullying.

Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

2013-04-01

248

Loop-weighted walk with parameter $\\lambda\\geq 0$ is a non-Markovian model of random walks that is related to the loop $O(N)$ model of statistical mechanics. A walk receives weight $\\lambda^{k}$ if it contains $k$ loops; whether this is a reward or punishment for containing loops depends on the value of $\\lambda$. A challenging feature of loop-weighted walk is that it is not purely repulsive, meaning the weight of the future of a walk may either increase or decrease if the past is forgotten. Repulsion is typically an essential property for lace expansion arguments. This article circumvents the lack of repulsion and proves, via the lace expansion, that for any $\\lambda\\geq 0$ loop-weighted walk is diffusive in high dimensions.

Tyler Helmuth

2014-10-12

249

A Behavioral Weight Reduction Model for Moderately Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behavioral weight reduction treatment and maintenance program for moderately mentally retarded adolescents which involves six phases from background information collection to followup relies on stimulus control procedures to modify eating behaviors. Data from pilot studies show an average weekly weight loss of .5 to 1 pound per S. (CL)

Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

1980-01-01

250

Aim for a Healthy Weight Maintaining a Healthy

fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugar. It contains enough calories for good on average. If you are watching your weight, it's hard to always know what calories, fats, and nutrients and maintaining a healthy weight is good for your overall health. It also may help reduce your risk for developing

Bandettini, Peter A.

251

Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

Mathias, Lon J.

1983-01-01

252

A Stochastic Model of Space-Time Variability of Mesoscale Rainfall: Statistics of Spatial Averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. A previously developed spectral model of rain statistics that is designed to capture this property, predicts power law scaling behavior for the second moment statistics of area-averaged rain rate on the averaging length scale L as L right arrow 0. In the present work a more efficient method of estimating the model parameters is presented, and used to fit the model to the statistics of area-averaged rain rate derived from gridded radar precipitation data from TOGA COARE. Statistical properties of the data and the model predictions are compared over a wide range of averaging scales. An extension of the spectral model scaling relations to describe the dependence of the average fraction of grid boxes within an area containing nonzero rain (the "rainy area fraction") on the grid scale L is also explored.

Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, Thomas L.

2003-01-01

253

Average-cost based robust structural control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

Hagood, Nesbitt W.

1993-01-01

254

Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.

Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.

2013-07-01

255

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminiferal shell weight can be impacted by environmental factors both during initial shell formation and as the result of post mortem preservation. An improved understanding of what determines this relationship can lead to both an understanding of foraminiferal calcite production in modern oceans and proxy development for past environmental conditions. Significantly, foraminiferal shell weight has been linked to carbonate ion concentration in both laboratory culture (of both planktic and benthic species) and in the modern and fossil record (in planktic foraminifera). This study explores the relationship between shell weight and changes in oxygenation and carbonate saturation in fossil benthic foraminifera from a high-resolution sedimentary record (MV0811-15JC; 34°36.930' N, 119°12.920' W; 418m water depth; 16.1-3.4 ka; sedimentation rate 44-100 cm kyr-1) from Santa Barbara Basin, CA (SBB). Ongoing work in SBB has described rapid biotic reorganization through the recent deglaciation in response to changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations, which are used here to create a semi quantitative oxygenation history for site MV0811-15JC. In modern Oxygen Minimum Zones, decreases in oxygen closely covary with increases in Total Carbon (with a corresponding decrease in the carbonate saturation state). We interpret that records from SBB of the average size-normalized test weight of Uvigerinid and Bolivinid foraminifera show that shell weight responds to these changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Multiple metrics of 'size normalization' including by length, geometric estimation of surface area and volume, and tracing of individual silhouettes are tested. Regardless of method utilized, the size normalized shell weight of all species fluctuates with abrupt changes in oxygenation and saturation state. Although all species respond to large-scale environmental changes, the weight records of Bolivinids and Uvigerinids reveal distinct differences, indicating that processes governing shell weight may vary across taxonomic groups.

Davis, C. V.; Hill, T. M.; Moffitt, S. E.

2013-12-01

256

Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01

257

Average power scaling of copper hybrid lasers

Copper lasers are the highest efficiency high average power visible lasers (510.6 and 578.2 nm). The most efficient of them all is the copper hybrid laser, which has been demonstrated to produce 200 W average power with 1.9% efficiency. The prospects for increasing the average output power from single or double tube devices into the kilowatt regime are discussed. With

L. Little; Chris E. Little

1997-01-01

258

Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars

We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways how to deal with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different LTB models. In the first one, correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show nontriviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.

Petr Kaspar; Otakar Svitek

2014-05-22

259

Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

1990-01-01

260

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

Stroud, P.

1994-02-01

261

The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1% ± 10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n = 10). Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000?USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery. PMID:24454339

Sheppard, Caroline E.; Lester, Erica L. W.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

262

Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

2008-11-20

263

Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0), through risk analysis (levels 1–3) to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4). Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity. PMID:16390549

Andersson, Neil; Mitchell, Steven

2006-01-01

264

Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2009-08-01

265

Generalized averaging method for power conversion circuits

A more general averaging procedure that encompasses state-space averaging and that is potentially applicable to a much broader class of circuits and systems is presented. Examples of its application in resonant and PWM power convertors are presented. The technique is shown to be effective on a number of examples. including resonant type converters. The approach offers refinements to the theory

Seth R. Sanders; J. M. Noworolski; X. Z. Liu; G. C. Verghese

1991-01-01

266

Temperature averages and rates of stratospheric reactions

Use of zonal average temperatures is common in numerical modeling of stratospheric chemistry. In most cases, this approach is accurate. The exceptions are when a heterogeneous reaction or a thermal process which is highly non-linear in temperature is involved. The differences between use of an average temperature and more realistic temperature are presented for cases where temperature fluctuations are of

D. M. Murphy; A. R. Ravishankara

1994-01-01

267

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

2010-07-28

268

Trapping on Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks with Small-World Property

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present weighted tetrahedron Koch networks depending on a weight factor. According to their self-similar construction, we obtain the analytical expressions of the weighted clustering coefficient and average weighted shortest path (AWSP). The obtained solutions show that the weighted tetrahedron Koch networks exhibits small-world property. Then, we calculate the average receiving time (ART) on weighted-dependent walks, which is the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at the trap located at a hub node. We find that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order.

Dai, Meifeng; Xie, Qi; Xi, Lifeng

2013-04-01

269

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10

270

Selective model averaging with bayesian rule learning for predictive biomedicine.

Accurate disease classification and biomarker discovery remain challenging tasks in biomedicine. In this paper, we develop and test a practical approach to combining evidence from multiple models when making predictions using selective Bayesian model averaging of probabilistic rules. This method is implemented within a Bayesian Rule Learning system and compared to model selection when applied to twelve biomedical datasets using the area under the ROC curve measure of performance. Cross-validation results indicate that selective Bayesian model averaging statistically significantly outperforms model selection on average in these experiments, suggesting that combining predictions from multiple models may lead to more accurate quantification of classifier uncertainty. This approach would directly impact the generation of robust predictions on unseen test data, while also increasing knowledge for biomarker discovery and mechanisms that underlie disease. PMID:25717394

Balasubramanian, Jeya B; Visweswaran, Shyam; Cooper, Gregory F; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

2014-01-01

271

The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com, E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com, E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2011-03-01

272

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... based on current recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Nearly a third gained weight within the guidelines ...

273

A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

Englberger, L.

1999-01-01

274

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson in multiple parts designed to explain the importance of standardized weights and measures and to demonstrate how governmental activities have changed standards and influenced commerce. (JDH)

Blum, Ann

1987-01-01

275

... kick boxing, dancing) ? energetic house or yard work (gardening, raking, mopping, vacuuming) 5 What types of weight- ... English H. Gonzalez, M.D., M.P.H., Community Medicine and Curriculum Development Coordinator, St. Vincent’s East ...

276

... sick, but in time they can regain weight. "Dumping syndrome" is another common problem that happens mainly ... nausea, weakness, sweating, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. Because dumping can be made worse by eating high-sugar ...

277

... obesity lowers the success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In some studies, there has also been ... other possible infertility factors and then make a recommendation about whether you should try to lose weight ...

278

... Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research ... the News Spotlights Media Resources Selected Profiles & Interviews Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media ...

279

... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese. Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

280

... blood sugar levels under control. Continue Weight and Type 2 Diabetes Most people are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . Being overweight or obese increases a person's risk ...

281

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

282

Average diurnal variation of summer lightning over the Florida peninsula

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data derived from a large network of electric field mills are used to determine the average diurnal variation of lightning in a Florida seacoast environment. The variation at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station area is compared with standard weather observations of thunder, and the variation of all discharges in this area is compared with the statistics of cloud-to-ground flashes over most of the South Florida peninsula and offshore waters. The results show average diurnal variations that are consistent with statistics of thunder start times and the times of maximum thunder frequency, but that the actual lightning tends to stop one to two hours before the recorded thunder. The variation is also consistent with previous determinations of the times of maximum rainfall and maximum rainfall rate.

Maier, L. M.; Krider, E. P.; Maier, M. W.

1984-01-01

283

Efficiency of transportation on weighted extended Koch networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a family of weighted extended Koch networks based on a class of extended Koch networks. They originate from a r-complete graph, and each node in each r-complete graph of current generation produces mr-complete graphs whose weighted edges are scaled by factor h in subsequent evolutionary step. We study the structural properties of these networks and random walks on them. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average weighted shortest path length (AWSP), average receiving time (ART) and average sending time (AST). Besides, the technique of resistor network is employed to uncover the relationship between ART and AST on networks with unit weight. In the infinite network order limit, the average weighted shortest path lengths stay bounded with growing network order (0 < h < 1). The closed form expression of ART shows that it exhibits a sub-linear dependence (0 < h < 1) or linear dependence ( h = 1) on network order. On the contrary, the AST behaves super-linearly with the network order. Collectively, all the obtained results show that the efficiency of message transportation on weighted extended Koch networks has close relation to the network parameters h, m and r. All these findings could shed light on the structure and random walks of general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan

2013-10-01

284

Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

2008-01-01

285

Self-averaging in complex brain neuron signals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear statistical properties of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of limbic brain are studied in vivo. VTA plays key role in generation of pleasure and in development of psychological drug addiction. It is shown that spiking time-series of the VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit long-range correlations with self-averaging behavior. This specific VTA phenomenon has no relation to VTA rewarding function. Last result reveals complex role of VTA in limbic brain.

Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Fukayama, D.; Yadid, G.

2002-12-01

286

A segment- and fuel-disaggregated analysis of the production data of the new European vehicle market during the last decade helps to understand the sharp increase in average weight, and to introduce an indicator linking CO2 emissions to a vehicle's unit of weight. Using this indicator, simulations are made to calculate the average CO2 emissions if the average weight had stayed

François Cuenot

2009-01-01

287

GROUP ACTION INDUCED AVERAGING FOR HARDI PROCESSING

We consider the problem of processing high angular resolution diffusion images described by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Prior work showed that several processing operations, e.g., averaging, interpolation and filtering, can be reduced to averaging in the space of ODFs. However, this approach leads to anatomically erroneous results when the ODFs to be processed have very different orientations. To address this issue, we propose a group action induced distance for averaging ODFs, which leads to a novel processing framework on the spaces of orientation (the space of 3D rotations) and shape (the space of ODFs with the same orientation). Experiments demonstrate that our framework produces anatomically meaningful results. PMID:22903055

Çetingül, H. Ertan; Afsari, Bijan; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Vidal, Rene

2012-01-01

288

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-31

289

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Impact of Gestational Weight Gain on Interconception Weight Change.

Describe the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interconception weight change within race/ethnic groups, and differences across them. Data are from linked New York City birth certificates 1994-2004. The sample comprised nulliparous women ages ?18 with two consecutive singleton births (N = 115,651). The dependent variable was interconception weight change. Adjusted analyses were from ordinary least squares regression model fully interacted by race/ethnic group, controlling for covariates. Within race/ethnic groups, adjusted interconception weight change was calculated for each GWG level compared with GWG 20-24 pounds; across groups, weight change was calculated for each group compared with white non-Hispanics. GWG ?40 pounds was 18 % for Asian Pacific Islanders, and 27-29 % for other race/ethnic groups. Interconception weight change >15 pounds was highest for black non-Hispanics (34 %) and lowest for Asian Pacific Islanders (17 %). In the multivariable analysis, mean interconception weight change increased with increasing GWG in all race/ethnic groups, an average of 1.5-1.6 pounds for each 5-pound GWG interval. Compared with white non-Hispanics, adjusted mean interconception weight change was higher at every GWG level for black non-Hispanics (3.5-5.1 pounds), and at every level except <15 pounds for Hispanics (1.6-3.0 pounds). GWG ?40 pounds was prevalent in all groups. GWG contributes to long-term interconception weight change, and non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics are at risk of greater weight change. Interventions at many levels, during and after pregnancy, are needed to support women to achieve healthy GWG and postpartum weight loss. PMID:25424453

Sackoff, Judith E; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

2014-11-26

290

Birth weight: nature or nurture?

Objective: To investigate the relative role of environmental and genetic factors in the determination of birth weight following ovum donation. Methods: Data from 62 cases of ovum donation were used to examine the relative influence of donor and recipient on birth weight. Results: The only discernible factors that significantly influenced birth weight were gestational age and recipient's weight. Donor weight,

A. A. Brooks; M. R. Johnson; P. J. Steer; M. E. Pawson; H. I. Abdalla

1995-01-01

291

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

292

Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.

Buchele, Donald R.

1988-01-01

293

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2013-07-01

294

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2011-07-01

295

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2014-07-01

296

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

297

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

298

Ensemble Averages when ?is a Square Integer

We give a hyperpfaffian formulation of partition functions and ensemble averages for Hermitian and circular ensembles when L is an arbitrary integer and \\beta=L^2 and when L is an odd integer and \\beta=L^2 +1.

Christopher D. Sinclair

2010-08-25

299

Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

300

Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor Â· History of sales procedures Â· Manufacturer Driven Procedures Â· What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." Â· It should

301

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

302

Popular weight reduction diets.

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

303

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a new method of digital terrain model (DTM) estimation based on modified moving average interpolation. There are many methods that can be employed in DTM creation, such as kriging, inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbour and moving average. The moving average method is not as precise as the others; hence, it is not commonly comprised in scientific work. Considering the high accuracy, the relatively low time costs, and the huge amount of measurement data collected by multibeam echosounder, however, the moving average method is definitely one of the most promising approaches. In this study, several variants of this method are analysed. An optimization of the moving average method is proposed based on a new module of selecting neighbouring points during the interpolation process—the "growing radius" approach. Tests experiments performed on various multibeam echosounder datasets demonstrate the high potential of this modified moving average method for improved DTM generation.

Maleika, Wojciech

2015-02-01

304

Averaging Sampled Sensor Outputs To Detect Failures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluctuating signals smoothed by taking consecutive averages. Sampling-and-averaging technique processes noisy or otherwise erratic signals from number of sensors to obtain indications of failures in complicated system containing sensors. Used under both transient and steady-state conditions. Useful in monitoring automotive engines, chemical-processing plants, powerplants, and other systems in which outputs of sensors contain noise or other fluctuations in measured quantities.

Panossian, Hagop V.

1990-01-01

305

A Laterally Averaged Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model

Laterally-averaged dynamical equations are often used in numerical models of narrow coastal regions such as fjords and estuaries. Such models are preferable to 2D formulations, because they can handle variable-width effects such as flow acceleration at coastal constrictions. They also have a considerable speed advantage over 3D models. However, most laterally-averaged models share a significant weakness -- they rely on

Daniel Bourgault; Dan E. Kelley

2004-01-01

306

Applications of high average power nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.

Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.

1996-02-05

307

Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study

Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180

2013-01-01

308

Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ? such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz

2015-04-01

309

Instrument to average 100 data sets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

1977-01-01

310

This study explored the developmental trajectories of postpartum weight from 0.5 to 3 years after childbirth, and aimed to determine the associations between postpartum weight trajectories and prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG). Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study were used, following 49,528 mothers 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years after childbirth. Analyses were performed using latent growth mixture modeling. Three groups of developmental trajectories of postpartum weight were found, with most women (85.9 %) having a low level of weight retention initially and slight gain over 3 years, whereas 5.6 % of women started at a high postpartum weight retention (on average 7.56 kg) at 0.5 years but followed by a marked weight loss over time (2.63 kg per year on average), and the third trajectory represented women (8.5 %) who had high weight retention high initially (on average 4.67 kg at 0.5 years) and increasing weight over time (1.43 kg per year on average). Prepregnancy overweight and obesity and excessive GWG significantly predicted a high postpartum weight trend. Women had substantial variability in postpartum weight development-both initially after birth and in their weight trajectories over time. Early preventive interventions may be designed to assist women with prepregnancy overweight and obesity and excessive GWG, which helps to reduce the increasing trend for postpartum weight. PMID:25081240

Abebe, Dawit S; Von Soest, Tilmann; Von Holle, Ann; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Torgersen, Leila; Bulik, Cynthia M

2015-04-01

311

Light weight phosphate cements

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

312

Generalized constructive tree weights

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

2014-04-15

313

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

2014-11-01

314

Generalized constructive tree weights

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

315

Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

316

Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

2012-01-01

317

Weight knowledge and weight magnitude: impact on lumbosacral loading.

Several factors can impact lumbosacral loads during lifting, including weight knowledge and weight magnitude. However, interaction between them has never been tested. This study investigated the interaction effect of these variables on lumbosacral forces and moments. Participants performed symmetrical lifts using three different weights. Weight knowledge involved known and unknown weight conditions. A biologically assisted dynamic model was used to calculate spinal loading parameters. Weight impacted all variables, while knowledge impacted only compression, by a moderate amount (5%), and spinal moments. Lifting a lightweight resulted in a difference of 16% and 7.2% between knowledge conditions for compression and anterior-posterior shear forces, respectively, compared with a negligible difference of < 1% when lifting a heavy weight. Increased spinal loading with light unknown weight can be attributed to increased muscular co-contraction. Weight knowledge is important to consider at low weight levels as it can increase tissue loading to values equivalent to lifting a heavier weight. PMID:25329859

Farrag, Ahmed T; Elsayed, Walaa H; El-Sayyad, Mohsen M; Marras, William S

2015-02-01

318

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

Battles, Carol

319

Reagents, Compositions, Weight Loss

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short experimental study of what happens to aluminum hydroxide, silicic acid, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate (or reagents of instructors choice) when they are heated to 110 and 1200 degrees. Students determine the formula and calculate the mole percent and weight percent of each element and oxide in each reagent. They heat the samples and calculate percentage weight loss or gain. Finally, they write a lab report summarizing their results. Be sure to have students save their samples for later use in a lab that introduces X-ray diffraction.

Dexter Perkins

320

Some Factors Affecting Weight Gains of Dairy Heifers Fed All-Roughage Rations1

SUMMARY Factors affecting weight gains by dairy heifers were studied with 28 heifers on pasture and ten individually fed heifers on either an all hay or grass silage ration. The heifers averaged about 450 lb. in weight. The only factor significantly correlated with gains on pasture was forage dry matter digestibility (r=.797). On pasture, the multiple correlation between average daily

M. E. McCullough; W. E. Neville Jr.

1959-01-01

321

Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

2015-03-01

322

Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained allow one to readily predict the redshift above which the direction-averaged fluctuation in the Hubble diagram falls below a required precision and suggest a method to extract the background Hubble constant from low redshift data without the need to correct for peculiar velocities.

Kostov, Valentin, E-mail: valentin@uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Department of Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., AAC 020, Chicago IL 60637 (United States)

2010-04-01

323

Average lung volumes for K-12 students

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on height and weight charts, I have calculated the lung volumes for K-5 and high school students. Since the normal values used in spirometry are generally based on adult sizes, these data can be useful in comparing lung volumes in K-12 students to other normal healthy K-12 students.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2008-04-14

324

Averaging procedure in variable- G cosmologies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work in the literature had built a formalism for spatially averaged equations for the scale factor, giving rise to an averaged Raychaudhuri equation and averaged Hamiltonian constraint, which involve a backreaction source term. The present paper extends these equations to include models with variable Newton parameter and variable cosmological term, motivated by the nonperturbative renormalization program for quantum gravity based upon the Einstein-Hilbert action. We focus on the Brans-Dicke form of the renormalization-group improved action functional. The coupling between backreaction and spatially averaged three-dimensional scalar curvature is found to survive, and a variable- G cosmic quintet is found to emerge. Interestingly, under suitable assumptions, an approximate solution can be found where the early universe tends to a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model, while keeping track of the original inhomogeneities through three effective fluids. The resulting qualitative picture is that of a universe consisting of baryons only, while inhomogeneities average out to give rise to the full dark-side phenomenology.

Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Esposito, Giampiero

2010-02-01

325

Weight 0 1 2 3 1. Leadership 33% Has not demonstrated impact through a leadership role Has held a leadership role in one or more organizations and demonstrated impact Has held an organization-wide leadership role in one or more

ProdiÃ¦, Aleksandar

326

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will recognize that the mass of an object is a measure that is independent of gravity. If they can effectively complete the guided inquiry activity as well as the short writing summary to reinforce what they learned, they will gain a foundation for understanding the difference between mass and weight.

Lance King

2011-07-26

327

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... prevent weight retention and the potential long-term health risks to women. I'm Dr. Cindy Haines of HealthDay TV, with the news that your doctors are reading, health news that matters to you. Mobile version Get ...

328

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

COSI

2009-01-01

329

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

330

Perceiving the average hue of color arrays

The average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g. to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g. perceptual vs. cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g. categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two colors shown alternated in spatial arrays. Observers adjusted the components until the average equaled a specified reference hue. Matches for red, blue-red, or yellow-green were consistent with the arithmetic mean chromaticity, while blue-green settings deviated toward blue. The settings show little evidence for categorical coding, and cannot be predicted from the scaled appearances of the individual components. PMID:24695184

Webster, Jacquelyn; Kay, Paul; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

331

Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

332

Estimating averages from distributions of tone durations.

We examined whether estimating average duration was influenced by the distribution peak location. We presented participants with samples of various tone durations and then presented comparison tone durations. Participants judged whether each comparison duration was longer than the average sample duration. Estimates of the averages were inferred from the psychophysical functions. The durations were sampled from three distributions: one positively skewed, one symmetric, and one negatively skewed. In Experiment 1, every participant was presented with every distribution. Estimates of the averages were unbiased for the symmetric distribution but were biased toward the long tail of each skewed distribution. This would occur if participants combined the sample to be judged with the previous, irrelevant samples, or with the comparison durations. In Experiment 2, each participant was presented with samples from only one of the distributions. Estimates of the averages were still biased toward the long tails of the skewed distributions. This would occur if participants combined the sample to be judged with the comparison durations, which were the same for the three distributions. In Experiment 3, each participant was presented with only one distribution, and each distribution was tested with its own comparison durations, selected as percentiles from the distribution. The estimates were accurate for the smallest population mean (positively skewed distribution) but underestimated the larger means. These results could be explained by subjective shortening of the durations in memory, with a simple equation from scalar timing theory. This equation correctly predicted two results: The estimated averages were a linear function of the stimulus means, and the variances were a linear function of the squared stimulus means. Neither prediction was dependent on the skewness of the stimulus durations. PMID:24264515

Schweickert, Richard; Han, Hye Joo; Yamaguchi, Motonori; Fortin, Claudette

2014-02-01

333

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ˜ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M.

2013-11-01

334

Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

2014-09-01

335

A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

Senovilla, J. M. M.

2007-07-01

336

Synthesis and biological activity of medium range molecular weight polymers containing

Synthesis and biological activity of medium range molecular weight polymers containing exo-3®ed by FTIR, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectroscopies. The apparent average molecular weights and polydispersity acid (ETCA); medium molecular weight; photopolymerization; in vitro cytotoxicity; in vivo antitumour

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

337

Television Situation Comedies: Female Weight, Male Negative Comments, and Audience Reactions.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of prime time television situation comedies examined body weights of female central characters, negative comments made by male characters about their weight or bodies, and audience reactions. Below-average weight females were over-represented in the programs. The heavier the females, the more negative comments made to or about…

Fouts, Gregory; Burggraf, Kimberley

2000-01-01

338

Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

1996-01-01

339

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01

340

Size and shape of soil humic acids estimated by viscosity and molecular weight

Ultrafiltration fractions of three soil humic acids were characterized by viscometry and high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) in order to estimate shapes and hydrodynamic sizes. Intrinsic viscosities under given solute\\/solvent\\/temperature conditions were obtained by extrapolating the concentration dependence of reduced viscosities to zero concentration. Molecular mass (weight average molecular weight (M¯w) and number average molecular weight (M¯n)) and hydrodynamic radius

Masayuki Kawahigashi; Hiroaki Sumida; Kazuhiko Yamamoto

2005-01-01

341

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy E is the number of the common preys of x and y

342

Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2010-01-01

343

Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…

Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

2008-01-01

344

Biodegradation of high molecular weight polylactic acid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polylactid acid seems to be an appropriate replacement of conventional non-biodegradable synthetic polymer primarily due to comparable mechanical, thermal and processing properties in its high molecular weight form. Biodegradation of high molecular PLA was studied in compost for various forms differing in their specific surface area. The material proved its good biodegradability under composting conditions and all investigated forms showed to be acceptable for industrial composting. Despite expectations, no significant differences in resulting mineralizations were observed for fiber, film and powder sample forms with different specific surface areas. The clearly faster biodegradation was detected only for the thin coating on porous material with high specific surface area.

Stloukal, Petr; Koutny, Marek; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Kucharczyk, Pavel

2012-07-01

345

Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.

Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.

2003-01-01

346

Average magnitude difference function pitch extractor

This paper describes a method for using the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) and associated decision logic to estimate the pitch period of voiced speech sounds. The AMDF is a variation on autocorrelation analysis where, instead of correlating the input speech at various delays (where multiplications and summations are formed at each value of delay), a difference signal is formed

M. Ross; H. Shaffer; A. Cohen; R. Freudberg; H. Manley

1974-01-01

347

Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

Sturrock, Alan

1997-01-01

348

Topological quantization of ensemble averages Emil Prodan

Topological quantization of ensemble averages Emil Prodan Department of Physics, Yeshiva University looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states. #12;Topological quantization of ensemble

349

Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

Agrawal, D. C.

2013-01-01

350

This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01

351

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

352

6, 68256839, 2006 Time-averaging of

Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, PRC 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, PRC Received: 17 May distributions presented in the literature are mostly averages of long scan-time (30 s or more) spectra mainly

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

353

A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

2014-01-01

354

Geographic gossip: Efficient averaging for sensor networks

processing, gossip algorithms, message-passing al- gorithms, random geometric graphs,graphs, such as the single cycle and regular grid shown in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING,graph topology. The averaging problem is an archetypal instance of dis- tributed signal processing,

Dimakis, Alexandros G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

2008-01-01

355

Science of NHL Hockey: Statistics & Averages

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being a top goalie in the NHL takes more than quick reflexes and nerves of steel, it also requires a firm grip on the numbers. Namely, the key averages and statistics of goaltending. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

356

How the economy affects teenage weight.

Much research has focused on the proximate determinants of weight gain and obesity for adolescents, but not much information has emerged on identifying which adolescents might be at risk or on prevention. This research focuses on a distal determinant of teenage weight gain, namely changes in the economy, which may help identify geographical areas where adolescents may be at risk and may provide insights into the mechanisms by which adolescents gain weight. This study uses a nationally representative sample of individuals, between 15 and 18 years old from the 1997 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to estimate a model with state and year fixed effects to examine how within-state changes in the unemployment rate affect four teenage weight outcomes: an age- and gender-standardized percentile in the body-mass-index distribution and indicators for being overweight, obese, and underweight. I found statistically significant estimates, indicating that females gain weight in weaker economic periods and males gain weight in stronger economic periods. Possible causes for the contrasting results across gender include, among other things, differences in the responsiveness of labor market work to the economy and differences in the types of jobs generally occupied by female and male teenagers. PMID:19364624

Arkes, Jeremy

2009-06-01

357

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

358

Weighted guided image filtering.

It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

2015-01-01

359

Gender Differences in Predictors of Body Weight and Body Weight Change in Healthy Adults

Background Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. Objective To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Methods and Procedures Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Results Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Discussion Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels. PMID:18223626

Chiriboga, David E.; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Hebert, James R.; Ockene, Ira S.

2015-01-01

360

Objectives The objective of this prospective, single-site, two-year dietary intervention study was to evaluate the effects of moderate weight reduction and subsequent partial weight regain on cardiovascular structure and function. Background Obesity is associated with adverse cardiac and vascular structural and functional alterations. Methods Sixty obese subjects (age: 46±10 years, body mass index: 37±3 kg/m2) were evaluated during their participation in a weight loss study. Cardiac and vascular ultrasound studies were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after start of intervention. Results Forty-seven subjects (78%) completed the entire two-year follow-up. Average weight loss was 7.3±4.0, 9.2±5.6, 7.8±6.6 and 3.8±7.9% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Age- and sex- adjusted mixed linear models revealed that the follow-up time was significantly associated with decreases in weight (p<0.0001), left ventricular (LV) mass (p=0.001), and carotid intima-media thickness (p<0.0001); there was also significant improvement in LV diastolic (E’, p?0.0001) and systolic (S’, p=.001) function. Partial weight regain diminished the maximal observed beneficial effects of weight loss, however cardiovascular parameters measured at two years still showed a net benefit compared with baseline. Conclusions Diet-induced moderate weight loss in obese subjects is associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular structure and function. Subsequent weight regain is associated with partial loss of these beneficial effects. PMID:20082927

de las Fuentes, Lisa; Waggoner, Alan D.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Stein, Richard I.; Miller, Bernard V.; Foster, Gary D.; Wyatt, Holly; Klein, Samuel; Davila-Roman, Victor G.

2010-01-01

361

A Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging Framework for Groundwater Prediction under Uncertainty.

Groundwater prediction models are subjected to various sources of uncertainty. This study introduces a hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method to segregate and prioritize sources of uncertainty in a hierarchical structure and conduct BMA for concentration prediction. A BMA tree of models is developed to understand the impact of individual sources of uncertainty and uncertainty propagation to model predictions. HBMA evaluates the relative importance of different modeling propositions at each level in the BMA tree of model weights. The HBMA method is applied to chloride concentration prediction for the "1,500-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana from 2005 to 2029. The groundwater head data from 1990 to 2004 is used for model calibration. Four sources of uncertainty are considered and resulted in 180 flow and transport models for concentration prediction. The results show that prediction variances of concentration from uncertain model elements are much higher than the prediction variance from uncertain model parameters. The HBMA method is able to quantify the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty to the total uncertainty. PMID:24890644

Chitsazan, Nima; Tsai, Frank T-C

2015-03-01

362

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below are the 25 birth weights, in ounces, of all the Labrador Retriever puppies born at Kingston Kennels in the last six months. 131415151616161617171...

363

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the same method for measuring friction that was used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction), students design and conduct experiments to determine if weight added incrementally to objects affects the amount of friction encountered when they slide across flat surfaces. After graphing the data from their experiments, students calculate the coefficients of friction between the objects and the surfaces they moved upon, for both static and kinetic friction.

2014-09-18

364

Some interrelationships of weights of beef calves from birth to weaning and to maturity

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5p S UM6gI ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ LITERATURE CITED ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 57 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 59 Page 1. Numbers of Calves by Breed, Sex and Location, 1937...-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9 2 ~ Average Adjusted Weights of Calves by Breed and Sex at Lufkin, 195'7-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 14 3~ Average Adjusted Weights of Calves by Breed and Sex at College Station, 1955-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 4, Average Birth and Adjusted...

Jones, John Willoughby

1957-01-01

365

A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here.

Kidner, Ronald

1999-06-02

366

Pharmacokinetics of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Injection in Obese and Normal-Weight Women

Context: Obese women have poorer in vitro fertilization outcomes, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: The objectives of the study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and ovarian steroid hormone production, after subcutaneous (sc) and intramuscular (im) injection of hCG in obese and normal-weight women. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, experimental study. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-two women aged 18–42 years with body mass index of 18.5–24.9 (normal) or 30–40 kg/m2 (obese). Interventions: Participants received im urinary hCG or sc recombinant hCG and returned for a second injection type after a 4-week washout. Intramuscular injections were performed under ultrasound guidance. Blood was taken 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 36 hours after injection. Main Outcome Measures: hCG was measured at each time point; estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone, and SHBG were measured at 0 and 36 hours. Results: Twenty-two women completed the study. In both normal-weight and obese women, peak serum concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC), and average hCG concentration were higher after im injection as compared with sc injection (all P < .003). Obese women had markedly lower Cmax, AUC, and average hCG concentration after sc injection as compared with normal-weight women (P = .02, P = .009, and P = .008, respectively). After im injection, Cmax, AUC, and average concentration were similar for normal-weight and obese women (P = .31, P = .25, and P = .18, respectively). Thirty-six percent of obese women had muscular layers beyond the reach of a standard 1.5 inch needle. hCG caused a significant rise in 17-OHP in both obese and normal-weight women and an increase in T in obese but not normal-weight women (all P < .04). Conclusions: Subcutaneous injection yields lower hCG levels in obese women. Standard-length needles are insufficient to administer im injections in many obese women. PMID:24476082

Missmer, Stacey A.; Correia, Katharine F. B.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

367

Mastitis is a multifactorial disease and the most costly dairy production issue. In spite of extensive literature on udder-health risk factors, effects of metabolic diseases, farmers' competencies and livestock farming system on somatic cells count (SCC) are sparsely described. Herd-level or territorial-level factors affecting monthly composite milk weighted mean cow SCC (CMSCC) were analysed with a linear mixed effect model. The average CMSCC was 266,000 cells/ml. Half of the herds had CMSCC >300,000 cells/ml for 2-6 months a year, and 15% of herds for more than 7 months a year. CMSCC was positively associated with the number of cows, having a beef or fattening herd in addition to the dairy herd, the monthly average days in milk, the yearly age at first calving, the yearly proportion of purchased cows and the yearly culling rate. Moreover, a positive association is reported between CMSCC and the monthly proportion of cows probably with subacute ruminal acidosis (fat percentage minus protein percentage ?0·30%, for Holstein) and negative energy balance (protein to fat ratio ?0·66, for Holstein), the yearly average calving interval, having at least one dead cow and the mean monthly temperature. The association was negative for a predominant breed other than Holstein, the monthly milk production, the yearly dry-off period length, the monthly first calving cow proportion, having an autumn calving peak, being a Good Breeding Practices member, the monthly number of days with rain, the altitude and the territorial cattle density. CMSCC varied widely among the 11 dairy production areas. In conclusion, this study showed the average CMSCC for the French dairy cows, compared with international results. Moreover, it quantified the contribution of several factors to CMSCC, in particular metabolic diseases and the farm environment. PMID:22687283

Raboisson, Didier; Dervillé, Marie; Herman, Nicolas; Cahuzac, Eric; Sans, Pierre; Allaire, Gilles

2012-08-01

368

The current study examined relationships among self-reported depression severity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and grade point average (GPA) among student servicemembers and veterans. We asked 422 student servicemembers and veterans (72% male, 86% Caucasian, mean age = 36.29 yr) to complete an anonymous online survey that assessed self-reported GPA, depression severity, PTSD severity, and frequency of academic problems (late assignments, low grades, failed exams, and skipped classes). Female respondents reported a slightly higher GPA than males (3.56 vs 3.41, respectively, p = 0.01). Depression symptoms (beta weight = -0.174, p = 0.03), male sex (beta weight = 0.160, p = 0.01), and younger age (beta weight = 0.155, p = 0.01) were associated with lower GPA but not PTSD symptoms (beta weight = -0.040, p = 0.62), although the interaction of depression and PTSD symptoms showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship with GPA (beta weight = -0.378, p = 0.08). More severe depression was associated with turning in assignments late (beta weight = 0.171, p = 0.03), failed exams (beta weight = 0.188, p = 0.02), and skipped classes (beta weight = 0.254, p = 0.01). The relationship of depression with self-reported GPA was mediated by frequency of failed examns. Results suggest that student servicemembers and veterans with greater emotional distress also report worse academic performance. PMID:25436619

Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Hinkson, Kent; Bichrest, Michael; Ahern, D Aaron

2014-01-01

369

Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions

The placental weight ratio (PWR) is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA). The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n = 41441). Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants. PMID:24895497

Macdonald, Erin M.; Koval, John J.; Natale, Renato; Regnault, Timothy; Campbell, M. Karen

2014-01-01

370

Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain

Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate. PMID:24032024

Lowe, Michael R.; Doshi, Sapna D.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Feig, Emily H.

2013-01-01

371

Body Weights of Ohio Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)1

Average annual winter (December-February) body weights of Ohio ruffed grouse (Bonasa um- bellus) from both the glaciated northeast and the more southern unglaciated hill country ranges showed only small deviations from the 4-year (1974-1977) mean. Hill country grouse were heavier (P < 0.05) than northeastern birds in winter, but not in fall (October-November). Year-around (1969-1982) body weights were obtained only

ROBERT J. STOLL; W. MCCLAIN

1988-01-01

372

Detrending moving average algorithm for multifractals

The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is a widely used technique to quantify the long-term correlations of non-stationary time series and the long-range correlations of fractal surfaces, which contains a parameter $\\theta$ determining the position of the detrending window. We develop multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) algorithms for the analysis of one-dimensional multifractal measures and higher-dimensional multifractals, which is a generalization of the DMA method. The performance of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional MFDMA methods is investigated using synthetic multifractal measures with analytical solutions for backward ($\\theta=0$), centered ($\\theta=0.5$), and forward ($\\theta=1$) detrending windows. We find that the estimated multifractal scaling exponent $\\tau(q)$ and the singularity spectrum $f(\\alpha)$ are in good agreement with the theoretical values. In addition, the backward MFDMA method has the best performance, which provides the most accurate estimates of the scaling ...

Gu, Gao-Feng; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.011136

2010-01-01

373

Average Consensus on General Strongly Connected Digraphs

We study the average consensus problem of multi-agent systems for general network topologies with unidirectional information flow. We propose two (linear) distributed algorithms, deterministic and gossip, respectively for the cases where the inter-agent communication is synchronous and asynchronous. Our contribution is that in both cases, the developed algorithms guarantee state averaging on arbitrary strongly connected digraphs; in particular, this graphical condition does not require that the network be balanced or symmetric, thereby extending many previous results in the literature. The key novelty of our approach is to augment an additional variable for each agent, called "surplus", whose function is to locally record individual state updates. For convergence analysis, we employ graph-theoretic and nonnegative matrix tools, with the eigenvalue perturbation theory playing a crucial role.

Cai, Kai

2012-01-01

374

Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.

We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking. PMID:20224119

Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John

2010-04-01

375

jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919

Posada, David

2008-07-01

376

Averaging of Temporal Memories by Rats

Rats were trained on a mixed fixed-interval schedule in which stimulus A (tone or light) indicated food availability after 10 s and stimulus B (the other stimulus) indicated food availability after 20 s. Testing consisted of non-reinforced probe trials in which the stimulus was A, B, or the compound AB. On single-stimulus trials, rats responded with a peak of activity around the programmed reinforced time. On compound-stimulus trials, rats showed a single scalar peak of responding at a time midway between those for stimulus A and B. These results suggest that when provided with discrepant information regarding the temporal predictability of reinforcement, rats compute an average of the scheduled reinforcement times for the A and B stimuli and use this average to generate an expectation of reward for the compound stimuli. PMID:19594288

Swanton, Dale N.; Gooch, Cynthia M.; Matell, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

377

Background: Because pregnant African American women and teensareatriskoflowbirthweight,theyarefrequentlycounseledto strive for gestational weight gains at the upper limits of the Institute of Medicine's recommended ranges. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminewhethersuchweightgains improvebirthoutcomesinacohortofdisadvantagedAfricanAmer- ican adolescents of low (19.8), average (19.8 to26.0), or high (26) prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Design: Data were extracted from the medical charts of 1120 Afri- can American adolescents who received

Jennifer Notkin Nielsen; Frank R. Witter; Shih-Chen Chang; Jeri Mancini; Maureen Schulman Nathanson; Laura E. Caulfield

2006-01-01

378

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

379

Spatial averaging of time-frequency distributions

This paper presents a novel approach based on time-frequency distributions (TFDs) for separating signals received by a multiple antenna array. This approach provides a significant improvement in performance over the previously introduced spatial time-frequency distributions, specifically for signals with close time-frequency signatures. In this approach, spatial averaging of the time-frequency distributions of the sensor data is performed to eliminate the

Yimin Zhang; Moeness G. Amin

1999-01-01

380

The Average Velocity in a Queue

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

Frette, Vidar

2009-01-01

381

Can model weighting improve probabilistic projections of climate change?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Räisänen and co-authors proposed a weighting scheme in which the relationship between observable climate and climate change within a multi-model ensemble determines to what extent agreement with observations affects model weights in climate change projection. Within the Third Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) dataset, this scheme slightly improved the cross-validated accuracy of deterministic projections of temperature change. Here the same scheme is applied to probabilistic temperature change projection, under the strong limiting assumption that the CMIP3 ensemble spans the actual modeling uncertainty. Cross-validation suggests that probabilistic temperature change projections may also be improved by this weighting scheme. However, the improvement relative to uniform weighting is smaller in the tail-sensitive logarithmic score than in the continuous ranked probability score. The impact of the weighting on projection of real-world twenty-first century temperature change is modest in most parts of the world. However, in some areas mainly over the high-latitude oceans, the mean of the distribution is substantially changed and/or the distribution is considerably narrowed. The weights of individual models vary strongly with location, so that a model that receives nearly zero weight in some area may still get a large weight elsewhere. Although the details of this variation are method-specific, it suggests that the relative strengths of different models may be difficult to harness by weighting schemes that use spatially uniform model weights.

Räisänen, Jouni; Ylhäisi, Jussi S.

2012-10-01

382

Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. PMID:24183145

Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

2013-12-01

383

Uncertainty of GHz-band Whole-body Average SARs in Infants based on their Kaup Indices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously showed that a strong correlation exists between the absorption cross section and the body surface area of a human for 0.3-2GHz far field exposure, and proposed a formula for estimating whole-body-average specific absorption rates (WBA-SARs) in terms of height and weight. In this study, to evaluate variability in the WBA-SARs in infants based on their physique, we derived a new formula including Kaup indices of infants, which are being used to check their growth, and thereby estimated the WBA-SARs in infants with respect to their age from 0 month to three years. As a result, we found that under the same height/weight, the smaller the Kaup indices are, the larger the WBA-SARs become, and that the variability in the WBA-SARs is around 15% at the same age. To validate these findings, using the FDTD method, we simulated the GHz-band WBA-SARs in numerical human models corresponding to infants with age of 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, which were obtained by scaling down the anatomically based Japanese three-year child model developed by NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology). Results show that the FDTD-simulated WBA-SARs are smaller by 20% compared to those estimated for infants having the median height and the Kaup index of 0.5 percentiles, which provide conservative WBA-SARs.

Miwa, Hironobu; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

384

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

2005-08-01

385

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

2005-01-01

386

Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-curves and the spectral variability at visible + mid-IR wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, season. We also considered the appearance of an increasingly frozen Mars and simulated its detection versus real Mars with TPF-C and TPF-I as a function of spectral resolving power, signal-to-noise, integration time.

Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively

2004-08-20

387

Use of models derived from foraging theory to explain variation in prey-abundance indices over time and space, evidenced in the zooarchaeological record, is common in western North America. Such use presumes that models derived from ecologically scaled observations are applicable to archaeologically scaled observations. The influence of time averaging and space averaging, whether inherent in the zooarchaeological record or resulting

R. Lee Lyman

2003-01-01

388

Ensemble averaging vs. time averaging in molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we compare time averaging and ensemble averaging as two different methods for phase space sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of thermal conductivity. For the comparison, we calculate thermal conductivities of solid argon and silicon structures, using equilibrium MD. We introduce two different schemes for the ensemble averaging approach and show that both can reduce the total simulation time as compared to time averaging. It is also found that velocity rescaling is an efficient mechanism for phase space exploration. Although our methodology is tested using classical MD, the approaches used for generating independent trajectories may find their greatest utility in computationally expensive simulations such as first principles MD. For such simulations, where each time step is costly, time averaging can require long simulation times because each time step must be evaluated sequentially and therefore phase space averaging is achieved through sequential operations. On the other hand, with ensemble averaging, phase space sampling can be achieved through parallel operations, since each trajectory is independent. For this reason, particularly when using massively parallel architectures, ensemble averaging can result in much shorter simulation times (˜100-200X), but exhibits similar overall computational effort.

Gordiz, Kiarash; Singh, David J.; Henry, Asegun

2015-01-01

389

Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model.

Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a "vicious cycle" - a positive feedback loop wherein weight stigma begets weight gain. This happens through increased eating behavior and increased cortisol secretion governed by behavioral, emotional, and physiological mechanisms, which are theorized to ultimately result in weight gain and difficulty of weight loss. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing literature for evidence supporting such a model, propose ways in which individuals enter, fight against, and exit the cycle, and conclude by outlining fruitful future directions in this nascent yet important area of research. PMID:24997407

Tomiyama, A Janet

2014-11-01

390

The CGC population is a stabilized composite of 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise germplasm. The objectives of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for weight traits of CGC and to evaluate genetic responses resulting from selection based on the following index: I = 365-d weight 3.2(birth weight). Phenotypes evaluated were birth weight (n = 5,083), 200-d weight (n = 4,902), 365-d weight (n = 4,626), and the index. In addition, there were 1,433 cows with at least one recorded weight, and 4,375 total observations of cow weight collected at the time their calves were weaned. In 1989, a randomly selected control line and a line selected for greater values of the index were established. Average generation intervals were 3.16 +/- 0.04 and 3.90 +/- 0.08 yr in the index and control lines, respectively. The index selection line (n = 950) accumulated approximately 212 kg more selection differential than the control line over three generations (n = 912). Heritability estimates for direct effects were 0.32 +/- 0.04, 0.49 +/- 0.05, 0.49 +/- 0.05, 0.30 +/- 0.04, and 0.70 +/- 0.04 for the index, birth weight, 365-d weight, 200-d weight, and cow weight, respectively. Heritability estimates for maternal effects were 0.05 +/- 0.02, 0.11 +/- 0.03, 0.04 +/- 0.02, and 0.19 +/- 0.04 for the index, birth weight, 365-d weight, and 200-d weight, respectively. In the control line, direct genetic changes for the index and its components were small. For the index selection line, direct genetic changes for the index, birth weight, 365-d weight, 200-d weight, and cow weight were 6.0 +/- 0.3, 0.45 +/- 0.09, 7.74 +/- 0.55, 3.42 +/- 0.25, and 6.3 +/- 0.9 kg/generation, respectively. Maternal genetic changes were generally small for both the control and index selection lines. Thus, selection for the index produced positive correlated responses for direct genetic effects on BW traits at all ages, with only minor effects on maternal genetic effects. Results demonstrate that despite a genetic antagonism that compromises selection response for decreased birth weight and increased postnatal growth, favorable genetic responses can be achieved with the selection index used in this study. PMID:14552368

MacNeil, M D

2003-10-01

391

Parametric distance weighting of landscape influence on streams

We present a parametric model for estimating the areas within watersheds whose land use best predicts indicators of stream\\u000a ecological condition. We regress a stream response variable on the distance-weighted proportion of watershed area that has\\u000a a specific land use, such as agriculture. Distance weighting functions model the declining influence of landscape elements\\u000a as a function of their flowpath distances,

John Van Sickle; Colleen Burch Johnson

2008-01-01

392

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

393

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

394

Watershed area and discharge relationships

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use USGS WaterData website to find data on area, average annual discharge and response to high-precip events in small watersheds in southern New England. Data for the class are compiled to generate graphs showing the regional relationships between (1) area and discharge, and (2) area and time-lag between precip and maximum discharge. terms: discharge, watershed, flood

Steven Petsch

395

Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure – which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system) a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?–carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in “point” average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

396

Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure - which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system), a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?-carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in "point" average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M D; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G; Rowe, Arthur J; Harding, Stephen E

2014-01-01

397

Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

Ahumada, Albert J Jr

2002-01-01

398

Speaker Recognition System Based on weighted feature parameter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speaker recognition is a kind of biometrics technology, which is very popular and widely applied. To improve the effectiveness of feature parameter, a weighted feature extraction method is proposed in this paper. It analyses each component of LPCC and finds out an average contribution sequence. Based on the sequence, LPCC is weighed by each dimension to generate a weighted feature parameter. Finally, based on VQ, a speaker recognition system which is characterized by weighted LPCC is carried out under MATLAB Environment. By experiments, speaker recognition system shows the better performance than traditional model.

Zhu, Li; Yang, Qing

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of annual precipitation is important for many applications in hydrology, climatology, agronomy, ecology and other environmental sciences. In this study, we compared five different statistical methods to predict spatially the average annual precipitation of Turkey using point observations of annual precipitation at meteorological stations and spatially exhaustive covariate data (i.e. elevation, aspect, surface roughness, distance to coast, land use and eco-region). The methods compared were multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), universal kriging (UK), and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Average annual precipitation of Turkey from 1970 to 2006 was measured at 225 meteorological stations that are fairly uniformly distributed across the country, with a somewhat higher spatial density along the coastline. The observed annual precipitation varied between 255 mm and 2209 mm with an average of 628 mm. The annual precipitation was highest along the southern and northern coasts and low in the centre of the country, except for the area near the Van Lake, Keban and Ataturk Dams. To compare the performance of the interpolation techniques the total dataset was first randomly split in ten equally sized test datasets. Next, for each test data set the remaining 90% of the data comprised the training dataset. Each training dataset was then used to calibrate and apply the spatial prediction model. Predictions at the test dataset locations were compared with the observed test data. Validation was done by calculating the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-square and Standardized MSE (SMSE) values. According to these criteria, universal kriging is the most accurate with an RMSE of 178 mm, an R-square of 0.61 and an SMSE of 1.06, whilst multiple linear regression performed worst (RMSE of 222 mm, R-square of 0.39, and SMSE of 1.44). Ordinary kriging, UK using only elevation and geographically weighted regression are intermediate with RMSE values of 201 mm, 212 mm and 211 mm, and an R-square of 0.50, 0.44 and 0.45, respectively. The RK results are close to those of UK with an RMSE of 186 mm and R-square of 0.57. The spatial extrapolation performance of each method was also evaluated. This was done by predicting the annual precipitation in the eastern part of Turkey using observations from the western part. Results showed that MLR, GWR and RK performed best with little differences between these methods. The large prediction error variances confirmed that extrapolation is more difficult than interpolation. Whilst spatial extrapolation benefits most from covariate information as shown by an RMSE reduction of about 60 mm, in this study covariate information was also valuable for spatial interpolation because it reduced the RMSE with on average 30 mm.

Bostan, P. A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Akyurek, S. Z.

2012-10-01

400

Keeping That Weight Loss Resolution

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Keeping That Weight Loss Resolution Start with selecting a diet you ... Sunday, December 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diets Weight Control SUNDAY, Dec. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- If ...

401

... Tools & Resources Stroke More Eating Well and Losing Weight Updated:May 20,2014 Eating the right foods ... risk of future heart problems. Good nutrition and weight control are a crucial part of your treatment ...

402

The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and BMI were assessed at baseline, 1 year later and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or obese chose to enroll in the weight management program. Participants attended an average of 6.7 treatment sessions, lost an average of 2.4 pounds and had an average BMI decrease of 0.3. There was no significant change in weight or BMI compared to the control group. Intervention strategies that both improve utilization and yield greater weight loss need to be developed. PMID:22430566

Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N.; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

403

About an adaptively weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate.

The minimum averaged mean squared error nonparametric adaptive weights use data from m possibly different populations to infer about one population of interest. The definition of these weights is based on the properties of the empirical distribution function. We use the Kaplan-Meier estimate to let the weights accommodate right-censored data and use them to define the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate. The proposed estimate is smoother than the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate and converges uniformly in probability to the target distribution. Simulations show that the performances of the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate on finite samples exceed that of the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate. A case study is also presented. PMID:19533346

Plante, Jean-François

2009-09-01

404

Molecular Weight Dependence of the Viscosity of Polyethylene Macrocycles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grubbs group at Caltech is using a new method of synthesis for the production of macrocycles that avoids the problems of sample contamination with long chain linear molecules. They have produced macrocyclic polyethylenes having molecular weights as high as 400,000 g/mole. At Texas Tech University rheological measurements are being made using both the Plazek Magnetic Bearing Torsional Creep Apparatus and a Paar Physica controlled stress rheometer. Because the samples are polydisperse, with Mw/Mn values of 1.6-1-9, we here report only the results of the viscosity as a function of molecular weight. Surprisingly, unlike reports in the literature for polystyrene rings or polybutadiene rings, the viscosities of the polyethylene rings are larger than those for equivalent molecular weight linear polyethylenes and the viscosity increases approximately exponentially with weight average molecular weight. Further results will be reported at the meeting.

Wang, Jian; McKenna, Gregory; Benitez, Diego; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Grubbs, Robert

2005-03-01

405

The average free volume model for liquids

In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

Yang Yu; Reinhard Krause-Rehberg

2014-04-02

406

Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning

We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.

Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

407

Conditionally averaged vorticity field and turbulence modeling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditionally averaged vorticity (CAV) field with fixed vorticity in a point is obtained from a direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence. The characteristic attenuation scale for the twisting and hyperboloidal CAV components is found to be of order ten times greater than the Kolmogorov microscale. A simple analytical model qualitatively agrees with the obtained CAV. For turbulent free-surface flows, the twisting part of CAV is expected to connect to the free surface. An alternative type of subgrid-scale modeling of turbulence, based on CAV, is suggested for the large-eddy simulations.

Mui, R. C. Y.; Dommermuth, D. G.; Novikov, E. A.

1996-03-01

408

Conditionally averaged vorticity field and turbulence modeling

The conditionally averaged vorticity (CAV) field with fixed vorticity in a point is obtained from a direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence. The characteristic attenuation scale for the twisting and hyperboloidal CAV components is found to be of order ten times greater than the Kolmogorov microscale. A simple analytical model qualitatively agrees with the obtained CAV. For turbulent free-surface flows, the twisting part of CAV is expected to connect to the free surface. An alternative type of subgrid-scale modeling of turbulence, based on CAV, is suggested for the large-eddy simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Mui, R.C.; Dommermuth, D.G.; Novikov, E.A. [Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

1996-03-01

409

Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

2009-05-07

410

Molecular Weight Effects on the Viscoelastic Response of a Polyimide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC -SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of each material with different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of approximately 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

2000-01-01

411

Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

1986-01-01

412

Reconstructing weighted networks from dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method that reconstructs both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input. Using several examples, we demonstrate that our method can give accurate results for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics.

Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, Pik-Yin; Leung, C. Y.

2015-03-01

413

Successful habits of weight losers

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the availability of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 200% since 1980. Although few people have lost weight and maintained weight loss long term, some have and are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. Results from these ...

414

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site shows images of all the planets and several other celestial bodies, under which one can enter their weight and find out how their weight changes on other worlds. Mass and weight are distinguished in subsequent text. The relationship between gravity, mass, and distance is described and represented mathematically.

Ron Hipschman

1997-01-01

415

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

416

MOVE! Weight Management Program for Veterans

... Health Care » MOVE! Weight Management Program MOVE! Weight Management Program MOVE! MOVE! Weight Management Program Home MOVE! ... M. Ofstein's Success W. Pennington's Success MOVE! ® Weight Management Program MOVE! ® is a national weight management program ...

417

Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

1987-01-01

418

Group Averaging for de Sitter free fields

Perturbative gravity about global de Sitter space is subject to linearization-stability constraints. Such constraints imply that quantum states of matter fields couple consistently to gravity {\\it only} if the matter state has vanishing de Sitter charges; i.e., only if the state is invariant under the symmetries of de Sitter space. As noted by Higuchi, the usual Fock spaces for matter fields contain no de Sitter-invariant states except the vacuum, though a new Hilbert space of de Sitter invariant states can be constructed via so-called group-averaging techniques. We study this construction for free scalar fields of arbitrary positive mass in any dimension, and for linear vector and tensor gauge fields in any dimension. Our main result is to show in each case that group averaging converges for states containing a sufficient number of particles. We consider general $N$-particle states with smooth wavefunctions, though we obtain somewhat stronger results when the wavefunctions are finite linear combinations of de Sitter harmonics. Along the way we obtain explicit expressions for general boost matrix elements in a familiar basis.

Donald Marolf; Ian A. Morrison

2008-10-28

419

Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.

The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

2015-02-01

420

Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl{sub 2} distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the predicted weights and IOM weights was less than 5 percentage points. Similarly, the difference in femoral head V54.3 Gy values between the two dose distributions was less than 5 percentage points for all but one patient. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a proof of concept that patient anatomy can be used to predict appropriate objective function weights for treatment planning. In the long term, such geometry-driven weights may serve as a starting point for iterative treatment plan design or may provide information about the most clinically relevant region of the Pareto surface to explore.

Lee, Taewoo, E-mail: taewoo.lee@utoronto.ca; Hammad, Muhannad [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada) [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

2013-12-15

421

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

Schatten, Kenneth

1984-04-01

422

The Multidimensional Self-Concept: A Comparison of Gifted and Average-Ability Adolescents

The purpose of this paper is to describe the self-concept of gifted and average-ability adolescents from a multidimensional perspective. Four dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, athletic, and social) were examined using an instrument that incorporates three theoretical perspectives (reflected appraisals, social comparison, and attribution). Ninety-eight junior high school students from a large urban centre in Western Canada participated in the

Michael C. Pyryt; Sal Mendaglio

1994-01-01

423

Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

2008-01-01

424

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01

425

Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

426

Average gait differential image based human recognition.

The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

2014-01-01

427

Influence of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Performance of a Thermoplastic Glassy Polyimide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical Testing of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-TM-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength were all determined as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight (Mc) was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approx. 22000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Furthermore, inelastic analysis showed that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microstructural images supported these findings.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

428

Reference-tissue correction of T2-weighted signal intensity for prostate cancer detection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether correction with respect to reference tissue of T2-weighted MRimage signal intensity (SI) improves its effectiveness for classification of regions of interest (ROIs) as prostate cancer (PCa) or normal prostatic tissue. Two image datasets collected retrospectively were used in this study: 71 cases acquired with GE scanners (dataset A), and 59 cases acquired with Philips scanners (dataset B). Through a consensus histology- MR correlation review, 175 PCa and 108 normal-tissue ROIs were identified and drawn manually. Reference-tissue ROIs were selected in each case from the levator ani muscle, urinary bladder, and pubic bone. T2-weighted image SI was corrected as the ratio of the average T2-weighted image SI within an ROI to that of a reference-tissue ROI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of T2-weighted image SIs for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs. AUC (+/- standard error) for uncorrected T2-weighted image SIs was 0.78+/-0.04 (datasets A) and 0.65+/-0.05 (datasets B). AUC for corrected T2-weighted image SIs with respect to muscle, bladder, and bone reference was 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), and 0.75+/-0.04 (p=0.8), respectively, for dataset A; and 0.81+/-0.04 (p=0.002), 0.78+/-0.04 (p<0.001), and 0.79+/-0.04 (p<0.001), respectively, for dataset B. Correction in reference to the levator ani muscle yielded the most consistent results between GE and Phillips images. Correction of T2-weighted image SI in reference to three types of extra-prostatic tissue can improve its effectiveness for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs, and correction in reference to the levator ani muscle produces consistent T2-weighted image SIs between GE and Phillips MR images.

Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Oto, Aytekin

2014-03-01

429

Some correlates of the maintenance of weight lost through behavior modification.

Using a mail and in-class distributed survey, data were collected from 721 members of Weight Watchers classes some 15 months after they reached their goal weights. The group averaged 73.2 kg (162.1 lb) before losing 19.0 percent of their body weight to reach goal weights averaging 59.6 kg (131.2 lb) in an average of 31 weeks. Fifteen months after reaching goal, 24.6 percent were below goal, 28.9 were within 5 percent of their goal, 17.5 percent were from 6--10 percent above their goal and 28.9 percent were 11 percent or more above goal. Those who maintained their goal weight, as opposed to those who regained, tended to have several things in common: they attended classes after reaching goal weight in the same locations and with the same lecturers that assissted their weight loss; they had lower initial weights: they conceived of themselves as 'overweight' when they were approximately three pounds above goal; they had improved self-concepts; they made more lifestyle changes supporting weight maintenance; and they continued, after goal, use of many of the techniques used to reach goal weight. Each of these factors has implications for planning for more programs designed to produce more lasting weight losses. PMID:711367

Stuart, R B; Guire, K

1978-01-01

430

Speed Scaling for Weighted Flow Time Nikhil Bansal

Speed Scaling for Weighted Flow Time Nikhil Bansal Kirk Pruhs Cliff Stein 1 Introduction the Windows XP operating system to dynamically change the speed of the processor to prolong battery life schedule. By far the most commonly used QoS measure in the computer systems literature is average response/flow

Pruhs, Kirk

431

Weighted Centroid Localization in Zigbee-based Sensor Networks

Localization in wireless sensor networks gets more and more important, because many applications need to locate the source of incoming measurements as precise as possible. Weighted centroid localization (WCL) provides a fast and easy algorithm to locate devices in wireless sensor networks. The algorithm is derived from a centroid determination which calculates the position of devices by averaging the coordinates

Jan Blumenthal; Ralf Grossmann; Frank Golatowski; Dirk Timmermann

2007-01-01

432

Improvement on inverse distance weighted interpolation for ore reserve estimation

In order to improve accuracy of estimation for ore reserves and average grade, it is important to select suitable interpolation method. Firstly, traditional inverse distance weighted method is analyzed and grade estimation model is improved. Specifically, irregular ellipsoid interpolation model is put forward, which is suitable for vein thin ore body or layer-like ore body, etc. The new model, based

Zhongxue Li; Xin Li; Cuiping Li; Zhiguo Cao

2010-01-01

433

Weighted autocorrelation for pitch extraction of noisy speech

In this paper, we propose a modified version of the autocorrelation pitch extraction method well known to be robust against noise. Utilizing that the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) has similar characteristics with the autocorrelation function, the autocorrelation function is weighted by the reciprocal of the AMDF. By simulation experiments, it is shown that the proposed pitch extraction method is

Tetsuya Shimamura; Hajime Kobayashi

2001-01-01

434

Economic evaluation of an internet-based weight management program

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine whether a behavioral Internet treatment (BIT) program for weight management is a viable, cost-effective option compared with usual care (UC) in a diverse sample of overweight (average body mass index = 29 kg/m2), healthy adults (mean age = 34 years) serving in the US Air Force. Two-grou...

435

Weaning weight inheritance in environments classified by maternal body weight change.

In good environments, cow intake is sufficient for their own growth and for milk production to support their calf. In poor environments, cows lose BW or may reduce milk supply to maintain themselves. Heritability for direct genetic and maternal components of weaning weight as well as the correlations between these components might be expected to vary according to these circumstances. The purpose of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for the direct genetic and maternal components of weaning weight classified in 2 environments according to maternal BW gain and to identify whether a single heritability estimate is appropriate for the differing environments experienced by cows from year to year. Data used in this analysis was obtained from the Red Angus Association of America and consisted of 96,064 cow BW observations and 27,534 calf weaning weight observations. A dam's change in BW from one year to the next was used to classify each calf's weaning weight into 1 of 2 environmental groups, those being good or poor. Best linear unbiased estimates of the change in cow BW with age were obtained from analysis of cow BW using a repeatability model. If the phenotypic change in cow BW exceeded this average BW change, the calf's weaning weight associated with the end of this time frame was classified as having been observed in a good environment. If not, the calf's corresponding weaning weight was classified as having occurred in a poorer than average environment. Heritability estimates of 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.13 +/- 0.02, and 0.14 +/- 0.02 were obtained for weaning weight good direct, poor direct, good maternal, and poor maternal, respectively. Correlations between direct genetic and maternal weaning weight components in the good and poor environments were -0.47 +/- 0.08 and -0.20 +/- 0.09, respectively. These variance components are not sufficiently distinct to warrant accounting for dam nutritional environment in national cattle evaluation. PMID:17085734

Speidel, S E; Enns, R M; Garrick, D J

2007-03-01

436

14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

2012-01-01

437

14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

2011-01-01

438

14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

2014-01-01

439

14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

2013-01-01

440

14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

2010-01-01

441

Evaluating structural symmetry of weighted brain networks via graph matching.

We study the symmetry of weighted brain networks to understand the roles of individual brain areas and the redundancy of the brain connectivity. We quantify the structural symmetry of every node pair in the network by isomorphism of the residual graphs of those nodes. The efficacy of the symmetry measure is evaluated on both simulated networks and real data sets. In the resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data, we discover that subjects with inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate a higher level of network symmetry in contrast to the typically development group, consistent with former findings. Moreover, by comparing the average functional networks of normal subjects during resting state and activation, we obtain a higher symmetry level in the rs-fMRI network when applying median thresholds to the networks. But the symmetry levels of the networks are almost the same when larger thresholds are used, which may imply the invariance of the prominent network symmetry for ordinary people. PMID:25485445

Hu, Chenhui; El Fakhri, Georges; Li, Quanzheng

2014-01-01

442

Random walks on non-homogenous weighted Koch networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce new models of non-homogenous weighted Koch networks on real traffic systems depending on the three scaling factors r1,r2,r3?(0,1). Inspired by the definition of the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), we define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT). Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its neighbors, we show that in large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by ?(r1,r2,r3)=log4(1+r1+r2+r3). Moreover, the AWSP, in the infinite network order limit, only depends on the sum of scaling factors r1,r2,r3.

Dai, Meifeng; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Lifeng

2013-09-01

443

18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Average System Cost methodology functionalization. 301...MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO...POWER ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization....

2010-04-01

444

40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

2012-07-01

447

40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

2011-07-01

448

40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710 Section 1033.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.710 Averaging emission credits. (a)...

2014-07-01

449

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large mirrors are required for a wide variety of applications. Two key constraints are mirror stability and mirror mass. Low expansion glass ceramics remain a useful material because of its excellent thermal stability, relative ease of processing and lower cost compared to alternatives. However there is room for the improvement of the manufacturing techniques over the traditional methods of milling and etching, which are high risk, expensive and time consuming. A solid blank is milled out using high speed diamond tooling to leave fragile webs of supporting material. The final process steps are the highest risk, when it is possible for catastrophic flaws to appear. We present a novel method of producing a monolithic structure from component pieces that provide a lower risk, lower cost method of producing stable and light-weighted mirrors. Individual smaller components are machined and then bonded together. The bonding process results in near substrate strength components without compromising the very low thermal expansion of the glass ceramic. It also allows the creation of novel designs with hollow cavities embedded within the structure. Prior to commencing the fabrication the mechanical design was modelled to predict the stability of candidate designs. Tests were carried out on witness pieces to prove the relative strength of the bonds. Prototypes were then fabricated and tested for thermal stability.

MacKay, Peter E.; Beveridge, Nicola L.; Wood, Trevor

2013-09-01

450

Minimum weight spanning trees of weighted scale free networks

In this lecture we will consider the minimum weight spanning tree (MST) problem, i.e., one of the simplest and most vital combinatorial optimization problems. We will discuss a particular greedy algorithm that allows to compute a MST for undirected weighted graphs, namely Kruskal's algorithm, and we will study the structure of MSTs obtained for weighted scale free random graphs. This is meant to clarify whether the structure of MSTs is sensitive to correlations between edge weights and topology of the underlying scale free graphs.

Melchert, O

2012-01-01

451

Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

452

Relationship Between Infant Weight Gain and Later Asthma

Like obesity, the prevalence of asthma has increased over the past several decades. Accelerated patters of infant growth have been associated with obesity and its co-morbidities. We aimed to determine if infant weight gain pattern is associated with asthma development later in childhood. Birth weight, growth, pulmonary function, and symptom data were collected in a trial of 2–3 year old children at-risk for asthma randomized to a two-year treatment with inhaled corticosteroids or placebo followed by a one year observation period off study medication. Patterns of infant weight gain between birth and study enrollment were categorized as accelerated, average, or decelerated. Regression analyses were used to test the effects of infant weight gain pattern prior to study enrolment on outcomes during the observation year and at study conclusion while adjusting for demographics, baseline symptom severity, study treatment, and atopic indicators. Among the 197 study participants, early life weight gain pattern was not associated with daily asthma symptoms or lung function at the study’s conclusion. However, both prednisone courses (P=.01) and urgent physician visits (P<.001) were significantly associated with weight gain pattern with fewer exacerbations occurring amongst those with a decelerated weight gain pattern. We conclude that early life patterns of weight change were associated with subsequent asthma exacerbations, but were not associated with asthma symptoms or pulmonary function during the preschool years for these children at-risk for asthma. PMID:19725894

Paul, Ian M.; Camera, Lindsay; Zeiger, Robert S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Taussig, Lynn M.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Covar, Ronina A.; Krawiec, Marzena; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Mauger, David T.

2010-01-01

453

Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

1989-01-01

454

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn the relationship between perimeter and area. A shape will be automatically generated with the perimeter that you choose. Calculate the area of this shape. Area Explorer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

455

Molecular weight, polydispersity, and spectroscopic properties of aquatic humic substances

The number- and weight-averaged molecular weights of a number of aquatic fulvic acids, a commercial humic acid, and unfractionated organic matter from four natural water samples were measured by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Molecular weights determined in this manner compared favorably with those values reported in the literature. Both recent literature values and our data indicate that these substances are smaller and less polydisperse than previously believed. Moreover, the molecular weights of the organic matter from three of the four natural water samples compared favorably to the fulvic acid samples extracted from similar environments. Bulk spectroscopic properties of the fulvic substances such as molar absorptivity at 280 nm and the E4/E6 ratio were also measured. A strong correlation was observed between molar absorptivity, total aromaticity, and the weight average molecular weights of all the humic substances. This observation suggests that bulk spectroscopic properties can be used to quickly estimate the size of humic substances and their aromatic contents. Both parameters are important with respect to understanding humic substance mobility and their propensity to react with both organic and inorganic pollutants. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.; O'Loughlin, E.

1994-01-01

456

PARAMETRIC DISTANCE WEIGHTING OF LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON STREAMS

We present a parametric model for estimating the areas within watersheds whose land use best predicts indicators of stream ecological condition. We regress a stream response variable on the distance-weighted proportion of watershed area that has a specific land use, such as agric...

457

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of two hands-on lessons that make a real-world connection for students in measuring area in square units. Students become area designers during an activity that illustrates area, and then make a real world connection with area when they are shown a residential blueprint. Students gain practice calculating area and recording the area of rooms (quadrilaterals) in square units.

Deana Davis

2012-06-07

458

Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates. PMID:19308635

Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

2009-04-01

459

Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite

The average structure of the monoclinic modification of lazurite Ca{sub 1.26}Na{sub 6.63}K{sub 0.04}[Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}](SO{sub 4}){sub 1.53}S{sub 0.99}Cl{sub 0.05} (discovered in the Lake Baikal region) incommensurately modulated along the c axis is solved by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The unit-cell parameters are a = 9.069(1) A, b = 12.868(1) A, c = 12.872(1) A, {gamma} = 90.19(1) deg., sp. gr. Pa, R = 6.9%, 2057 reflections. The AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a partially ordered framework. The positions in the cavities of the framework are split and randomly occupied by Na and Ca atoms and the SO{sub 4}, S{sub 2}, S{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} anionic groups. The structure of the mineral is compared with the superstructure of triclinic lazurite. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of the incommensurate modulation in monoclinic and other lazurites.

Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sapozhnikov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2006-07-15

460

Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins.

The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (Z(C)) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation-reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between Z(C) and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in Z(C) in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower Z(C) tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594

Dick, Jeffrey M

2014-11-01

461

Factors Associated With Weight Loss After Gastric Bypass

Background Gastric bypass (GBP) is the most common operation performed in the United States for morbid obesity. However, weight loss is poor in 10% to 15% of patients. We sought to determine the independent factors associated with poor weight loss after GBP. Design Prospective cohort study. We examined demographic, operative, and follow-up data by means of multivariate analysis. Variables investigated were age, sex, race, marital and insurance status, initial weight and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, joint disease, sleep apnea, hyperlipidemia, and psychiatric disease), laparoscopic vs open surgery, gastric pouch area, gastrojejunostomy technique, and alimentary limb length. Setting University tertiary referral center. Patients All patients at our institution who underwent GBP from January 1, 2003, through July 30, 2006. Main Outcome Measures Weight loss at 12 months defined as poor (?40% excess weight loss) or good (>40% excess weight loss). Results Follow-up data at 12 months were available for 310 of the 361 patients (85.9%) undergoing GBP during the study period. Mean preoperative BMI was 52 (range, 36–108). Mean BMI and excess weight loss at follow-up were 34 (range, 17–74) and 60% (range, 8%–117%), respectively. Thirty-eight patients (12.3%) had poor weight loss. Of the 4 variables associated with poor weight loss in the univariate analysis (greater initial weight, diabetes, open approach, and larger pouch size), only diabetes (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–7.09 [P=.007]) and larger pouch size (odds ratio, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.81–4.22 [P<.001]) remained after the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Gastric bypass results in substantial weight loss in most patients. Diabetes and larger pouch size are independently associated with poor weight loss after GBP. PMID:18794426

Campos, Guilherme M.; Rabl, Charlotte; Mulligan, Kathleen; Posselt, Andrew; Rogers, Stanley J.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric

2009-01-01

462

Coriolis weighting on unstructured staggered grids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing interest to move ocean codes from classical Cartesian staggered mesh schemes to unstructured staggered grids. By using unstructured grid models one may construct meshes that