Wieczorek, Michael E.
2014-01-01
This digital data release consists of seven data files of soil attributes for the United States and the District of Columbia. The files are derived from National Resources Conservations Service’s (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The data files can be linked to the raster datasets of soil mapping unit identifiers (MUKEY) available through the NRCS’s Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) database (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/geo/?cid=nrcs142p2_053628). The associated files, named DRAINAGECLASS, HYDRATING, HYDGRP, HYDRICCONDITION, LAYER, TEXT, and WTDEP are area- and depth-weighted average values for selected soil characteristics from the SSURGO database for the conterminous United States and the District of Columbia. The SSURGO tables were acquired from the NRCS on March 5, 2014. The soil characteristics in the DRAINAGE table are drainage class (DRNCLASS), which identifies the natural drainage conditions of the soil and refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods. The soil characteristics in the HYDRATING table are hydric rating (HYDRATE), a yes/no field that indicates whether or not a map unit component is classified as a "hydric soil". The soil characteristics in the HYDGRP table are the percentages for each hydrologic group per MUKEY. The soil characteristics in the HYDRICCONDITION table are hydric condition (HYDCON), which describes the natural condition of the soil component. The soil characteristics in the LAYER table are available water capacity (AVG_AWC), bulk density (AVG_BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KSAT), vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KV), soil erodibility factor (AVG_KFACT), porosity (AVG_POR), field capacity (AVG_FC), the soil fraction passing a number 4 sieve (AVG_NO4), the soil fraction passing a number 10 sieve (AVG_NO10), the soil fraction passing a number 200 sieve (AVG_NO200), and organic matter (AVG_OM). The soil characteristics in the TEXT table are percent sand, silt, and clay (AVG_SAND, AVG_SILT, and AVG_CLAY). The soil characteristics in the WTDEP table are the annual minimum water table depth (WTDEP_MIN), available water storage in the 0-25 cm soil horizon (AWS025), the minimum water table depth for the months April, May and June (WTDEPAMJ), the available water storage in the first 25 centimeters of the soil horizon (AWS25), the dominant drainage class (DRCLSD), the wettest drainage class (DRCLSWET), and the hydric classification (HYDCLASS), which is an indication of the proportion of the map unit, expressed as a class, that is "hydric", based on the hydric classification of a given MUKEY. (See Entity_Description for more detail). The tables were created with a set of arc macro language (aml) and awk (awk was created at Bell Labsin the 1970s and its name is derived from the first letters of the last names of its authors – Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan) scripts. Send an email to mewieczo@usgs.gov to obtain copies of the computer code (See Process_Description.) The methods used are outlined in NRCS's "SSURGO Data Packaging and Use" (NRCS, 2011). The tables can be related or joined to the gSSURGO rasters of MUKEYs by the item 'MUKEY.' Joining or relating the tables to a MUKEY grid allows the creation of grids of area- and depth-weighted soil characteristics. A 90-meter raster of MUKEYs is provided which can be used to produce rasters of soil attributes. More detailed resolution rasters are available through NRCS via the link above.
Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.
2011-02-01
We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yu; Dai, Meifeng; Xi, Lifeng
Recent work on the networks has focused on the weighted hierarchical networks that are significantly different from the un-weighted hierarchical networks. In this paper we study a family of weighted hierarchical networks which are recursively defined from an initial uncompleted graph, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale. Firstly, we study analytically the average weighted shortest path (AWSP) on the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a recursive method, we determine explicitly the AWSP. The obtained rigorous solution shows that the networks grow unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded. Then, depending on a biased random walk, we research the mean first-passage time (MFPT) between a hub node and any peripheral node. Finally, we deduce the analytical expression of the average of MFPTs for a random walker originating from any node to first visit to a hub node, which is named as the average receiving time (ART). The obtained result shows that ART is bounded or grows sublinearly with the network order relating to the number of initial nodes and the weighted factor or grows quadratically with the iteration.
MULTIRESOLUTION BASED ON WEIGHTED AVERAGES OF THE HAT FUNCTION II
Soatto, Stefano
MULTIRESOLUTION BASED ON WEIGHTED AVERAGES OF THE HAT FUNCTION II: NONÂLINEAR RECONSTRUCTION the properties of the multiresolution analysis corresponding to disÂ cretization by local averages with respectÂlinear multiresolution schemes for the hatÂaverage multiresolution setting. These schemes are based on the Essentially
Weighted gossip: Distributed averaging using non-doubly stochastic matrices
Tsitsiklis, John N.
This paper presents a general class of gossip-based averaging algorithms, which are inspired from Uniform Gossip. While Uniform Gossip works synchronously on complete graphs, weighted gossip algorithms allow asynchronous ...
Optimal local weighted averaging methods in contour smoothing
Raymond Legault; Ching Y. Suen
1997-01-01
In several applications where binary contours are used to represent and classify patterns, smoothing must be performed to attenuate noise and quantization error. This is often implemented with local weighted averaging of contour point coordinates, because of the simplicity, low-cost and effectiveness of such methods. Invoking the “optimality” of the Gaussian filter, many authors will use Gaussian-derived weights. But generally
Distributed Fault Detection for Wireless Sensor Based on Weighted Average
Sai Ji; Shen-fang Yuan; Ting-huai Ma; Chang Tan
2010-01-01
This paper presents a distributed fault detection algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by exploring the weighted average value scheme. Considering the spatial correlations in WSNs, a faulty sensor can diagnose itself through comparing its own sensed data with the average of neighbors' data. Simulation results show that sensor nodes with permanent faults are identified with high accuracy for a
MULTIRESOLUTION BASED ON WEIGHTED AVERAGES OF THE HAT FUNCTION I
Soatto, Stefano
MULTIRESOLUTION BASED ON WEIGHTED AVERAGES OF THE HAT FUNCTION I: LINEAR RECONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES of the multiresolution analysis corresponding to discretization by local averages with respect to the hat function. We consider a class of reconstruction procedures which are appropriate for this multiresolution setting
An Excel macro for transformed and weighted averaging
Stanley A. Klein
1992-01-01
An Excel macro is presented for averaging spreadsheet data. The macro has several special features: (1) The data are weighted\\u000a by the inverse variance of each datum to decrease the contribution-of noisy outliers. (2) There is a provision for a power\\u000a or a log transform of the data before averaging. The rationale for transforming the data before averaging is discussed
Exponentially weighted moving average charts for detecting concept drift
Gordon J. Ross; Niall M. Adams; Dimitris K. Tasoulis; David J. Hand
Classifying streaming data requires the development of methods which are computationally efficient and able to cope with changes in the underlying distribution of the stream, a phenomenon known in the literature as concept drift. We propose a new method for detecting concept drift which uses an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart to monitor the misclassification rate of an streaming
Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model
Cajo J. F. Braak; Caspar W. N. Looman
1986-01-01
The indicator value and ecological amplitude of a species with respect to a quantitative environmental variable can be estimated from data on species occurrence and environment. A simple weighted averaging (WA) method for estimating these parameters is compared by simulation with the more elaborate method of Gaussian logistic regression (GLR), a form of the generalized linear model which fits a
26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1.989(b)-1...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations ...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section...weighted average exchange rate” means the simple...
The estimation of average hazard ratios by weighted Cox regression.
Schemper, Michael; Wakounig, Samo; Heinze, Georg
2009-08-30
Often the effect of at least one of the prognostic factors in a Cox regression model changes over time, which violates the proportional hazards assumption of this model. As a consequence, the average hazard ratio for such a prognostic factor is under- or overestimated. While there are several methods to appropriately cope with non-proportional hazards, in particular by including parameters for time-dependent effects, weighted estimation in Cox regression is a parsimonious alternative without additional parameters. The methodology, which extends the weighted k-sample logrank tests of the Tarone-Ware scheme to models with multiple, binary and continuous covariates, has been introduced in the nineties of the last century and is further developed and re-evaluated in this contribution. The notion of an average hazard ratio is defined and its connection to the effect size measure P(X
47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of debt, the...each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies....
12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105 Section 702.105 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...Weighted-average life of investments. Except as...
12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105 Section 702.105 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION...Weighted-average life of investments. Except as...
Obtaining the properly weighted average albedo of orbital debris from optical and radar data
D. J Kessler; K. S Jarvis
2004-01-01
Like any average, the proper weighting to obtain an average albedo of orbital debris depends upon the application of this average and the limitations of the data used to obtain individual orbital debris albedos. The most frequent application of the average orbital debris albedo is to transform number or flux as a function of observed orbital debris brightness into number
The Combined Double Generally Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Individual Observations
Shih-Hung Tai; Yu-Tai Hsieh; Chi-Jui Huang
2010-01-01
This study investigates control charts for simultaneous monitoring of process mean and process variability when an individual observation is taken at each sampling point. A combined scheme consisting of a two-side double generally weighted moving average (DGWMA) mean chart and a two-side DGWMA variance chart is developed. This new combined scheme will compare with the combined generally weighted moving average
Monitoring process mean and variability with generally weighted moving average control charts
Shey-Huei Sheu; Shih-Hung Tai; Yu-Tai Hsieh; Tse-Chieh Lin
2009-01-01
This study investigates control charts for simultaneous monitoring of process mean and process variability when an individual observation is taken at each sampling point. A combined scheme consisting of a two-side generally weighted moving average (GWMA) mean chart and a two-side GWMA variance chart is developed. This new combined scheme will compare with the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) single
Weighted Average Power Similar Tests for Structural Change for the Gaussian Linear Regression Model
Giovanni Forchini
2005-01-01
The average exponential tests for structural change of Andrews and Ploberger (Econometrica, 62, 1994) and Andrews, Lee and Ploberger (Journal of Econometrics 70, 1996) and modifications thereof maximize a weighted average power which incorporates specific weighting functions in order to make the resulting test statistics simple. Generalizations of these tests involve the numerical evaluation of (potentially) complicated integrals. In this
Latent-variable approaches to the Jamesian model of importance-weighted averages.
Scalas, L Francesca; Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S
2013-01-01
The individually importance-weighted average (IIWA) model posits that the contribution of specific areas of self-concept to global self-esteem varies systematically with the individual importance placed on each specific component. Although intuitively appealing, this model has weak empirical support; thus, within the framework of a substantive-methodological synergy, we propose a multiple-item latent approach to the IIWA model as applied to a range of self-concept domains (physical, academic, spiritual self-concepts) and subdomains (appearance, math, verbal self-concepts) in young adolescents from two countries. Tests considering simultaneously the effects of self-concept domains on trait self-esteem did not support the IIWA model. On the contrary, support for a normative group importance model was found, in which importance varied as a function of domains but not individuals. Individuals differentially weight the various components of self-concept; however, the weights are largely determined by normative processes, so that little additional information is gained from individual weightings. PMID:23150198
Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warrens, Matthijs J.
2011-01-01
An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…
Sensitivity Analysis of Ordered Weighted Averaging Operator in Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Moshiri, B.
2013-09-01
The main objective of this research is to find the extent to which the minimal variability Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) model of seismic vulnerability assessment is sensitive to variation of optimism degree. There are a variety of models proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment. In order to examine the efficiency of seismic vulnerability assessment models, the stability of results could be analysed. Seismic vulnerability assessment is done to estimate the probable losses in the future earthquake. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been applied by a number of researchers to estimate the human, physical and financial losses in urban areas. The study area of this research is Tehran Metropolitan Area (TMA) which has more than eight million inhabitants. In addition, this paper assumes that North Tehran Fault (NTF) is activated and caused an earthquake in TMA. 1996 census data is used to extract the attribute values for six effective criteria in seismic vulnerability assessment. The results demonstrate that minimal variability OWA model of Seismic Loss Estimation (SLE) is more stable where the aggregated seismic vulnerability degree has a lower value. Moreover, minimal variability OWA is very sensitive to optimism degree in northern areas of Tehran. A number of statistical units in southern areas of the city also indicate considerable sensitivity to optimism degree due to numerous non-standard buildings. In addition, the change of seismic vulnerability degree caused by variation of optimism degree does not exceed 25 % of the original value which means that the overall accuracy of the model is acceptable.
Approximation Schemes for Minimizing Average Weighted Completion Time with Release Dates
Foto N. Afrati; Evripidis Bampis; Chandra Chekuri; David R. Karger; Claire Kenyon; Sanjeev Khanna; Ioannis Milis; Maurice Queyranne; Martin Skutella; Clifford Stein; Maxim Sviridenko
1999-01-01
We consider the problem of scheduling jobs with re- lease dates on machines so as to minimize their average weighted completion time. We present the first known poly- nomial time approximation schemes for several variants of this problem. Our results include PTASs for the case of identical parallel machines and a constant number of unre- lated machines with and without
A nonparametric exponentially weighted moving average signed-rank chart for monitoring location
M. A. Graham; S. Chakraborti; S. W. Human
2011-01-01
Nonparametric control charts can provide a robust alternative in practice to the data analyst when there is a lack of knowledge about the underlying distribution. A nonparametric exponentially weighted moving average (NPEWMA) control chart combines the advantages of a nonparametric control chart with the better shift detection properties of a traditional EWMA chart. A NPEWMA chart for the median of
Theoretical analysis of correlation-based quality measures for weighted averaging image fusion
Chuanming Wei; Rick S. Blum
2010-01-01
Recently introduced correlation-based quality measures have received lots of attention due to the fact that they do not need ground-truth reference images to evaluate the performance of image fusion algorithms. In this paper we focus on theoretical analysis of these correlation-based quality measures when they are used to judge the performance of weighted averaging image fusion algorithms. The purpose of
Theoretical analysis of correlation-based quality measures for weighted averaging image fusion
Chuanming Wei; Rick S. Blum
2009-01-01
Recently introduced correlation-based quality measures have received lots of attention due to the fact that they do not need ground-truth reference images to evaluate the performance of image fusion algorithms. In this paper we focus on theoretical analysis of these correlation-based quality measures when they are used to judge the performance of weighted averaging image fusion algorithms. The purpose of
The Generally Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Monitoring the Process Median
Shey-Huei Sheu; Ling Yang
2006-01-01
The generally weighted moving average median (GWMA-[Xtilde]) control chart is employed to monitoring the process sample mean\\/median. From the statistical point of view, the simulation result reveals that the GWMA-[Xtilde] chart outperforms both the EWMA-[Xtilde] chart and the Shewhart-[Xtilde] chart in detecting small shifts of the process sample mean\\/median. In detecting the startup shifts, the GWMA-[Xtilde] chart is also more
Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Change Detection Around the Country (and the World)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, E.; Wynne, R. H.; Thomas, V. A.; Blinn, C. E.; Coulston, J.
2014-12-01
With continuous, freely available moderate-resolution imagery of the Earth's surface available, and with the promise of more imagery to come, change detection based on continuous process models continues to be a major area of research. One such method, exponentially weighted moving average change detection (EWMACD), is based on a mixture of harmonic regression (HR) and statistical quality control, a branch of statistics commonly used to detect aberrations in industrial and medical processes. By using HR to approximate per-pixel seasonal curves, the resulting residuals characterize information about the pixels which stands outside of the periodic structure imposed by HR. Under stable pixels, these residuals behave as might be expected, but in the presence of changes (growth, stress, removal), the residuals clearly show these changes when they are used as inputs into an EWMA chart. In prior work in Alabama, USA, EWMACD yielded an overall accuracy of 85% on a random sample of known thinned stands, in some cases detecting thinnings as sparse as 25% removal. It was also shown to correctly identify the timing of the thinning activity, typically within a single image date of the change. The net result of the algorithm was to produce date-by-date maps of afforestation and deforestation on a variable scale of severity. In other research, EWMACD has also been applied to detect land use and land cover changes in central Java, Indonesia, despite the heavy incidence of clouds and a monsoonal climate. Preliminary results show that EWMACD accurately identifies land use conversion (agricultural to residential, for example) and also identifies neighborhoods where the building density has increased, removing neighborhood vegetation. In both cases, initial results indicate the potential utility of EWMACD to detect both gross and subtle ecosystem disturbance, but further testing across a range of ecosystems and disturbances is clearly warranted.
Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined.
Willson, Stephen J
2012-01-01
A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly including the graph itself. In the case of phylogenetic trees, distances between extant species are frequently used to infer the phylogenetic trees by methods such as neighbor-joining. This paper proposes a tree-average distance for networks more general than trees. The notion requires a weight on each arc measuring the genetic change along the arc. For each displayed tree the distance between two leaves is the sum of the weights along the path joining them. At a hybrid vertex, each character is inherited from one of its parents. We will assume that for each hybrid there is a probability that the inheritance of a character is from a specified parent. Assume that the inheritance events at different hybrids are independent. Then for each displayed tree there will be a probability that the inheritance of a given character follows the tree; this probability may be interpreted as the probability of the tree. The tree-average distance between the leaves is defined to be the expected value of their distance in the displayed trees. For a class of rooted networks that includes rooted trees, it is shown that the weights and the probabilities at each hybrid vertex can be calculated given the network and the tree-average distances between the leaves. Hence these weights and probabilities are uniquely determined. The hypotheses on the networks include that hybrid vertices have indegree exactly 2 and that vertices that are not leaves have a tree-child. PMID:22587565
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gader, Paul D.; Grandhi, Roopnath; Lee, Wen-Hsiung; Wilson, Joseph N.; Ho, Dominic K. C.
2004-09-01
An automated methodology for combining Ground Penetrating Radar features from different depths is presented and analyzed. GPR data from the NIITEK system are processed by a depth-dependent, adaptive whitening algorithm. Shape and contrast features, including compactness, solidity, eccentricity, and relative area are computed at the different depths. These features must be combined to make a decision as to the presence of a landmine at a specific location. Since many of the depths contain no useful information and the depths of the mines are unknown, a strategy based on sorting is used. In a previous work, sorted features were combined via a rule-based system. In the current paper, an automated algorithm that builds a decision rule from sets of Ordered Weighted Average (OWA) operators is described. The OWA operator sorts the feature values, weights them, and performs a weighted sum of the sorted values, resulting in a nonlinear combination of the feature values. The weights of the OWA operators are trained off-line in combination with those of a decision-making network and held fixed during testing. The combination of OWA operators and decision-making network is called a FOWA network. The FOWA network is compared to the rule-based method on real data taken from multiple collections at two outdoor test sites.
Weight-bearing MRI of patellofemoral joint cartilage contact area
Garry E. Gold; Thor F. Besier; Christine E. Draper; Deanna S. Asakawa; Scott L. Delp; Gary S. Beaupre
2004-01-01
Purpose: To measure contact area of cartilage in the patel- lofemoral joint during weight bearing using an open MRI scanner. Materials and Methods: We developed an MR-compatible back support that allows three-dimensional imaging of the patellofemoral cartilage under physiologic weight-bearing conditions with negligible motion artifact in an open MRI scanner. To measure contact areas, we trained observers us- ing a
Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal
2013-04-01
Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.
A Weight-Averaged Interpolation Method for Coupling Time-Accurate Rarefied and Continuum Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz, Steven William
A novel approach to coupling rarefied and continuum flow regimes as a single, hybrid model is introduced. The method borrows from techniques used in the simulation of spray flows to interpolate Lagrangian point-particles onto an Eulerian grid in a weight-averaged sense. A brief overview of traditional methods for modeling both rarefied and continuum domains is given, and a review of the literature regarding rarefied/continuum flow coupling is presented. Details of the theoretical development of the method of weighted interpolation are then described. The method evaluates macroscopic properties at the nodes of a CFD grid via the weighted interpolation of all simulated molecules in a set surrounding the node. The weight factor applied to each simulated molecule is the inverse of the linear distance between it and the given node. During development, the method was applied to several preliminary cases, including supersonic flow over an airfoil, subsonic flow over tandem airfoils, and supersonic flow over a backward facing step; all at low Knudsen numbers. The main thrust of the research centered on the time-accurate expansion of a rocket plume into a near-vacuum. The method proves flexible enough to be used with various flow solvers, demonstrated by the use of Fluent as the continuum solver for the preliminary cases and a NASA-developed Large Eddy Simulation research code, WRLES, for the full lunar model. The method is applicable to a wide range of Mach numbers and is completely grid independent, allowing the rarefied and continuum solvers to be optimized for their respective domains without consideration of the other. The work presented demonstrates the validity, and flexibility of the method of weighted interpolation as a novel concept in the field of hybrid flow coupling. The method marks a significant divergence from current practices in the coupling of rarefied and continuum flow domains and offers a kernel on which to base an ongoing field of research. It has the potential to significantly increase the flexibility of hybrid rarefied/continuum flow analyses.
Da-Huei Lee; Yu-Hong Lin; Tai-Haur Kuo
2006-01-01
In this brief, Nyquist-rate current-steering digital-to-analog converters (DACs) applying the random multiple data-weighted averaging (RMDWA) technique and the QN rotated walk switching scheme are proposed such that high spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and small maximum output error can be achieved without calibrations, which are area and power consuming. RMDWA suppresses the harmonics caused by element mismatches to gain high SFDR
Theoretical and empirical analysis of the average cross-sectional areas of breakup fragments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanada, T.; Liou, J.-C.
2011-05-01
This paper compares two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional area of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second approach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. This new approach automatically classifies fragments into plate- or irregular-shapes based on their aspect ratio and thickness, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The comparison between the two approaches is demonstrated in the area-to-mass ratio ( A/m) distribution of fragments from two microsatellite impact experiments completed in early 2008. A major difference between the two approaches comes from the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of plates. In order to determine which of the two approaches provides a better description of the actual A/m distribution of breakup fragments, a theoretical analysis in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of an ideal plate is conducted. This paper also investigates the average cross-sectional area of multi-layer insulation fragments. The average cross-sectional area of 214 multi-layer insulation fragments was measured by a planimeter, and then the data were used to benchmark the average cross-sectional areas estimated by the two approaches. The uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area with the two approaches is also discussed in terms of size and thickness.
Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing.
Besier, Thor F; Draper, Christine E; Gold, Garry E; Beaupré, Gary S; Delp, Scott L
2005-03-01
Patellofemoral pain is a common and debilitating disorder. Elevated cartilage stress of the patellofemoral joint is hypothesized to play a role in the onset of pain. Estimating cartilage stress requires accurate measurements of contact area. The purpose of this study was to estimate patellofemoral joint contact areas in a group of healthy, pain-free subjects during upright, weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects (8 female, 8 male) were scanned in a GE Signa SP open configuration MRI scanner, which allowed subjects to stand or squat while reclining 25 degrees from vertical with the knee positioned at 0 degrees , 30 degrees , or 60 degrees of flexion. A custom-built backrest enabled subjects to be scanned without motion artifact in both weight-bearing (0.45 body weight per leg) and reduced loading conditions ('unloaded' at 0.15 body weight) at each knee flexion posture. Male subjects displayed mean unloaded patellofemoral joint contact areas of 210, 414, and 520 mm(2) at 0 degrees , 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, respectively. Female subjects' unloaded contact areas were similar at full extension (0 degrees ), but significantly smaller at 30 degrees and 60 degrees (p<0.01), with mean values of 269 and 396 mm(2), respectively. When normalized by patellar dimensions (heightxwidth), contact areas were not different between genders. Under weight-bearing conditions, contact areas increased by an average of 24% (p<0.05). This study highlights the differences in patellofemoral joint contact area between gender, knee flexion postures, and physiologic loading conditions. PMID:15734247
Full-custom design of split-set data weighted averaging with output register for jitter suppression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jubay, M. C.; Gerasta, O. J.
2015-06-01
A full-custom design of an element selection algorithm, named as Split-set Data Weighted Averaging (SDWA) is implemented in 90nm CMOS Technology Synopsys Library. SDWA is applied in seven unit elements (3-bit) using a thermometer-coded input. Split-set DWA is an improved DWA algorithm which caters the requirement for randomization along with long-term equal element usage. Randomization and equal element-usage improve the spectral response of the unit elements due to higher Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and without significantly degrading signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since a full-custom, the design is brought to transistor-level and the chip custom layout is also provided, having a total area of 0.3mm2, a power consumption of 0.566 mW, and simulated at 50MHz clock frequency. On this implementation, SDWA is successfully derived and improved by introducing a register at the output that suppresses the jitter introduced at the final stage due to switching loops and successive delays.
High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.
1993-01-01
The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.
The effect of capsule-filling machine vibrations on average fill weight.
Llusa, Marcos; Faulhammer, Eva; Biserni, Stefano; Calzolari, Vittorio; Lawrence, Simon; Bresciani, Massimo; Khinast, Johannes
2013-09-15
The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the speed of capsule filling and the inherent machine vibrations on fill weight for a dosator-nozzle machine. The results show that increasing speed of capsule filling amplifies the vibration intensity (as measured by Laser Doppler vibrometer) of the machine frame, which leads to powder densification. The mass of the powder (fill weight) collected via the nozzle is significantly larger at a higher capsule filling speed. Therefore, there is a correlation between powder densification under more intense vibrations and larger fill weights. Quality-by Design of powder based products should evaluate the effect of environmental vibrations on material attributes, which in turn may affect product quality. PMID:23872302
R. S. Sparks; T. Keighley; D. Muscatello
2011-01-01
Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) plans for non-homogeneous negative binomial counts are developed for detecting the onset of seasonal disease outbreaks in public health surveillance. These plans are robust to changes in the in-control mean and over-dispersion parameter of the negative binomial distribution, and therefore are referred to as adaptive plans. They differ from the traditional approach of using standardized
A. A. Goncharenko; A. S. Timoshchenko; N. S. Berkutova; E. N. Lazareva
2008-01-01
A comparative assessment of 20 winter rye varieties is made on the basis of the weighted average molecular mass of water extractive\\u000a pentosans (WAMM of WEPs). A double-dispersed state of water extracts containing water extractive pentosans, which is expressed\\u000a more strongly in rye than in wheat and triticale, is established. A linear relation between WAMM of WEPs and viscosity of
V. Bravo Rodriguez; E. Jurado Alameda; A. Reyes Requena; A. I. Garcia López; R. Bailón-Moreno; M. Cuevas Aranda
2005-01-01
A quick and simple method, based on elemental and moisture analyses, is proposed for estimating the mean molecular weight\\u000a of alkylpolyglucosides and fatty alcohol ethoxylates, which are nonionic surfactants that are attracting growing interest\\u000a for their ease of biodegradation. Analyses for the water content and the elemental composition were carried out for three\\u000a alkylpolyglucosides (Henkel-Cognis): Glucopon 215, Glucopon 600, and
Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda; Bentley, Margaret E
2014-01-01
Biomedical researchers have raised concerns that mothers’ inability to recognize infant and toddler overweight poses a barrier to stemming increasing rates of overweight and obesity, particularly among low-income or minority mothers. Little anthropological research has examined the sociocultural, economic or structural factors shaping maternal perceptions of infant and toddler size or addressed biomedical depictions of maternal misperception as a “socio-cultural problem.” We use qualitative and quantitative data from 237 low-income, African-American mothers to explore how they define ‘normal’ infant growth and infant overweight. Our quantitative results document that mothers’ perceptions of infant size change with infant age, are sensitive to the size of other infants in the community, and are associated with concerns over health and appetite. Qualitative analysis documents that mothers are concerned with their children’s weight status and assess size in relation to their infants’ cues, local and societal norms of appropriate size, interactions with biomedicine, and concerns about infant health and sufficiency. These findings suggest that mothers use multiple models to interpret and respond to child weight. An anthropological focus on the complex social and structural factors shaping what is considered ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ infant weight is critical for shaping appropriate and successful interventions. PMID:25684782
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanz, E.; Menéndez Pidal de Navascués, I.; Távara, C.
2011-05-01
In an area as large as Spain, it is shown by statistical inference on a sample of 875 springs (with discharges greater than 10 l s-1), whose average flow, lithology and catchment areas are known, and which were grouped into regions of contrasting rainfall, that the average annual recharge is a fixed fraction of annual rainfall for each lithology. Recharge rates have thus been established with respect to rainfall for six lithological groups of different permeability: sands, gravels and generally alluvial formations 8.3%; conglomerates, 5.6%; sandstones, 7.3%; limestone and dolomite 34.3%; marls, marly limestones, silts and clays, 3.3%; and hard rocks, 1.3%. Since Spain can be considered to be representative, given its large size and a highly varied lithology, topography and rainfall, these recharge rates with respect to rainfall are probably quasi-universal values, which can be used to estimate the average recharge or average groundwater resources of large regions in any part of the world (except in special cases such as areas that have permafrost). In any case, the recharge rates can be adapted for each region according to its particular characteristics. Rainfall and lithology data are abundant, and so the method can be widely used to calculate hydraulic balances. The method has been applied to the Duero basin in Spain and to other European countries (Portugal, Ireland and Italy), obtaining recharge results that are very similar to those calculated by other methods.
Visual feature extraction from voxel-weighted averaging of stimulus images in 2 fMRI studies.
Hart, Corey B; Rose, William J
2013-11-01
Multiple studies have provided evidence for distributed object representation in the brain, with several recent experiments leveraging basis function estimates for partial image reconstruction from fMRI data. Using a novel combination of statistical decomposition, generalized linear models, and stimulus averaging on previously examined image sets and Bayesian regression of recorded fMRI activity during presentation of these data sets, we identify a subset of relevant voxels that appear to code for covarying object features. Using a technique we term "voxel-weighted averaging," we isolate image filters that these voxels appear to implement. The results, though very cursory, appear to have significant implications for hierarchical and deep-learning-type approaches toward the understanding of neural coding and representation. PMID:23782790
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shin, Kyung-Sup; Riba, Phil E.; North, Gerald R.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a new simple retrieval algorithm for estimating area-time averaged rain rates over tropical oceans by using single channel microwave measurements from satellites. The algorithm was tested by using the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer and a simple microwave radiative transfer model to retrieve seasonal 5-deg x 5-deg area averaged rainrate over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific from December 1973 to November 1974. The brightness temperatures were collected and analyzed into histograms for each season and in each grid box from December 1973 to November 1974. The histograms suggest a normal distribution of background noise plus a skewed rain distribution at the higher brightness temperatures. By using a statistical estimation procedure based upon normally distributed background noise, the rain distribution was separated from the raw histogram. The radiative transfer model was applied to the rain-only distribution to retrieve area-time averaged rainrates throughout the tropics. Despite limitations of single channel information, the retrieved seasonal rain rates agree well in the open ocean with expectations based upon previous estimates of tropical rainfall over the oceans.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Jiangtao; Liu, Chunyan; Yan, Shicui
2007-12-01
In this paper we propose a nonmonotone trust region method. Unlike traditional nonmonotone trust region method, the nonmonotone technique applied to our method is based on the nonmonotone line search technique proposed by Zhang and Hager [A nonmonotone line search technique and its application to unconstrained optimization, SIAM J. Optim. 14(4) (2004) 1043-1056] instead of that presented by Grippo et al. [A nonmonotone line search technique for Newton's method, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 23(4) (1986) 707-716]. So the method requires nonincreasing of a special weighted average of the successive function values. Global and superlinear convergence of the method are proved under suitable conditions. Preliminary numerical results show that the method is efficient for unconstrained optimization problems.
Cook, D A; Coory, M; Webster, R A
2011-06-01
OBJECTIVE To introduce a new type of risk-adjusted (RA) exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart and to compare it to a commonly used type of variable life adjusted display chart for analysis of patient outcomes. DATA Routine inpatient data on mortality following admission for acute myocardial infarction, from all public and private hospitals in Queensland, Australia. METHODS The RA-EWMA plots the EWMA of the observed and predicted values. Predicted values were obtained from a logistic regression model for all hospitals in Queensland. The EWMA of the predicted values is a moving centre line, reflecting current patient case mix at a particular hospital. Thresholds around this moving centre line provide a scale by which to assess the importance of trends in the EWMA of the observed values. RESULTS The RA-EWMA chart can be designed to have equivalent performance, in terms of average run lengths, as variable life adjusted display chart. The advantages of the RA-EWMA are that it communicates information about the current level of an indicator in a direct and understandable way, and it explicitly displays information about the current patient case mix. Also, because it is not reset, the RA-EWMA is a more natural chart to use in health, where it is exceedingly rare to stop or dramatically and abruptly alter a process of care. CONCLUSION The RA-EWMA chart is a direct and intuitive way to display information about an indicator while accounting for differences in case mix. PMID:21209145
The Use of Sampling Weights in Bayesian Hierarchical Models for Small Area Estimation
Washington at Seattle, University of
for small area estimation. However, the sampling weights that are required to reflect complex surveys standard approaches. Bias reduction occurs through the incorporation of sampling weights, with variance; Poststratification; Sample Surveys; Spatial Smoothing. 2 #12;1 Introduction Small area estimation is a common
Davies, G R; Elsworth, Y; Hale, S J
2014-01-01
The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximise the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimising the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide gr...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Hale, S. J.
2014-07-01
The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has provided high-quality high-cadence observations from as far back in time as 1978. These data must be calibrated from the raw observations into radial velocity and the quality of the calibration has a large impact on the signal-to-noise ratio of the final time series. The aim of this work is to maximize the potential science that can be performed with the BiSON data set by optimizing the calibration procedure. To achieve better levels of signal-to-noise ratio, we perform two key steps in the calibration process: we attempt a correction for terrestrial atmospheric differential extinction; and the resulting improvement in the calibration allows us to perform weighted averaging of contemporaneous data from different BiSON stations. The improvements listed produce significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the BiSON frequency-power spectrum across all frequency ranges. The reduction of noise in the power spectrum will allow future work to provide greater constraint on changes in the oscillation spectrum with solar activity. In addition, the analysis of the low-frequency region suggests that we have achieved a noise level that may allow us to improve estimates of the upper limit of g-mode amplitudes.
Chi, Chang-Feng; Cao, Zi-Hao; Wang, Bin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Rui; Zhang, Bin
2014-01-01
In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW) of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ? AMW ? 47.82 kDa) from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates. PMID:25090114
Woolcock, Patrick J; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C
2013-03-15
Time-weighted average (TWA) passive sampling using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography was investigated as a new method of collecting, identifying and quantifying contaminants in process gas streams. Unlike previous TWA-SPME techniques using the retracted fiber configuration (fiber within needle) to monitor ambient conditions or relatively stagnant gases, this method was developed for fast-moving process gas streams at temperatures approaching 300 °C. The goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method of analyzing low concentrations of contaminants in hot gas streams without performing time-consuming exhaustive extraction with a slipstream. This work in particular aims to quantify trace tar compounds found in a syngas stream generated from biomass gasification. This paper evaluates the concept of retracted SPME at high temperatures by testing the three essential requirements for TWA passive sampling: (1) zero-sink assumption, (2) consistent and reliable response by the sampling device to changing concentrations, and (3) equal concentrations in the bulk gas stream relative to the face of the fiber syringe opening. Results indicated the method can accurately predict gas stream concentrations at elevated temperatures. Evidence was also discovered to validate the existence of a second boundary layer within the fiber during the adsorption/absorption process. This limits the technique to operating within reasonable mass loadings and loading rates, established by appropriate sampling depths and times for concentrations of interest. A limit of quantification for the benzene model tar system was estimated at 0.02 g m(-3) (8 ppm) with a limit of detection of 0.5 mg m(-3) (200 ppb). Using the appropriate conditions, the technique was applied to a pilot-scale fluidized-bed gasifier to verify its feasibility. Results from this test were in good agreement with literature and prior pilot plant operation, indicating the new method can measure low concentrations of tar in gasification streams. PMID:23398991
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasser, Guy; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Glazman, Hillel; Lev, Ovadia
2014-05-01
A methodology used to estimate the percentage of wastewater effluent in an otherwise pristine water site is proposed on the basis of the weighted mean of the level of a consortium of indicator pollutants. This method considers the levels of uncertainty in the evaluation of each of the indicators in the site, potential effluent sources, and uncontaminated surroundings. A detailed demonstrative study was conducted on a site that is potentially subject to wastewater leakage. The research concentrated on several perched springs that are influenced to an unknown extent by agricultural communities. A comparison was made to a heavily contaminated site receiving wastewater effluent and surface water runoff. We investigated six springs in two nearby ridges where fecal contamination was detected in the past; the major sources of pollution in the area have since been diverted to a wastewater treatment system. We used chloride, acesulfame, and carbamazepine as domestic pollution tracers. Good correlation (R2 > 0.86) was observed between the mixing ratio predictions based on the two organic tracers (the slope of the linear regression was 1.05), whereas the chloride predictions differed considerably. This methodology is potentially useful, particularly for cases in which detailed hydrological modeling is unavailable but in which quantification of wastewater penetration is required. We demonstrate that the use of more than one tracer for estimation of the mixing ratio reduces the combined uncertainty level associated with the estimate and can also help to disqualify biased tracers.
Area-preserving maps models of gyro-averaged ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport
J. D. da Fonseca; D. del-Castillo-Negrete; I. L. Caldas
2014-09-10
Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.
Determination of Area-averaged Turbulent Fluxes From Low-level Flights Using Inverse Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zittel, Peter; Deierling, Wiebke; Bange, Jens
To determine area-averaged vertical turbulent fluxes with high resolution,airborne measurements from the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod and the research aircraft Dornier 128 during LITFASS98 (Lindenberg Inhomogeneous Terrain - Fluxes between Atmosphere and Surface: a long-term Study) were taken. For LITFASS98 square-shaped flight patterns (10 km x 10 km for the Helipod and 15 km x 15 km for the aircraft, respectively) at three altitudes above heterogenous ground were flown. The lowest flight levels were 140 m above ground for the Helipod and 245 m above ground for the Dornier aircraft. To obtain surface fluxes, the budget equations were solved using only measurements from the lowest flight level. Therefore, the vertical gradient and temporal evolution of the mean potential temperature and humidity had to be calculated using the inverse modeling method. The surface fluxes were then deter- mined from extrapolation to the ground. One advantage of this method is that further measurements (e.g.,vertical soundings) are not necessary to calculate the fluxes. An- other big advantage is that the fluxes can be computed using measurements at only one height. This makes more detailed flight patterns possible, resulting in greater coverage of heterogenous surfaces. Results from this method were compared to ground based measurements as well as to results from computations based on airborne measure- ments at three heights. The comparison shows that all three methods yielded similar results. In future projects, the inverse modeling approach to obtain turbulent fluxes will be used on further airborne measurements in a variety of conditions.
Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing
Thor F. Besier; Christine E. Draper; Garry E. Gold; Gary S. Beauprea; Scott L. Delp
2005-01-01
Patellofemoral pain is a common and debilitating disorder. Elevated cartilage stress of the patellofemoral joint is hypothesized to play a role in the onset of pain. Estimating cartilage stress requires accurate measurements of contact area. The purpose of this study was to estimate patellofemoral joint contact areas in a group of healthy, pain-free subjects during upright, weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Kouki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo
A photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) is one of the promising measures to develop a low carbon society. Because of the unstable power output characteristics, a robust forecast method must be employed for realizing the high penetration of PVS into an electric power system. Considering the difference in power output patterns among PVSs dispersed in the service area of electric power system, the forecast error would vary among locations, resulting in the reduced forecast error of the ensemble average power output of high penetration PVS. In this paper, by using the multi-point data of insolation observed in Chubu area during four months, we evaluated the forecast error of the ensemble average insolation of 11 districts, and compared it with the forecast error of individual district. As the results, the number of periods with the forecast error larger than the average insolation during four months is reduced by 16 hours for the ensemble average insolation compared with the average value of individual forecast. The largest forecast error during four months is also reduced to 0.45 kWh/m2 for the ensemble average insolation from 0.68 kWh/m2 on average of 11 districts.
Residence in CoalMining Areas and Low-Birth-Weight Outcomes
Melissa Ahern; Martha Mullett; Katherine MacKay; Candice Hamilton
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight.\\u000a We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother’s residence\\u000a in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005–2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were
Kleinman, Ken P; Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Peterson, Karen E; Gillman, Matthew W
2007-01-01
Background Gestational weight gain is important to assess for epidemiological and public health purposes: it is correlated with infant growth and may be related to maternal outcomes such as reproductive health and chronic disease risk. Methods commonly used to assess weight gain incorporate assumptions that are usually not borne out, such as a linear weight gain, or do not account for differential length of gestation. Methods We introduce a novel method to assess gestational weight gain, the area under the weight gain curve. This is easily interpretable as the additional pound-days carried due to pregnancy and avoids many flaws in alternative assessments. We compare the performance of the simple difference, weekly gain, Institute of Medicine categories and the area under the weight gain curve in predicting birthweight and maternal weight retention at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-partum. The analytic sample comprises 2016 participants in Project Viva, an observational prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Massachusetts. Results For birthweight outcomes, none of the weight gain measures is a meaningfully superior predictor. For 6-month postpartum weight retention the simple difference is superior, while for 12-, 24- and 36-month weight retention the area under the weight gain curve is superior. Conclusions These findings are plausible biologically: the same amount of weight gained early vs later in the pregnancy may reflect increased maternal fat stores. The timing of weight gain is reflected best in the area under the weight gain curve. Different methods of measuring gestational weight gain may be appropriate depending on the context. PMID:17715174
Schober, H C; Kreutzer, H J; Terpe, R; Paschke, D; Andresen, R; Ludwig, K; Kundt, G
2012-01-01
This study reports gender-specific vertebral area gain data from children and adolescents. Vertebral area was measured on lateral and anteroposterior thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs from 100 female and 100 male subjects aged 7-28 yr. T9, T11, T12, L1, and L2 X-ray area calculation was based on calculation of the area of the geometric figure of a trapezoid whose 2 nonparallel sides were equal in length, taking account of the waisted shape of the vertebrae. Both the boys and girls of our study population showed statistically significant dependence (p<0.001) of vertebral area gain on chronologic age, height, and weight right through the end of puberty, and especially so up to age 15 yr. However, height and weight were clearly better predictors of lateral and anteroposterior vertebral area gain than was chronologic age. Once vertebral growth is complete by age 18 yr or so, the lateral vertebral areas of the male subjects-regardless of body weight and height-are, on average, 25% larger, and the anteroposterior areas up to 30% larger than those of their female counterparts. After adjusting for chronologic age, height, and weight however we did not find significant differences, between gender, in vertebral area of male and female subjects, neither among children younger than 11 yr nor adolescents ages of 12-14 yr and young adults older than 18 yr. PMID:22521540
Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov
2007-01-01
Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warne, Russell T.; Nagaishi, Chanel; Slade, Michael K.; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Peck, Elizabeth Kimberli
2014-01-01
While research has shown the statistical significance of high school grade point averages (HSGPAs) in predicting future academic outcomes, the systems with which HSGPAs are calculated vary drastically across schools. Some schools employ unweighted grades that carry the same point value regardless of the course in which they are earned; other…
Philip M. Sadler; Robert H. Tai
2007-01-01
Honors and advanced placement (AP) courses are commonly viewed as more demanding than standard high school offerings. Schools employ a range of methods to account for such differences when calculating grade point average and the associated rank in class for graduating students. In turn, these statistics have a sizeable impact on college admission and access to financial aid. The authors
2004-01-01
Annual average daily traffic (AADT) is important information for many transportation planning, design, operation, and maintenance activities, as well as for the allocation of highway funds. Many studies have attempted AADT estimation using factor approach, regression analysis, time series, and artificial neural networks. However, these methods are unable to account for spatially variable influence of independent variables on the dependent
The use of sampling weights in Bayesian hierarchical models for small area estimation
Chen, Cici; Wakefield, Jon; Lumely, Thomas
2015-01-01
Hierarchical modeling has been used extensively for small area estimation. However, design weights that are required to reflect complex surveys are rarely considered in these models. We develop computationally efficient, Bayesian spatial smoothing models that acknowledge the design weights. Computation is carried out using the integrated nested Laplace approximation, which is fast. A simulation study is presented that considers the effects of non-response and non-random selection of individuals. We examine the impact of ignoring the design weights and the benefits of spatial smoothing. The results show that, when compared with standard approaches, mean squared error can be greatly reduced with the proposed models. Bias reduction occurs through the inclusion of the design weights, with variance reduction being achieved through hierarchical smoothing. We analyze data from the Washington State 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The models are easily and quickly fitted within the R environment, using existing packages. PMID:25457595
Effects of contact area and stress on the volumetric wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
Daniel Mazzucco; Myron Spector
2003-01-01
The effects of contact area and contact stress on the wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (PE) articulating with a polished surface of cobalt–chromium alloy were evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus implementing bi-directional movement. Within a relevant range of contact stresses, volumetric wear rate increased with increasing contact area. Volumetric wear was found to be independent of normal load within
Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Beverly S.
The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…
Inequalities in low birth weight: parental social class, area deprivation, and \\
S. Pattenden; H. Dolk; M. Vrijheid
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight. To assess the relative benefits of measuring socioeconomic status by individual occupation, socioeconomic deprivation status of area of residence, or both, for describing inequalities and targeting resources. DESIGN: Analysis of birth registrations by registration status: joint compared with sole registrants (\\
Survey of one-year average Rn levels in Pittsburgh area homes.
Cohen, B L
1985-12-01
Radon concentrations averaged over 1 yr were measured in 169 homes selected without regard to factors known to influence Rn levels. The average level was 6.3 pCi/l in basements, 2.4 pCi/l on first floors, and 2.0 pCi/l on second floors; medians were considerably smaller, 2.6, 1.20, and 0.95 pCi/l, respectively. Distributions deviate considerably from log normal in having an excess of very large values and a deficiency of very low values. Levels in upper floors were somewhat lower where the basement was isolated by closed doors than where it was not. Drafty houses had lower Rn levels than less drafty ones. Houses exposed to wind had higher levels than those well sheltered from wind. There was little correlation between Rn concentration and age of the house, indicating that Rn exposures may not have changed appreciably during the past 50 yr; this is important for estimating risks of Rn-induced lung cancer. Houses with forced air heating systems seemed to have higher Rn levels in the upper floors than those with steam or hot water heat. No strong correlations were found between Rn levels and cooking with natural gas, or river vs well-water supplies. PMID:4077511
Average coherence image derived observations over an urban area: the case of Athens city
I. Parcharidis; M. Foumelis; P. Kourkouli
2007-01-01
In the present study coherence observations, in relation to the land-cover type, obtained using 20 C-band ERS SAR Single Look Complex (SLC) VV-polarization images acquired in descending mode over the metropolitan area of Athens covering the period 1992-1999 are presented. A straightforward approach using a single master SAR image on which the other images are mapped was adopted ensuring perfect
Mapping Human Cortical Areas in vivo Based on Myelin Content as Revealed by T1- and T2-weighted MRI
Glasser, Matthew F.; Van Essen, David C.
2011-01-01
Non-invasively mapping the layout of cortical areas in humans is a continuing challenge for neuroscience. We present a new method of mapping cortical areas based on myelin content as revealed by T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. The method is generalizable across different 3T scanners and pulse sequences. We use the ratio of T1w/T2w image intensities to eliminate the MR-related image intensity bias and enhance the contrast to noise ratio for myelin. Data from each subject was mapped to the cortical surface and aligned across individuals using surface-based registration. The spatial gradient of the group average myelin map provides an observer-independent measure of sharp transitions in myelin content across the surface—i.e. putative cortical areal borders. We found excellent agreement between the gradients of the myelin maps and the gradients of published probabilistic cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas that were registered to the same surface-based atlas. For other cortical regions, we used published anatomical and functional information to make putative identifications of dozens of cortical areas or candidate areas. In general, primary and early unimodal association cortices are heavily myelinated and higher, multi-modal, association cortices are more lightly myelinated, but there are notable exceptions in the literature that are confirmed by our results. The overall pattern in the myelin maps also has important correlations with the developmental onset of subcortical white matter myelination, evolutionary cortical areal expansion in humans compared to macaques, postnatal cortical expansion in humans, and maps of neuronal density in non-human primates. PMID:21832190
London, M L; Bernard, J K; Froetschel, M A; Bertrand, J K; Graves, W M
2012-02-01
Three studies were conducted to determine the relationship between dairy heifer growth and placing in the show ring. In the first study, 1,744 commercial dairy heifers (all breeds and crossbred animals) were evaluated to determine effects of growth on placing within Georgia Commercial Dairy Heifer Shows from 2007 to 2010. Birth weights were determined using breed birth weight averages, with crossbreeds being the average of 2 parent breeds. Average daily gains (ADG) were calculated and heifers were given rankings based on placing in show and for age and weight. Data was analyzed using the Spearman correlation calculations in the SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Age and ADG were inversely correlated (r=-0.89). Mean ADG for all heifers was determined to be 0.65 kg, below National Research Council recommendations of 0.7 to 0.8 kg. No strong relationship (r=-0.07) was observed between ADG and placing. Heavier heifers within a class showed a small positive relationship (r=0.10) with placing. For study 2, 238 heifers shown at the 2010 Georgia Junior National Livestock Show (Perry, GA) were measured and evaluated for ADG, placing, body weight, age, withers height, hip height, hip width, and jaw width. Height at withers had a moderate relationship (r=0.42) with placing, followed by hip height (r=0.32). A positive relationship (r=0.65) was observed between withers height and hip height. The correlation between weight and placing was determined (r=0.11). Age and ADG had a strong inverse relationship (r=-0.87). Study 3 evaluated 1,489 Holstein heifers shown from 2007 to 2010. Data was analyzed using the Penn State Growth Monitor Spreadsheet Curves. In total, 63.75% did not meet Penn State recommendations for body weight gain. Performance and physical features associated with age indicates that commercial dairy heifers are underfed. The effects of heat stress and high feed costs also play a role. This has economic implications because these animals will likely require more time before they enter the milk herd. The Commercial Dairy Heifer Program is vital for youth development in Georgia. However, those involved need to be encouraged to improve nutritional management practices. PMID:22281362
Area-Averaged Fluxes from Field to Kilometer Scale with Optical and Microwave Scintillometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartogensis, O. K.; de Bruin, H. A.; Meijninger, W. M.; Kohsiek, W.; Beyrich, F.; Moene, A. F.
2007-12-01
Scintillometry has proven to be a suitable method to obtain surface fluxes over heterogeneous areas over spatial scales of up to 10 km. We will present two of many field-studies conducted by the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of Wageningen University to illustrate this point. Different scintillometer types have been tested. Optical scintillometers yield the structure parameter of temperature, CT2, for long-path Large Aperture Scintillometers (LAS) and both CT2 and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, e, for short-path laser scintillometers. CT2 and e are related to the surface fluxes of heat, H, and momentum, t, by virtue of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. For the LAS - that provides CT2 only - t is obtained from additional wind speed measurements and an estimate of the roughness length. An optical scintillometer in combination with a millimeter-wave scintillometer (MWS) yields both CT2 and Cq2, the structure parameter of humidity, from which the sensible and the latent heat flux can be determined. The following two scintillometer field experiments will be discussed: EVAGRIPS, Lindenberg, Germany 2003. This study deals with a LAS and a MWS (94 GHz) installed over path length of 5 km at 45 m height over a heterogeneous flat agricultural terrain consisting of a mix of lakes, forest and agriculture fields over undulating terrain. The concept of an effective scintillometer height will be introduced, which needs to be applied when the scintillometer height is not constant over the path. RAPID, Idaho, USA, 1999. This study deals with the estimation of evapotranspiration using a LAS and laser scintillometer installed at field scale (~500m) over irrigated alfalfa in an area affected by advection of warm and dry desert air. In these conditions the sensible heat becomes negative and the water vapor deficit is increased, both enhancing evapotranspiration. References: De Bruin, H.A.R.: 2002, 'Introduction, renaissance of scintillometry', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 105, 1-4. De Bruin, H.A.R., Hartogensis, O.K., Allen, R.G., and Kramer, J.W.J.L., 2004: 'Note on the Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment', Theor. Appl. Climatol. 80, 143-152. Hartogensis, O.K., De Bruin, H.A.R., Van De Wiel, B.J.H.: 2002, 'Displaced-Beam Small Aperture Scintillometer Test. Part II: Cases-99 Stable Boundary-Layer Experiment', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 105, 149-176. Meijninger, W.M.L.; Beyrich, F.; Lüdi, A.; Kohsiek, W.; De Bruin, H.A.R.: 2005, 'Scintillometer-Based Turbulent Fluxes of Sensible and Latent Heat Over a Heterogeneous Land Surface : a Contribution to Litfass-2003 Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 121, 89-110.
Costs Associated with Low Birth Weight in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique
Sicuri, Elisa; Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Macete, Eusebio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara
2011-01-01
Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is prevalent in low-income countries. Even though the economic evaluation of interventions to reduce this burden is essential to guide health policies, data on costs associated with LBW are scarce. This study aims to estimate the costs to the health system and to the household and the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) arising from infant deaths associated with LBW in Southern Mozambique. Methods and Findings Costs incurred by the households were collected through exit surveys. Health system costs were gathered from data obtained onsite and from published information. DALYs due to death of LBW babies were based on local estimates of prevalence of LBW (12%), very low birth weight (VLBW) (1%) and of case fatality rates compared to non-LBW weight babies [for LBW (12%) and VLBW (80%)]. Costs associated with LBW excess morbidity were calculated on the incremental number of hospital admissions in LBW babies compared to non-LBW weight babies. Direct and indirect household costs for routine health care were 24.12 US$ (CI 95% 21.51; 26.26). An increase in birth weight of 100 grams would lead to a 53% decrease in these costs. Direct and indirect household costs for hospital admissions were 8.50 US$ (CI 95% 6.33; 10.72). Of the 3,322 live births that occurred in one year in the study area, health system costs associated to LBW (routine health care and excess morbidity) and DALYs were 169,957.61 US$ (CI 95% 144,900.00; 195,500.00) and 2,746.06, respectively. Conclusions This first cost evaluation of LBW in a low-income country shows that reducing the prevalence of LBW would translate into important cost savings to the health system and the household. These results are of relevance for similar settings and should serve to promote interventions aimed at improving maternal care. PMID:22174885
MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groen, D.; Rieder, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.
2013-12-01
We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (super)computing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.
Boosting with Averaged Weight Vectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the previous base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. Some researchers have pointed out the intuition that it is probably better to construct a distribution that is orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous base models, but that this is not always possible. We present an algorithm that attempts to come as close as possible to this goal in an efficient manner. We present experimental results demonstrating significant improvement over AdaBoost and the Totally Corrective boosting algorithm, which also attempts to satisfy this goal.
A comparison of spatial smoothing methods for small area estimation with sampling weights
Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Chen, Cici; Lumley, Thomas
2014-01-01
Small area estimation (SAE) is an important endeavor in many fields and is used for resource allocation by both public health and government organizations. Often, complex surveys are carried out within areas, in which case it is common for the data to consist only of the response of interest and an associated sampling weight, reflecting the design. While it is appealing to use spatial smoothing models, and many approaches have been suggested for this endeavor, it is rare for spatial models to incorporate the weighting scheme, leaving the analysis potentially subject to bias. To examine the properties of various approaches to estimation we carry out a simulation study, looking at bias due to both non-response and non-random sampling. We also carry out SAE of smoking prevalence in Washington State, at the zip code level, using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The computation times for the methods we compare are short, and all approaches are implemented in R using currently available packages. PMID:24959396
Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing
Stanford University
subjects to be scanned without motion artifact in both weight-bearing (0.45 body weight per leg) and reduced loading con- ditions (ÔunloadedÕ at 0.15 body weight) at each knee flexion posture. Male subjects
On the Possibility of Testing Miocene Clay from Cracow Area using Weight Sounding Test (WST)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olesiak, Sebastian
2014-03-01
Polish standards concerning field investigation with the use of a Weight Sounding Test (WST) probe give interpretation of results for non-cohesive soils only. The lack of such interpretation for cohesive soils excludes this testing equipment from use. This paper presents the results of geotechnical site investigation and laboratory tests performed for Miocene clays in Carpathian Foredeep in the Cracow area. Based on the analysis of the results a correlation was determined between the characteristic values for the WST probe (number of half-turns NWST) and the selected properties of Miocene clays. The article is an attempt to create a complete interpretation of test results obtained for cohesive soil with WST equipment.
Belgers, J D M; Aalderink, G H; Arts, G H P; Brock, T C M
2011-10-01
We tested the effects of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on growth of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum under laboratory conditions using different exposure scenarios. The exposures of each scenario were comparable in the concentration × time factor, viz., the same 21-d time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations but variable in peak exposure concentrations (ranging from 0.1 to 21000 ng ai L?¹) and exposure periods (1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 d). To study recovery potential of the exposed M. spicatum plants we continued the observation on shoot and root growth for another 21 d in herbicide-free medium so that the total observation period was 42 d. Non-destructive endpoints, length and number of new shoots and roots, were determined weekly from day 14 onwards. Destructive endpoints, dry-weight (DW) of main shoots, new shoots and new roots, were measured at the end of the experiment (t=42 d). Metsulfuron-methyl exposure in particular inhibited new tissue formation but was not lethal to main shoots. On days 21 and 42 after start exposure, EC??/EC?? values for new tissues expressed in terms of peak concentration (=measured concentration during exposure periods of different length) showed large differences between exposure scenarios in contrast to EC??/EC?? values for days 21 and 42 expressed in terms of 21-d and 42-d TWA concentrations, respectively. At the end of the experiment (day 42), 42-d TWA EC(x) values were remarkably similar between exposure scenarios, while a similar trend could already be observed on day 21 for 21-d TWA EC(x) values. For the macrophyte M. spicatum and exposure to the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl the TWA approach seems to be appropriate to use in the risk assessment. However, the data from the toxicity experiment suggest that on day 21 also the absolute height of the pulse exposure played a (minor) role in the exposure - response relationships observed. PMID:21875741
Schwinger, R.B.; Cool, S.L.; King, M.A.
1986-05-01
A data reprojection algorithm has been developed for use in single photon emission computed tomography on an array processor equipped computer system. The algorithm makes use of an accurate representation of pixel activity (uniform square pixel model of intensity distribution), and is rapidly performed due to the efficient handling of an array-based algorithm and the fast Fourier transform on parallel processing hardware. The algorithm consists of using a pixel driven nearest-neighbor projection operation to an array of subdivided projection bins. The subdivided project bin array is then convolved with the angle-dependent projection of the area of a uniform square pixel and compressed to original bin size. The new algorithm has thus been named the area weighted convolution (AWC) method of interpolation. When compared to nearest-neighbor and linear interpolation algorithms, the new AWC algorithm was found to be more accurate, having an accuracy approaching that of the line length algorithm. It also yielded an easier and more efficient implementation on parallel hardware than line length or linear interpolation, with faster execution times than either.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zittel, P.; Spieß, T.; Bange, J.
2003-04-01
In order to determine area-averaged turbulent fluxes, low-level flights were combined with the inverse model theory. This method worked well if the vertical profile of the turbulent fluxes below the flight altitude can be assumed to be linear. The vertical gradients of the turbulent fluxes were obtained by solving the energy budget equation. The length scales L of the turbulent fluxes were estimated using multi-resolution decomposition (co-spectra). The turbulent fluxes were then calculated using L as the cut-off wavelength for high-pass filtering of the time series. Finally, the surface turbulent fluxes were obtained using a linear extrapolation to the ground. Results from low-level flights during the LITFASS-98 campaign were compared with the conventional 3D-box method and verified by large eddy simulation (LES). Airborne measurements during the experiments STINHO-1, STINHO-2, and EVA-GRIPS autumn campaign were analysed with the inverse method. The aim was to get conclusions on the turbulent fluxes over different surface types (grassland, agriculture, forest, lake, and villages). The data was sampled at 100 Hz near Lindenberg observatory of the German Weather Service and Tharandt forest using the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod and the research aircraft Do 128. The turbulent structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was examined on several flight patterns like grid and 3D box flights above heterogeneous terrain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, D.; Suzuki, K.; Seiki, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.
2011-12-01
Although global- and regional-scale aerosol transport models have been evaluated through comparisons with observations and among the models, differences in simulated aerosol concentrations between models with different grid sizes have not yet been fully studied. Global aerosol model simulations, for instance, are performed with horizontal grid resolution ranging from 100 to 300 km [e.g., Textor et al., 2006], whereas regional aerosol models are used for simulations with grid sizes of about 30 to 50 km [e.g. Carmicheal et al., 2008]. Each horizontal grid in the models (from 20×20 km to 300×300 km) contains heterogeneous regions such as urban areas. Since the pollution in an urban area can have a great impact on the air quality not only in the regional but also on the global scale [Lawrence et al., 2007], it is important to investigate how different the model results are in a site including megacity between the 300 km and 20 km grids. For this purpose, we have analyzed 7-km resolved aerosol spatial distributions (e.g., aerosol optical thickness or AOT) obtained from the aerosol-coupled global cloud-resolving model, NICAM-SPRINTARS, developed by Suzuki et al. [2008] who implemented the SPRINTARS aerosol transport model [e.g., Takemura et al., 2005] into the NICAM non-hydrostatic global cloud-resolving model [e.g., Tomita and Satoh, 2004; Satoh et al. 2008]. We have calculated AOT values in more than 70 sites including about 40 megacities in the world during July 2006. The results show that the relative bias, defined as a ratio of a difference in grid-averaged AOTs between 300×300 km grids and 7×7 km grids to that in 7×7 km grids, is at most 30% in megacities, which is larger than those over rural areas. These results are very useful for comparisons between the model results and observations as well as among the models with different grid scales.
Sarah Core; Stephen Miller; Matthew Kelly
Linear measurements combined with surface area and volume calculations were used to develop formulas t o estimate body weight (BW) in beef cattle. These measurements were evaluated directly or estimated using a lase r remote caliper (LRC) and digital imaging software. Seventy-two dry, late gestation beef cows aged 3-13 years were measured and weighed Six measurements for each cow were
Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P
2014-10-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (?0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (?0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ?800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (?800 d). The earliest AFC group (?749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (?8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm-specific herd management. The MY is a very important factor for dairy farm profitability. The group of farms having the highest MY achieved the highest net profit despite having greater fertility problems. PMID:25064657
Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru
2014-01-01
Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085
2011-01-01
Background Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) and T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides a means to measure myocardial area at risk (AAR) and salvage. Several T2-weighted CMR sequences are in use, but there is no consensus in terms of which sequence to be the preferred. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to: (1) Assess the reproducibility and (2) compare the two most frequently used T2-weighted CMR protocols for measuring AAR and salvage. Methods 91 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention underwent a CMR scan 1-7 days after initial treatment. Two different T2-weighted protocols, varying in slice thickness and echo time (TE), were applied covering the entire left ventricle (LV) (protocol 1: TE 65 msec and slice thickness 15 mm; protocol 2: TE 100 msec and slice thickness of 8 mm). On a second scan performed 3 months later, infarct size was assessed with a standard LGE sequence. The two protocols were compared in terms of AAR and salvage index. Furthermore, intra- and interobserver reproducibility were assessed. Results Protocol 1 measures a larger AAR and salvage index than protocol 2 with a mean difference in AAR of 1 ± 8%LV (p < 0.01) and 6 ± 12 g (p < 0.01) and salvage index of 0.04 ± 0.12 (p < 0.01). Both protocols had a high intra- and interobserver reproducibility with acceptable limits of agreement (6-8%LV and 6-12 g in AAR and 0.06-0.08 in salvage index). Conclusions We report acceptable reproducibility for AAR and salvage index measured by T2-weighted images. Thus CMR is a reliable tool for measuring AAR and salvage index. Protocol 2 (8 mm slice thickness and 100 msec TE) measures slightly smaller AAR than protocol 1 (15 mm slice thickness and 65 msec TE), but the present study does not allow for a clear recommendation of either of the protocols. PMID:21917186
Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka
2004-01-01
With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhao, Z.; Ma, A. D.
2015-06-01
Synthetic aperture radar in the application of remote sensing technology is becoming more and more widely because of its all-time and all-weather operation, feature extraction research in high resolution SAR image has become a hot topic of concern. In particular, with the continuous improvement of airborne SAR image resolution, image texture information become more abundant. It's of great significance to classification and extraction. In this paper, a novel method for built-up areas extraction using both statistical and structural features is proposed according to the built-up texture features. First of all, statistical texture features and structural features are respectively extracted by classical method of gray level co-occurrence matrix and method of variogram function, and the direction information is considered in this process. Next, feature weights are calculated innovatively according to the Bhattacharyya distance. Then, all features are weighted fusion. At last, the fused image is classified with K-means classification method and the built-up areas are extracted after post classification process. The proposed method has been tested by domestic airborne P band polarization SAR images, at the same time, two groups of experiments based on the method of statistical texture and the method of structural texture were carried out respectively. On the basis of qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis based on the built-up area selected artificially is enforced, in the relatively simple experimentation area, detection rate is more than 90%, in the relatively complex experimentation area, detection rate is also higher than the other two methods. In the study-area, the results show that this method can effectively and accurately extract built-up areas in high resolution airborne SAR imagery.
Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the “sprawling” nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs. PMID:23814454
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Kwangsoo; Yang, Sung-Chul; Shahid, Muhammad; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun
2015-01-01
The flux-weighted average cross-sections of the natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction with the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 45, 50, 55, and 60 MeV were determined by activation and the off-line ?-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL). The natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction cross-sections as a function of the photon energy were estimated from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS 1.6 computer code. The flux-weighted average cross-sections at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 45-60MeV were obtained from the literature data and the theoretical data based on the mono-energetic photons. We found that the present data and the flux-weighted theoretical values for the natAg(?, xn)103-106Ag reaction increase sharply from their threshold values to certain energies where other reaction channels are opened. Then, the first reaction remains constant until the second one reaches its maximum. Thereafter, the first reaction decreases slowly with an increase in the end-point bremsstrahlung energy due to the opening of different reaction channels.
Lawrence, T E; Farrow, R L; Zollinger, B L; Spivey, K S
2008-06-01
With the adoption of visual instrument grading, the calculated yield grade can be used for payment to cattle producers selling on grid pricing systems. The USDA beef carcass grading standards include a relationship between required LM area (LMA) and HCW that is an important component of the final yield grade. As noted on a USDA yield grade LMA grid, a 272-kg (600-lb) carcass requires a 71-cm(2) (11.0-in.(2)) LMA and a 454-kg (1,000-lb) carcass requires a 102-cm(2) (15.8-in.(2)) LMA. This is a linear relationship, where required LMA = 0.171(HCW) + 24.526. If a beef carcass has a larger LMA than required, the calculated yield grade is lowered, whereas a smaller LMA than required increases the calculated yield grade. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the LMA to HCW relationship against data on 434,381 beef carcasses in the West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) Beef Carcass Research Center database. In contrast to the USDA relationship, our data indicate a quadratic relationship [WTAMU LMA = 33.585 + 0.17729(HCW) -0.0000863(HCW(2))] between LMA and HCW whereby, on average, a 272-kg carcass has a 75-cm(2) (11.6-in.(2)) LMA and a 454-kg carcass has a 96-cm(2) (14.9-in.(2)) LMA, indicating a different slope and different intercept than those in the USDA grading standards. These data indicate that the USDA calculated yield grade equation favors carcasses lighter than 363 kg (800 lb) for having above average muscling and penalizes carcasses heavier than 363 kg (800 lb) for having below average muscling. If carcass weights continue to increase, we are likely to observe greater proportions of yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses because of the measurement bias that currently exists in the USDA yield grade equation. PMID:18310492
2014-01-01
Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussin, Haydar; Zumpano, Veronica; Sterlacchini, Simone; Reichenbach, Paola; Bãlteanu, Dan; Micu, Mihai; Bordogna, Gloria; Cugini, Mattia
2013-04-01
Landslide susceptibility models are a key component for quantitative hazard assessments at medium to regional scales. The analysis and the evaluation of susceptibility models prepared for different test sites have been used to verify their flexibility and effectiveness. By comparing models in areas with different physio-graphic, climatic, and geological settings, we have tried to determine the influence of these regional differences on the predictive capability of landslide susceptibility modeling. In this study we used the weights-of-evidence statistical technique, which had been successfully applied in Valtellina di Tirano in Italy for predicting shallow landslide induced debris flow source areas. The results related to the accountability and reliability of the susceptibility models, the combination of conditional factors, the model success rate curves (SRCs), the prediction rate curves (PRCs) and the area under the curves (AUCs) were compared with results from the Fella River study area in the Italian Alps and the Buzau County case study in the Romanian Carpathians, which are also affected by more translational/rotational landslide types. The influence of methods to represent landslide inventories (the point density of source areas and points versus polygons) on the susceptibility modeling was also studied. Different models for each test site have been prepared by combining the available morphometric and geo-environmental factors. Among the morphometric derived conditional landslide factors used were aspect, elevation, flow accumulation, plan and profile curvature and slope; while the geo-environmental factors used were distance to faults, land-cover and geology. The degree of spatial agreement among different patterns of landslide susceptibility maps have been evaluated with an important emphasis on the comparison of different combinations of conditional factors that result in the best prediction of landslide susceptibility for each case study area.
Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara
2011-01-01
Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (?95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.
1973-01-01
The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.
AVERAGING QUATERNIONS , F. Landis Markley
Crassidis, John L.
AAS 07-213 AVERAGING QUATERNIONS Yang Cheng , F. Landis Markley , John L. Crassidis , and Yaakov Oshman§ This paper presents an algorithm to average a set of quaternion observa- tions. The average quaternion is determined by minimizing the weighted sum of the squared Frobenius norms of the corresponding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinemann, Günther; Kerschgens, Michael
2005-03-01
The quantification of subgrid land surface heterogeneity effects on the scale of climate and numerical weather prediction models is of vital interest for the energy budget of the atmospheric boundary layer and for the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle. This paper focuses on heterogeneity effects for the exchange processes between land surfaces and the atmosphere. The results are based on high-resolution non-hydrostatic model simulations for the LITFASS area near Berlin. This area represents a highly heterogeneous landscape of 20 × 20 km2 around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service (DWD). Model simulations were carried out using the non-hydrostatic model FOOT3DK of the University of Köln with resolutions of 1 km and 250 m.The performance of different area-averaging methods for the turbulent surface fluxes was tested for the LITFASS area, namely the aggregation, mosaic and tile methods. For one tile method (station-tile), the experimental setup of the surface energy balance stations of the LITFASS98 experiment was investigated. Two different simulation types are considered: (1) realistic topography and idealized synoptic forcing; (2) realistic topography and realistic synoptic forcing for LITFASS98 cases. A double one-way nesting procedure is used for nesting FOOT3DK in Lokalmodell of the DWD.The mosaic method shows good results, if the wind speed is sufficiently high. During weak-wind convective conditions, errors are particularly large for the latent heat flux on the 20 × 20 km2 scale. The aggregation method yields generally higher errors than the mosaic method, which even increase for higher wind speeds. The main reason is the strong surface heterogeneity associated with the lakes and forests in the LITFASS area. The main uncertainty of the station-tile method is the knowledge of the area coverage in combination with the representativity of the stations for the land-use type and surface conditions. The results of this study lead to the recommendation to use a mosaic approach or at least a tile approach for downscaling fluxes over heterogeneous surfaces in mesoscale and regional climate models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.
1973-01-01
Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-19
In this activity, learners compare the number of letters in the names of the people in their families or group of friends. Learners write out the names in graph paper, with one letter in each square, and cut out the names. Learners sort the names from shortest to longest and then find the average length of the names by cutting and scrambling up the letters. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.
The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindstrom, Peter
1988-01-01
Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)
Floody, O R
1993-08-01
Studies of the mechanisms for female-typical mating behavior have focused on the ventromedial hypothalamus, and on the decrements in lordosis caused by lesions of this structure. However, opposed changes of comparable size are produced, at least in rats, by horizontal cuts extending forward from the anterior commissure (anterior roof deafferentation, or ARD). This suggests the existence of a lordosis-inhibiting system of forebrain structures that may include the lateral septum and preoptic area. To test the generality of this system, ovariectomized hamsters in hormone-induced estrus were observed for levels of ultrasound production and lordosis during tests with male conspecifics. In addition, subjects were observed for lordosis responses to light manual stimulation. Upon the completion of these tests, subjects received control treatments or ARD prior to a second round of behavioral observations. These postoperative tests revealed clear ARD-stimulated increases in ultrasound production and body weight. In contrast, the facilitation of lordosis was more subtle, appearing in tests with manual stimulation, but not in response to males. These results, then, demonstrate some consistency across species in the effects of ARD. At the same time, however, they suggest species differences in the magnitude of these effects, in turn, suggesting species differences in the dependence of receptivity on forebrain lordosis-inhibiting mechanisms. PMID:8372136
Sivarao, S; Vidyadaran, M K; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S; Goh, Y M; Ramesh, K N
2002-01-01
This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethnicity on maternal, placental and neonatal parameters. Maternal, placental, and the newborn parameters were corrected for gestational age. The male:female sex ratio was 1:1.03. One hundred and forty-four freshly delivered placentae from 55 Malaysian, 51 Chinese, and 38 Indian normal healthy patients were collected and standard stereological methods used to estimate the placental parameters. Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation and 1-way ANOVA were used to test significance of differences. Placental surface area, placental weight and placental volume of Indians were lower than Malays (P< 0.05). Placental weight correlated significantly with neonatal length (r=0.527), birthweight (r=0.665), head circumference (r=0.371) and booking weight (r=0.193) while placental volume correlated with neonatal length (r=0.588), birthweight (r=0.688), head circumference (r=0.384), parity (r=0.202) and booking weight (r=0.219) at P< 0.05. Indian babies weight and length were less than Chinese and Malay babies (P< 0.05) while booking weight of Indian mothers was less than those of Chinese mothers (P< 0.05). Even after being corrected for booking weight, placental parameters of Indian patients were still significantly less than Malays and Chinese (P< 0.05). PMID:12361688
Wenfeng Duan; Aihua Bai; Baozhu Cao
2010-01-01
The situations of low story dwelling in northeast rural areas of China was introduced, aggregate comparing analysis was carried out on thermal insulating performance of dwellings with different structure, building material and thermal insulating equipment. According to construction experience of rural thermal insulating and ecotypical dwellings, a new rural dwelling was provided here. The new light-weight steel-straw bale thermal insulating
Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael
2010-01-01
Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.
Lopes, Thomas J.; Evetts, David M.
2004-01-01
Nevada's reliance on ground-water resources has increased because of increased development and surface-water resources being fully appropriated. The need to accurately quantify Nevada's water resources and water use is more critical than ever to meet future demands. Estimated ground-water pumpage, artificial and natural recharge, and interbasin flow can be used to help evaluate stresses on aquifer systems. In this report, estimates of ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge during calendar year 2000 were made using data from a variety of sources, such as reported estimates and estimates made using Landsat satellite imagery. Average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow were compiled from published reports. An estimated 1,427,100 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in Nevada during calendar year 2000. This total was calculated by summing six categories of ground-water pumpage, based on water use. Total artificial recharge during 2000 was about 145,970 acre-feet. At least one estimate of natural recharge was available for 209 of the 232 hydrographic areas (HAs). Natural recharge for the 209 HAs ranges from 1,793,420 to 2,583,150 acre-feet. Estimates of interbasin flow were available for 151 HAs. The categories and their percentage of the total ground-water pumpage are irrigation and stock watering (47 percent), mining (26 percent), water systems (14 percent), geothermal production (8 percent), self-supplied domestic (4 percent), and miscellaneous (less than 1 percent). Pumpage in the top 10 HAs accounted for about 49 percent of the total ground-water pumpage. The most ground-water pumpage in an HA was due to mining in Pumpernickel Valley (HA 65), Boulder Flat (HA 61), and Lower Reese River Valley (HA 59). Pumpage by water systems in Las Vegas Valley (HA 212) and Truckee Meadows (HA 87) were the fourth and fifth highest pumpage in 2000, respectively. Irrigation and stock watering pumpage accounted for most ground-water withdrawals in the HAs with the sixth through ninth highest pumpage. Geothermal production accounted for most pumpage in the Carson Desert (HA 101). Reinjection of ground water pumped for geothermal energy production accounted for about 64 percent (93,310 acre-feet) of the total artificial recharge. The only artificial recharge by water systems was in Las Vegas Valley, where 29,790 acre-feet of water from the Colorado River was injected into the aquifer system. Artificial recharge by mining totaled 22,870 acre-feet. Net ground-water flow was estimated only for the 143 HAs with available estimates of both natural recharge and interbasin flow. Of the 143 estimates, 58 have negative net ground-water flow, indicating that ground-water storage could be depleted if pumpage continues at the same rate. The State has designated HAs where permitted ground-water rights approach or exceed the estimated average annual recharge. Ten HAs were identified that are not designated and have a net ground-water flow between -1,000 to -35,000 acre-feet. Due to uncertainties in recharge, the water budgets for these HAs may need refining to determine if ground-water storage is being depleted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franz, Trenton E.; Zreda, M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Rosolem, R.
2013-10-01
The cosmic-ray neutron probe measures soil moisture over tens of hectares, thus averaging spatially variable soil moisture fields. A previous paper described how variable soil moisture profiles affect the integrated cosmic-ray neutron signal from which depth-average soil moisture is computed. Here, we investigate the effect of horizontal heterogeneity on the relationship between neutron counts and average soil moisture. Observations from a distributed sensor network at a site in southern Arizona indicate that the horizontal component of the total variance of the soil moisture field is less variably in time than the vertical component. Using results from neutron particle transport simulations we show that 1-D binary distributions of soil moisture may affect both the mean and variance of neutron counts of a cosmic-ray neutron detector placed arbitrarily in a soil moisture field, potentially giving rise to an underestimate of the footprint average soil moisture. Similar simulations that used 1-D and 2-D Gaussian soil moisture fields indicate consistent mean and variances of a randomly placed detector if the correlation length scales are short (less than ˜30 m) and/or the soil moisture field variance is small (<0.032 m6 m-6). Taken together, these soil moisture observations and neutron transport simulations show that horizontal heterogeneity likely has a small effect on the relationship between mean neutron counts and average soil moisture for soils under natural conditions.
2011-01-01
Background Meniscus extrusion or hypertrophy may occur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, currently no data are available on the position and size of the meniscus in asymptomatic men and women with normal meniscus integrity. Methods Three-dimensional coronal DESSwe MRIs were used to segment and quantitatively measure the size and position of the medial and lateral menisci, and their correlation with sex, height, weight, and tibial plateau area. 102 knees (40 male and 62 female) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative "non-exposed" reference cohort, including subjects without symptoms, radiographic signs, or risk factors for knee OA. Knees with MRI signs of meniscus lesions were excluded. Results The tibial plateau area was significantly larger (p < 0.001) in male knees than in female ones (+23% medially; +28% laterally), as was total meniscus surface area (p < 0.001, +20% medially; +26% laterally). Ipsi-compartimental tibial plateau area was more strongly correlated with total meniscus surface area in men (r = .72 medially; r = .62 laterally) and women (r = .67; r = .75) than contra-compartimental or total tibial plateau area, body height or weight. The ratio of meniscus versus tibial plateau area was similar between men and women (p = 0.22 medially; p = 0.72 laterally). Tibial coverage by the meniscus was similar between men and women (50% medially; 58% laterally), but "physiological" medial meniscal extrusion was greater in women (1.83 ± 1.06mm) than in men (1.24mm ± 1.18mm; p = 0.011). Conclusions These data suggest that meniscus surface area strongly scales with (ipsilateral) tibial plateau area across both sexes, and that tibial coverage by the meniscus is similar between men and women. PMID:22035074
200 Area population weighted X/Q for the public within 10 miles of the site boundary
Van Keuren, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-07-09
An overall population weighted atmospheric dispersion coefficient (X/Q) has been calculated for the public within 10 miles of the Hanford Site boundary. The Columbia river was assumed as the Hanford site boundary to the north and the east. The GXQ code was used for the calculation. The value calculated is 1.88 x 10-8 s/m 3.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
2015-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…
Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel
2014-01-01
Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P??0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283
Knight, Craig, 1971-
2003-01-01
This thesis attempts to analyze the long-standing perception that the secondary home market, homes built in and around vacation areas, is more volatile than the primary home market. For the first time, this study measures ...
Faustino, Laura I; Bulfe, Nardia M L; Pinazo, Martín A; Monteoliva, Silvia E; Graciano, Corina
2013-03-01
Plants of Pinus taeda L. from each of four families were fertilized with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N?+?P at planting. The H family had the highest growth in dry mass while the L family had the lowest growth. Measurements of plant hydraulic architecture traits were performed during the first year after planting. Stomatal conductance (gs), water potential at predawn (?predawn) and at midday (?midday), branch hydraulic conductivity (ks and kl) and shoot hydraulic conductance (K) were measured. One year after planting, dry weight partitioning of all aboveground organs was performed. Phosphorus fertilization increased growth in all four families, while N fertilization had a negative effect on growth. L family plants were more negatively affected than H family plants. This negative effect was not due to limitations in N or P uptake because plants from all the families and treatments had the same N and P concentration in the needles. Phosphorus fertilization changed some hydraulic parameters, but those changes did not affect growth. However, the negative effect of N can be explained by changes in hydraulic traits. L family plants had a high leaf dry weight per branch, which was increased by N fertilization. This change occurred together with a decrease in shoot conductance. Therefore, the reduction in gs was not enough to avoid the drop in ?midday. Consequently, stomatal closure and the deficient water status of the needles resulted in a reduction in growth. In H family plants, the increase in the number of needles per branch due to N fertilization was counteracted by a reduction in gs and also by a reduction in tracheid lumen size and length. Because of these two changes, ?midday did not drop and water availability in the needles was adequate for sustained growth. In conclusion, fertilization affects the hydraulic architecture of plants, and different families develop different strategies. Some of the hydraulic changes can explain the negative effect of N fertilization on growth. PMID:23355634
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca
2015-04-01
Modeling of rainfall statistical structure represents an important research area in hydrology, meteorology, atmospheric physics and climatology, because of the several theoretical and practical implications. The statistical inference of the alternation of wet periods (WP) and dry periods (DP) in daily rainfall records can be achieved through the modelling of inter-arrival time-series (IT), defined as the succession of times elapsed from a rainy day and the one immediately preceding it. It has been shown previously that the statistical structure of IT can be well described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution (Lch). In this work, Lch was successfully applied to IT data belonging to a sub-alpine area (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy); furthermore the same statistical procedure was applied to daily rainfall records to ITs associated. The analysis has been carried out for 26 daily rainfall long-series (? 90 yr of observations). The main objective of this work was to detect temporal trends of some features describing the statistical structure of both inter-arrival time-series (IT) and associated rainfall depth (H). Each time-series was divided on subsets of five years long and for each of them the estimation of the Lch parameter was performed, so to extend the trend analysis to some high quantiles.
Krieger, N; Chen, J; Waterman, P; Soobader, M; Subramanian, S; Carson, R
2003-01-01
Study objectives: To determine which area based socioeconomic measures can meaningfully be used, at which level of geography, to monitor socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health in the US. Design: Cross sectional analysis of birth certificate and childhood lead poisoning registry data, geocoded and linked to diverse area based socioeconomic measures that were generated at three geographical levels: census tract, block group, and ZIP code. Setting: Two US states: Massachusetts (1990 population=6 016 425) and Rhode Island (1990 population=1 003 464). Participants: All births born to mothers ages 15 to 55 years old who were residents of either Massachusetts (1989–1991; n=267 311) or Rhode Island (1987–1993; n=96 138), and all children ages 1 to 5 years residing in Rhode Island who were screened for lead levels between 1994 and 1996 (n=62 514 children, restricted to first test during the study period). Main results: Analyses of both the birth weight and lead data indicated that: (a) block group and tract socioeconomic measures performed similarly within and across both states, while ZIP code level measures tended to detect smaller effects; (b) measures pertaining to economic poverty detected stronger gradients than measures of education, occupation, and wealth; (c) results were similar for categories generated by quintiles and by a priori categorical cut off points; and (d) the area based socioeconomic measures yielded estimates of effect equal to or augmenting those detected, respectively, by individual level educational data for birth outcomes and by the area based housing measure recommended by the US government for monitoring childhood lead poisoning. Conclusions: Census tract or block group area based socioeconomic measures of economic deprivation could be meaningfully used in conjunction with US public health surveillance systems to enable or enhance monitoring of social inequalities in health in the United States. PMID:12594195
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
from kidbar until weaning. Kids of both groups B and C were abruptly weaned at 6 weeks of age. The live weight of kids at 10 weeks of age was 12.1, 13.1 and 12.1 kg on an average in Groups A, B and C, respectively. Kid performances were satisfactory in all groups. However, abrupt weaned kids (Group C) exhibited
NSDL National Science Digital Library
N/A N/A (None; )
2005-12-11
Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.
How to Address Measurement Noise in Bayesian Model Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schöniger, A.; Wöhling, T.; Nowak, W.
2014-12-01
When confronted with the challenge of selecting one out of several competing conceptual models for a specific modeling task, Bayesian model averaging is a rigorous choice. It ranks the plausibility of models based on Bayes' theorem, which yields an optimal trade-off between performance and complexity. With the resulting posterior model probabilities, their individual predictions are combined into a robust weighted average and the overall predictive uncertainty (including conceptual uncertainty) can be quantified. This rigorous framework does, however, not yet explicitly consider statistical significance of measurement noise in the calibration data set. This is a major drawback, because model weights might be instable due to the uncertainty in noisy data, which may compromise the reliability of model ranking. We present a new extension to the Bayesian model averaging framework that explicitly accounts for measurement noise as a source of uncertainty for the weights. This enables modelers to assess the reliability of model ranking for a specific application and a given calibration data set. Also, the impact of measurement noise on the overall prediction uncertainty can be determined. Technically, our extension is built within a Monte Carlo framework. We repeatedly perturb the observed data with random realizations of measurement error. Then, we determine the robustness of the resulting model weights against measurement noise. We quantify the variability of posterior model weights as weighting variance. We add this new variance term to the overall prediction uncertainty analysis within the Bayesian model averaging framework to make uncertainty quantification more realistic and "complete". We illustrate the importance of our suggested extension with an application to soil-plant model selection, based on studies by Wöhling et al. (2013, 2014). Results confirm that noise in leaf area index or evaporation rate observations produces a significant amount of weighting uncertainty and compromises the reliability of model ranking. Without our suggested extension, this additional contribution to prediction uncertainty could not be detected and model ranking results would be misinterpreted. We therefore advise modelers to include our suggested upgrade in the Bayesian model averaging routine.
Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....
Non-genetic factors affecting live weight and daily gain weight in Serrana Transmontano kids
M. R. Jiménez-Badillo; S. Rodrigues; C. Sañudo; A. Teixeira
2009-01-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some non-genetic factors on birth weight, weaning weight and daily gain weight in Serrana Transmontano kids. Data from 8930 records were analysed. Results showed that birth weight (BW), adjusted live weight at 30 days of age (W30), adjusted weaning weight at 60 days of age (WW), average daily gain
Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Alemany, Silvia; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes
2015-01-01
Background Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW) induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA) which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles. Aims We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i) to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii) to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ) influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects. Results Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders. Conclusion The present study supports findings indicating that i) BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii) uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii) higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv) these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology. PMID:26086820
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karnitz, M. A.; Kornegay, F. C.; McLain, H. A.; Murphy, B. D.; Raridon, R. J.; Shlatter, E. C.
1981-03-01
Annual average SO2 concentrations in air at ground level were determined for a base year (1976) and for a future year (1987) with and without a 2600-MW(t) district heating system. Without district heating, the SO2 concentrations in the area are predicted to increase with time because of anticipated increased substitution of oil for curtailed natural gas. Implementation of the district heating/cogeneration system is predicted to mitigate this increase of SO2 concentrations significantly. Although the total emissions will be slightly higher with district heating/cogeneration because of the substitution of coal for natural gas and oil, use of tall stacks at the cogeneration plants will permit greater dispersion of the SO2 emissions. Considerable overall energy savings, particularly in the form of natural gas and oil, will be realized with a district heating/cogeneration system.
Methodological issues in weight cycling
Gary Cutter; Sachiko Jeor; Robert Brunner; Pam Wolfe; John Foreyt; Alan Dyer; Kelly D. Brownell
1996-01-01
Recent studies have suggested that weight changes may be related to disease risk independent of weight status. A critical\\u000a step in testing this assertion is the measurement of weight change and so-called “weight cycling”. However intuitive the concept\\u000a of weight cycling may appear, research in this area is hampered by complex methodological issues. This article discusses various\\u000a measures of nominal
... weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods Eating smaller portions Drinking water instead of sugary drinks Being physically active Eating ...
42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...MA-PD plans included in the national average bid a weight based...assigned zero weight). (c) Geographic adjustment. (1) Upon...appropriate methodology, the national average monthly bid amount...2) CMS does not apply any geographic adjustments if CMS...
Pearlman, David A; Rao, B Govinda; Charifson, Paul
2008-05-15
We demonstrate a new approach to the development of scoring functions through the formulation and parameterization of a new function, which can be used both for rapidly ranking the binding of ligands to proteins and for estimating relative aqueous molecular solubilities. The intent of this work is to introduce a new paradigm for creation of scoring functions, wherein we impose the following criteria upon the function: (1) simple; (2) intuitive; (3) requires no postparameterization tweaking; (4) can be applied (without reparameterization) to multiple target systems; and (5) can be rapidly evaluated for any potential ligand. Following these criteria, a new function, FURSMASA (function for rapid scoring using an MD-averaged grid and the accessible surface area) has been developed. Three novel features of the function include: (1) use of an MD-averaged potential energy grid for ligand-protein interactions, rather than a simple static grid; (2) inclusion of a term that depends on the change in the solvent-accessible surface area changes on an atomic (not molecular) basis; and (3) use of the recently derived predictive index (PI) target when optimizing the function, which focuses the function on its intended purpose of relative ranking. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the function against test data sets that include ligands for the following proteins: IMPDH, p38, gyrase B, HIV-1, and TACE, as well as the Syracuse Research solubility database. We find that the function is predictive, and can simultaneously fit all the test data sets with cross-validated predictive indices ranging from 0.68 to 0.82. As a test of the ability of this function to predict binding for systems not in the training set, the resulting fitted FURSAMA function is then applied to 23 ligands of the COX-2 enzyme. Comparing the results for COX-2 against those obtained using a variety of well-known rapid scoring functions demonstrates that FURSMASA outperforms all of them in terms of the PI and correlation coefficient. We also find that the FURSAMA function is able to reliably predict the water solubility for 1032 compounds from the Syracuse Research solubility database with a cross-correlated PI of 0.84 and a correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.69. This prediction, which is based solely on a term derived from the atom-based solvent-accessible surface areas, compares favorably with the best prediction methods in the literature, most of which are more complex and/or require experimental data. Finally, as a rigorous test of the applicability to database screening, we apply FURSMASA to large active/decoy ligand databases for IMPDH (400 actives vs. 10,000 decoys), p38 (502 actives vs. 10,000 decoys), and HIV (787 actives vs. 10,000 decoys) used in earlier work to critically evaluate many popular scoring functions, and find that FURSMASA performs surprisingly well for IMPDH and HIV. PMID:18300249
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chun-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Lian; Liu, Ai-Fen; Wu, Yong-Ping; Shen, Dan; Liu, Shui-Jing; Qian, Xia; Feng, Ya-Chao; Wei, Cheng-Liang; He, Da-Ren
2008-11-01
We present an empirical investigation of 14 real world networks, which can be described by bipartite graphs. We show that the basic elements (the actor nodes) in all the networks cooperate and compete in some acts (activities, organizations, or events). Each node is assigned by a 'node weight', which denotes the obtained competition result. We are interested in the distribution and disparity of the node weight and propose three parameters for the description. Firstly, empirically we observe that the total node weight distributions of all the systems may be fitted by the so-called 'shifted power law' function form. The key parameters of the function, ? and ?, can be used to describe the disparity. Secondly, a 'node weight disparity', Y, is defined for the same purpose. The empirical relationships among the parameters Y, ? and ?, are obtained. From the relationships between Y and ? as well as Y and ?, one can deduce the relationship between a and ?, which is in a good agreement with the empirically obtained relationship. The results show that the node weight distribution is very uneven.
Monthly Average Temperature Modelling
M. Andrade-Bejarano
This research is associated with the goal of the horticultural sector of the Colombian southwest, which is to obtain climatic\\u000a information, specifically, to predict the monthly average temperature in sites where it has not been measured. The data correspond\\u000a to monthly average temperature, and were recorded in meteorological stations at Valle del Cauca, Colombia, South America.\\u000a Two components are identified
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.
1973-01-01
The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Doug
1990-01-01
The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)
Chun-Hua Fu; Xiu-Lian Xu; Ai-Fen Liu; Yong-Ping Wu; Dan Shen; Shui-Jing Liu; Xia Qian; Ya-Chao Feng; Cheng-Liang Wei; Da-Ren He
2008-01-01
We present an empirical investigation of 14 real world networks, which can be described by bipartite graphs. We show that the basic elements (the actor nodes) in all the networks cooperate and compete in some acts (activities, organizations, or events). Each node is assigned by a 'node weight', which denotes the obtained competition result. We are interested in the distribution
Product (a) Type (b) Time of Harvest Gear Code (c) Area of catch (d) Net Weight No. of Fish F/FR RD/GG/DR/FL/OT (mm/yy) (kg) (when RD, GG or DR) Name Address Signature Date Licence Number (if applicable) Name knowledge and belief. (a): F=Fresh, FR=Frozen (b): RD=Round, GG=Gilled and Gutted, DR=Dressed, FL=Fillet, OT
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Roberts, Lila F.
2005-04-21
This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.
Dietrich Wettschereck I; David W. Aha
1995-01-01
. Many case-based reasoning algorithms retrieve cases using aderivative of the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, whose similarityfunction is sensitive to irrelevant, interacting, and noisy features. Manyproposed methods for reducing this sensitivity parameterize k-NN's similarityfunction with feature weights. We focus on methods that automaticallyassign weight settings using little or no domain-specific knowledge.Our goal is to predict the relative capabilities of these
N Krieger; J T Chen; P D Waterman; M-J Soobader; S V Subramanian; R Carson
2003-01-01
Study objectives: To determine which area based socioeconomic measures can meaningfully be used, at which level of geography, to monitor socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health in the US. Design: Cross sectional analysis of birth certificate and childhood lead poisoning registry data, geocoded and linked to diverse area based socioeconomic measures that were generated at three geographical levels: census tract, block
Hall, Sharon J.
Metro Area WWTP #1 1800 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #1 DUP 1700 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #2 1870 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #2 DUP 1840 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #3 2000 Phoenix Metro Area WWTP #3 DUP 1774 Average
Covariant approximation averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2015-06-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
Combining forecast weights: Why and how?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim
2012-09-01
This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.
Lorcaserin for weight management
Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason
2013-01-01
Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m2 or ?27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837
Improved averaging for non-null interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.
2013-09-01
Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.
Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.
2010-01-01
Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement its lighting needs with natural sunlight. David Fisher has proposed an ingenious method to harness the wind...
Americans' Average Radiation Exposure
NA
2000-08-11
We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.
Flexibility of spatial averaging in visual perception
Lombrozo, Tania; Judson, Jeff; MacLeod, Donald I.A
2005-01-01
The classical receptive field (RF) concept—the idea that a visual neuron responds to fixed parts and properties of a stimulus—has been challenged by a series of recent physiological results. Here, we extend these findings to human vision, demonstrating that the extent of spatial averaging in contrast perception is also flexible, depending strongly on stimulus contrast and uniformity. At low contrast, spatial averaging is greatest (about 11?min of arc) within uniform regions such as edges, as expected if the relevant neurons have orientation-selective RFs. At high contrast, spatial averaging is minimal. These results can be understood if the visual system is balancing a trade-off between noise reduction, which favours large areas of averaging, and detail preservation, which favours minimal averaging. Two distinct populations of neurons with hard-wired RFs could account for our results, as could the more intriguing possibility of dynamic, contrast-dependent RFs. PMID:15870034
Constrained randomization of weighted networks.
Ansmann, Gerrit; Lehnertz, Klaus
2011-08-01
We propose a Markov chain method to efficiently generate surrogate networks that are random under the constraint of given vertex strengths. With these strength-preserving surrogates and with edge-weight-preserving surrogates we investigate the clustering coefficient and the average shortest path length of functional networks of the human brain as well as of the International Trade Networks. We demonstrate that surrogate networks can provide additional information about network-specific characteristics and thus help interpreting empirical weighted networks. PMID:21929060
Interpreting Bivariate Regression Coefficients: Going beyond the Average
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael
2010-01-01
Statistics, econometrics, investment analysis, and data analysis classes often review the calculation of several types of averages, including the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and various weighted averages. This note shows how each of these can be computed using a basic regression framework. By recognizing when a regression model…
The influence of aquariums on weight in individuals with dementia.
Edwards, Nancy E; Beck, Alan M
2013-01-01
This study assessed whether individuals with dementia who observe aquariums increase the amount of food they consume and maintain body weight. The sample included 70 residents in dementia units within 3 extended care facilities in 2 states. The intervention included the introduction of an aquarium into each common dining area. A total increase of 196.9 g of daily food intake (25.0%) was noted from baseline to the end of the 10-week study. Resident body weight increased an average of 2.2 pounds during the study. Eight of 70 residents experienced a weight loss ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=1.89 lbs). People with advanced dementia responded to aquariums in their environment documenting that attraction to the natural environment is so innate that it survives dementia. PMID:23138175
Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.
2010-01-01
GREEN WIEGHT Ahmed KH. Al-Haji Ahmed A. Al-Omair Trainee Schlumberger U.A.E. Abu Dhabi ABSTRACT Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement... to acknowledge all of Dr. Ahmed BoShehri for being our supervisor in this project, Dr. Abdul-Aziz AlRashed for teaching us about the fiber optics, Dr.Mohammad BoShehri for helping us in the design of the blades, Eng. Ahmed ALSafi for giving us the wind...
Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Berthiaume, Marie-Josée; Abram, François; Choquette, Denis; Haraoui, Boulos; Beary, John F; Cline, Gary A; Meyer, Joan M; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne
2007-01-01
The objective of this study was to identify, on a symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) cohort, the risk factors associated with the progression of the disease. More specifically, we investigated the correlation between knee cartilage volume loss from subregions over the span of 24 months by means of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) with demographic, clinical, radiological, and MRI structural changes. A cohort of 107 patients with knee OA selected from a large trial evaluating the effect of a bisphosphonate underwent x-rays and MRI of the knee at baseline and 24 months. Joint space width (JSW) and joint space narrowing (JSN) and cartilage volume loss over time in subregions of the tibial plateaus and femoral condyles were quantitated. Structural changes in the subchondral bone (hypersignal) and in the menisci (tear and extrusion) were also evaluated. The greatest cartilage volume loss was found in the medial compartment, and risk factors included female gender, JSW, meniscal lesions, and bone changes at baseline. Subregion analysis revealed that the greatest cartilage volume loss at 24 months was found in the central area of the medial tibial plateau (15%; p < 0.0001) and of the medial femoral condyle (12%; p < 0.0001). These findings were associated with the presence at baseline of meniscal extrusion, particularly severe meniscal extrusion, medial and severe meniscal tear, bone hypersignal, high body mass index (BMI), smaller JSW, increases in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and patient global scores over time, and greater JSN. Parameters predicting medial central femoral condyle cartilage volume loss at 24 months were lateral meniscal tear, SF-36 and BMI at baseline, and JSN. At the medial central tibial plateau, the parameters were severe meniscal extrusion, severe lateral meniscal tear, and bone hypersignal in the lateral compartment at baseline, and WOMAC pain change. Meniscal damage and bone changes are the features most closely associated with the greatest subregional cartilage volume loss. Interestingly, for the first time, JSN was strongly associated with cartilage loss in the central areas of plateaus and condyles. This study also further confirms the correlation between cartilage volume loss and JSN and symptomatic changes at 24 months. PMID:17672891
Owori, Steven
1991-01-01
highest average 25 TABLE 5. AVERAGE WEIGHT GAINS (KG) BY TREATMENT FOR THE ENTIRE PERIOD Weeks Hi h-ener Fora e-hi h ener Fora e 0-3 3-6 6-9 9-12 12-15 15-18 18-21 4. 42 2. 76 5. 93 3. 63 2. 92 2. 22 1. 67 4. 47 3. 42 4. 62 1. 06 2... wall thickness; loin eye area; muscle depth; fat depth at the tail head; fat depth at the scapula; average daily gain; total days on feed; shrunk weight; Warner-Bratzler shear values; conformation; leg conformation; kidney and pelvic percentages...
Thomas M. Smith; C. F. Ropelewski; R. W. Reynolds
1994-01-01
Optimal averaging (OA) is used to compute the area-average seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) for a variety of areas from 1860 to 1989. The OA gives statistically improved averages and the objective assignment of confidence intervals to these averages. For the global average, the early part of the record (1860-1890) and the times of the two world wars have largest
Online Averaging Wavelet Denoising Method
E. Khadem Olama; H. Jazayeri-Rad
2011-01-01
In this paper, the non-stationary noises are challenged by an online averaging wavelet method filter. The novelty of the filter is using averaging method of combining mean values of each resolution in approximation spaces that computes the average overall frequency in a specific point. The key structure is a mirror usage of data handling the zero abnormality of the filter
Average-Atom Thomson Scattering
Johnson, Walter R.
Average-Atom Thomson Scattering Applications Xray Scattering from Warm Dense Matter Thomson Scattering in the Average-Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame Collaborators: Joe Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL July 10, 2012 Atomic Physics Seminar Xray Scattering #12;Average-Atom Thomson Scattering
Average-Atom Thomson Scattering
Johnson, Walter R.
Average-Atom Thomson Scattering Applications Xray Scattering from WDM Thomson Scattering in the Average-Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame Collaborators: Joe Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL Computational Challenges in WDM PLWS-4 Xray Scattering #12;Average-Atom Thomson Scattering Applications Outline
Averaging Quaternions F. Landis Markley
Crassidis, John L.
Averaging Quaternions F. Landis Markley NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 Yang that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions
College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.
2008-01-01
Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…
Aggression in mice selectively bred for brain weight
Ruth-Ann Collins
1970-01-01
Mice from lines selectively bred for high and low brain weight and from an unselected line of average brain weight displayed marked differences in aggressiveness during rearing in large enrichment cages. Low brain weight animals were highly aggressive as compared with moderately aggressive control animals, and non-aggressive high brain weight animals.
MIT BLOSSOMS - Flaws of Averages
NSDL National Science Digital Library
MIT BLOSSOMS
2011-06-23
This learning video presents an introduction to the Flaws of Averages using three exciting examples: the “crossing of the river” example, the “cookie” example, and the “dance class” example. Averages are often worthwhile representations of a set of data by a single descriptive number. The objective of this module, however, is to simply point out a few pitfalls that could arise if one is not attentive to details when calculating and interpreting averages. Most students at any level in high school can understand the concept of the flaws of averages presented here. The essential prerequisite knowledge for this video lesson is the ability to calculate an average from a set of numbers. Materials needed include: pen and paper for the students; and a blackboard or equivalent. During this video lesson, students will learn about three flaws of averages: (1) The average is not always a good description of the actual situation, (2) The function of the average is not always the same as the average of the function, and (3) The average depends on your perspective. To convey these concepts, the students are presented with the three real world examples mentioned above. The total length of the four in-class video segments is 12 minutes, leaving lots of time in a typical class session for the teacher to work with the students on their own learning examples (such as those from the supplementary notes) to firm up the ideas presented here on the flaws of averages.
Longitudinal Study of Body Weight Changes in Children: Who Is Gaining and Who Is Losing Weight
Donald A. Williamson; Hongmei Han; William D. Johnson; Tiffany M. Stewart; David W. Harsha
2011-01-01
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight\\/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight\\/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight\\/fat
Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation
FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.
2014-01-01
Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724
Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.
Glenn, Nicole M
2013-03-01
Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478
Region-based Dynamic Weighting Probabilistic Geocoding
Li, Zhongxia
2014-07-30
..............................................................37 3.4.2 Dynamic weighting regions generation ..................................................42 3.4.2.1 Street signature for ZIP code areas ................................................43 3.4.2.2 Dynamic weighting regions consolidation...-generated indexes examples for each table ...................................... 42 Figure 3.13 The examples of street signature set for ZIP code area ................................. 44 Figure 3.14 The examples of statistics for region...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo
2013-03-01
At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.
Calculating High Speed Centrifugal Compressor Performance from Averaged Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, Fangyuan; Fleming, Ryan; Key, Nicole L.
2012-12-01
To improve the understanding of high performance centrifugal compressors found in modern aircraft engines, the aerodynamics through these machines must be experimentally studied. To accurately capture the complex flow phenomena through these devices, research facilities that can accurately simulate these flows are necessary. One such facility has been recently developed, and it is used in this paper to explore the effects of averaging total pressure and total temperature measurements to calculate compressor performance. Different averaging techniques (including area averaging, mass averaging, and work averaging) have been applied to the data. Results show that there is a negligible difference in both the calculated total pressure ratio and efficiency for the different techniques employed. However, the uncertainty in the performance parameters calculated with the different averaging techniques is significantly different, with area averaging providing the least uncertainty.
Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Malawi: Bayesian Geo-Additive Modelling
Ngwira, Alfred; Stanley, Christopher C.
2015-01-01
Studies on factors of low birth weight in Malawi have neglected the flexible approach of using smooth functions for some covariates in models. Such flexible approach reveals detailed relationship of covariates with the response. The study aimed at investigating risk factors of low birth weight in Malawi by assuming a flexible approach for continuous covariates and geographical random effect. A Bayesian geo-additive model for birth weight in kilograms and size of the child at birth (less than average or average and higher) with district as a spatial effect using the 2010 Malawi demographic and health survey data was adopted. A Gaussian model for birth weight in kilograms and a binary logistic model for the binary outcome (size of child at birth) were fitted. Continuous covariates were modelled by the penalized (p) splines and spatial effects were smoothed by the two dimensional p-spline. The study found that child birth order, mother weight and height are significant predictors of birth weight. Secondary education for mother, birth order categories 2-3 and 4-5, wealth index of richer family and mother height were significant predictors of child size at birth. The area associated with low birth weight was Chitipa and areas with increased risk to less than average size at birth were Chitipa and Mchinji. The study found support for the flexible modelling of some covariates that clearly have nonlinear influences. Nevertheless there is no strong support for inclusion of geographical spatial analysis. The spatial patterns though point to the influence of omitted variables with some spatial structure or possibly epidemiological processes that account for this spatial structure and the maps generated could be used for targeting development efforts at a glance. PMID:26114866
Average Speed and Unit Conversion
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2009-01-01
Students will determine average speeds from data collected and convert units for speed problems. Students try to roll the ball with a prescribed average speed based on intuition. Then, based on unit conversion we will see how accurate the rolls really were.
When good = better than average
Don A. Moore
2007-01-01
People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These
Incorporating Complex Sample Design Effects When Only Final Survey Weights are Available
West, Brady T.; McCabe, Sean Esteban
2012-01-01
This article considers the situation that arises when a survey data producer has collected data from a sample with a complex design (possibly featuring stratification of the population, cluster sampling, and / or unequal probabilities of selection), and for various reasons only provides secondary analysts of those survey data with a final survey weight for each respondent and “average” design effects for survey estimates computed from the data. In general, these “average” design effects, presumably computed by the data producer in a way that fully accounts for all of the complex sampling features, already incorporate possible increases in sampling variance due to the use of the survey weights in estimation. The secondary analyst of the survey data who then 1) uses the provided information to compute weighted estimates, 2) computes design-based standard errors reflecting variance in the weights (using Taylor Series Linearization, for example), and 3) inflates the estimated variances using the “average” design effects provided is applying a “double” adjustment to the standard errors for the effect of weighting on the variance estimates, leading to overly conservative inferences. We propose a simple method for preventing this problem, and provide a Stata program for applying appropriate adjustments to variance estimates in this situation. We illustrate two applications of the method to survey data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, and conclude with suggested directions for future research in this area. PMID:24596541
Relation between Birth Weight and Placenta Weight
Luz Helena Sanin; Sandra Reza López; Edith Tufiño Olivares; Martha Corral Terrazas; Miguel Angel Robles Silva; Margarita Levario Carrillo
2001-01-01
With the goal to establish a model that relates birth weight to placenta weight, adjusted for the most documented predictors of birth weight, 300 live newborns were studied, all were products of single gestation. Inclusion criteria were newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or older according to the date of last menstruation, whose mothers did not have diabetes mellitus,
Distributed averaging in dynamic networks
Rajagopalan, Shreevatsa
2010-01-01
The question of computing average of numbers present at nodes in a network in a distributed manner using gossip or message-passing algorithms has been of great recent interest across disciplines -- algorithms, control and ...
Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology
Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)
2007-02-15
The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis.
High average power pockels cell
Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)
1991-01-01
A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.
Time-averaged digital holography.
Picart, Pascal; Leval, Julien; Mounier, Denis; Gougeon, Samuel
2003-10-15
We demonstrate that it is possible to study the modal structures of a vibrating object with digitally recorded holograms by use of the time-averaging principle. We investigate the numerical reconstruction from a theoretical point of view, and we show that the numerically reconstructed object from a digital hologram is modulated by the zeroth-order Bessel function. Results of experiments in time-averaged digital holography are presented. PMID:14587769
Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole
2014-01-01
Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age?=?43.25, SD?=?13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768
Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.
Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P
2014-01-01
To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347
Improvement of Rate Shift in Average Atomic Time Scale Algorithm
Yuko Hanado; Mizuhiko Hosokawa
2008-01-01
In an average atomic time scale algorithm, we developed a new method of suppressing the influence of a large sudden rate shift in some clocks. The method entails two points. One is to add a clock rate check process. The weight of a bad clock is forced to be zero if its latest rate largely changes from the past rate.
The causal meaning of Fisher’s average effect
LEE, JAMES J.; CHOW, CARSON C.
2013-01-01
Summary In order to formulate the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, Fisher defined the average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Finding these notions to be somewhat opaque, some authors have recommended reformulating Fisher’s ideas in terms of covariance and regression, which are classical concepts of statistics. We argue that Fisher intended his two averages to express a distinction between correlation and causation. On this view, the average effect is a specific weighted average of the actual phenotypic changes that result from physically changing the allelic states of homologous genes. We show that the statistical and causal conceptions of the average effect, perceived as inconsistent by Falconer, can be reconciled if certain relationships between the genotype frequencies and non-additive residuals are conserved. There are certain theory-internal considerations favouring Fisher’s original formulation in terms of causality; for example, the frequency-weighted mean of the average effects equaling zero at each locus becomes a derivable consequence rather than an arbitrary constraint. More broadly, Fisher’s distinction between correlation and causation is of critical importance to gene-trait mapping studies and the foundations of evolutionary biology. PMID:23938113
Determining GPS average performance metrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, G. V.
1995-01-01
Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.
Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.
Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal
2010-01-26
Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047
Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront
Daniel Boer
2014-09-29
In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.
Evaluations of average level spacings
Liou, H.I.
1980-01-01
The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.
Amy L Ahern; Ashley D Olson; Louise M Aston; Susan A Jebb
2011-01-01
Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships\\u000a with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of
Averaging in the presence of sliding errors
Yost, G.P. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1991-08-01
In many cases the precision with which an experiment can measure a physical quantity depends on the value of that quantity. Not having access to the true value, experimental groups are forced to assign their errors based on their own measured value. Procedures which attempt to derive an improved estimate of the true value by a suitable average of such measurements usually weight each experiment`s measurement according to the reported variance. However, one is in a position to derive improved error estimates for each experiment from the average itself, provided an approximate idea of the functional dependence of the error on the central value is known. Failing to do so can lead to substantial biases. Techniques which avoid these biases without loss of precision are proposed and their performance is analyzed with examples. These techniques are quite general and can bring about an improvement even when the behavior of the errors is not well understood. Perhaps the most important application of the technique is in fitting curves to histograms.
Average of Synthetic Exact Filters
David S. Bolme; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a class of correlation filters called average of synthetic exact filters (ASEF). For ASEF, the correlation output is completely specified for each training image. This is in marked contrast to prior methods such as synthetic discriminant functions (SDFs) which only specify a single output value per training image. Advantages of ASEF training include: insensitivity to over-fitting, greater
Averaging facial expression over time
Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David
2010-01-01
The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064
Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Average of Synthetic Exact Filters
David S. Bolme; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a class of correlation filters called Average of Synthetic Exact Filters (ASEF). For ASEF, the correlation output is completely specified for each training image. This is in marked contrast to prior methods such as Synthetic Discriminant Functions (SDFs) which only spec- ify a single output value per training image. Advantages of ASEF training include: insenitivity to over-fitting,
Bayesian Model Averaging: A Tutorial
Jennifer A. Hoeting; David Madigan; Adrian E. Raftery; Chris T. Volinsky
Standard statistical practice ignores model uncertainty. Data analysts typically select a model from some class of models and then proceed as if the selected model had generated the data. This approach ignores the uncertainty in model selection, leading to over-confident in- ferences and decisions that are more risky than one thinks they are. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) provides a coherent
Averaging of globally coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swift, James W.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Wiesenfeld, Kurt
1992-03-01
We study a specific system of symmetrically coupled oscillators using the method of averaging. The equations describe a series array of Josephson junctions. We concentrate on the dynamics near the splay-phase state (also known as the antiphase state, ponies on a merry-go-round, or rotating wave). We calculate the Floquet exponents of the splay-phase periodic orbit in the weak-coupling limit, and find that all of the Floquet exponents are purely imaginary; in fact, all the Floquet exponents are zero except for a single complex conjugate pair. Thus, nested two-tori of doubly periodic solutions surround the splay-phase state in the linearized averaged equations. We numerically integrate the original system, and find startling agreement with the averaging results on two counts: The observed ratio of frequencies is very close to the prediction, and the solutions of the full equations appear to be either periodic or doubly periodic, as they are in the averaged equations. Such behavior is quite surprising from the point of view of generic dynamical systems theory-one expects higher-dimensional tori and chaotic solutions. We show that the functional form of the equations, and not just their symmetry, is responsible for this nongeneric behavior.
Errors due to average velocities
Bruce Denardo; Selmer Wong; Alpha Lo
1989-01-01
The error caused when the average velocity over an interval is used to approximate the instantaneous velocity at either the time or spatial midpoint of the interval is calculated for one-dimensional constant acceleration and for simple harmonic motion. The results for simple harmonic motion are applied to the computed energy, which these velocity approximations cause to deviate from constancy. Also
YOSHIO SANO
We introduce a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph of a digraph D = (V, A), denoted by Cw(D), is an edge-weighted graph (G, w) such that G = (V, E) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy ? E is the number of
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-18
In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.
Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment, December 2000
NSDL National Science Digital Library
According to the Metropolitain Area Employment and Unemployment, in December 2000, 215 metropolitan areas recorded unemployment rates below the US average of 3.7 percent. However, 106 areas reported rates higher than the US average.
Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens
Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.
Factor weighting in DRASTIC modeling.
Pacheco, F A L; Pires, L M G R; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F
2015-02-01
Evaluation of aquifer vulnerability comprehends the integration of very diverse data, including soil characteristics (texture), hydrologic settings (recharge), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), environmental parameters (relief), and ground water quality (nitrate contamination). It is therefore a multi-geosphere problem to be handled by a multidisciplinary team. The DRASTIC model remains the most popular technique in use for aquifer vulnerability assessments. The algorithm calculates an intrinsic vulnerability index based on a weighted addition of seven factors. In many studies, the method is subject to adjustments, especially in the factor weights, to meet the particularities of the studied regions. However, adjustments made by different techniques may lead to markedly different vulnerabilities and hence to insecurity in the selection of an appropriate technique. This paper reports the comparison of 5 weighting techniques, an enterprise not attempted before. The studied area comprises 26 aquifer systems located in Portugal. The tested approaches include: the Delphi consensus (original DRASTIC, used as reference), Sensitivity Analysis, Spearman correlations, Logistic Regression and Correspondence Analysis (used as adjustment techniques). In all cases but Sensitivity Analysis, adjustment techniques have privileged the factors representing soil characteristics, hydrologic settings, aquifer properties and environmental parameters, by leveling their weights to ?4.4, and have subordinated the factors describing the aquifer media by downgrading their weights to ?1.5. Logistic Regression predicts the highest and Sensitivity Analysis the lowest vulnerabilities. Overall, the vulnerability indices may be separated by a maximum value of 51 points. This represents an uncertainty of 2.5 vulnerability classes, because they are 20 points wide. Given this ambiguity, the selection of a weighting technique to integrate a vulnerability index may require additional expertise to be set up satisfactorily. Following a general criterion that weights must be proportional to the range of the ratings, Correspondence Analysis may be recommended as the best adjustment technique. PMID:25461049
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Antic, Tatjana; Giger, Maryellen L.; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin
2013-02-01
The purpose of this study was to study T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image texture features and diffusionweighted (DW) MR image features in distinguishing prostate cancer (PCa) from normal tissue. We collected two image datasets: 23 PCa patients (25 PCa and 23 normal tissue regions of interest [ROIs]) imaged with Philips MR scanners, and 30 PCa patients (41 PCa and 26 normal tissue ROIs) imaged with GE MR scanners. A radiologist drew ROIs manually via consensus histology-MR correlation conference with a pathologist. A number of T2-weighted texture features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features were investigated, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to combine select strong image features. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to characterize feature effectiveness in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue ROIs. Of the features studied, ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average yielded AUC values (+/-standard error) of 0.95+/-0.03, 0.94+/-0.03, and 0.85+/-0.05 on the Phillips images, and 0.91+/-0.04, 0.89+/-0.04, and 0.70+/-0.06 on the GE images, respectively. The three-feature combination yielded AUC values of 0.94+/-0.03 and 0.89+/-0.04 on the Phillips and GE images, respectively. ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average, are effective in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue, and appear robust in images acquired from Phillips and GE MR scanners.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku
2014-07-01
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2001-01-01
Several new and forthcoming books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) can now be read online through NAP's OpenBook feature, that allows readers to view full text of books (.html). The first listed here, "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards", is an unedited pre-print. It gives the results of a the National Academies Transportation Research Board's recent investigation into the impacts of the CAFE program, which was passed in 1975 in response to oil shortages and required that auto manufacturers increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy for passenger cars and light-duty trucks.
5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...The employment weight is the relative employment population of the survey area compared with the employment population of the COLA area as a whole. OPM uses the number of General Schedule employees in the survey area to compute employment weights. OPM...
5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...The employment weight is the relative employment population of the survey area compared with the employment population of the COLA area as a whole. OPM uses the number of General Schedule employees in the survey area to compute employment weights. OPM...
... after baby > Losing baby weight Your body after baby Your body changes a lot after having a ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Losing baby weight You've carried your baby for several ...
... probably gain weight. That’s because metabolism (how you burn the calories you eat) can slow down with ... as you eat and drink. ? To lose weight, burn more calories than you eat and drink. ? To ...
... Spotlights Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links ... that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for ...
A weighted and directed interareal connectivity matrix for macaque cerebral cortex.
Markov, N T; Ercsey-Ravasz, M M; Ribeiro Gomes, A R; Lamy, C; Magrou, L; Vezoli, J; Misery, P; Falchier, A; Quilodran, R; Gariel, M A; Sallet, J; Gamanut, R; Huissoud, C; Clavagnier, S; Giroud, P; Sappey-Marinier, D; Barone, P; Dehay, C; Toroczkai, Z; Knoblauch, K; Van Essen, D C; Kennedy, H
2014-01-01
Retrograde tracer injections in 29 of the 91 areas of the macaque cerebral cortex revealed 1,615 interareal pathways, a third of which have not previously been reported. A weight index (extrinsic fraction of labeled neurons [FLNe]) was determined for each area-to-area pathway. Newly found projections were weaker on average compared with the known projections; nevertheless, the 2 sets of pathways had extensively overlapping weight distributions. Repeat injections across individuals revealed modest FLNe variability given the range of FLNe values (standard deviation <1 log unit, range 5 log units). The connectivity profile for each area conformed to a lognormal distribution, where a majority of projections are moderate or weak in strength. In the G29 × 29 interareal subgraph, two-thirds of the connections that can exist do exist. Analysis of the smallest set of areas that collects links from all 91 nodes of the G29 × 91 subgraph (dominating set analysis) confirms the dense (66%) structure of the cortical matrix. The G29 × 29 subgraph suggests an unexpectedly high incidence of unidirectional links. The directed and weighted G29 × 91 connectivity matrix for the macaque will be valuable for comparison with connectivity analyses in other species, including humans. It will also inform future modeling studies that explore the regularities of cortical networks. PMID:23010748
Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.
Gardner, C D
2012-07-01
Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success. PMID:25089189
Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss
Gardner, C D
2012-01-01
Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success. PMID:25089189
Scheduling to Minimize Average Completion Time Revisited: Deterministic On-line Algorithms
Megow, Nicole
2004-02-06
We consider the scheduling problem of minimizing the average weighted completion time on identical parallel machines when jobs are arriving over time. For both the preemptive and the nonpreemptive setting, we show that ...
Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.
Tang, Alice M.; Sheehan, Heidi B.; Jordan, Michael R.; Duong, Dang Van; Terrin, Norma; Dong, Kimberly; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Wanke, Christine A.; Hien, Nguyen Duc
2011-01-01
We examined clinical and nutritional predictors of weight change over two consecutive 6-month intervals among 99 HIV-positive male injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi, Vietnam. The average weight gain was 3.1 ± 4.8?kg in the first six months after ART and 0.8 ± 3.0?kg in the following six months. Predictors of weight change differed by interval. In the first interval, CD4 < 200?cells/?L, excellent/very good adherence to ART, bothersome nausea, and liquid supplement use were all associated with positive weight changes. Moderate to heavy alcohol use and tobacco smoking were associated with negative weight changes. In the second interval, having a CD4 count <200?cells/?L at the beginning of the interval and tobacco smoking were the only significant predictors and both were associated with negative weight changes. We identified several potential areas for interventions to promote weight gain immediately after starting ART in this population. Studies are needed to determine whether improving weight prior to, or at, ART initiation will result in improved outcomes on ART. PMID:21776380
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S.; Zheng, X.; Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Wu, G.; Yi, X.
2014-12-01
Atmospheric CO2 abundance data can be used to constrain surface carbon fluxes and evaluate prediction skills of ecosystem models. In this study a multimodel carbon assimilation system is developed for assimilating atmospheric CO2 abundance data into three ecosystem models and exploiting the diversity of prediction skills of these models. The assimilation approach is based on a modified ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) which estimates the inflation factor of the forecast error with a maximum likelihood function. The Bayesian model averaging scheme infers best predictions of ecosystem carbon fluxes by weighting individual predictions based on their probabilistic likelihood measurements. The proposed system was used to estimate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes from 2000 to 2008 and evaluate ecosystem models in different areas of the globe and at different times.
Equivalence of error diffusion and minimal average error algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetthauer, F.; Weissbach, S.; Bryngdahl, O.
1995-01-01
Error diffusion and minimal average error are well known quantization algorithms which can be applied in electronic imaging and digital holography. It is shown that to each set of free parameters of any one of these methods a corresponding set of free parameters of the other algotithm exists resulting in the first algorithm. The significance of this equivalence is demonstrated with a stability criterion for the choice of error diffusion weights and a filter combination algorithm.
PVI ?-FUNCTIONS GIVEN AS U(N) AVERAGES
P. J. FORRESTER; N. S. WITTE
In a recent work difference equations (Laguerre-Freud equations) for the bi-orthogonal polynomials and related quantities corresponding to the weight on the unit circle w(z) = Q m j=1(z zj(t)) ?j were derived.Here it is shown that in the case m = 3 these difference equations, when applied to the calculation of the underlying U(N) average, reduce to a coupled system
SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND
385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea
Monthly Average Temperature for Boston, MA
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The phenomenon is monthly average temperature data for Boston, MA from March 1872 until September 2000. In addition to monthly averages, the National Weather Service table also shows the yearly average temperature.
Measuring complexity through average symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alamino, Roberto C.
2015-07-01
This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle—measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalized, including to continuous cases and general networks. By applying this measure to a series of objects, it is shown that it can be consistently used for both small scale structures with exact symmetry breaking and large scale patterns, for which, differently from similar measures, it consistently discriminates between repetitive patterns, random configurations and self-similar structures
Weighted quartets phylogenetics.
Avni, Eliran; Cohen, Reuven; Snir, Sagi
2015-03-01
Despite impressive technical and theoretical developments, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for enormous quantities of molecular data is still a challenging task. A key tool in analyses of large data sets has been the construction of separate trees for subsets (e.g., quartets) of sequences, and subsequent combination of these subtrees into a single tree for the full set (i.e., supertree analysis). Unfortunately, even amalgamating quartets into a supertree remains a computationally daunting task. Assigning weights to quartets to indicate importance or reliability was proposed more than a decade ago, but handling weighted quartets is even more challenging and has scarcely been attempted in the past. In this work, we focus on weighted quartet-based approaches. We propose a scheme to assign weights to quartets coming from weighted trees and devise a tree similarity measure for weighted trees based on weighted quartets. We also extend the quartet MaxCut (QMC algorithm) to handle weighted quartets. We evaluate these tools on simulated and real data. Our simulated data analysis highlights the additional information that is conveyed when using the new weighted tree similarity measure, and shows that extending QMC to a weighted setting improves the quality of tree reconstruction. Our analyses of a cyanobacterial data set with weighted QMC reinforce previous results achieved with other tools. PMID:25414175
Spectral and Parametric Averaging for Integrable Systems
Tao Ma; R. A. Serota
2013-06-03
We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos - spectral averaging and parametric averaging. For spectral averaging, we introduce a new procedure - rescaled spectral averaging. Unlike traditional spectral averaging, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance. Parametric averaging, while not as accurate as rescaled spectral averaging for the correlation function of spectral staircase and interval level number variance, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.
On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cronin, T.
2014-12-01
Studies with idealized climate models often make simplifying decisions to average solar radiation over space and time. But clear-sky and cloud albedo are increasing functions of the solar zenith angle, so the choice of average solar zenith angle is important and can lead to significant climate biases. Here, I use radiative transfer calculations for a pure scattering atmosphere and with a more detailed radiative transfer model to argue that one should in general choose the insolation-weighted zenith angle, rather than the simpler daytime-average zenith angle. The insolation-weighted zenith angle is especially superior if clouds are responsible for much of the shortwave reflection. Use of the daytime-average zenith angle may lead to a high bias in planetary albedo of ~3%, equivalent to a deficit in shortwave absorption of 10 W m-2 in the global energy budget (comparable to the radiative forcing of a roughly sixfold change in CO2 concentration). Other studies that have used general circulation models with spatially constant insolation have underestimated the global-mean zenith angle, with a consequent low bias in planetary albedo of ~2-6%, or a surplus in shortwave absorption of ~7-20 W m-2 in the global energy budget. I also discuss how a simple time-varying solar zenith angle could be used to minimize zenith angle-related biases in albedo for models of global climate that choose to spatially homogenize insolation.
Ali Afsahi; Jacob J. Rael; Arya Behzad; Michael Pan; Stephen Au; Adedayo Ojo; C. Paul Lee; Seema Butala Anand; Kevin Chien; Stephen Wu; Alireza Zolfaghari; John C. Leete; Long Tran; Keith A. Carter; Mohammad Nariman; Keno Wai-Ki Yeung; Walter Morton; Mark Gonikberg; Mukul Seth; Marcellus Forbes; Jay Pattin; Luis Gutierrez; Sumant Ranganathan; Ning Li; Eric Blecker; Tom Kwan; Mark Chambers; Maryam Rofougaran; Jason Trachewsky; Pieter Van Rooyen
2008-01-01
A low-power 802.11abg SoC which achieves the best reported sensitivity as well as lowest reported power consumption and utilizes an extensive array of auto calibrations is reported. This SoC utilizes a two-antenna array receiver to build a single weight combiner (SWC) system. A new signal-path Cartesian phase generation and combination technique is proposed that shifts the RF signal in 22.5deg
Estimating Average Temperatures on Appalachian Summits
Robert J. Leffler
1981-01-01
The relationship between average temperatures, latitudes and summit elevations throughout the Appalachian Mountains is examined. Regression equations relating summit elevations to monthly and annual average daily temperature ranges are derived. Linear equations for computing 30-year average monthly and average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for each month of the year on summits with no data are developed. Analysis of the
Data Point Averaging for Computational Fluid Dynamics Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A system and method for generating fluid flow parameter data for use in aerodynamic heating analysis. Computational fluid dynamics data is generated for a number of points in an area on a surface to be analyzed. Sub-areas corresponding to areas of the surface for which an aerodynamic heating analysis is to be performed are identified. A computer system automatically determines a sub-set of the number of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas and determines a value for each of the number of sub-areas using the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The value is determined as an average of the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The resulting parameter values then may be used to perform an aerodynamic heating analysis.
Smoking cessation and weight gain in the military.
Peterson, A L; Helton, J
2000-07-01
Many studies of civilian populations have found a significant relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain. However, the effect of voluntary smoking cessation on weight for military personnel has not been studied. The present study evaluated 70 active duty military members (55 males and 15 females) who quit smoking after participating in an 8-week smoking cessation program. The results indicated that 88% of the participants gained weight and that the average weight gain was 6.4 lb (males, 5.5 lb; females, 9.8 lb). These results are particularly noteworthy because weight gain in military members may result in administrative actions for individuals exceeding weight standards. The authors recommend that military officials consider adopting a one-time temporary weight waiver for active duty military members who successfully quit smoking to help prevent any negative administrative consequences of post-cessation weight gain. PMID:10920654
On the total weight of weighted matchings of segment graphs
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
. Given a matching, we put the weight x on each isolated vertex and the weight -1 or -a on each edge {i, iOn the total weight of weighted matchings of segment graphs Thomas Stoll School of Computer Science45, 05A15, 33C45 Abstract We study the total weight of weighted matchings in segment graphs, which
On the Weighted Mean Value Theorem for Integrals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polezzi, M.
2006-01-01
The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals is a powerful tool, which can be used to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and to obtain the average value of a function on an interval. On the other hand, its weighted version is very useful for evaluating inequalities for definite integrals. This article shows the solutions on applying the weighted…
Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathias, Lon J.
1983-01-01
Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…
, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important
Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...
Multi-scale modelling of flow in periodic solid structures through spatial averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckinx, Geert; Baelmans, Martine
2015-06-01
This paper presents spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equations for modelling macro-scale flow in devices with periodic solid structures such as fin and tube arrays. The properties of steady and unsteady periodically developed flow are investigated to assess different strategies for determining the closure terms in the macro-scale flow equations. It is shown that the spatial averaging technique requires an appropriate weighting function to ensure that the closure terms are spatially constant for periodically developed flow. Moreover, through an appropriate choice of the weighting function, the closure terms can be obtained by solving a local closure problem on a unit cell of the periodic structures. The theoretical framework of this paper is applied as multi-scale modelling technique for flow through a cylindrical tube array. This case study illustrates the advantages of the weighted spatial averaging technique over the volume averaging technique.
Cleaning Physical Education Areas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, William R.
1999-01-01
Discusses techniques to help create clean and inviting school locker rooms. Daily, weekly or monthly, biannual, and annual cleaning strategies for locker room showers are highlighted as are the specialized maintenance needs for aerobic and dance areas, running tracks, and weight training areas. (GR)
Weight discrimination and bullying.
Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M
2013-04-01
Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874
Functional volumes modeling: Scaling for group size in averaged images
Peter T. Fox; Aileen Y. Huang; Lawrence M. Parsons; Jin-Hu Xiong; Lacey Rainey; Jack L. Lancaster
1999-01-01
Functional volumes modeling (FVM) is a statistical construct for metanalytic modeling of the locations of brain functional areas as spatial probability distributions. FV models have a variety of applications, in particular, to serve as spatially explicit predictions of the Talairach-space locations of functional activations, thereby allowing voxel-based analyses to be hypothesis testing rather than hypothesis generating. As image averaging is
WINDINGS OF PLANAR RANDOM WALKS AND AVERAGED DEHN FUNCTION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
WINDINGS OF PLANAR RANDOM WALKS AND AVERAGED DEHN FUNCTION BRUNO SCHAPIRA AND ROBERT YOUNG Abstract. We prove sharp estimates on the expected number of windings of a simple random walk on the square area needed to fill a random curve with a disc. 1. Introduction The winding numbers of random curves
Effects of Average Childhood Dairy Intake on Adolescent Bone Health
LYNN L. MOORE; M. LORING BRADLEE; MARTHA R. SINGER
Objective To evaluate the effects of usual childhood dairy intake on adolescent bone health. Study design Dietary data collected in the Framingham Children's Study over 12 years were used to evaluate usual dairy consumption and adolescent bone health. Each child's average Food Pyramid servings were estimated from yearly sets of 3-day diet records. Bone mineral content (BMC) and area (BA)
Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolberg, Sjur
2015-04-01
Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri
2006-01-01
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…
Perceived weight in youths and risk of overweight or obesity six years later
Duong, Hao T.; Roberts, Robert E.
2014-01-01
Objective To examine the association between perceived overweight in adolescents and the development of overweight or obesity later in life. Methods This paper uses data from a prospective, two-wave cohort study. Participants are 2445 adolescents 11-17 years of age who reported perceived weight at baseline and also had height and weight measured at baseline and at follow-up six years later sampled from managed care groups in a large metropolitan area. Results Youths who perceived themselves as overweight at baseline were approximately 2.5 times as likely to be overweight or obese six years later compared to youths who perceived themselves as average weight (OR= 2.45, 95% CI=1.77-3.39), after adjusting for weight status at baseline, demographic characteristics, major depression, physical activity and dieting behaviors. Those who perceived themselves as skinny were less likely to be overweight or obese later (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.27-0.49). Conclusions Perceived overweight was associated with overweight or obesity later in life. This relationship was not fully explained by extreme weight control behaviors or major depression. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism involved. PMID:24360137
Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.
1993-01-01
This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.
Average Annual Pay by State and Industry, 1997
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Average annual pay levels by industry varied widely across the nation according to this BLS release for 1997, with high average incomes of $49,995 recorded in mining areas and a low average pay of $15,877 recorded in retail trade, an industry largely populated by part-time workers. Regionally, The District of Columbia held the greatest annual pay level at $46,775 in 1997, while South and North Dakota, Montana, Mississippi, and Arkansas retained low annual salaries of $21,645, $22,047, $21,947, $22,772, and $23,268 respectively. Additional comparisons of annual incomes by state and industry for 1996 and 1997 are available at this Average Annual Pay by State and Industry page with four detailed statistical tables.
Calculating Ensemble Averaged Descriptions of Protein Rigidity without Sampling
González, Luis C.; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R.; Jacobs, Donald J.
2012-01-01
Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability. PMID:22383947
A World Average of Fluorescence Yield Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cady, R.
2011-09-01
Twelve measurements of air fluoescence yield made by six different groups are put into a common format then averaged. The methods used to convert them are described. The results obtained by Rosado et al. are also averaged.
RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations
Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.
2009-05-04
RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.
Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.
Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
2009-08-01
This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587
Zhao, Kaiguang; Valle, Denis; Popescu, Sorin; Zhang, Xuesong; Malick, Bani
2013-05-15
Model specification remains challenging in spectroscopy of plant biochemistry, as exemplified by the availability of various spectral indices or band combinations for estimating the same biochemical. This lack of consensus in model choice across applications argues for a paradigm shift in hyperspectral methods to address model uncertainty and misspecification. We demonstrated one such method using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which performs variable/band selection and quantifies the relative merits of many candidate models to synthesize a weighted average model with improved predictive performances. The utility of BMA was examined using a portfolio of 27 foliage spectral–chemical datasets representing over 80 species across the globe to estimate multiple biochemical properties, including nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, cellulose, lignin, chlorophyll (a or b), carotenoid, polar and nonpolar extractives, leaf mass per area, and equivalent water thickness. We also compared BMA with partial least squares (PLS) and stepwise multiple regression (SMR). Results showed that all the biochemicals except carotenoid were accurately estimated from hyerspectral data with R2 values > 0.80.
Averaging in LRS class II spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kašpar, Petr; Svítek, Otakar
2015-02-01
We generalize Buchert's averaged equations (Gen Relativ Gravit 32; 105, 2000; Gen Relativ Gravit 33; 1381, 2001) to LRS class II dust model in the sense that all Einstein equations are averaged, not only the trace part. We derive the relevant averaged equations and we investigate backreaction on expansion and shear scalars in an approximate LTB model. Finally we propose a way to close the system of averaged equations.
Optimal perturbation models for averaged orbit generation
A. C. Long; W. D. McClain
1976-01-01
Averaging techniques applied to the variation of parameters (VOP) formulation of the equations of motion are being investigated as methods for long-term prediction of artificial satellite orbits. Analytically averaged equations were compared with numerically averaged equations with respect to accuracy and efficiency for computation of zonal and nonresonant third-body perturbations. Numerically averaged equations were also evaluated for computation of long-period
Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie
2012-01-01
Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…
Representation of object weight in human ventral visual cortex.
Gallivan, Jason P; Cant, Jonathan S; Goodale, Melvyn A; Flanagan, J Randall
2014-08-18
Skilled manipulation requires the ability to predict the weights of viewed objects based on learned associations linking object weight to object visual appearance. However, the neural mechanisms involved in extracting weight information from viewed object properties are unknown. Given that ventral visual pathway areas represent a wide variety of object features, one intriguing but as yet untested possibility is that these areas also represent object weight, a nonvisual motor-relevant object property. Here, using event-related fMRI and pattern classification techniques, we tested the novel hypothesis that object-sensitive regions in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), in addition to traditional motor-related brain areas, represent object weight when preparing to lift that object. In two studies, the same participants prepared and then executed lifting actions with objects of varying weight. In the first study, we show that when lifting visually identical objects, where predicted weight is based solely on sensorimotor memory, weight is represented in object-sensitive OTC. In the second study, we show that when object weight is associated with a particular surface texture, that texture-sensitive OTC areas also come to represent object weight. Notably, these texture-sensitive areas failed to carry information about weight in the first study, when object surface properties did not specify weight. Our results indicate that the integration of visual and motor-relevant object information occurs at the level of single OTC areas and provide evidence that the ventral visual pathway is actively and flexibly engaged in processing object weight, an object property critical for action planning and control. PMID:25065755
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-07-28
This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).
A Stochastic Model of Space-Time Variability of Mesoscale Rainfall: Statistics of Spatial Averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kundu, Prasun K.; Bell, Thomas L.
2003-01-01
A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend on the space and time scales over which rain data are averaged. A previously developed spectral model of rain statistics that is designed to capture this property, predicts power law scaling behavior for the second moment statistics of area-averaged rain rate on the averaging length scale L as L right arrow 0. In the present work a more efficient method of estimating the model parameters is presented, and used to fit the model to the statistics of area-averaged rain rate derived from gridded radar precipitation data from TOGA COARE. Statistical properties of the data and the model predictions are compared over a wide range of averaging scales. An extension of the spectral model scaling relations to describe the dependence of the average fraction of grid boxes within an area containing nonzero rain (the "rainy area fraction") on the grid scale L is also explored.
Efficiency of transportation on weighted extended Koch networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan
2013-10-01
In this paper, we propose a family of weighted extended Koch networks based on a class of extended Koch networks. They originate from a r-complete graph, and each node in each r-complete graph of current generation produces mr-complete graphs whose weighted edges are scaled by factor h in subsequent evolutionary step. We study the structural properties of these networks and random walks on them. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average weighted shortest path length (AWSP), average receiving time (ART) and average sending time (AST). Besides, the technique of resistor network is employed to uncover the relationship between ART and AST on networks with unit weight. In the infinite network order limit, the average weighted shortest path lengths stay bounded with growing network order (0 < h < 1). The closed form expression of ART shows that it exhibits a sub-linear dependence (0 < h < 1) or linear dependence ( h = 1) on network order. On the contrary, the AST behaves super-linearly with the network order. Collectively, all the obtained results show that the efficiency of message transportation on weighted extended Koch networks has close relation to the network parameters h, m and r. All these findings could shed light on the structure and random walks of general weighted networks.
VERTEX COLORING EDGE WEIGHTINGS WITH INTEGER WEIGHTS AT MOST 6
Pfender, Florian
VERTEX COLORING EDGE WEIGHTINGS WITH INTEGER WEIGHTS AT MOST 6 MACIEJ KALKOWSKI, MICHAL KARO of a graph G. This weighting is called vertex coloring if the weighted degrees w(v) = uN(v) w]). For any connected graph G with |G| 3, there is an edge weighting f : E(G) {1, 2, 3}, and a vertex
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blum, Ann
1987-01-01
Presents a lesson in multiple parts designed to explain the importance of standardized weights and measures and to demonstrate how governmental activities have changed standards and influenced commerce. (JDH)
... drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression Some drugs used to treat diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive ...
Healthy Weight during Pregnancy
... weight gain is kept within a healthy range. Obesity during pregnancy is risky for both mother and child. Some risks include gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension (high blood pressure), Cesarean delivery, birth defects and ...
Englberger, L.
1999-01-01
A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662
... Planning Meals Cutting Calories Eat More, Weigh Less? Fruits and Vegetables Rethink Your Drink Portion Pitfalls Healthy Recipes Physical Activity for Healthy Weight Getting Started Success Stories Tips for Parents The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity Other Resources Related ...
... proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ... Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: ( ...
Target frequency influences antisaccade endpoint bias: evidence for perceptual averaging.
Gillen, Caitlin; Heath, Matthew
2014-12-01
Perceptual judgments related to stimulus-sets are represented computationally different than individual items. In particular, the perceptual averaging hypothesis contends that the visual system represents target properties (e.g., eccentricity) via a statistical summary of the individual targets included within a stimulus-set. Here we sought to determine whether perceptual averaging governs the visual information mediating an oculomotor task requiring top-down control (i.e., antisaccade). To that end, participants completed antisaccades (i.e., saccade mirror-symmetrical to a target) – and complementary prosaccades (i.e., saccade to veridical target location) – to different target eccentricities (10.5°, 15.5° and 20.5°) located left and right of a common fixation. Importantly, trials were completed in blocks wherein eccentricities were presented with equal frequency (i.e., control condition) and when the ‘proximal’ (10.5°: i.e., proximal-weighting condition) and ‘distal’ (20.5°: i.e., distal-weighting condition) targets were respectively presented five times as often as the other eccentricities. If antisaccades are governed by a statistical summary then amplitudes should be biased in the direction of the most frequently presented target within a block. As expected, pro- and antisaccade across each target eccentricity were associated with an undershooting bias and prosaccades were refractory to the manipulation of target frequency. Most notably, antisaccades in the proximal-weighting condition had a larger undershooting bias than the control condition, whereas the converse was true for the distal-weighing condition; that is, antisaccades were biased in the direction of the most frequently presented target. Thus, we propose that perceptual averaging extends to motor tasks requiring top-down cognitive control. PMID:25449162
Composition of the Atmosphere Average molecular weight = 28.97 g/mole
Weber, Rodney
by hot equator - cold poles Explains ITCZ near equator and movement to N.H. Jan. to July since region of max. heating follows sun Does not account for coriolis, which causes · upper flow from eq. to pole: coriolis acc. prevents air movement pole-ward, air must lose angular momentum (thru frictional force
Implications of the method of capital cost payment on the weighted average cost of capital.
Boles, K E
1986-06-01
The author develops a theoretical and mathematical model, based on published financial management literature, to describe the cost of capital structure for health care delivery entities. This model is then used to generate the implications of changing the capital cost reimbursement mechanism from a cost basis to a prospective basis. The implications are that the cost of capital is increased substantially, the use of debt must be restricted, interest rates for borrowed funds will increase, and, initially, firms utilizing debt efficiently under cost-basis reimbursement will be restricted to the generation of funds from equity only under a prospective system. PMID:3525468
Ned Greene; Paul Heckbert
1986-01-01
Creation of Omnimax animation by computer opens up fantastic new visual possibilities. Unfortunately, the fish-eye distortion of Omnimax film images complicates synthesis by computer, since most image-synthesis programs can create only perspective views. As an alternative to modifying existing image-synthesis programs to produce Omnimax projections directly, we present a method for creating them from multiple perspective views. Four perspective views
T. Dyson; S. Rao
1981-01-01
This correspondence presents a brief summary of an experimental comparison between conventional spectral estimation methods and a maximum entropy spectrum analysis (MESA) algorithm. These results should be of some interest to workers in acoustical signal processing, especially sonar and surveillance, due to several factors in the form of the experimentation. Specifically, these factors are the range of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
Applying fuzzy weighted average approach to evaluate office layouts with Feng-Shui consideration
Ping-Teng Chang; Jung-Hua Lee; Kuo-Chen Hung; Jeng-Teng Tsai; Chyung Perng
2009-01-01
Office layout is an important issue, especially in China and the Asian countries, where the Feng–Shui theory frequently plays a vital role. Yet, in the literature, Feng–Shui theory has seldom been discussed. Another problem is the imprecise or vague satisfaction level of the linguistic expression used in this theory. In this article, the fuzzy set theory is applied to deal
Koji Kadota; Yuji Nakai; Kentaro Shimizu
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under different experimental conditions is an important task in many microarray studies. However, choosing which method to use for a particular application is problematic because its performance depends on the evaluation metric, the dataset, and so on. In addition, when using the Affymetrix GeneChip® system, researchers must select a preprocessing algorithm from a
Predictive data mining model for software bug estimation using average weighted similarity
Naresh Kumar Nagwani; Shrish Verma
2010-01-01
Software bug estimation is a very essential activity for effective and proper software project planning. All the software bug related data are kept in software bug repositories. Software bug (defect) repositories contains lot of useful information related to the development of a project. Data mining techniques can be applied on these repositories to discover useful interesting patterns. In this paper
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenny, Mirjam A.; Rieskamp, Jörg; Nilsson, Håkan
2014-01-01
Judging whether multiple events will co-occur is an important aspect of everyday decision making. The underlying probabilities of occurrence are usually unknown and have to be inferred from experience. Using a rigorous, quantitative model comparison, we investigate how people judge the conjunctive probabilities of multiple events to co-occur. In 2…
Weighted Temperature Identities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kot, V. A.
2015-04-01
It has been shown that the differential heat conduction equation together with the boundary conditions can be recast as a sequence consisting of integral identities for the weighted temperature. Weight functions take into account the properties of the heat conduction equation and the boundary conditions. The sequence of identities was constructed on the basis of multiple differentiation or integration operators. Using the search for eigenvalues of the boundary value problem as an example, we have demonstrated the high efficiency of such systems.
Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements
Joan M. Eckerson
\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry
Time-averaged order parameter restraints in molecular dynamics simulations.
Hansen, Niels; Heller, Fabian; Schmid, Nathan; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2014-11-01
A method is described that allows experimental S(2) order parameters to be enforced as a time-averaged quantity in molecular dynamics simulations. The two parameters that characterize time-averaged restraining, the memory relaxation time and the weight of the restraining potential energy term in the potential energy function used in the simulation, are systematically investigated based on two model systems, a vector with one end restrained in space and a pentapeptide. For the latter it is shown that the backbone N-H order parameter of individual residues can be enforced such that the spatial fluctuations of quantities depending on atomic coordinates are not significantly perturbed. The applicability to realistic systems is illustrated for the B3 domain of protein G in aqueous solution. PMID:25312596
Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchele, Donald R.
1988-01-01
A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.
Weight misperception amongst youth of a developing country: Pakistan -a cross-sectional study
2013-01-01
Background Weight misperception is the discordance between an individual’s actual weight status and the perception of his/her weight. It is a common problem in the youth population as enumerated by many international studies. However data from Pakistan in this area is deficient. Methods A multi-center cross-sectional survey was carried out in undergraduate university students of Karachi between the ages of 15–24. Participants were questioned regarding their perception of being thin, normal or fat and it was compared with their Body Mass Index (BMI). Measurements of height and weight were taken for this purpose and BMI was categorized using Asian cut offs. Weight misperception was identified when the self-perceived weight (average, fat, thin) did not match the calculated BMI distribution. Chi square tests and logistic regression tests were applied to show associations of misperception and types of misperception (overestimation, underestimation) with independent variables like age, gender, type of university and faculties. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results 42.4% of the total participants i.e. 43.3% males and 41% females misperceived their weight. Amongst those who misperceived 38.2% had overestimated and 61.8% had underestimated their weight. Greatest misperception of was observed in the overweight category (91%), specifically amongst overweight males (95%). Females of the underweight category overestimated their weight and males of the overweight category underestimated their weight. Amongst the total participants, females overestimated 8 times more than males (OR 8.054, 95% CI 5.34-12.13). Misperception increased with the age of the participants (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.041-1.191). Odds of misperception were greater in students of private sector universities as compared to public (OR 1.861, 95% CI: 1.29-2.67). Odds of misperception were less in students of medical sciences (OR 0.693, 95% CI 0.491-0.977), engineering (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.364-0.941) and business administration (OR 0.439, 95% CI 0.290-0.662) as compared to general faculty universities. Conclusion There was marked discrepancy between the calculated BMI and the self-perceived weight in the youth of Karachi. Better awareness campaigns need to be implemented to reverse these trends. PMID:23915180
Dennis L. Molfese; A. F. Key; S. Kelly; N. Cunningham; S. Terrell; M. Ferguson; V. J. Molfese; T. Bonebright
2006-01-01
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between chil- dren with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP amplitudes and peak latencies decreased as reading skills in- creased. Furthermore, hemisphere differences
Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Sharon M.; And Others
1986-01-01
Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)
Weighted Domination on Cocomparability Graphs
Maw-shang Chang
1995-01-01
It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its two variants, the weighted connected domination and weighted total domination problems are NP-complete on cocomparability graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal to a constant c.
Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
Oberste-Lehn, D.
1980-12-01
Soils of USSR strategic areas and the MIDDLE GUST test site were compared to evaluate the validity of using MIDDLE GUST geology as representative of radiation energy absorption for USSR strategic areas. Average Z values were calculated for the USSR and MIDDLE GUST soils using weight and adjusted volumetric methods. Results indicate that porosity and pore water content cause greater variation in the average Z values of these soils than does the mineralogic component, and that method of calculation causes significant differences. To verify the validity of using the MIDDLE GUST test site for radiation energy absorption calculations of USSR strategic areas, it is recommended that the computer codes use the volumetric (not weight) calculation method and that the vegetation in the USSR areas be assessed for its effect on energy coupling into the ground.
Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.
2013-07-01
We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ?x2? ? t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ?x2? ? t?, 1 < ? < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.
High School Weight Training: A Comprehensive Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viscounte, Roger; Long, Ken
1989-01-01
Describes a weight training program, suitable for the general student population and the student-athlete, which is designed to produce improvement in specific, measurable areas including bench press (upper body), leg press (lower body), vertical jump (explosiveness); and 40-yard dash (speed). Two detailed charts are included, with notes on their…
Al-Radhi, Adhi Omar
1974-01-01
Control Charts (Step Increase in Process Mean) CU random sample generated. In this case, each sample is individually modified. The exponential mean chart signaled an out of control status at sample (12) (Figure 3-2), while the same sample information... are the simple moving average, the exponential smoothed, and the harmonic control systems. The moving average contxol systems have been enjoying a widespread usage for a relatively long time. They were basically developed for the stochastic type...
Spatially averaged turbulent stress and its partitioning
Dubravka Pokrajac; Ian McEwan; Vladimir Nikora
2008-01-01
Double averaging of the fundamental flow equations is an attractive methodology for investigating spatially heterogeneous\\u000a flows. The resulting double-averaged equations can be used as a framework for development of turbulence models. In order to\\u000a fully explore the potential of such models the stress terms that appear in the momentum equation as a result of each averaging\\u000a step needs to be
Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation
Stroud, P.
1994-02-01
A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.
Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami
1990-01-01
A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.
Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.
2015-05-01
We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradley-Hutchison, Doug
2014-11-01
Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.
Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri
2015-05-01
Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789
Generalized constructive tree weights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian
2014-04-01
The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.
Generalized constructive tree weights
Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)
2014-04-15
The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.
Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers.
Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh
2013-01-01
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256
INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS
Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)
2012-11-10
I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Battles, Carol
The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.
Weighted interlace polynomials
Lorenzo Traldi
2008-01-01
The interlace polynomials introduced by Arratia, Bollobas and Sorkin extend to invariants of graphs with vertex weights, and these weighted interlace polynomials have several novel properties. One novel property is a version of the fundamental three-term formula q(G)=q(G-a)+q(G^{ab}-b)+((x-1)^{2}-1)q(G^{ab}-a-b) that lacks the last term. It follows that interlace polynomial computations can be represented by binary trees rather than mixed binary-ternary trees.
Weighted Interlace Polynomials
Lorenzo Traldi
2010-01-01
The interlace polynomials introduced by Arratia, Bollobas and Sorkin extend\\u000ato invariants of graphs with vertex weights, and these weighted interlace\\u000apolynomials have several novel properties. One novel property is a version of\\u000athe fundamental three-term formula\\u000aq(G)=q(G-a)+q(G^{ab}-b)+((x-1)^{2}-1)q(G^{ab}-a-b) that lacks the last term. It\\u000afollows that interlace polynomial computations can be represented by binary\\u000atrees rather than mixed binary-ternary trees.
APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are
Oregon, University of
are presented in two tables. The first table gives long-term hourly average data. The hourly data are averaged for each month and then averaged over each year that has hourly data for that month. The second table has daily data averaged for each month for which data were gathered. This table also contains the monthly
Relationship of the weaning weight of beef calves to the size of their dams
Tanner, James Edward
1964-01-01
of withers, 0. 69 - 0. 05 for height of hips, 0. 11 - 0. 01 for width of hips, 0. 46 ? 0. 04 for heart girth, and 0. 48 ? 0. 04 for length of body. Heritability estimates of 0. 73 for wither height, 0. 61 for hearth girth, 0. 58 for body length and 0, 37... ) 2 62 LIST QF FIGURES Figure Page Average 200-day we ight of Angus calves for each weight of dam group and regression of 200-day weight of calf on weight of dam 28 Average 180-day weight of Hereford calves for each weight of dam group...
Alignment blur in coherently averaged images
D. M. Monro; D. M. Simpson
1996-01-01
Blurring of coherently averaged images due to imperfect alignment is studied, and two restoration methods are proposed and evaluated. It is shown that iterative realignment is more powerful than post-filtering in reducing blur. The value of averaging and restoration is illustrated on human subjects in noisy video sequences
Average Bit-Complexity of Euclidean Algorithms
Ali Akhavi; Brigitte Vallée
2000-01-01
We obtain new results regarding the precise average bit- complexity of ve algorithms of a broad Euclidean type. We develop a general framework for analysis of algorithms, where the average-case complexity of an algorithm is seen to be related to the analytic behaviour in the complex plane of the set of elementary transformations determined by the algorithms. The methods rely
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
ON THE AVERAGE ENERGIES OF MOLECULAR IONS
Stevenson
1959-01-01
The average excitation energy e-bar with which molecule ions are formed ; by electron impact-induced ionization in relation to the average energy expended ; in the formation of molecule ions is considered. Under the assumption of an ; essential applicability of a quasi-equilibrium rate theory to mass spectra, e-bar ; can be related to two observable mass spectral qualities. The
Averages in vector spaces over finite fields
Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.
2008-01-01
We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...
Averages of Forecasts: Some Empirical Results
Spyros Makridakis; Robert L. Winkler
1983-01-01
An alternative to using a single forecasting method is to average the forecasts obtained from several methods. In this paper we investigate empirically the impact of the number and choice of forecasting methods on the accuracy of simple averages. It is concluded that the forecasting accuracy improves, and that the variability of accuracy among different combinations decreases, as the number
Determinants of College Grade Point Averages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Paul Dean
2012-01-01
Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…
Forecasting Inflation Using Dynamic Model Averaging
Gary Koop; Dimitris Korobilis
2010-01-01
We forecast quarterly US inflation based on the generalized Phillips curve using econometric methods which incorporate dynamic model averaging. These methods not only allow for coe¢ cients to change over time, but also allow for the entire forecasting model to change over time. We nd that dynamic model averaging leads to substantial forecasting improvements over simple benchmark regressions and more
Averaged shifted chi-square test
Jyh-Shyang Wu; Wen-Shuenn Deng
2012-01-01
A simple procedure based on the average of shifted chi-square statistics (ASCS) is proposed to improve the classical chi-square procedure for testing whether a random sample has been drawn from a specified continuous distribution. We repeatedly partition the sample space, say, ? times to obtain ? respective chi-square statistics. The proposed test statistic is defined as the average value of
Averaged shifted chi-square test
Jyh-Shyang Wu; Wen-Shuenn Deng
2011-01-01
A simple procedure based on the average of shifted chi-square statistics (ASCS) is proposed to improve the classical chi-square procedure for testing whether a random sample has been drawn from a specified continuous distribution. We repeatedly partition the sample space, say, ? times to obtain ? respective chi-square statistics. The proposed test statistic is defined as the average value of
Applications of time-averaged digital holographic interferometry
Nazif Demoli; Kristina Šariri; Dalibor Vukicevic; Marc Torzynski
This work reports on recent results in the area of the time-averaged digital holographic interferometry. Two techniques are\\u000a described, one that removes the zero-order reconstruction term thus allowing recording of large objects, and the other by\\u000a which the hidden stationary deformations can be detected. Quantifying hidden deformations is important because its evaluation\\u000a allows direct measurement of a stationary bias strain
Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra
2014-01-01
One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003
... in the DPP study lose weight. • Eating a low-carbohydrate diet. • Eating less fat. People in the DPP study cut down on fat. • Choosing more foods that aren’t high in calories and low in nutrients. Eating foods such as non-starchy ...
Prodiæ, Aleksandar
Weight 0 1 2 3 1. Leadership 33% Has not demonstrated impact through a leadership role Has held a leadership role in one or more organizations and demonstrated impact Has held an organization-wide leadership role in one or more
E. Kalai; D. Samet
1987-01-01
Nonsymmetric Shapley values for coalitional form games with transferable utility are studied. The nonsymmetries are modeled through nonsymmetric weight systems defined on the players of the games. It is shown axiomatically that two families of solutions of this type are possible. These families are strongly related to each other through the duality relationship on games. While the first family lends
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-06-26
In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.
Unbiased Average Age-Appropriate Atlases for Pediatric Studies
Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; McKinstry, Robert C.; Collins, D. Louis
2010-01-01
Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard template. However, when studying pediatric populations, variation from the adult brain makes the MNI305 suboptimal for processing brain images of children. Morphological changes occurring during development render the use of age-appropriate templates desirable to reduce potential errors and minimize bias during processing of pediatric data. This paper presents the methods used to create unbiased, age-appropriate MRI atlas templates for pediatric studies that represent the average anatomy for the age range of 4.5–18.5 years, while maintaining a high level of anatomical detail and contrast. The creation of anatomical T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted templates for specific developmentally important age-ranges, used data derived from the largest epidemiological, representative (healthy and normal) sample of the U.S. population, where each subject was carefully screened for medical and psychiatric factors and characterized using established neuropsychological and behavioral assessments. . Use of these age-specific templates was evaluated by computing average tissue maps for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid for each specific age range, and by conducting an exemplar voxel-wise deformation-based morphometry study using 66 young (4.5–6.9 years) participants to demonstrate the benefits of using the age-appropriate templates. The public availability of these atlases/templates will facilitate analysis of pediatric MRI data and enable comparison of results between studies in a common standardized space specific to pediatric research. PMID:20656036
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleika, Wojciech
2015-02-01
The paper presents a new method of digital terrain model (DTM) estimation based on modified moving average interpolation. There are many methods that can be employed in DTM creation, such as kriging, inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbour and moving average. The moving average method is not as precise as the others; hence, it is not commonly comprised in scientific work. Considering the high accuracy, the relatively low time costs, and the huge amount of measurement data collected by multibeam echosounder, however, the moving average method is definitely one of the most promising approaches. In this study, several variants of this method are analysed. An optimization of the moving average method is proposed based on a new module of selecting neighbouring points during the interpolation process—the "growing radius" approach. Tests experiments performed on various multibeam echosounder datasets demonstrate the high potential of this modified moving average method for improved DTM generation.
Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques
1996-01-01
The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.
D. E. Arnurius; E. C. Jr. Crume
1982-01-01
Stimulated by the necessity of numerically integrating the one-dimensional, first-order, magnetic-flux-surface-averaged particle continuity equation to study impurity transport in tokamaks, we have investigated how to obtain estimates of functions and their first derivatives correct to second order in the grid spacing for arbitrary grids. Using integral-averaged values with arbitrary weight functions, we readily find two-term linear approximations to the functions
Christensen, V T
2014-01-01
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of sibling weight level perception and sibling weight on the accuracy of respondent weight level perception dependent on sibling-pair gender composition. Design: A cross-sectional study based on the survey data, which include the children of a nationally representative sample of Danes. Logit regression models were used. Subjects: Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight respondents comprising 397 female sibling pairs, 357 male sibling pairs and 730 opposite-sex sibling pairs. The inclusion of both same-sex siblings and opposite-sex siblings is novel for studies on weight perceptions. Measurements: Weight underestimation and weight overestimation were calculated on the basis of difference between actual weight level and self-perceived weight level. Respondent gender, sibling gender, sibling body mass index (BMI) and the siblings' self-perceived weight level were included as the main controls. Results: Women frequently overestimate their weight level, whereas men often underestimate theirs. Women are more likely to overestimate their weight if their sister does the same but less likely if their brother overestimates his weight. Likewise, women are more likely to underestimate their weight if their sister also underestimates her weight but less likely if their brother underestimates his weight. The higher the BMI of their brother and the lower the BMI of their sister, the more likely men are to underestimate their own weight level. Conclusion: Results underline the importance of social context when looking at body formation and weight perceptions. The weight and weight perceptions of siblings influence own weight perception. Gender is central to studies on weight-related issues, not only respondent gender - equally so the gender of interaction. PMID:24418829
Some interrelationships of weights of beef calves from birth to weaning and to maturity
Jones, John Willoughby
1957-01-01
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 5p S UM6gI ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ LITERATURE CITED ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 57 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 59 Page 1. Numbers of Calves by Breed, Sex and Location, 1937...-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9 2 ~ Average Adjusted Weights of Calves by Breed and Sex at Lufkin, 195'7-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 14 3~ Average Adjusted Weights of Calves by Breed and Sex at College Station, 1955-56 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 4, Average Birth and Adjusted...
Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.
2010-01-01
A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…
Weighted Domination of Cocomparability Graphs
Maw-shang Chang
1997-01-01
It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its three variants, the weighted connected domination, total domination, and dominating clique problems are NP-complete on cobipartite graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time on cocomparability graphs if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal
Does light attract piglets to the creep area?
Larsen, M L V; Pedersen, L J
2015-06-01
Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction between treatment and observation period (P<0.05) with a lower use of the creep area during darkness compared with daylight for CONT and EL litters, but not for ENL litters. Piglets average daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area without light can be accomplished by using a radiant heat source such as eHeat in contrast to the normally used light-emitting infrared heat lamp. PMID:25711807
Thomas, Derrick
2011-08-08
The research focuses on the critical review and prediction of flash points of high molecular weight compounds used mainly in the specialty chemical area. Thus far this area of high molecular weight specialty chemicals has ...
Small scale magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics
Pfirsch, D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching (Germany)); Sudan, R.N. (Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))
1994-08-01
By relaxing exact magnetic flux conservation below a scale [lambda] a system of flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived from Hamilton's principle with modified constraints. An energy principle can be derived from the linearized averaged system because the total system energy is conserved. This energy principle is employed to treat the resistive tearing instability and the exact growth rate is recovered when [lambda] is identified with the resistive skin depth. A necessary and sufficient stability criteria of the tearing instability with line tying at the ends for solar coronal loops is also obtained. The method is extended to both spatial and temporal averaging in Hamilton's principle. The resulting system of equations not only allows flux reconnection but introduces irreversibility for appropriate choice of the averaging function. Except for boundary contributions which are modified by the time averaging process total energy and momentum are conserved over times much longer than the averaging time [tau] but not for less than [tau]. These modified boundary contributions correspond to the existence, also, of damped waves and shock waves in this theory. Time and space averaging is applied to electron magnetohydrodynamics and in one-dimensional geometry predicts solitons and shocks in different limits.
Heart weight and running ability.
Gunn, H M
1989-01-01
The weight of the heart as determined by dissection techniques was compared with liveweight and total muscle weight in different types of horses and dogs as adults and during growth. With increasing body size both within and between species, heart weight forms a lesser proportion of liveweight and of total muscle weight. Heart weight forms a greater proportion of liveweight in Thoroughbreds and Greyhounds (breeds noted for high speed running) than in other less fleet members of their species and Greyhounds have greater heart weights relative to total muscle weight than other dogs. PMID:2630537
Averaging in cosmology based on Cartan scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kašpar, P.; Svítek, O.
2014-05-01
We present a new approach for averaging in general relativity and cosmology. After a short review of the theory originally taken from the equivalence problem, we consider two ways of dealing with averaging based on Cartan scalars. We apply the theory for two different Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. In the first one, the correlation term behaves as a positive cosmological constant, in the second example, the leading correlation term behaves like spatial curvature. We also show the non-triviality of averaging for linearized monochromatic gravitational wave.
On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs
Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi; Fatemeh Raee B
2009-01-01
An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge. A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graph if it has a unique independent set with maximum sum of weights. Although, in this paper
Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain
Lowe, Michael R.; Doshi, Sapna D.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Feig, Emily H.
2013-01-01
Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate. PMID:24032024
Population-Based Placental Weight Ratio Distributions
Macdonald, Erin M.; Koval, John J.; Natale, Renato; Regnault, Timothy; Campbell, M. Karen
2014-01-01
The placental weight ratio (PWR) is a health indicator that reflects the balance between fetal and placental growth. The PWR is defined as the placental weight divided by the birth weight, and it changes across gestation. Its ranges are not well established. We aimed to establish PWR distributions by gestational age and to investigate whether the PWR distributions vary by fetal growth adequacy, small, average, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA). The data came from a hospital based retrospective cohort, using all births at two London, Ontario hospitals in the past 10 years. All women who delivered a live singleton infant between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation were included (n = 41441). Nonparametric quantile regression was used to fit the curves. The results demonstrate decreasing PWR and dispersion, with increasing gestational age. A higher proportion of SGA infants have extreme PWRs than AGA and LGA, especially at lower gestational ages. On average, SGA infants had higher PWRs than AGA and LGA infants. The overall curves offer population standards for use in research studies. The curves stratified by fetal growth adequacy are the first of their kind, and they demonstrate that PWR differs for SGA and LGA infants. PMID:24895497
Richard Nock; Frank Nielsen
2006-01-01
Abstract—Recent,papers,and patents in iterative unsupervised,learning have,emphasized,a new,trend in clustering. It basically consists of penalizing solutions via weights on the instance points, somehow making clustering move toward the hardest points to cluster. The motivations come,principally from an analogy,with powerful,supervised,classification methods,known,as boosting algorithms. However, interest in this analogy has so far been mainly borne out from experimental studies only. This paper is,
Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...
Ensemble Averages when ?is a Square Integer
Christopher D. Sinclair
2010-08-25
We give a hyperpfaffian formulation of partition functions and ensemble averages for Hermitian and circular ensembles when L is an arbitrary integer and \\beta=L^2 and when L is an odd integer and \\beta=L^2 +1.
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 ...certification averaging program. Include only motorcycles certified under this subpart and intended...for which you manufacture or import motorcycles. (d) Calculate your...
SAMPLE AVERAGE APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR COMPOUND ...
2013-06-30
Jun 30, 2013 ... Sample Average Approximation (SAA) method (also known as ..... ? ? X, with rate (of a numerical sequence) 1/?n and distribution ?, if there is a ...... In [32] this property was attached a status ...... tics Reports, 34 (1990), pp.
Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging
Olshevsky, Alexander
We study the convergence speed of distributed iterative algorithms for the consensus and averaging problems, with emphasis on the latter. We first consider the case of a fixed communication topology. We show that a simple ...
Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging
Olshevsky, Alexander
2006-01-01
We propose three new algorithms for the distributed averaging and consensus problems: two for the fixed-graph case, and one for the dynamic-topology case. The convergence times of our fixed-graph algorithms compare favorably ...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)
Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.
40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...
Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.
Mayerhöfer, Thomas G
2005-09-01
A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures. PMID:16043055
Applications of high average power nonlinear optics
Velsko, S.P.; Krupke, W.F.
1996-02-05
Nonlinear optical frequency convertors (harmonic generators and optical parametric oscillators are reviewed with an emphasis on high average power performance and limitations. NLO materials issues and NLO device designs are discussed in reference to several emerging scientific, military and industrial commercial applications requiring {approx} 100 watt average power level in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Research efforts required to enable practical {approx} 100 watt class NLO based laser systems are identified.
Averaging for split-step scheme
Vadim Zharnitsky
2003-01-01
The split-step Fourier method for solving numerically nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) is considered as NLS with rapidly varying coefficients. This connection is exploited to justify the split-step approximation using an averaging technique. The averaging is done up to the second order and it is explained why (in this context) symmetric split-step produces a higher order scheme. The same approach is
Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration
Schweitzer, Peter N.
1995-01-01
The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
A high average power pockels cell
Daly, T.P.
1986-02-10
A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduced the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.
Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.
Fernando, K Vince
2008-10-01
The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790
completely vegetarian Average spend per person per
Rambaut, Andrew
completely vegetarian 3% 11.5% 15.8% 10% Average spend per person per week in the UK on food-stats-food-family-annual-2009/pdf Average spend per person per week on eating out, out of total food spend, was 26% (£8.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ UK SPEND ON FOOD ALL HOUSEHOLDS LOWEST FIFTH GLOBAL POPULATION BY BODY MASS INDEX UK SPEND
Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model.
Tomiyama, A Janet
2014-11-01
Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a "vicious cycle" - a positive feedback loop wherein weight stigma begets weight gain. This happens through increased eating behavior and increased cortisol secretion governed by behavioral, emotional, and physiological mechanisms, which are theorized to ultimately result in weight gain and difficulty of weight loss. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing literature for evidence supporting such a model, propose ways in which individuals enter, fight against, and exit the cycle, and conclude by outlining fruitful future directions in this nascent yet important area of research. PMID:24997407
Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz
2015-04-01
The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second, a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the circular unitary ensemble (CUE) average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like 1/\\sqrt{N} as the dimension N of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as N\\to ? such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order 1/{{N}2}) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE-type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.
Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A
2015-06-01
A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss. PMID:25909247
State-Issued Identification Cards Reveal Patterns in Adult Weight Status
Morris, Daniel S.; Main, Eric C.; Harris, Jenine K.; Moland, Abraham; Cude, Curtis
2015-01-01
Background: State-issued identification cards are a promising data source for neighborhood-level obesity estimates. Methods: We used information from three million Oregon state-issued identification cards to compute age-adjusted estimates of average adult body mass index (BMI) for each census tract in the state. We used multivariate linear regression to identify associations between weight status and population characteristics, food access, commuting behavior, and geography. Results: Together, home values, education, race, ethnicity, car commuting, and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) explained 86% of the variation in BMI among tracts. BMI was lower in areas with higher home values and greater educational attainment, and higher in areas with more workers commuting by car. Discussion: Our findings are consistent with other research on socioeconomic disparities in obesity. This demonstrates state-issued identification cards are a promising data source for BMI surveillance and may offer new insight into the association between weight status and economic and environmental factors. Public health agencies should explore options for developing their own obesity estimates from identification card data. PMID:26062036
Watershed area and discharge relationships
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Steven Petsch
Students use USGS WaterData website to find data on area, average annual discharge and response to high-precip events in small watersheds in southern New England. Data for the class are compiled to generate graphs showing the regional relationships between (1) area and discharge, and (2) area and time-lag between precip and maximum discharge. terms: discharge, watershed, flood
Shih-Sung Wen; Rose E. Mccoy
1975-01-01
An analysis of correlations of the data mainly from 164 male and 202 female black undergraduate students indicated that (a) a weighted set of measures of manifest needs (Edwards Personal Preference Schedule) correlated significantly with the grade point average (GPA) for the males (R = .53, df = 15\\/148, F = 3.84, p < .001) but not for the females
Compressive Sensing Ensemble Average Propagator Estimation via 1 Spherical Polar Fourier Imaging
Boyer, Edmond
Compressive Sensing Ensemble Average Propagator Estimation via 1 Spherical Polar Fourier Imaging (ODF). They nor- mally need many samples, which limits their applications. Some Compressive Sensing (CS regularization. The weights are designed to enhance the sparsity. 1-SPFI significantly accelerates the ordinary
Critical fracture plane under multiaxial random loading by means of euler angles averaging
Andrea Carpinteri; Ewald Macha; Roberto Brighenti; Andrea Spagnoli
1999-01-01
Several authors have experimentally observed that the position of the fatigue fracture plane strongly depends on the directions of the principal stresses or strains. The expected principal stress directions under multiaxial random loading are obtained herein by averaging the instantaneous values of the three Euler angles through some suitable weight functions, in order to take into account the main factors,
Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I.; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff
2008-01-01
A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study.…
Model averaging methods to merge statistical and dynamic seasonal streamflow forecasts in Australia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schepen, A.; Wang, Q. J.
2014-12-01
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology operates a statistical seasonal streamflow forecasting service. It has also developed a dynamic seasonal streamflow forecasting approach. The two approaches produce similarly reliable forecasts in terms of ensemble spread but can differ in forecast skill depending on catchment and season. Therefore, it may be possible to augment the skill of the existing service by objectively weighting and merging the forecasts. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is first applied to merge statistical and dynamic forecasts for 12 locations using leave-five-years-out cross-validation. It is seen that the BMA merged forecasts can sometimes be too uncertain, as shown by ensemble spreads that are unrealistically wide and even bi-modal. The BMA method applies averaging to forecast probability densities (and thus cumulative probabilities) for a given forecast variable value. An alternative approach is quantile model averaging (QMA), whereby forecast variable values (quantiles) are averaged for a given cumulative probability (quantile fraction). For the 12 locations, QMA is compared to BMA. BMA and QMA perform similarly in terms of forecast accuracy skill scores and reliability in terms of ensemble spread. Both methods improve forecast skill across catchments and seasons by combining the different strengths of the statistical and dynamic approaches. A major advantage of QMA over BMA is that it always produces reasonably well defined forecast distributions, even in the special cases where BMA does not. Optimally estimated QMA weights and BMA weights are similar; however, BMA weights are more efficiently estimated.
Combination approach of highly conflicting evidence based on weighted distance of evidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhicheng; He, Jiazhou; Qiao, Hui
2013-10-01
In order to fuse highly conflicting evidence effectively, a novel combination method based on weighted distance of evidence is proposed by taking the ideas of Murphy's averaging method and Deng's weighted averaging method. Firstly, the essentiality of each element in the frame of discernment is given by Murphy's idea. Secondly, the weighted averaging distance between any two bodies of evidence(BOEs) is calculated under the modified City Block distance norm, further the support degree of each evidence supported by other evidences can be obtained. Thirdly, the normalized total support degree of each evidence is considered as the weights of BOEs, and a new weighted averaging BOE will be gained. Finally, the information fusion process can be realized by using the Dempster's rule of combination. Simulation results show that the proposed method can deal with the highly conflicting evidence with better performance of convergence, and it also can recognize the target more effectively and fleetly.
Fuzzy Interpolative Reasoning for Sparse Fuzzy-Rule-Based Systems Based on the Areas of Fuzzy Sets
Yu-chuan Chang; Shyi-ming Chen; Churn-jung Liau
2008-01-01
Fuzzy interpolative reasoning is an inference technique for dealing with the sparse rules problem in sparse fuzzy-rule-based systems. In this paper, we present a new fuzzy interpolative reasoning method for sparse fuzzy-rule-based systems based on the areas of fuzzy sets. The proposed method uses the weighted average method to infer the fuzzy interpolative reasoning results and has the following advantages:
Information filtering via weighted heat conduction algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2011-06-01
In this paper, by taking into account effects of the user and object correlations on a heat conduction (HC) algorithm, a weighted heat conduction (WHC) algorithm is presented. We argue that the edge weight of the user-object bipartite network should be embedded into the HC algorithm to measure the object similarity. The numerical results indicate that both the accuracy and diversity could be improved greatly compared with the standard HC algorithm and the optimal values reached simultaneously. On the Movielens and Netflix datasets, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 39.7% and 56.1% in the optimal case, respectively, and the diversity could reach 0.9587 and 0.9317 when the recommendation list equals to 5. Further statistical analysis indicates that, in the optimal case, the distributions of the edge weight are changed to the Poisson form, which may be the reason why HC algorithm performance could be improved. This work highlights the effect of edge weight on a personalized recommendation study, which maybe an important factor affecting personalized recommendation performance.
Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.
2014-01-01
Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure – which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system) a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and ?–carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in “point” average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936
A hierarchical Bayesian model averaging framework for groundwater prediction under uncertainty.
Chitsazan, Nima; Tsai, Frank T-C
2015-01-01
Groundwater prediction models are subjected to various sources of uncertainty. This study introduces a hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method to segregate and prioritize sources of uncertainty in a hierarchical structure and conduct BMA for concentration prediction. A BMA tree of models is developed to understand the impact of individual sources of uncertainty and uncertainty propagation to model predictions. HBMA evaluates the relative importance of different modeling propositions at each level in the BMA tree of model weights. The HBMA method is applied to chloride concentration prediction for the "1,500-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana from 2005 to 2029. The groundwater head data from 1990 to 2004 is used for model calibration. Four sources of uncertainty are considered and resulted in 180 flow and transport models for concentration prediction. The results show that prediction variances of concentration from uncertain model elements are much higher than the prediction variance from uncertain model parameters. The HBMA method is able to quantify the contributions of individual sources of uncertainty to the total uncertainty. PMID:24890644
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltanzadeh, I.; Azadi, M.; Vakili, G. A.
2011-07-01
Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM), with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME) of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009) over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data. The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.
STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHT VALUES FOR THE MONONUCLIDIC ELEMENTS - 2005.
HOLDEN, N.E.
2005-08-13
When the policy for determining the atomic weight values for the mononuclidic elements was changed some decades ago, it was argued that new atomic mass tables would only be produced about once a decade. Since 1977, the average has been once every nine years, which is consistent with that early estimate. This report summarizes the changes over the years for the atomic weight values of the mononuclidic elements. It applies the Commission's technical rules to the latest atomic mass table and recommends changes in the values of the Standard Atomic Weights for eleven of the twenty-two for the TSAW.
Apostolopoulou, Martha; Savopoulos, Christos; Michalakis, Konstantinos; Coppack, Simon; Dardavessis, Theodoros; Hatzitolios, Apostolos
2012-02-01
The western world is facing the consequences of higher standards of medical care and improved living conditions. While people are living longer the prevalence of overweight and obesity is escalating which increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. However it must be noted that there is a U shaped relationship between weight and mortality with both under and overweight increasing risk. This review examines possible contributory factors for overweight and obesity in older people: life style, depression, changes in body composition, endocrine alterations, sympathetic tone, oxidative stress and concomitant disease. PMID:22226988
A linear weighted SIC multiuser detector with optimal weighting factor
Abdelouhab Bentrcia
2009-01-01
In this paper, a linear weighted successive interference cancellation (SIC) detector is introduced to overcome the convergence issues of the conventional linear SIC detector. The latter converges to the decorrelator detector if it converges. The optimal weighting factor is derived using the steepest descent method. Simulation results show that if the optimal weighting factor is used, the convergence speed and
AVERAGE CASE COMPLEXITY OF LINEAR MULTIVARIATE PROBLEMS
multivariate problems LMP equipped with the folded Wiener sheet measure. We are particularly interested in multivariate weighted integration and multivariate function approximation. We prove that any LMP which in \\Lambda std . 1. Introduction In this part we study linear multivariate problems LMP which are equipped
Volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model
Krzysztof Bolejko
2008-11-22
This paper considers the volume averaging in the quasispherical Szekeres model. The volume averaging became of considerable interest after it was shown that the volume acceleration calculated within the averaging framework can be positive even though the local expansion rate is always decelerating. This issue was intensively studied within spherically symmetric models. However, since our Universe is not spherically symmetric similar analysis is needed in non symmetrical models. This papers presents the averaging analysis within the quasispherical Szekeres model which is a non-symmetrical generalisation of the spherically symmetric Lema\\^itre--Tolman family of models. Density distribution in the quasispherical Szekeres has a structure of a time-dependent mass dipole superposed on a monopole. This paper shows that when calculating the volume acceleration, $\\ddot{a}$, within the Szekeres model, the dipole does not contribute to the final result, hence $\\ddot{a}$ only depends on a monopole configuration. Thus, the volume averaging within the Szekeres model leads to literally the same solutions as obtained within the Lema\\^itre--Tolman model.
Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1984-06-01
Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)
Chalana, Vikram; Dudycha, Stephen; Yuk, Jong-Tae; McMorrow, Gerald
2005-01-01
Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight (UEBW) has the promise to become an important indicator for the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction. Our goal was to develop and evaluate an approach to accurately, consistently, conveniently, and noninvasively measure UEBW using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging. A 3D image of the bladder is acquired using a handheld ultrasound machine. The infravesical region of the bladder is delineated on this 3D data set to enable the calculation of bladder volume and the bladder surface area. The outer anterior wall of the bladder is delineated to enable the calculation of the bladder wall thickness. The UEBW is measured as a product of the bladder surface area, bladder wall thickness, and bladder muscle specific gravity. The UEBW was measured on 20 healthy male subjects and each subject was imaged several times at different bladder volumes to evaluate the consistency of the UEBW measurement. Our approach measured the average UEBW among healthy subjects to be 42 g (SD = 6 g). The UEBW was found to be fairly consistent with an average standard deviation of 4 g across a single subject at different bladder volumes between 200 mL and 400 mL. Our surface area measurements show that the bladder shape is significantly nonspherical. PMID:16986025
Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Hinkson, Kent; Bichrest, Michael; Ahern, D Aaron
2014-01-01
The current study examined relationships among self-reported depression severity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and grade point average (GPA) among student servicemembers and veterans. We asked 422 student servicemembers and veterans (72% male, 86% Caucasian, mean age = 36.29 yr) to complete an anonymous online survey that assessed self-reported GPA, depression severity, PTSD severity, and frequency of academic problems (late assignments, low grades, failed exams, and skipped classes). Female respondents reported a slightly higher GPA than males (3.56 vs 3.41, respectively, p = 0.01). Depression symptoms (beta weight = -0.174, p = 0.03), male sex (beta weight = 0.160, p = 0.01), and younger age (beta weight = 0.155, p = 0.01) were associated with lower GPA but not PTSD symptoms (beta weight = -0.040, p = 0.62), although the interaction of depression and PTSD symptoms showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship with GPA (beta weight = -0.378, p = 0.08). More severe depression was associated with turning in assignments late (beta weight = 0.171, p = 0.03), failed exams (beta weight = 0.188, p = 0.02), and skipped classes (beta weight = 0.254, p = 0.01). The relationship of depression with self-reported GPA was mediated by frequency of failed examns. Results suggest that student servicemembers and veterans with greater emotional distress also report worse academic performance. PMID:25436619
Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)
1992-07-01
Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.
Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C.T. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States))
1992-01-01
Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.
Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.
2003-01-01
Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.
Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging
Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria, E-mail: teppo.mattsson@helsinki.fi, E-mail: maria.ronkainen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland); Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland)
2008-02-15
We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an O(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z{approx}2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion.
Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery
Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159
The synchronous (time domain) average revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, S.
2011-05-01
Synchronous averaging is one of the most powerful techniques for the extraction of periodic signals from a composite signal. It is based on averaging periodic sections, necessitating an a-priori knowledge of the period sought. It is one of the most effective signal processing tools applied to rotating machinery, and has been known and used for decades.It will be shown that synchronous average is actually just one of the many possible "synchronous filters" which could be used to extract the above periodic components performance. A novel signal analysis, geared to periodic signals will be introduced, with the potential of extracting more complex phenomena typical of some rotating machinery. Examples given are based on periodic oscillating transients, with various additive interferences. The possibility of additional signal processing approaches is also discussed.
Yaqin Xia; Rupeng Zhu; Xiang Wu
2009-01-01
Decision-makers' weights and the criteria's weights were incompletely certain or completely unknown in special fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making problems with linguistic assessments, therefore satisfaction was introduced as the weighted element to build new formula to determine the attribute weights. A new two-tuple linguistic weighting arithmetic average algorithm based on satisfaction (T-WAA-S) was proposed to deal with the fuzzy multiple attribute
Bayesian locally weighted online learning
Edakunni, Narayanan U.
2010-01-01
Locally weighted regression is a non-parametric technique of regression that is capable of coping with non-stationarity of the input distribution. Online algorithms like Receptive FieldWeighted Regression and Locally ...
MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools
... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Eating Out and Weight Gain URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Eating_Out_070615.html Eating Out and Weight ...
Perception of body shape by underweight average, and overweight men and women.
Demarest, J; Langer, E
1996-10-01
Using figure drawings, perception of body shape was evaluated by underweight, average, and overweight men and women. Body-shape dissatisfaction was greatest for 60 overweight women, and about the same in 151 average weight women as it was for 102 overweight men. Average weight men (n = 107) and underweight women (n = 31) were fairly satisfied with their current shapes. Both men and women had distorted views of the shape the opposite sex found most attractive. Women guessed that men would prefer a thinner shape than they actually did, and men guessed that women would prefer a larger shape than they actually did. The distortion was larger for men as their own size increased but not for women. PMID:8902032
An improved moving average technical trading rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.
2015-06-01
This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.
The modulated average structure of mullite.
Birkenstock, Johannes; Pet?í?ek, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X
2015-06-01
Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al4.8Si1.2O9.6) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al4.82?(3)Si1.18?(1)O9.59?(5)) and by average structure refinements. 8?(5) to 20?(13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137?(2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021?(5) 0.1834?(2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009?(5) -0.1834?(2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real structure of mullite is locally ordered (as previously known), but on the long-range its average is not completely disordered, the modulated structure of mullite may be denoted the true `average structure of mullite'. PMID:26027012
On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs
Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi
2009-01-01
An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge (no two of which share an edge). A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graphif it has a unique independent set with maximum sum
Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on lowing pH in the sea water of the Jiaozhou Bay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, G.; Lv, L.
2013-12-01
Recent study showed that average pH value in the seawater of the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area of the Yellow Sea were about 7.9 and 8.0-8.2, respectively, indicating significant low pH value in the sea water of the bay. At the same period, existence of high concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids, including formate, acetate and lactate was detected. By theoretical calculation, field and laboratory simulate experiments, this study investigated the effect of these organic acids on pH value of the seawater in the Jiaozhou Bay. The results showed that average concentration of the total low molecular weight organic acids was 29.01 ?mol/L; and average concentrations of formate, acetate and lactate were 4.06 ? mol/L, 18.31 ?mol/L, and 6.64 ?mol/L, respectively, in the surface seawater samples collected from 15 sampling stations in the Jiaozhou Bay in May, 2012. With similar total alkalinity (TA) and concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Jiaozhou Bay and the Yellow Sea, all the low molecular weight organic acids could decrease pH value in the seawater. Under field condition, co-effect of the three organic acids could decrease pH value in the sea water of the Jiaozhou Bay up to 0.185. We also collected samples of 6 stations of Narragansett Bay as comparison. The results supported that low molecular weight organic acids was critical on acidification of seawater in the Jiaozhou bay.
Rajesh H. Somani; Ling Yang; Benjamin S. Hsiao
2006-01-01
In situ rheo-SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) and—rheo-WAXD (wide-angle X-ray diffraction) techniques were used to investigate the role of high molecular weight species on the evolution of oriented microstructure in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) melt under shear flow. The two iPP samples, designated as PP-A and PP-B, respectively, had the same number-average (Mn) but different weight-average (Mw) and Z-average (Mz) molecular weights.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ron Hipschman
1997-01-01
This site shows images of all the planets and several other celestial bodies, under which one can enter their weight and find out how their weight changes on other worlds. Mass and weight are distinguished in subsequent text. The relationship between gravity, mass, and distance is described and represented mathematically.
Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, Niels G.
2008-01-01
Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…
Reconstructing weighted networks from dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, Pik-Yin; Leung, C. Y.
2015-03-01
We present a method that reconstructs both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input. Using several examples, we demonstrate that our method can give accurate results for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics.
FUZZY ARTMAP WITH FEATURE WEIGHTING
Angel Cataron; Lucian Mircea Sasu
We introduce a novel Fuzzy ARTMAP (FAM) architec- ture: FAM with Feature Weighting (FAMFW). In the first stage, the features of the training data are weighted. In the second stage, the obtained weights are used to im- prove the FAMFW training. The effect of this approach is a more sensitive FAM category determination: Cate- gory dimensions in the direction of
Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John
1986-01-01
Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)
Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Practical Pointers, 1978
1978-01-01
The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…
The weight of mass or the mess of weight
Gat, U.
1987-06-24
This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.
Vegetation associated with the major soils and reclamation areas on the Navajo Mine, New Mexico
Buchanan, B.A.; Wood, M.K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ruzzo, W. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)
1990-12-31
Mine-land reclamation success is usually measured by comparing reclaimed areas to be the pre-mined or native conditions. Establishing standards of reclamation is made more difficult when the native conditions are extremely variable as for the Navajo Mine. The Navajo mine lease has annual grazing capacities ranging from 12 hectares (30 acres) to 80 hectares (200 acres) per sheep. The objective of this research was to determine the vegetal characteristics combining the most extensive or most productive native soil types on the Navajo Lease. Then to compare these data using weighted means (based on percent area) to the vegetal characteristics of topdressed and non-topdressed reclamation plots. Some native areas have high cover, shrub density and phytomass. However, these vegetal characteristics are lower for the average native condition than the average for either the topdressed or non-topdressed reclamation plots. The weighted mean of the native area is low because of the extensive amount (>65%) of badland and natrargid type soils. These two mapping units have extremely low cover, shrub density and phytomass. Reclaimed plots without topdressing have higher cover and phytomass than topdressed reclamation plots. This is because of the high schrub density. However, the topdressed reclamation areas produce more perennial forbs and grasses than non topdressed plots. This is considered to be more desirable for reclamation success.
Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime
Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra
2015-01-01
The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a qu...
HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.
BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.
2005-08-21
Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.
Average magnitude difference function pitch extractor
M. Ross; H. Shaffer; A. Cohen; R. Freudberg; H. Manley
1974-01-01
This paper describes a method for using the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) and associated decision logic to estimate the pitch period of voiced speech sounds. The AMDF is a variation on autocorrelation analysis where, instead of correlating the input speech at various delays (where multiplications and summations are formed at each value of delay), a difference signal is formed
Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rothman, Neil S.
1988-01-01
Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.
Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature
P. Ballatore
2004-01-01
Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices
Science of NHL Hockey: Statistics & Averages
NSDL National Science Digital Library
NBC Learn
2010-10-07
Being a top goalie in the NHL takes more than quick reflexes and nerves of steel, it also requires a firm grip on the numbers. Namely, the key averages and statistics of goaltending. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.
Relaxed Averaged Alternating Reflections for Diraction Imaging
D. Russell Luke
We report on progress in algorithms for iterative phase retrieval. The theory of convex optimisation is used to develop and to gain insight into counterparts for the nonconvex problem of phase retrieval. We propose a relaxation of averaged alternating reflectors and determine the fixed point set of the related operator in the convex case. A numerical study supports our theoretical
Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging
D. Russell Luke
2005-01-01
We report on progress in algorithms for iterative phase retrieval. The theory of convex optimization is used to develop and to gain insight into counterparts for the nonconvex problem of phase retrieval. We propose a relaxation of averaged alternating reflectors and determine the fixed-point set of the related operator in the convex case. A numerical study supports our theoretical observations
Bayesian Model Averaging for Linear Regression Models
Adrian E. Raftery; David Madigan; Jennifer A. Hoeting
1998-01-01
We consider the problem of accounting for model uncertainty in linear regressionmodels. Conditioning on a single selected model ignores model uncertainty, and thusleads to the underestimation of uncertainty when making inferences about quantitiesof interest. A Bayesian solution to this problem involves averaging over all possiblemodels (i.e., combinations of predictors) when making inferences about quantities ofAdrian E. Raftery is Professor of
Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.
2010-01-01
The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…
A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio
2014-01-01
In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…
Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sturrock, Alan
1997-01-01
During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…
Average case complexity for finite Boolean functions
Alexander Chashkin
2001-01-01
The average time of computing Boolean functions by straight-line programs with a conditional stop is considered. A straight-line program consists of operators of two types. Every operator of the first type computes a binary Boolean function whose arguments are either the values computed by preceding operators or the values of the input variables. Every operator of the second type either
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Certification...averaging of credits is allowed across all classes of nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. (c) Credits...
Hyperplane Arrangements with Large Average Diameter
2007-09-23
Sep 23, 2007 ... Abstract: The largest possible average diameter of a bounded cell of a simple hyperplane arrangement ... timization problem min{cT x : x ? P}. Dedieu ..... [7] L. Finschi: Oriented matroids database http://www.om.math.ethz.ch .
THE AVERAGE CASE ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS
Flajolet, Philippe
& Princeton Saddle Point Asymptotics October 22, 1994 &&&&&&&&&& #12; #12; i THE AVERAGE CASE ANALYSIS of Generating Functions; 6. Saddle Point Asymptotics; 7. Mellin Transform Asymptotics; 8. Functional Equations numbers, StirÂ ling's formula and the asymptotic counting of integer partitions. 6.1 Introduction Saddle
Reference-tissue correction of T2-weighted signal intensity for prostate cancer detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Oto, Aytekin
2014-03-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether correction with respect to reference tissue of T2-weighted MRimage signal intensity (SI) improves its effectiveness for classification of regions of interest (ROIs) as prostate cancer (PCa) or normal prostatic tissue. Two image datasets collected retrospectively were used in this study: 71 cases acquired with GE scanners (dataset A), and 59 cases acquired with Philips scanners (dataset B). Through a consensus histology- MR correlation review, 175 PCa and 108 normal-tissue ROIs were identified and drawn manually. Reference-tissue ROIs were selected in each case from the levator ani muscle, urinary bladder, and pubic bone. T2-weighted image SI was corrected as the ratio of the average T2-weighted image SI within an ROI to that of a reference-tissue ROI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of T2-weighted image SIs for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs. AUC (+/- standard error) for uncorrected T2-weighted image SIs was 0.78+/-0.04 (datasets A) and 0.65+/-0.05 (datasets B). AUC for corrected T2-weighted image SIs with respect to muscle, bladder, and bone reference was 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), 0.77+/-0.04 (p=1.0), and 0.75+/-0.04 (p=0.8), respectively, for dataset A; and 0.81+/-0.04 (p=0.002), 0.78+/-0.04 (p<0.001), and 0.79+/-0.04 (p<0.001), respectively, for dataset B. Correction in reference to the levator ani muscle yielded the most consistent results between GE and Phillips images. Correction of T2-weighted image SI in reference to three types of extra-prostatic tissue can improve its effectiveness for differentiation of PCa from normal-tissue ROIs, and correction in reference to the levator ani muscle produces consistent T2-weighted image SIs between GE and Phillips MR images.
Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.
Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M
2015-08-01
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n?=?497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD?=2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. PMID:25868552
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schatten, Kenneth
1984-04-01
Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.
Poulsen, N; Sørensen, J N; Johansen, A S
1994-07-01
Storage of crisphead lettuce was carried out at 1 degrees C in an ordinary cold storage room and in an ice bank cooling system. The plants were grown at three plantings at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg total nitrogen supply per hectare and harvested at two or three different plant ages. The cultivars used were 'Marius' and 'Saladin'. The aim of the experiment was to prolong the storage and to reduce the losses. After 14 days of storage the greatest total weight losses were found at the mid-season planting whereas the least total weight loss was found at the late planting. Ice bank cooling at all plantings reduced the total weight loss in comparison to the cold storage. The effect of nitrogen and cultivar was low. The total weight loss defined as loss due to transpiration and trimming was neither related to the head weight nor the surface area of the heads. A reduced loss with increasing plant age was not a question of increased transpiration due to surface to volume ratio changes, but may be related to other factors. A lower average total weight loss was found in the ice bank cooling system compared to the cold storage. The explanation of this might be the existence of a high relative humidity in the ice bank storage. To reduce the total weight loss harvest must take place at the right plant age. No definite growth stage was defined here, but the plants must have reached marketable quality as the young plants are more susceptible to weight loss during storage. It seems likely that some unknown internal factors in the plant were involved in reduction of the total weight loss. PMID:7971782
E. L. Achadi; M. J. Hansell; N. L. Sloan; M. A. Anderson
1995-01-01
Pregnant and non-pregnant women in Indramayu, West Java were examined for nutritional status, using anthropometric indicators. For the pregnant women, longitudinal data on nutritional status, iron consumption and weight gain were examined in relation to neonatal weight and length. Comparing the non-pregnant women's average nutritional status with reference tables for height, weight and MUAC, they placed at the 25th percentile
Economic evaluation of an internet-based weight management program
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
To determine whether a behavioral Internet treatment (BIT) program for weight management is a viable, cost-effective option compared with usual care (UC) in a diverse sample of overweight (average body mass index = 29 kg/m2), healthy adults (mean age = 34 years) serving in the US Air Force. Two-grou...
Average Strength Parameters of Reactivated Mudstone Landslide for Countermeasure Works
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Shinya; Kimura, Sho; Buddhi Vithana, Shriwantha
2015-04-01
Among many approaches to landslide stability analysis, in several landslide-related studies, shear strength parameters obtained from laboratory shear tests have been used with the limit equilibrium method. In most of them, it concluded that the average strength parameters, i.e. average cohesion (c'avg) and average angle of shearing resistance (?'avg), calculated from back analysis were in agreement with the residual shear strength parameters measured by torsional ring-shear tests on undisturbed and remolded samples. However, disagreement with this contention can be found elsewhere that the residual shear strength measured using a torsional ring-shear apparatus were found to be lower than the average strength calculated by back analysis. One of the reasons why the singular application of residual shear strength in stability analysis causes an underestimation of the safety factor is the fact that the condition of the slip surface of a landslide can be heterogeneous. It may consist of portions that have already reached residual conditions along with other portions that have not on the slip surface. With a view of accommodating such possible differences of slip surface conditions of a landslide, it is worthy to first grasp an appropriate perception of the heterogeneous nature of the actual slip-surface to ensure a more suitable selection of measured shear strength values for stability calculation of landslides. For the present study, the determination procedure of the average strength parameters acting along the slip surface has been presented through the stability calculations of reactivated landslides in the area of Shimajiri-mudstone, Okinawa, Japan. The average strength parameters along slip surfaces of landslides have been estimated using the results of laboratory shear tests of the slip surface/zone soils accompanying a rational way of accessing the actual, heterogeneous slip surface conditions. The results tend to show that the shear strength acting along the slip surface of imperfectly-reactivated landslides cannot always be considered equal to its laboratory-measured residual strength. The engineers should rediscover the fact that it is reasonable to apply different strength parameters to the stability analysis depending on the actual conditions of the slip surface that are visible on the boring core samples. In that context, we suggest to show that it is more appropriate to consider average strength parameters for imperfectly-reactivated landslides, for which purpose the use of 'residual shear strength' in combination with other categories of shear strength is recommended. This way, the outcome of the stability analysis will be much more inclusive and representative of the non-slickensided portions of a slip surface as well.
Weighted Model Components for Gradient Direction Matching in Overhead Images
Grant, C W; Nikolaev, S; Paglieroni, D W
2006-03-17
Gradient direction matching (GDM) is the main target identification algorithm used in the Image Content Engine project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. GDM is a 3D solid model-based edge-matching algorithm which does not require explicit edge extraction from the source image. The GDM algorithm is presented, identifying areas where performance enhancement seems possible. Improving the process of producing model gradient directions from the solid model by assigning different weights to different parts of the model is an extension tested in the current study. Given a simple geometric model, we attempt to determine, without obvious semantic clues, if different weight values produce significantly better matching accuracy, and how those weights should be assigned to produce the best matching accuracy. Two simple candidate strategies for assigning weights are proposed--pixel-weighted and edge-weighted. We adjust the weights of the components in a simple model of a tractor/semi-trailer using relevance feedback to produce an optimal set of weights for this model and a particular test image. The optimal weights are then compared with pixel and edge-weighting strategies to determine which is most suitable and under what circumstances.
14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...
14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...
14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...
14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...
14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...
Computation of synthetic mammograms with an edge-weighting algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homann, Hanno; Bergner, Frank; Erhard, Klaus
2015-03-01
The promising increase in cancer detection rates1, 2 makes digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) an interesting alternative to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast cancer screening. However, this benefit comes at the cost of an increased average glandular dose in a combined DBT plus FFDM acquisition protocol. Synthetic mammograms, which are computed from the reconstructed tomosynthesis volume data, have demonstrated to be an alternative to a regular FFDM exposure in a DBT plus synthetic 2D reading mode.3 Besides weighted averaging and modified maximum intensity projection (MIP) methods,4, 5 the integration of CAD techniques for computing a weighting function in the forward projection step of the synthetic mammogram generation has been recently proposed.6, 7 In this work, a novel and computationally efficient method is presented based on an edge-retaining algorithm, which directly computes the weighting function by an edge-detection filter.
Ensemble averaging vs. time averaging in molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordiz, Kiarash; Singh, David J.; Henry, Asegun
2015-01-01
In this report, we compare time averaging and ensemble averaging as two different methods for phase space sampling in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of thermal conductivity. For the comparison, we calculate thermal conductivities of solid argon and silicon structures, using equilibrium MD. We introduce two different schemes for the ensemble averaging approach and show that both can reduce the total simulation time as compared to time averaging. It is also found that velocity rescaling is an efficient mechanism for phase space exploration. Although our methodology is tested using classical MD, the approaches used for generating independent trajectories may find their greatest utility in computationally expensive simulations such as first principles MD. For such simulations, where each time step is costly, time averaging can require long simulation times because each time step must be evaluated sequentially and therefore phase space averaging is achieved through sequential operations. On the other hand, with ensemble averaging, phase space sampling can be achieved through parallel operations, since each trajectory is independent. For this reason, particularly when using massively parallel architectures, ensemble averaging can result in much shorter simulation times (˜100-200X), but exhibits similar overall computational effort.
Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dirks, Jean; And Others
1983-01-01
Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)
jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.
Posada, David
2008-07-01
jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es. PMID:18397919
Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities
A. V. Kotikov
2014-11-30
We show the results in [1,2] for computing the QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new results came due a recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MSbar factorization scheme. They depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstandig problem of QCD. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, alphas(Mz)=0.1199 +- 0.0026 has been obtained in the MSbar scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln x terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q2 terms by the renormalization group. This result is in excellent agreement with the present world average.
Models of space averaged energetics of plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bouthier, O. M.; Bernhard, R. J.
1990-01-01
The analysis of high frequency vibrations in plates is of particular interest in the study of structure borne noise in aircrafts. The current methods of analysis are either too expensive (finite element method) or may have a confidence band wider than desirable (Statistical Energy Analysis). An alternative technique to model the space and time averaged response of structural acoustics problems with enough detail to include all significant mechanisms of energy generation, transmission, and absorption is highly desirable. The focus of this paper is the development of a set of equations which govern the space and time averaged energy density in plates. To solve this equation, a new type of boundary value problem must be treated in terms of energy density variables using energy and intensity boundary conditions. A computer simulation verification study of the energy governing equation is performed. A finite element formulation of the new equations is also implemented and several test cases are analyzed and compared to analytical solutions.
Average magnification effect of clumping of matter
Kibble, T W B; Lieu, Richard
2004-01-01
The aim of this paper is to re-examine the question of the average magnification in a universe with some inhomogeneously distributed matter. We present an analytic proof, valid under rather general conditions, including clumps of any shape and size, and strong lensing, that so long as the clumps are uncorrelated the average \\emph{reciprocal} magnification (in only one of at least four possible meanings of the words) is precisely the same as in a homogeneous universe with equal mean density. We also discuss, in the context of observations of discrete and extended sources, the physical significance of the various different measures of magnification and the circumstances in which they are appropriate. The interpretation of quasar, type 1A supernovae and cosmic microwave background data could be significantly biased if the wrong measure is employed.
SOME NEW VELOCITY AVERAGING RESULTS MICHAEL WESTDICKENBERG
is bounded in the Sobolev space W1/2,2 (Rn ). Hence we have a gain of one half derivative here. Golse, Lions Lp(Rn ×Rn ), then ¯f Ws,p (Rn ) for all s strictly less than min{1/p, 1/p }. DiPerna, Lions & MeyerPerna, Lions & Meyer [10] show for this case, that the average is contained in a Besov space built on Lorentz
Potential of Average Force in a Plasma
O. Theimer; P. Kepple
1966-01-01
The potential of average force W1,2qq' experienced by a charge q' at a distance|r1-r2| from a charge q is calculated from the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon equations of classical statistical mechanics without linearization or equivalent approximations. Diverging integrals are eliminated by the condition that bound-particle states with negative internal energy, e.g., atoms, be excluded from the partition function. The 3-particle distribution functions required
The Average Velocity in a Queue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frette, Vidar
2009-01-01
A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…
Average chemical composition of the lunar surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkevich, A. L.
1973-01-01
The available data on the chemical composition of the lunar surface at eleven sites (3 Surveyor, 5 Apollo and 3 Luna) are used to estimate the amounts of principal chemical elements (those present in more than about 0.5% by atom) in average lunar surface material. The terrae of the moon differ from the maria in having much less iron and titanium and appreciably more aluminum and calcium.
Gridded electron guns for high average power
H. E. Gallagher
1962-01-01
The design and performance of electron guns producing high-average-power beams which are controlled by an intercepting-type grid are described. The design consists of a modification of the design of Pierce-type electron guns to allow for the effect of grid insertion, and calculation of the amplification factors based on the potential distribution. The performance is evaluated in terms of the beam
Averaging analysis of adaptive control algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Stephen M.; Kosut, Robert L.; Franklin, Gene F.
1988-01-01
The method of averaging is used to analyze discrete-time indirect adaptive control. The analysis focuses on various prediction-error-driven identification algorithms coupled with a general linear control law. The plant is not required to be in the model set of the identifier, which accounts for systems with unmodeled plant dynamics. Exogenous input signals including known command signals and unknown disturbances are also included. Both gradient and Newton-based algorithms are considered.
Time averaging of instantaneous quantities in HYDRA
McCallen
1996-01-01
For turbulent flow the evaluation of direct numerical simulations (DNS) where all scales are resolved and large-eddy simulation (LES) where only large-scales are resolved is difficult because the results are three-dimensional and transient. To simplify the analysis, the instantaneous flow field can be averaged in time for evaluation and comparison to experimental results. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow code HYDRA has
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
Optimal Averaging of Incomplete Climatological Data
C. Gebhardt; B. Kusserow; A. Hense
2000-01-01
Summary We present a multivariate statistical interpolation method for optimal averaging of incomplete climatological data. This\\u000a objective analysis is based on a linear regression of the data under the constraints of unbiasedness and minimized analysis\\u000a error variance. One of the important features of the presented interpolation is the efficient exchange of common information\\u000a between the analysed variables. This exchange is
Disk-Averaged Synthetic Spectra of Mars
Giovanna Tinetti; Victoria S. Meadows; David Crisp; William Fong; Thangasamy Velusamy; Heather Snively
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the
[Signal averaging electrocardiography in chronic alcoholism].
Pochmalicki, G; Genest, M; Jibril, A; Abdmoulah, M; Chatila, M; Zemir, H; Cayla, J M
1998-03-01
Cardiovascular death is the main cause of mortality in chronic alcoholics, perhaps due to a pro-arrhythmogenic effect of alcohol associated with infraclinical myocardial lesions. The authors investigated prospectively 41 patients (average age: 49.7 years) who were chronic alcoholics but had no acute alcoholic episodes for cardiac disease (ECG, signal averaging for late ventricular potentials, echocardiography and Holter ECG monitoring) and hepatic disease (liver biopsy). The history of alcoholism was 14 +/- 9 years, the quantity of alcohol ingested before they stopped drinking being 89 +/- 31 grammes/day. Thirty per cent of patients displayed 2 or 3 criteria of late ventricular potentials (LP). The authors demonstrated a correlation between the daily quantity of alcohol consumed before stopping drinking and the duration of the filtered QRS complex (p = 0.02). Moreover, the frequency of fatty infiltration found on liver biopsy, greater in alcoholics with LP (35% versus 19%, p = 0.025) correlated with the amplitude of the last 40 ms of the average QRS (p = 0.0485), with the duration of potentials of less than 40 microvolts (p = 0.05) and, above all, with the number of criteria of LP (p = 0.02). Finally, the presence of LP was also related to the following biological abnormalities: GGT (p = 0.027), ASAT (p = 0.046), ALAT (p = 0.039). The ECG abnormalities may reflect early infra-clinical myocardial lesions secondary to cellular metabolic abnormalities perhaps analogous to the fatty hepatic changes. However, the prognostic value of these signal-averaging ECG abnormalities remains unknown. PMID:9749235
Digital Averaging Phasemeter for Heterodyne Interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Donald; Spero, Robert; Shaklan, Stuart; Halverson, Peter; Kuhnert, Andreas
2004-01-01
A digital averaging phasemeter has been built for measuring the difference between the phases of the unknown and reference heterodyne signals in a heterodyne laser interferometer. This phasemeter performs well enough to enable interferometric measurements of distance with accuracy of the order of 100 pm and with the ability to track distance as it changes at a speed of as much as 50 cm/s. This phasemeter is unique in that it is a single, integral system capable of performing three major functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate systems: (1) measurement of the fractional-cycle phase difference, (2) counting of multiple cycles of phase change, and (3) averaging of phase measurements over multiple cycles for improved resolution. This phasemeter also offers the advantage of making repeated measurements at a high rate: the phase is measured on every heterodyne cycle. Thus, for example, in measuring the relative phase of two signals having a heterodyne frequency of 10 kHz, the phasemeter would accumulate 10,000 measurements per second. At this high measurement rate, an accurate average phase determination can be made more quickly than is possible at a lower rate.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy
2004-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-08-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Deana Davis
2012-06-07
This is the first of two hands-on lessons that make a real-world connection for students in measuring area in square units. Students become area designers during an activity that illustrates area, and then make a real world connection with area when they are shown a residential blueprint. Students gain practice calculating area and recording the area of rooms (quadrilaterals) in square units.
Determination of weighting functions for energy-weighted acquisition.
DeVito, R P; Hamill, J J
1991-02-01
Energy-weighted acquisition (EWA) is an image filtering technique, with a different spatial filter (weighting function) for each energy. The imaging characteristics of EWA are governed by the weighting functions used during the acquisition of the image. The determination of weighting functions is more complicated than the determination of energy windows in conventional imaging because the number of degrees of freedom is much greater. A methodology by which weighting functions can be produced is described. The weighting function is determined by minimizing a generalized chi-square with variable contributions from coefficients quantifying key image characteristics, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and scatter fraction. Varying the importance of these characteristics gives us a workable function-generation tool, able to address a variety of clinical needs. The resulting weighting functions exhibit good scatter reduction properties at various scatter depths, as demonstrated by measurements of line source response functions in a scattering medium at depths from 5 to 14 cm. Energy weighting can also be used to compensate for collimator penetration from high energy gamma rays. Weighting functions are tested in the laboratory using both planar and SPECT phantoms. PMID:1992041
Can optimal marker weightings improve thoracohumeral kinematics accuracy?
Begon, Mickaël; Dal Maso, Fabien; Arndt, Anton; Monnet, Tony
2015-07-16
Local and global optimization algorithms have been developed to estimate joint kinematics to reducing soft movement artifact (STA). Such algorithms can include weightings to account for different STA occur at each marker. The objective was to quantify the benefit of optimal weighting and determine if optimal marker weightings can improve humerus kinematics accuracy. A pin with five reflective markers was inserted into the humerus of four subjects. Seven markers were put on the skin of the arm. Subjects performed 38 different tasks including arm elevation, rotation, daily-living tasks, and sport activities. In each movement, mean and peak errors in skin- vs. pins-orientation were reported. Then, optimal marker weightings were found to best match skin- and pin-based orientation. Without weighting, the error of the arm orientation ranged from 1.9° to 17.9°. With weighting, 100% of the trials were improved and the average error was halved. The mid-arm markers weights were close to 0 for three subjects. Weights of a subject applied to the others for a given movement, and weights of a movement applied to others for a given subject did not systematically increased accuracy of arm orientation. Without weighting, a redundant set of marker and least square algorithm improved accuracy to estimate arm orientation compared to data of the literature using electromagnetic sensor. Weightings were subject- and movement-specific, which reinforces that STA are subject- and movement-specific. However, markers on the deltoid insertion and on lateral and medial epicondyles may be preferred if a limited number of markers is used. PMID:25935687
Olvera, Isaac Daniel
2012-02-14
Metaphylactic treatment of incoming feedlot cattle is a common preventative action against bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Cattle are dosed based on estimated or actual lot average weights, rather than on an individual basis, to reduce initial...
O'Brien, E M; Fava, J; Subak, L L; Stone, K; Hart, C N; Demos, K; Wing, R
2012-01-01
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether baseline sleep duration predicts weight loss outcomes in a randomized controlled trial examining a behavioral weight loss (BWL) intervention among overweight and obese (OW/OB) women with urinary incontinence; and whether participation in the BWL intervention is associated with changes in sleep duration. Design: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study of a 6-month BWL program. Subjects: Three hundred sixteen OW/OB women, with urinary incontinence (age: 30–81 years, body mass index (BMI; 25–50?kg?m?2) enrolled from July 2004–April 2006. Measurements: Measured height and weight, self-report measures of demographics, sleep and physical activity. Results: Neither self-reported total sleep time (TST) nor time in bed (TIB) at baseline significantly predicted weight loss outcomes among OW/OB women in a BWL treatment. BWL treatment was successful regardless of how much subjects reported sleeping at baseline, with an average weight loss of 8.19?kg for OW/OB women receiving BWL treatment, versus a weight loss of 1.44?kg in the control condition. Similarly, changes in weight, BMI and incontinence episodes did not significantly predict changes in sleep duration or TIB across the treatment period. Conclusion: Although epidemiological and cross-sectional studies support a relationship between short sleep and increased BMI, the present study found no significant relationship between TST or TIB and weight loss for OW/OB women participating in a BWL treatment. PMID:23446658
The weight-conscious adolescent
Madeleine Nowak
1998-01-01
Purpose: To explore how adolescents who try to lose weight differ from those who do not in relation to body image, food intake, knowledge about food, and sources of information about food, nutrition, and weight loss.Methods: Data were collected from 12–15-year-old school students in North Queensland, Australia by questionnaire.Results: Boys who attempted weight loss reduced sweet foods and snacks, while
WEIGHT:WEIGHT: DA FORM705, JUN 1998,MAYBE USED
de Lijser, Peter
UNIT USAPA V1.00 WEIGHT: DATE GRADE AGE HEIGHT(IN INCHES) BODY FAT: GO / NO-GO PU RAW SCORE INITIALSWEIGHT:WEIGHT: DA FORM705, JUN 1998,MAYBE USED Data Required by the Privacy Act of 1974 DATE GRADE POINTS NCOIC/OICSIGNATURE COMMENTS BODY COMPOSITION EVENT TIME lbs % GO / NO-GO DATE GRADE AGE HEIGHT
Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, Thomas Carl
1981-01-01
Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…
Polymorphism of egg white proteins egg weight and components weight
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Polymorphism of egg white proteins egg weight and components weight in the Fayoumi hen A. OBEIDAH zootechniques, LN.R.A.,., 78350 Jouy-en-Josas Summary The genetic variations in egg-white proteins were detected in Fayoumi eggs. G2 locus prov- ed to be the only polymorphic among four egg-white protein loci investigated
I. A. Stepanow
2006-03-22
The traditional method of finding the average value of a physical quantity often gives wrong results. Another formula of averaging is derived which gives correct results. It is applied to calculation of the average radius of tapering tube and the average flow velocity in the tube. The new formula is applicable to many other processes.
Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.
Caponi, Sandra
2013-08-14
Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171
Is dark energy an effect of averaging?
Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz
2008-01-22
The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.
Fukasawa, Miyuki; Obara, Sakaé
2004-11-01
The molecular weight of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a polymer used for enteric coating, was determined by means of size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of several lots and grades ranged approximately from 17000 to 20000, and the number-average molecular weight (Mn) was around 13000. The inter-day precision of measurement, in terms of the coefficient of variation, was less than 5%. PMID:15516773
Stratigraphic Paleobiology of the Taranto Area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarponi, Daniele; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Taviani, Marco; Huntley, John Warren; Amorosi, Alessandro; Negri, Alessandra; Battista Vai, Gian
2015-04-01
The area surrounding Taranto, Italy is chronostratigraphically very important, as it is one of the few areas in the world where Upper Pleistocene marine successions are well exposed, easily accessible, and relatively thick. Several outcrops in this area were investigated as suitable marine sections for defining the Late Pleistocene GSSP. At these locations, the late Pleistocene bathymetric history of the Taranto area was depicted using macrobenthic assemblages from a network of outcrops and cores. Outcrops at Pontile, Fronte, and Garitta, along with two cores drilled at Cimino and Cantoro were densely sampled to conduct quantitatively-derived paleobathymetric reconstructions. These deposits yielded relatively diverse mollusk associations (> 250 species and > 9.000 specimens distributed among 55 samples), dominated by extant mollusk species of known bathymetric distribution. Multiple analytical approaches were applied to the macrobenthic dataset in a comparative fashion: (i) direct calibration by weighted averaging of taxa with known preferred depth recovered in a sample, (ii) posteriori-calibrated ordination (DCA) using bathymetric data of key extant taxa. These analyses were conducted at both species and genus level. Regardless of the choice of the analytical method, mollusk assemblages yielded bathymetric trends congruent with previous qualitative and semi-quantitative paleoecological and stratigraphic analyses: the bathymetric range of sampled deposits is bracketed between 140 and 0 meters. Secondly, macrobenthos-derived proxies provided an improved characterization of the marine deposits in terms of sample bathymetry and by discriminating shallowing-upward (regressive) trends from deepening-upward (transgressive) tendencies. Thirdly, mollusk-derived bathymetric inferences suggest spatial bathymetric gradients that are coherent with the morphology of the study area. In conclusion, the results provided an improved characterization of coastal depositional facies in a sequence stratigraphic perspective, which is one of the primary research goals of Stratigraphic Paleobiology.
Weight Perception Discrepancy Among Ethnically Diverse Youth
Cromwell, Kate Duncan
2012-10-19
Weight perception discrepancy, the difference between a person’s medically classified weight status and their weight status as classified by their body mass index, is a growing problem. Such misperceptions of weight may be a barrier to treatment...
W. Zakowicz; I. J. Feng; R. H. Pratt
1982-01-01
Consequences of a simple integral definition of electron charge bound to an ion are examined for Thomas-Fermi (TF) and Debye-Huckel-Thomas-Fermi (DHTF) average atom statistical potentials used to describe high temperature high density plasmas. A self-consistent scheme for calculating average degree of ionization within the DHTF approach is described. With the simple integral definition of bound charge the DHTF model, unlike
Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology
Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)
2009-12-15
We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.
Analysis of averaged multichannel delay times
N. G. Kelkar; M. Nowakowski
2008-05-05
The physical significances and the pros and cons involved in the usage of different time delay formalisms are discussed. The delay time matrix introduced by Eisenbud, where only s-waves participate in a reaction, is in general related to the definition of an angular time delay which is shown not to be equivalent to the so-called phase time delay of Eisenbud and Wigner even for single channel scattering. Whereas the expression due to Smith which is derived from a time delayed radial wave packet is consistent with a lifetime matrix which is Hermitian, this is not true for any Eisenbud-type lifetime matrix which violates time reversal invariance. Extending the angular time delay of Nussenzveig to multiple channels, we show that if one performs an average over the directions and subtracts the forward angle contribution containing an interference of the incident and scattered waves, the multichannel angle dependent average time delay reduces to the one given by Smith. The present work also rectifies a recently misinterpreted misnomer of the relation due to Smith.
Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.
1987-01-01
Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.
MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS
Kevin Jordan; Trent Allison; Richard Evans; James Coleman; Albert Grippo
2003-05-01
A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.
Expected position of the fatigue fracture plane by using the weighted mean principal Euler angles
Andrea Carpinteri; Aleksander Karolczuk; Ewald Macha; Sabrina Vantadori
2002-01-01
The expected principal stress axes under multiaxial fatigue loading are determined by averaging the instantaneous Euler angles through suitable weight functions. Then, the fracture plane position is derived from such expected principal stress directions. Three weight functions based on stress parameters are discussed by comparing theoretical predictions with available test results related to six metallic materials under proportional and non-proportional
Are the Eating and Exercise Habits of Successful Weight Losers Changing?
Suzanne Phelan; Holly R. Wyatt; James O. Hill; Rena R. Wing
2006-01-01
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the diet and exercise behaviors of successful weight losers entering the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) have changed between 1995 and 2003.Research Method and Procedures: Participants (N = 2708) were members of the NWCR who enrolled in intermittent years since 1995. Participants had lost an average of 33.1 kg and
A PTAS for Minimizing Weighted Completion Time on Uniformly Related Machines
Pennsylvania, University of
A PTAS for Minimizing Weighted Completion Time on Uniformly Related Machines (Extended Abstract of scheduling jobs with release dates to minimize their average weighted completion time. When multiple machines are available, the machine environment may range from identical machines (the processing time required by a job
hp calculators HP 50g Average sales prices
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Average sales prices The STAT menu Averages and Standard Deviations Practice finding average sale prices and standard deviations #12;hp calculators HP 50g Average sales prices hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Average sales prices The STAT menu The Statistics menu is accessed from the ORANGE
High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology
Neau, E.L.
1995-05-01
Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.
A role for olestra in body weight management.
Eldridge, A L; Cooper, D A; Peters, J C
2002-02-01
Olestra is a fat substitute made from fatty acids esterified to sucrose and can be used in the preparation of virtually any food made with fat. Foods made with olestra retain the mouthfeel, palatability and satiating effects of their full-fat counterparts without providing any digestible energy. Because olestra provides no energy, it has the potential to be a useful tool in weight loss and weight maintenance. Short-term studies of olestra replacement in foods demonstrate that fat replacement leads to a net reduction in fat intake. When excess total energy is available, fat replacement also reduces total energy intake in lean and obese men and women. In longer-term studies in which olestra is incorporated into the daily diet, there is an incomplete compensation for the fat energy replaced by olestra. When overweight men consumed olestra as part of a varied diet over nine months, weight loss continued for the duration of the study, whereas individuals receiving a typical low-fat diet regained most of the initial weight lost. Other studies are underway to examine the usefulness of olestra in long-term weight maintenance following weight loss. Post-marketing surveillance of olestra foods in the United States indicates that substitution of olestra for only 1-2 g of fat d-1 may be sufficient to prevent the average weight gain reported in adults of 0.5-1.0 kg year-1. PMID:12119656
Effect of different flooring systems on weight and pressure distribution on claws of dairy cows.
Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Ventorp, M; Nilsson, C
2008-05-01
Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different flooring systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each section had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic asphalt flooring on the alleys or a low-abrasive slatted concrete floor. Some sections had feed-stalls equipped with rubber mats; other sections did not. The vertical ground reaction force, contact area, and average contact pressure were determined on the left hind foot using the I-Scan system and analyzed with the F-scan system. These determinations were made in each of the following 3 zones of the claw: bulb, wall, and sole. Most of the weight on claws exposed to concrete floors was carried by the bulb (37.4 +/- 3.5 and 18.3 +/- 2.9% of weight exerted on the foot in the lateral and medial claw, respectively) and the wall zone (20.0 +/- 2.6 and 13.4 +/- 2.4% on lateral and medial claw, respectively). The weight and pressure distribution in cows kept on sections with rubber covered alleys but passing daily over the asphalt floor on their way to the milking parlor did not differ in any zones, except for lateral bulbs, compared with those exposed to slatted concrete alone. Still, the weight bearing of the sole zone in cows kept on rubber mats without access to asphalt was less than that of cows kept on concrete slatted floors (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 12.7 +/- 1.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). In cows kept on asphalt flooring without feed-stalls, most weight was exerted to the sole zone (36.2 +/- 2.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.8% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). Feed-stalls in combination with asphalt flooring yielded a decreased total contact area (30.1 +/- 1.2 cm(2)) compared with asphalt floors without feed-stalls (35.7 +/- 1.2 cm(2)). The largest total contact area was obtained on the asphalt floor without feed-stalls, resulting in a lower contact pressure (39.8 +/- 2.3 N/cm(2)) than in claws exposed to concrete (66.0 +/- 2.7 N/ cm(2)) or rubber mats (56.7 +/- 1.7 N/cm(2)). In conclusion, housing with abrasive floors resulted in claws with increased contact area at the sole surface and therefore, decreased contact pressure, but reduced the weight-bearing role of the strongest part of the claw capsule, the claw wall. PMID:18420618
SRB Monthly Averages Legacy - HDF Format
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2014-08-01
... HDF Format HDF Format: Equal-area grid system Algorithms: GEWEX - Algorithm based on detailed ... previous releases. An important difference between the Release 2.5 data set and the corresponding Release 2.0 data set is the use of ...
SRB Daily Averages Legacy - HDF Format
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2014-08-01
... HDF Format HDF Format: Equal-area grid system Algorithms: GEWEX - Algorithm based on detailed ... previous releases. An important difference between the Release 2.5 data set and the corresponding Release 2.0 data set is the use of ...
Approximating Markov Processes By Averaging PHILIPPE CHAPUT
Panangaden, Prakash
time evolution or both, arise naturally in many areas of computer science: robotics, per- formance, robotics and control theory that also refer to systems with continuous state spaces. A labelled Markov probability of being disabled, and the user knows when the action he chose was disabled. Furthermore
Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.
This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…
Resizing structures for minimum weight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleury, C.; Schmit, L. A.
1981-01-01
Approximation concepts and dual-method algorithms are combined in method of minimum-weight design for structures. Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis (ACCESS3) program is powerful research tool in which mathematical programming and optimality criteria are coalesced in efficient structural weight-minimization method.
Predictors of successful weight loss
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The identification of variables in the early stages of treatment that are related to successful weight loss provides practitioners with important information. These factors may be assessed to determine the likelihood of future success. Weight loss at the beginning of treatment, depressive symptomato...
Velev, Orlin D.
TOP ALUMNI AREAS METRO AREAS ALUMNI LOCATIONS States/NC counties STUDENT RECRUITING EVENTS 1000 The purple circles denote the metro areas with the greatest concentrations of NC State engineering alumni, large metro areas and North Carolina counties that nearly 50,000 living NC State engineering graduates
Santo, Marco Aurelio; Riccioppo, Daniel; Pajecki, Denis; de Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59). The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98) and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%). The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight), the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study. PMID:25627995
Fast T2*-Weighted MRI of the Prostate at 3 Tesla
Hardman, Rulon L.; El-Merhi, Fadi; Jung, Adam J.; Ware, Steve; Thompson, Ian M.; Friel, Harry T.; Peng, Qi
2011-01-01
Purpose To describe a rapid T2*-weighted (T2*W), three-dimensional (3D) echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence and its application in mapping local magnetic susceptibility variations in 3 Tesla (T) prostate MRI. To compare the sensitivity of T2*W EPI with routinely used T1-weighted turbo-spin echo sequence (T1W TSE) in detecting hemorrhage and the implications on sequences sensitive to field inhomogeneities such as MR spectroscopy (MRS). Materials and Methods B0 susceptibility weighted mapping was performed using a 3D EPI sequence featuring a 2D spatial excitation pulse with gradients of spiral k-space trajectory. A series of 11 subjects were imaged using 3T MRI and combination endorectal (ER) and six-channel phased array cardiac coils. T1W TSE and T2*W EPI sequences were analyzed quantitatively for hemorrhage contrast. Point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS MRS) was performed and data quality was analyzed. Results Two types of susceptibility variation were identified: hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic T2*W-positive areas. Post-biopsy hemorrhage lesions showed on average five times greater contrast on the T2*W images than T1W TSE images. Six nonhemorrhage regions of severe susceptibility artifact were apparent on the T2*W images that were not seen on standard T1W or T2W images. All nonhemorrhagic susceptibility artifact regions demonstrated compromised spectral quality on 3D MRS. Conclusion The fast T2*W EPI sequence identifies hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic areas of susceptibility variation that may be helpful in prostate MRI planning at 3.0T. PMID:21448956
Put Weight Watchers to work for you!
Oregon, University of
your weight-loss goals and improve your overall health. 3. Select the Weight Watchers offering1 Put Weight Watchers® to work for you! Your Benefit Board offers Weight Watchers to help you reach that suits you best · Weight Watchers At Work meetings At Work meetings bring the Weight Watchers experience
Random Weighting Method for Multisensor Data Fusion
Shesheng Gao; Yongmin Zhong; Wei Li
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new data fusion method by adopting random weighting estimation for optimal weighted fusion of multisensor observation data. This method adjusts in real time the weights of individual sensors according to variations in estimated sensor variances to obtain optimal weight distribu- tion. Theories of random weighting estimation are established for optimal data fusion through optimal weighting distribution.
Perceived Weight Discrimination and Obesity
Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio
2013-01-01
Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index?30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR?=?2.54, 95% CI?=?1.58–4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR?=?3.20, 95% CI?=?2.06–4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity. PMID:23894586
Impact of Field of Study, College and Year on Calculation of Cumulative Grade Point Average
Carla Trail; Harold I. Reiter; Michelle Bridge; Patricia Stefanowska; Marylou Schmuck; Geoff Norman
2008-01-01
A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success\\u000a in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a\\u000a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study. Additional concerns relate\\u000a to the equivalence of grades
AUTOCORRELATION OF SHORT-TERM AND DAILY AVERAGE EXPOSURE LEVELS IN WORKPLACES
Shinji Kumagai; Ichiro Matsunaga; Yukinori Kusaka
1993-01-01
Based on workplace exposure data for 16 worker-chemical combinations, the degree of autocorrelation in a series of short-term time-weighted average (TWA) exposure concentrations (7.5-min, 15-min, 30-min, and 60-min TWAs) was investigated. For 7.5-min and 15-min TWAs, consecutive values generally exhibited no correlation or positive correlation, but not negative correlation. Consecutive 30-min TWAs and 60-min TWAs showed either positive correlation, negative
Discrete Painlev? equations for a class of PVI ?-functions given as U(N) averages
P. J. Forrester; N. S. Witte
2005-01-01
In a recent work, difference equations (Laguerre–Freud equations) for the bi-orthogonal polynomials and related quantities corresponding to the weight on the unit circle were derived. It is shown here that in the case m = 3, these difference equations, when applied to the calculation of the underlying U(N) average, reduce to a coupled system identifiable with that obtained by Adler
Madsen, J G; Bee, G
2015-03-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and <1.3 kg) or heavy (H; >1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (P<0.01) and feed efficiency was lower (P<0.01) in L than H barrows. Regardless of the birth weight group, AA and RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than RR barrows. During the compensatory growth period, RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than AA or RR barrows. Growth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (P<0.05) compared with AA barrows. Carcasses of L barrows were fatter as indicated by the lower (P??0.05) lean meat and greater (P?0.02) omental and subcutaneous fat percentage. Lean meat percentage was lower (P?0.05) in AA and RA than RR barrows. These differences caused by ad libitum feed access tended to be greater (feeding regime × birth weight group interaction; P<0.08) in L than H barrows. In L barrows, slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic and overall average myofibre size of the LM and the fast glycolytic myofibres and overall average myofibre size of the dark portion of the STM were larger (P?0.03) than in H barrows. The study revealed that the compensatory growth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight. PMID:25385171
Average gait differential image based human recognition.
Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng
2014-01-01
The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648