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1

Modular Approach to Physics: Weighted Average  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a multi-exercise module relating to average speed. It contains an interactive Java simulation featuring a car that the user controls for speed. Graphs of instantaneous and average velocities are simultaneously displayed, helping the user to understand the concept of time-weighted average. The lesson plan available through the Help menu explains how to calculate a weighted average, first with two speeds, and then with multiple. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics models sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-08-13

2

Boundedness and Dimension for Weighted Average Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The power considers a weighted average property of the type u(x sub 0) = (the integral over B of uwdx)/(the integral over B of wdx), B a ball in E superscript n with center x sub 0. A lemma constructing such functions is presented from which it follows th...

D. P. Stanford

1969-01-01

3

Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

2011-02-01

4

Scaling of average receiving time and average weighted shortest path on weighted Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present weighted Koch networks based on classic Koch networks. A new method is used to determine the average receiving time (ART), whose key step is to write the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes to absorption at the trap located at a hub node as a recursive relation. We show that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information. Moreover, average weighted shortest path (AWSP) is calculated. In the infinite network order limit, the AWSP depends on the scaling factor. The weighted Koch network grows unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded.

Dai, Meifeng; Chen, Dandan; Dong, Yujuan; Liu, Jie

2012-12-01

5

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

6

An Excel macro for transformed and weighted averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Excel macro is presented for averaging spreadsheet data. The macro has several special features: (1) The data are weighted\\u000a by the inverse variance of each datum to decrease the contribution-of noisy outliers. (2) There is a provision for a power\\u000a or a log transform of the data before averaging. The rationale for transforming the data before averaging is discussed

Stanley A. Klein

1992-01-01

7

Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Schemes: Properties and Enhancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roberts (1959) first introduced the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control scheme. Using simulation to evaluate its properties, he showed that the EWMA is useful for detecting small shifts in the mean of a process. The recognition that an EWMA control scheme can be represented as a Markov chain allows its properties to be evaluated more easily and completely than

James M. Lucas; Michael S. Saccucci

1990-01-01

8

Weighted averaging, logistic regression and the Gaussian response model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indicator value and ecological amplitude of a species with respect to a quantitative environmental variable can be estimated from data on species occurrence and environment. A simple weighted averaging (WA) method for estimating these parameters is compared by simulation with the more elaborate method of Gaussian logistic regression (GLR), a form of the generalized linear model which fits a

Cajo J. F. Braak; Caspar W. N. Looman

1986-01-01

9

A Comparison of Discrete Algorithms for Fuzzy Weighted Average  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fuzzy weighted average (FWA), which can be applied to various fields such as engineering design, decision analysis, etc., and as function of fuzzy numbers, is suitable for the problem of multiple occurrences of fuzzy parameters. Additional fuzziness may be introduced in the -cut arithmetic. This paper reviews and compares discrete algorithms for the FWAs in both theoretical comparison and numerical

Ping-Teng Chang; Kuo-Chen Hung; Kuo-Ping Lin; Ching-Hsiang Chang

2006-01-01

10

Scaling of average sending time on weighted Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random walks on weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, have attracted considerable interest in the past. But the efficiency of a hub sending information on scale-free small-world networks has been addressed less. In this paper, we study random walks on a class of weighted Koch networks with scaling factor 0 < r <= 1. We derive some basic properties for random walks on the weighted Koch networks, based on which we calculate analytically the average sending time (AST) defined as the average of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) from a hub node to all other nodes, excluding the hub itself. The obtained result displays that for 0 < r < 1 in large networks the AST grows as a power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by log43r+1r, and for r = 1 in large networks the AST grows with network order as N ln N, which is larger than the linear scaling of the average receiving time defined as the average of MFPTs for random walks to a given hub node averaged over all starting points.

Dai, Meifeng; Liu, Jie

2012-10-01

11

76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period...regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle weights. The purpose of this...

2011-05-19

12

76 FR 5518 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping...calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in...calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate...

2011-02-01

13

75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping...calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in...Department calculated the weighted average margins of dumping using...

2010-12-28

14

26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1.989(b)-1 Section...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989...the term âweighted average exchange rateâ means the simple average...

2010-04-01

15

26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1.989(b)-1 Section...Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989...the term âweighted average exchange rateâ means the simple average...

2009-04-01

16

The Conservation of Area Integrals in Averaging Transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown for the two-planetary version of the weakly perturbed two-body problem that, in a system defined by a finite part of a Poisson expansion of the averaged Hamiltonian, only one of the three components of the area vector is conserved, corresponding to the longitudes measuring plane. The variability of the other two components is demonstrated in two ways. The first is based on calculating the Poisson bracket of the averaged Hamiltonian and the components of the area vector written in closed form. In the second, an echeloned Poisson series processor (EPSP) is used when calculating the Poisson bracket. The averaged Hamiltonian is taken with accuracy to second order in the small parameter of the problem, and the components of the area vector are expanded in a Poisson series.

Kuznetsov, E. D.

2010-06-01

17

Molecular weight averages as criteria for quality assessment of heated oils and fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for quality assessment of heated oils and fats is described. The proposed method involves precise determination\\u000a of molecular weight averages (MWA)viz., the weight average molecular weight (\\u000a $$\\\\left( {\\\\bar {\\\\rm M}w} \\\\right)$$\\u000a ), the number average molecular weight (\\u000a $$\\\\left( {\\\\bar {\\\\rm M}n} \\\\right)$$\\u000a ) and the Z-average molecular weight (\\u000a $$\\\\left( {\\\\bar {\\\\rm M}z} \\\\right)$$\\u000a )

Sajid Husain; G. S. R. Sastry; N. Prasada Raju

1991-01-01

18

Average wind statistics for SRP area meteorological towers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quality assured set of average wind Statistics for the seven SRP area meteorological towers has been calculated for the five-year period 1982--1986 at the request of DOE/SR. A Similar set of statistics was previously compiled for the years 1975-- 1979. ...

J. E. Laurinat

1987-01-01

19

Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male\\/female), obesity status (obese\\/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary\\/upper elementary) were

Jillon S Vander Wal; Mark H Thelen

2000-01-01

20

Weighted averaging of ECG signal based on the number of turning points  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of real ECG processing, because of the nonstationary EMG noise, weighted averaging (WA) should be used instead of classical averaging (CA). Weights may be calculated from the noise variances of the isoelectronic sections of ECG. Instead of this badly defined parameter we propose an integral parameter of the whole heart cycle. The number of turning points of

L. Gyongy; L. Jobbagy

1999-01-01

21

Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

Warrens, Matthijs J.

2011-01-01

22

An Inequality between the Weighted Average and the Rowwise Correlation Coefficient for Proximity Matrices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess association between rows of proximity matrices, H. de Vries (1993) introduces weighted average and row-wise average variants for Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank correlation. For all three, the absolute value of the first variant is greater than or equal to the second. (SLD)|

Krijnen, Wim P.

1994-01-01

23

A Simple Method for Studying Run – Length Distributions of Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical procedure using integral equations is presented for the tabulation of moments of run lengths of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts. Both average run lengths (ARL's) and standard deviations of run lengths (SDRL's) are presented for the twosided EWMA chart assuming normal observations, along with an example illustrating how to design such a chart. The procedure given extends

Stephen V. Crowder

1987-01-01

24

How Well Does Average Fundamental Frequency Correlate with Speaker Height and Weight?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation is to shed some more light on the conflicting views about a number of acoustic parameters which might carry information on some general somatic features of the speaker. In an experiment, average fundamental frequency (F0) values of 105 male and 78 female adult subjects were correlated with their individual height and weight data. No significant

Hermann J. Künzel

1989-01-01

25

Estimates of weighted Hardy-Littlewood averages on the p-adic vector space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the p-adic vector space , we characterize those non-negative functions [psi] defined on for which the weighted Hardy-Littlewood average is bounded on (1[less-than-or-equals, slant]r[less-than-or-equals, slant][infinity]), and on . Also, in each case, we find the corresponding operator norm ||U[psi]||.

Rim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Jaesung

2006-12-01

26

Approximation Schemes for Minimizing Average Weighted Completion Time with Release Dates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of scheduling jobs with re- lease dates on machines so as to minimize their average weighted completion time. We present the first known poly- nomial time approximation schemes for several variants of this problem. Our results include PTASs for the case of identical parallel machines and a constant number of unre- lated machines with and without

Foto N. Afrati; Evripidis Bampis; Chandra Chekuri; David R. Karger; Claire Kenyon; Sanjeev Khanna; Ioannis Milis; Maurice Queyranne; Martin Skutella; Clifford Stein; Maxim Sviridenko

1999-01-01

27

Binary weighted averaging of an ensemble of coherently collected image frames.  

PubMed

Recent interest in the collection of remote laser radar imagery has motivated novel systems that process temporally contiguous frames of collected imagery to produce an average image that reduces laser speckle, increases image SNR, decreases the deleterious effects of atmospheric distortion, and enhances image detail. This research seeks an algorithm based on Bayesian estimation theory to select those frames from an ensemble that increases spatial resolution compared to simple unweighted averaging of all frames. The resulting binary weighted motion-compensated frame average is compared to the unweighted average using simulated and experimental data collected from a fielded laser vision system. Image resolution is significantly enhanced as quantified by the estimation of the atmospheric seeing parameter through which the average image was formed. PMID:17405439

MacDonald, Adam; Cain, Stephen; Oxley, Mark

2007-04-01

28

Characterization of some Iraqi asphalts. I. Number average molecular weight investigation of Dora and Qaiyarah asphalts  

SciTech Connect

The number average molecular weight (Mn/sup -/) of two Iraqi asphalts has been studied before and after thermal treatment using vapour pressure osmometery. Changes in Mn/sup -/ values after thermal aging were compared with the changes in their physical and mechanical properties. Toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, tetrahydrofuran and carbon tetrachloride were used to fractionate the asphalts. The Mn/sup -/ of each fraction was determined before and after aging.

Al-Jarrah, M.M.F.; Al-Soufi, H.H.; Apikian, R.L.; Al-Saleem, H.I.; Naoom, S.S.

1986-01-01

29

Simple time weighted average level air-monitoring method for sulfur mustard in work places  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple air-monitoring method was developed and validated for vesicant sulfur mustard (HD) in the work place at time weighted average levels. XAD-2 adsorbent was used for the collection of HD vapours for 8 h followed by liquid desorption with carbon tetrachloride. The trace level analysis was carried out by gas chromatography–photoionization detection and was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometric

M. V. S Suryanarayana; R. K Shrivastava; Diwakar Pandey; R Vaidyanathaswamy; Sumeet Mahajan; Debdas Bhoumik

2001-01-01

30

Developing environmental indices using fuzzy numbers ordered weighted averaging (FN-OWA) operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental indices (EI) constitute a common communication tool that is often used to describe the overall status of environmental\\u000a systems (air, water and soil). EI development entails the use of mathematical operators to aggregate various non-commensurate\\u000a input parameters in a logical manner. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is a general mean type operator that provides\\u000a flexibility in the aggregation

Rehan Sadiq; Solomon Tesfamariam

2008-01-01

31

Model Averaging Methods for Weight Trimming in Generalized Linear Regression Models  

PubMed Central

In sample surveys where units have unequal probabilities of inclusion, associations between the inclusion probability and the statistic of interest can induce bias in unweighted estimates. This is true even in regression models, where the estimates of the population slope may be biased if the underlying mean model is misspecified or the sampling is nonignorable. Weights equal to the inverse of the probability of inclusion are often used to counteract this bias. Highly disproportional sample designs have highly variable weights; weight trimming reduces large weights to a maximum value, reducing variability but introducing bias. Most standard approaches are ad hoc in that they do not use the data to optimize bias-variance trade-offs. This article uses Bayesian model averaging to create “data driven” weight trimming estimators. We extend previous results for linear regression models (Elliott 2008) to generalized linear regression models, developing robust models that approximate fully-weighted estimators when bias correction is of greatest importance, and approximate unweighted estimators when variance reduction is critical.

Elliott, Michael R.

2012-01-01

32

Intrauterine crowding decreases average birth weight and affects muscle fiber hyperplasia in piglets.  

PubMed

High prolificacy of sows and increased fetal survival lead to greater incidence of intrauterine crowding (IUC), which may then affect pre- and postnatal development of the progeny. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of IUC, using unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized gilts (UHO), on organ and muscle development of their progeny at birth. In the study, 7 UHO and 7 intact control (Con) Swiss Large White gilts were used. At farrowing, if available, 3 male and 3 female progeny with a low (>0.8 and <1.2 kg), medium (>1.2 and <1.4 kg), and high (>1.6 kg) birth weight (BtW) were killed. Internal organs and brain were weighed, and semitendinosus (STN), psoas major (PM), and rhomboideus (RH) muscles were collected. Histological analyses were performed in PM, RH, and STN (dark and light portion) using myofibrillar ATPase staining after preincubation at pH 10.3. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) polymorphism was determined in the PM using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Despite that only one-half of the uterine space was available, litter size was smaller (P < 0.01) only by 35% in UHO compared with Con gilts. However, UHO progeny tended (P = 0.06) to be lighter than Con progeny. The average BtW of the selected piglets did not differ (P = 0.17) between the 2 sow groups, whereas PM and kidneys tended to be lighter (P < 0.07) in UHO than in Con progeny. Compared with Con progeny, the PM and the STN(dark) of UHO progeny had fewer (P ? 0.05) secondary and total myofibers as well as fewer (P = 0.10) primary myofibers in the PM. In the RH, the secondary-to-primary myofiber ratio was smaller (P < 0.01) in UHO than in Con progeny, whereas the total number of myofibers did not (P = 0.96) differ. The relative abundance of fetal MyHC was less (P = 0.02) and that of type I MyHC tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in UHO than in Con offspring. With increasing BtW, organ and brain weights increased (P < 0.01). Muscle cross-sectional area and total number of myofibers in the light portion of the STN were greater (P < 0.05) in high and medium than in low piglets. In conclusion, IUC reduced hyperplasia of secondary and total myofibers in the STN(dark) and PM. These effects were independent of the BtW and sex. PMID:20562364

Bérard, J; Pardo, C E; Béthaz, S; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

2010-06-18

33

The bound weighted average method (BWAM) for predicting S-wave velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear-wave velocity is a very important parameter in oil and gas seismic exploration, and vital in prestack elastic-parameters inversion and seismic attribute analysis. However, shearing-velocity logging is seldom carried out because it is expensive. This paper presents a simple method for predicting S-wave velocity which covers the basic factors that influence seismic wave propagation velocity in rocks. The elastic modulus of a rock is expressed here as a weighted arithmetic average between Voigt and Reuss bounds, where the weighting factor, w, is a measurement of the geometric details of the pore space and mineral grains. The S-wave velocity can be estimated from w, which is derived from the P-wave modulus. The method is applied to process well-logging data for a carbonate reservoir in Sichuan Basin, and shows the predicted S-wave velocities agree well with the measured S-wave velocities.

Liu, Ling; Geng, Jian-Hua; Guo, Tong-Lou

2012-12-01

34

Equating of Subscores and Weighted Averages under the NEAT Design. Research Report. ETS RR-11-01  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the literature has seen increasing interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic values; for example, one study suggested the report of weighted averages of a subscore and the total score, whereas others showed, for various operational and simulated data sets, that weighted averages, as compared to subscores, lead to more accurate…

Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby

2011-01-01

35

Excessive weight gain after pregnancy in urban areas: one important area to prevent diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been found to be common in people, including the women of child bearing age, in urban Nepal. There is a custom of feeding the women with foods rich in calories and fats, as much as possible, after delivery. Weights of 200 women of urban Kathmandu before the first pregnancy and 6 months and 1 year after delivery were studied. The mean + SD of weights before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 51.3 + 4.9, 67.2 + 6.3 and 63.4 + 6.4 respectively. Similarly, the mean + SD of body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, six months after delivery and one year after delivery were 21.3 + 1.8, 27.9 + 2.5 and 26.7 + 2.8 respectively. The average increases in weight and BMI six months after delivery were 15.9 kg and 6.6; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). Six months later the average increased weight and BMI decreased by 3.8 kg and 1.2 respectively. Thus, the average increases in weight and BMI one year after first pregnancy were 12.1 kg and 5.4; the increases from the basal values were statistically significant (p<0.01). The women seemed to have difficulty in losing weight gained. In view of the problem of overweight, the custom of excess feeding after delivery seems required to be discouraged in urban areas to prevent subsequent gestational and type 2 diabetes in women and the population. PMID:16519070

Bhattarai, Madhur Dev; Singh, Dhruba Lall

2005-12-01

36

A novel adaptive-weighted-average framework for blood glucose prediction.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Blood glucose (BG) prediction plays a very important role in daily BG management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Several algorithms, such as autoregressive (AR) models and artificial neural networks, have been proposed for BG prediction. However, every algorithm has its own subject range (i.e., one algorithm might work well for one diabetes patient but poorly for another patient). Even for one individual patient, this algorithm might perform well during the preprandial period but poorly during the postprandial period. Materials and Methods: A novel framework was proposed to combine several BG prediction algorithms. The main idea of the novel framework is that an adaptive weight is given to each algorithm where one algorithm's weight is inversely proportional to the sum of the squared prediction errors. In general, this framework can be applied to combine any BG prediction algorithms. Results: As an example, the proposed framework was used to combine an AR model, extreme learning machine, and support vector regression. The new algorithm was compared with these three prediction algorithms on the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) readings of 10 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients; the CGMS readings of each patient included 860 CGMS data points. For each patient, the algorithms were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error, relative error, Clarke error-grid analysis, and J index. Of the 40 evaluations, the new adaptive-weighted algorithm achieved the best prediction performance in 37 (92.5%). Conclusions: Thus, we conclude that the adaptive-weighted-average framework proposed in this study can give satisfactory predictions and should be used in BG prediction. The new algorithm has great robustness with respect to variations in data characteristics, patients, and prediction horizons. At the same time, it is universal. PMID:23883406

Wang, Youqing; Wu, Xiangwei; Mo, Xue

2013-07-24

37

Averages, Areas and Volumes; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is an elementary approach to areas, columns and other mathematical concepts usually treated in calculus. The approach is based on the idea of average and this concept is utilized throughout the report. In the beginning the average (arithmetic mean) of a set of numbers is considered and two properties of the average which often simplify…

Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

38

Detecting the start of an influenza outbreak using exponentially weighted moving average charts  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks in temperate climates, usually during winter and early spring, and are endemic in tropical climates. The severity and length of influenza outbreaks vary from year to year. Quick and reliable detection of the start of an outbreak is needed to promote public health measures. Methods We propose the use of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart of laboratory confirmed influenza counts to detect the start and end of influenza outbreaks. Results The chart is shown to provide timely signals in an example application with seven years of data from Victoria, Australia. Conclusions The EWMA control chart could be applied in other applications to quickly detect influenza outbreaks.

2010-01-01

39

Effects of average molecular weight and concentration of polymer additive on friction and wear  

SciTech Connect

Tribological behavior with oils containing polymethacrylates (PMAs) differing in average molecular weight, Mw, is examined in sliding concentrated contacts. At low loads, low PMA Mw or higher concentrations of PMA have a beneficial effect on wear, but at high loads, PMAs are detrimental. The beneficial effect is attributed to elastohydrodynamic film formation. The most important parameter is the number of PMA molecules per unit oil volume. The prowear action can be explained by the fact that PMA molecules may accumulate in the inlet region of the contact. The polymer accumulation may block the base oil entering the contact leading to oil starvation which in turn leads to severe contacts and increases in wear. This anomalous behavior may result from the competition between the prowear action and oil film formation. 13 refs.

Yoshida, Kazuo (Kyodo Oil Technical Research Center, Toda (Japan))

1990-04-01

40

Weighted average prediction for improving consensus performance of second-order delayed multi-agent systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, the weighted average prediction (WAP) is introduced into the existing consensus protocol for simultaneously improving the robustness to communication delay and the convergence speed of achieving the consensus. The frequency-domain analysis and algebra graph theory are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient condition guaranteeing the second-order delayed multi-agent systems applying the WAP-based consensus protocol to achieve the stationary consensus. It is proved that introducing the WAP with the proper length into the existing consensus protocol can improve the robustness against communication delay. Also, we prove that for two kinds of second-order delayed multi-agent systems: 1) the IR-ones with communication delay approaching zero and 2) the ones with communication delay approaching the maximum delay, introducing the WAP with the proper length into the existing consensus protocol can accelerate the convergence speed of achieving the stationary consensus. PMID:22453642

Wu, Zhihai; Fang, Huajing; She, Yingying

2012-03-19

41

Calculating the average natural recharge in large areas as a factor of their lithology and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an area as large as Spain, it is shown by statistical inference on a sample of 875 springs (with discharges greater than 10 l s-1), whose average flow, lithology and catchment areas are known, and which were grouped into regions of contrasting rainfall, that the average annual recharge is a fixed fraction of annual rainfall for each lithology. Recharge

E. Sanz; I. Menéndez Pidal de Navascués; C. Távara

2011-01-01

42

Weight pattern of pre-school children in a rural area of Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cross-sectional study weights of 542 boys and 547 girls of rural area recorded at different times during 0–4 yr of their\\u000a age was analysed. The mean birth weight was found to be 2.84 kg. It doubled at the age of 4 months, tripled around 1 1\\/2 yrand\\u000a quandrupled around 3 1\\/2 yr. The average weight gain per month

O. P. Aggarwal; A. Indrayan; S. S. Rao; P. Gupta; V. Grovcr; C. S. Chuttani

1983-01-01

43

Theoretical and empirical analysis of the average cross-sectional areas of breakup fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional area of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second approach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. This new approach automatically classifies fragments into plate- or irregular-shapes based on their aspect ratio and thickness, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The comparison between the two approaches is demonstrated in the area-to-mass ratio (A/m) distribution of fragments from two microsatellite impact experiments completed in early 2008. A major difference between the two approaches comes from the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of plates. In order to determine which of the two approaches provides a better description of the actual A/m distribution of breakup fragments, a theoretical analysis in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of an ideal plate is conducted. This paper also investigates the average cross-sectional area of multi-layer insulation fragments. The average cross-sectional area of 214 multi-layer insulation fragments was measured by a planimeter, and then the data were used to benchmark the average cross-sectional areas estimated by the two approaches. The uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area with the two approaches is also discussed in terms of size and thickness.

Hanada, T.; Liou, J.-C.

2011-05-01

44

Time- and Volume-Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase Flow Using Mass-Weighted Velocity and Internal Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for multiphase flow, formulated on the basis of local volume averaging followed by time-averaging for turbulent flows, are presented. They are differential equations of transport with area integrals ass...

B. T. Chao S. L. Soo W. T. Sha

1988-01-01

45

47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...h) for each study area in the country. The...National Exchange Carrier Association. Effective July 1...611(h) for the study area. (1) If a company...National Exchange Carrier Association as provided in § 36.612(a), the study area average...

2011-10-01

46

47 CFR 36.622 - National and study area average unseparated loop costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...h) for each study area in the country. The...National Exchange Carrier Association. Effective July 1...611(h) for the study area. (1) If a company...National Exchange Carrier Association as provided in § 36.612(a), the study area average...

2012-10-01

47

Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Average Cross-sectional Areas of Breakup Fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will compare two different approaches to calculate the average cross-sectional ar-eas of breakup fragments. The first one is described in the NASA standard breakup model 1998 revision. This approach visually classifies fragments into several shapes, and then applies formulae developed for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The second ap-proach was developed jointly by the Kyushu University and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. This new approach automatically classifies fragments into plate-or irregular-shaped objects based on their aspect ratio and thickness, and then applies formulae for each shape to calculate the average cross-sectional area. The comparison between the two approaches will be demonstrated in the area-to-mass ratio (A/m) distribution of fragments from two microsatellite impact tests completed in early 2008. In order to determine which one of the two approaches provides a better description of the actual A/m distribution of breakup fragments, a theoretical analysis of two objects in ideal shape was conducted. The first one is an ideal plate. It is used to investigate the uncertainty of the formula described in the NASA standard breakup model. The second shape is an ideal cylinder. It is used to investigate the uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area of needle-like fragments generated from the CFRP layers and side panels of the microsatellite tests. This paper will also investigate the average cross-sectional areas of multi-layer insulation (MLI) fragments. The average cross-sectional areas of 214 MLI fragments were measured by a planime-ter, and then the data were used to benchmark the average cross-sectional areas estimated by the two approaches. The uncertainty in the calculation of the average cross-sectional area with the two approaches will also be discussed in terms of size and thickness.

Hanada, Toshiya; Liou, Jer-Chyi

48

Characteristics of Ozone in the Baltimore-Washington Area: 8-Hour Average Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project is to separate, analyze, and understand the climatological, annual, seasonal, and short-term fluctuations in peak ground-level ozone concentrations in the Baltimore-Washington area using 8-hour average ozone concentra...

F. M. Vukovich

2000-01-01

49

Bilateral averaging over receiving and transmitting areas for accurate measurements of sector average signal strength inside buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In defining path loss for narrowband systems, it is common to introduce the concept of the sector or local average in order to remove the rapid (Rayleigh or Rician) fading. As originally developed for cellular mobile radio (CMR) systems, the sector average is obtained from the spatial average of the received signal as the mobile traverses a path of 20

Walter Honcharenko; Henry L. Bertoni; James L. Dailing

1995-01-01

50

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify area-average evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in area-average evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and area-average evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on average, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.

Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.

2009-12-01

51

Weighted averaging partial least squares regression (WA-PLS): an improved method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighted averaging regression and calibration form a simple, yet powerful method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages. Based on the concepts of niche-space partitioning and ecological optima of species (indicator values), it performs well with noisy, species-rich data that cover a long ecological gradient (>3 SD units). Partial least squares regression is a linear method for multivariate calibration that

Cajo J. F. Braak; Steve Juggins

1993-01-01

52

A Critical Review of Time-Weighted Average as an Index of Exposure and Dose, and of Its Key Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-weighted average (TWA) is widely used in research and practice, in occupational health, as an index of exposure and dose. Its key element, CT, where C is concentration of contaminant and T is duration of contamination, is recognizable as Haber's rule. Neither TWA nor similar measurements have been scientifically validated, and it does not seem appropriately named. In the late

GORDON ATHERLEY

1985-01-01

53

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at

W. Shuttleworth; A. Serrat-Capdevila; M. L. Roderick; R. Scott

2009-01-01

54

An intercomparison of techniques to determine the area-averaged latent heat flux from individual in situ observations: A remote sensing approach using the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the area-averaged latent heat flux is necessary to validate large-scale model predictions of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces. This paper describes different procedures to obtain as a weighted average of ground-based observations. The weighting coefficients are obtained from remote sensing measurements. The remote sensing data used in this study consist of a Landsat thematic mapper image

H. Pelgrum; W. G. M. Bastiaanssen

1996-01-01

55

Gabor Feature Space Diffusion via the Minimal Weighted Area Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabor feature space is elaborated for representation, process- ing and segmentation of textured images. As a first step of preprocessing of images represented in this space, we introduce an algorithm for Gabor feature space denoising. It is a geometric-based algorithm that applies diffusion-like equation derived from a minimal weighted area functional, introduced previously and applied in the context of stereo

Chen Sagiv; Nir A. Sochen; Yehoshua Y. Zeevi

2001-01-01

56

Time-weighted average sampling of airborne propylene glycol ethers by a solid-phase microextraction device.  

PubMed

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a diffusive sampler for airborne propylene glycol ethers (PGEs), including propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME). Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) SPME fiber was selected for this study. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing was used as the holder, and the SPME fiber assembly was inserted into the tubing as a diffusive sampler. The diffusion path length and area of the sampler were 0.3 cm and 0.00086 cm(2), respectively. The theoretical sampling constants at 30°C and 1 atm for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME were 1.50 × 10(-2), 1.23 × 10(-2) and 1.14 × 10(-2) cm(3) min(-1), respectively. For evaluations, known concentrations of PGEs around the threshold limit values/time-weighted average with specific relative humidities (10% and 80%) were generated both by the air bag method and the dynamic generation system, while 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min were selected as the time periods for vapor exposures. Comparisons of the SPME diffusive sampling method to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) organic Method 99 were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 30°C for PGME. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used for sample analysis. The experimental sampling constants of the sampler at 30°C were (6.93 ± 0.12) × 10(-1), (4.72 ± 0.03) × 10(-1), and (3.29 ± 0.20) × 10(-1) cm(3) min(-1) for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME, respectively. The adsorption of chemicals on the stainless steel needle of the SPME fiber was suspected to be one of the reasons why significant differences between theoretical and experimental sampling rates were observed. Correlations between the results for PGME from both SPME device and OSHA organic Method 99 were linear (r = 0.9984) and consistent (slope = 0.97 ± 0.03). Face velocity (0-0.18 m/s) also proved to have no effects on the sampler. However, the effects of temperature and humidity have been observed. Therefore, adjustments of experimental sampling constants at different environmental conditions will be necessary. PMID:22651222

Shih, H C; Tsai, S W; Kuo, C H

2012-01-01

57

Improving optical transmission and image contrast in medium and high performance optical systems using weighted average angle of incidence techniques to optimize coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designers of medium and high performance optical systems often overlook a very simple technique that can improve the system transmission and image contrast, as well as reduce scattering within the system. The resulting improvement in the optical collection efficiency can be used to increase performance or be traded off to realize improvements in other areas (i.e. aperture size, weight, etc.). The technique is based on the observation that many (if not most) anti-reflection coatings specified for lens surfaces, are specified at a normal angle of incidence. Since most of the energy incident on a typical lens impinges at angles other than the normal, the efficiency of an anti-reflection coating at any surface might be improved by using an approach based on weighted average angles of the incident radiation. This paper describes one approach to calculate weighted average coating angles for a optical systems. The optical transmissions are estimated, when the respective coatings are specified at the normal angle of incidence and at an angle based on the incident ray geometry. The measured transmission of two (otherwise identical) aspheric lenses, one coated using a standard SLAR coating specified at a normal incidence angle and the other coated using a standard SLAR coating specified at optimized incidence angles are presented.

Harder, James A.; Sprague, Michaelene

2008-10-01

58

A New Sensitivity Analysis and Solution Method for Scintillometer Measurements of Area-Averaged Turbulent Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length l_o and refractive index structure function C_n^2 allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as l_o. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.

Gruber, Matthew; Fochesatto, Gilberto J.

2013-07-01

59

Weighted average flux method and flux limiters for the numerical simulation of shock waves in rigid porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one-dimensional flow field generated by the passage of a shock wave in a rigid, thermoelastic porous foam has been simulated using a two-phase mathematical model. The work presented here makes use of the weighted average flux method to solve the system of six equations that govern the problem. Spurious oscillations are eliminated through the application of total variation diminishing limiting methods. Four different limiters were tested: van Leer, SuperA, MinA and van Albada. Numerical tests were carried out to verify the performance of each flux limiter in terms of accuracy. The results were compared to analytical and previously obtained data to assess the performance of the mathematical model. Excellent agreement was obtained.

Torrens, R.; Wrobel, L. C.

2002-11-01

60

Body composition and cross-sectional areas of limb lean tissues in Olympic weight lifters.  

PubMed

The cross-sectional area (CSAs) of bone and muscle tissues in the forearm, upper arm, lower leg, and thigh and body composition were determined by B-mode ultrasound and underwater weighing methods, respectively for 56 college Olympic weight lifters and 28 age-matched non-athletes to investigate the magnitude of musculoskeletal development in the strength-trained athletes belonging to the weight-classified sports event. The average value of fat-free mass (FFM) for the weight lifters ranked 12.6 kg above the regression line of FFM on stature for untrained subjects. In the weight lifters, however, the percentage of fat mass to body mass was also highly correlated to body mass index. Bone and muscle CSAs in every site were significantly larger in the weight lifter than in the untrained subjects with relative differences of 22 to 58% and 17 to 56%, respectively. Moreover, as a result of regression analysis for the mixed data from weight lifters and untrained subjects, significant correlation was found between bone and muscle CSAs in every site (r = 0.620 to 0.791, P < 0.05). The differences in lean (bone + muscle) CSA were still significant in all sites except for the lower leg even when the difference in body size was statistically controlled. The comparisons between the weight lifters and untrained subjects on the lean CSA ratios of site to site and muscle CSA ratios of flexors to extensors indicated that the weight lifters had achieved a high relative distribution of lean tissues in the arms and a dominant development in elbow and knee extensors. Thus, the present results suggested that participation in weight lifting exercises for a long period could increase bone CSA as well as muscle CSA, and induce in the participants a noticeable enlargement in given sites and muscle groups responsible for performing the Olympic lifts. PMID:9809385

Kanehisa, H; Ikegawa, S; Fukunaga, T

1998-10-01

61

A new approach to combine climate change projections by ordered weighting averaging operator; applications to northwestern provinces of Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projections of the climate change by using General Climate Models (GCMs) are uncertain. Hence, combining the results of GCMs is now an effective solution to tackle this uncertainty. To evaluate the performance of GCMs, a new measure based on the similarity of the projections is defined. In defining this measure the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) approach is used. The relative weights of the GCMs projections in different stations, to be aggregated by the OWA operator, are obtained by regular increasing monotone fuzzy quantifiers, which model the risk preferences of the decision maker. To show the effectiveness of the approach, climate change in the northwestern provinces of Iran is studied by using the data of 15 synoptic stations. The weather generator of LARS-WG is used to downscale the GCMs under three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) for the period 2011 to 2030. The combined results, by using the similarity values, indicate a - 0.1 °C to + 4.5 °C change in temperature in the region. Precipitation is expected to increase in summer and fall. Changes in wintry precipitation depend on the location; however the precipitation in spring would have a medium change. The results of this study show the usefulness of OWA operator, which considers the risk attitudes of the decision maker. This approach could help water and environmental managers to tackle the climate uncertainties.

Amir Rahmani, Mohammad; Zarghami, Mahdi

2013-03-01

62

Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo. For that purpose spatially heterogeneous surface albedo maps were input into a 3-dimensional (3-D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to simulate 3-D irradiance fields. The calculated up- and downward irradiances in altitudes between 0.1 and 5 km are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo using an iterative retrieval method that removes the effects due to atmospheric scattering and absorption within the layer beneath the considered level. For the case of adjacent land and sea surfaces, parametrizations are presented which quantify the horizontal distance from the coastline that is required to reduce surface heterogeneity effects on the area-averaged surface albedo to a given limit. The parametrization which is a function of altitude, aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, and the ratio of local land and sea albedo was applied for airborne spectral measurements. In addition, the deviation between area-averaged and local surface albedo is determined for more complex surface albedo maps. For moderate aerosol conditions (optical depth less than 0.4) and a wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm, the altitude and the heterogeneity of the surface albedo are the dominant factors determining the mean deviation between local and area-averaged surface albedo. A parametrization of the mean deviation is applied to an albedo map that was derived from a Landsat image of an area in East Anglia (UK). Parametrization and direct comparison of local and area-averaged surface albedo show similar mean deviations (20% vs. 25%) over land.

Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.; Mayer, B.

2013-03-01

63

A 5'UTR SNP of GHRHR locus is associated with body weight and average daily gain in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) has important functions in the regulation of the growth hormone axis and the development and proliferation of pituitary somatotropes. Moreover, some mutations in mouse GHRHR can induce the dwarfism. The objective of this paper is to reveal the association of GHRHR with growth traits in three Chinese cattle breeds, including Nanyang cattle (NY, 220), Qinchuan cattle (QC, 114), and Jiaxian cattle (JX, 142). A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_181020:c.102C>T) in 5'UTR of GHRHR was identified using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The frequency of NM_181020:c.102C allele ranged from 0.926 to 0.956. We found that the locus was significantly associated with NY cattle's body weight (BW) of 6 months, with average daily gain (ADG) of 0-6 months, and as well as with ADG of 6-12 months (p < 0.05). The data suggested that the polymorphism (NM_181020:c.102C>T) of the GHRHR could be a molecular marker candidate for breeding of NY cattle in favor of BW. PMID:23053950

Zhang, C F; Chen, H; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, L Z; Yang, D Y; Qu, Y J; Hua, L S; Zhang, B; Hu, S R

2012-10-11

64

The effects of spaying and anabolic implants on the average daily weight gain of heifers on pasture  

PubMed Central

Two studies were carried out to determine the effects of spaying and implanting on the growth of heifers and compare Ralgro and Synovex-S for spayed heifers. In the first study, 121 crossbred heifers were randomly allocated to four groups: intact and no implant; intact and progesterone and estradiol benzoate (Synovex-S); spayed and no implant; and spayed and Synovex-S. The average daily gain (ADG) and body weight (BW) data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with a pasture effect which was considered as a block. Based on ADG for days 0-120, the response to implanting was 17.6% for spayed heifers and 1.8% for intact heifers. In the second study, 31 spayed heifers implanted with zeranol (Ralgro) were compared with 30 spayed heifers implanted with Synovex-S. The data were analyzed as a one-way analysis of variance. The ADG for spayed heifers on Ralgro did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from those implanted with Synovex-S over a period of 92 days, suggesting that both implants produce similar growth responses.

ZoBell, Dale R.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Bertagnolli, Clark; Ziegler, Ken

1993-01-01

65

The effects of spaying and anabolic implants on the average daily weight gain of heifers on pasture.  

PubMed

Two studies were carried out to determine the effects of spaying and implanting on the growth of heifers and compare Ralgro and Synovex-S for spayed heifers. In the first study, 121 crossbred heifers were randomly allocated to four groups: intact and no implant; intact and progesterone and estradiol benzoate (Synovex-S); spayed and no implant; and spayed and Synovex-S. The average daily gain (ADG) and body weight (BW) data were analyzed as a 2 x 2 factorial experiment with a pasture effect which was considered as a block. Based on ADG for days 0-120, the response to implanting was 17.6% for spayed heifers and 1.8% for intact heifers. In the second study, 31 spayed heifers implanted with zeranol (Ralgro) were compared with 30 spayed heifers implanted with Synovex-S. The data were analyzed as a one-way analysis of variance. The ADG for spayed heifers on Ralgro did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from those implanted with Synovex-S over a period of 92 days, suggesting that both implants produce similar growth responses. PMID:17424337

Zobell, D R; Goonewardene, L A; Bertagnolli, C; Ziegler, K

1993-12-01

66

Area-average estimates of evaporation, wetness indicators and top soil moisture during two golden days in EFEDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface fluxes and soil moisture were measured in situ during the Echival Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas (EFEDA), executed in Castilla la Mancha, Central Spain. Although the observation network had a high density (20 flux towers and 46 soil moisture plots), the area-average values at a scale of 100 km for a Mediterranean agricultural landscape were difficult to deduce. An

W. G. M. Bastiaanssen; H. Pelgrum; P. Droogers; H. A. R. de Bruin; M. Menenti

1997-01-01

67

Spacially-averaged and point measurements of wind variability in the Geyser's area  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a comparison of wind measurements made with conventional cup-vane tower mounted anemometers and optical space-averaged anemometer techniques. The results described cover the period from 7/17/79 to 7/27/79 during the intensive ASCOT experiment in the Geyser's region. The average height of the laser beam above terrain was about 30 meters. Most of the optical anemometer wind data was obtained using a laser beam system described in detail by Lawrence, et al. Some measurements were also made along the same path using a white light photodiode array system developed at LLL.

Porch, W.M.

1980-05-01

68

Characteristics of Ozone in the Baltimore-Washington Area: 1-Hour Average Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was develop a 15-year climatology (1981-1995) for the 1-hour diurnal maximum ozone concentration (DMOC) at the surface for the Baltimore-Washington area. The area was divided into four regions: Baltimore, Washington, non-urban Ma...

F. M. Vukovich R. Wayland

1998-01-01

69

Temporal-spatial characteristics of area-averaged sensible heat flux by Large Aperture Scintillometer over Hai River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the wide and deep application of Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS), the scintillation method exhibits as a robust technique in measuring area-averaged sensible heat fluxes. As the path length of LAS is comparable to the pixel size of satellite images and grid scale of hydrological models, the measurements are helpful for validation. Meanwhile LAS has the potential to explore the scale effect, especially to bridge the gap from local to regional flux measurement. In our analysis, the ground measurements including LAS, Eddy Covariance (EC) system and Automatic Weather System(AWS), as well as TM/MODIS satellite in Miyun, Guantao and Daxing sites over Hai River Basin from 2008-2009 were selected, which can represent three different heterogeneous surfaces in Hai River Basin. After data processing and quality control, continuous sensible heat flux (Hlas) data on Kilometers Scale were obtained over various surfaces. Based on the footprint model of LAS, the distribution of source area for LAS measurements had been analyzed over Miyun, Guantao and Daxing sites in January, April, July and October, 2008. And then the daily variation of Hlas in January, April, July and October in 2008 over the three sites have been analyzed; the value and tendency of variation in these months are different among these sites, which are in accordance with the local crop phenophases. From the comparison of daily mean net radiation (Rn) and Hlas from 2008-2009 over the three sites, it can be seen the seasonal variation of Hlas are consistent in these two years, however, Miyun site shows a single peak while Guantao and Daxing sites show double-peak variation of Hlas, which mainly due to the different crop phenophases and irrigation conditions. At last, the difference between Hlas and Hec in Miyun and Guantao sites had been discussed separately. In accordance with the underlying surfaces, the reasons for the difference between Hlas and Hec can be attributed to the energy balance ratio of EC, the heterogeneity of the underlying surfaces as well as the relative weights of the overlap area between EC and LAS measurements. While in Guantao site, apart from the above reasons mentioned in Miyun site, the atmospheric instability may be one of the main reasons that contribute to the difference between Hlas and Hec. Key words: Large aperture scintillometer, Hai River Basin, Data processing and quality control, Temporal-spatial characteristics

Bai, J.; Liu, S. M.; Xu, Z. W.; Jia, L.; Ding, X. P.

2010-09-01

70

A Study on Forecast of Ensemble Average Insolation in Utility Service Area Considering Diversity of Forecast Error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) is one of the promising measures to develop a low carbon society. Because of the unstable power output characteristics, a robust forecast method must be employed for realizing the high penetration of PVS into an electric power system. Considering the difference in power output patterns among PVSs dispersed in the service area of electric power system, the forecast error would vary among locations, resulting in the reduced forecast error of the ensemble average power output of high penetration PVS. In this paper, by using the multi-point data of insolation observed in Chubu area during four months, we evaluated the forecast error of the ensemble average insolation of 11 districts, and compared it with the forecast error of individual district. As the results, the number of periods with the forecast error larger than the average insolation during four months is reduced by 16 hours for the ensemble average insolation compared with the average value of individual forecast. The largest forecast error during four months is also reduced to 0.45 kWh/m2 for the ensemble average insolation from 0.68 kWh/m2 on average of 11 districts.

Suzuki, Kouki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

71

Characteristics of ozone in the Baltimore-Washington area: 1-hour average concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was develop a 15-year climatology (1981-1995) for the 1-hour diurnal maximum ozone concentration (DMOC) at the surface for the Baltimore-Washington area. The area was divided into four regions: Baltimore, Washington, non-urban Maryland, and non-urban northern Virginia. In each area, the time series of the DMOC were divided into four terms representing different behavioral time scales: the long-term mean; the mean intra-annual perturbation, the interannual perturbation; and the synoptic perturbation. Histogram of the zone exceedance were created by month and by concentration. Non-meteorological trend for ozone over the fifteen year period were developed for Washington and Baltimore. A linear model was used to determine the meteorological trends and remove these trends from the data to obtain the non-meteorological trends. The report discusses various problems with obtaining a satisfactory measure of the non-meteorological trend.

Vukovich, F.M.; Wayland, R.

1998-07-01

72

The effect of subgrid velocity scale on site-specific\\/subgrid area and grid-averaged dry deposition velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for deriving the site-specific and subgrid area wind speed and friction velocity from regional model output and detailed land type information is developed. The “subgrid velocity scale” is introduced to account for generation of turbulent fluxes by subgrid motions. The grid vector averaged wind speed is adjusted by adding the subgrid velocity scale. This is to account for

Leiming Zhang; Jeffrey R Brook

2001-01-01

73

EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED AREA AVERAGED VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

74

Relations Among Multiple Peer Influences, Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Self-Esteem: A Comparison of Average Weight, At Risk of Overweight, and Overweight Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate peer-related influences on appearance, body dissatisfaction, eating disturbance, and self-esteem in average weight, at risk of overweight, and overweight adolescent girls. Methods Three hundred twenty-five adolescent girls from high schools in Florida were assessed. Ninety met criteria for being at risk of overweight or over- weight. Logistic and multiple regression analyses

J. Kevin Thompson; Hemal Shroff; S. Herbozo; G. Cafri; J. Rodriguez; M. Rodriguez

2006-01-01

75

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20  20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy

Frank Beyrich; Jens-Peter Leps; Matthias Mauder; Jens Bange; Thomas Foken; Sven Huneke; Horst Lohse; Andreas Lüdi; Wouter M. L. Meijninger; Dmitrii Mironov; Ulrich Weisensee; Peter Zittel

2006-01-01

76

WACALIB version 3.3 — a computer program to reconstruct environmental variables from fossil assemblages by weighted averaging and to derive sample-specific errors of prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program for reconstructing environmental variables (e.g. lake-water pH) from fossil assemblages (e.g. diatoms) by weighted averaging regression and calibration is described. The estimation of sample-specific errors of prediction by bootstrapping is outlined. The program runs on IBM-compatible personal computers.

J. M. Line; Cajo J. E ter Braak; H. J. B. Birks

1994-01-01

77

A Comparison of Oil Project NPV's in the North Sea Obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital Discounting Method and a Modern Asset Pricing Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the difference in the net present values (NPV's) of North sea oil projects obtained using discounted cashflow methods based on the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method (Laughton and Jacoby, 1993; Jacoby and Laughton, 1992).

Magne Emhjellen; Chris M. Alaouze

1999-01-01

78

Area-Averaged Fluxes from Field to Kilometer Scale with Optical and Microwave Scintillometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometry has proven to be a suitable method to obtain surface fluxes over heterogeneous areas over spatial scales of up to 10 km. We will present two of many field-studies conducted by the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of Wageningen University to illustrate this point. Different scintillometer types have been tested. Optical scintillometers yield the structure parameter of temperature, CT2, for long-path Large Aperture Scintillometers (LAS) and both CT2 and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, e, for short-path laser scintillometers. CT2 and e are related to the surface fluxes of heat, H, and momentum, t, by virtue of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. For the LAS - that provides CT2 only - t is obtained from additional wind speed measurements and an estimate of the roughness length. An optical scintillometer in combination with a millimeter-wave scintillometer (MWS) yields both CT2 and Cq2, the structure parameter of humidity, from which the sensible and the latent heat flux can be determined. The following two scintillometer field experiments will be discussed: EVAGRIPS, Lindenberg, Germany 2003. This study deals with a LAS and a MWS (94 GHz) installed over path length of 5 km at 45 m height over a heterogeneous flat agricultural terrain consisting of a mix of lakes, forest and agriculture fields over undulating terrain. The concept of an effective scintillometer height will be introduced, which needs to be applied when the scintillometer height is not constant over the path. RAPID, Idaho, USA, 1999. This study deals with the estimation of evapotranspiration using a LAS and laser scintillometer installed at field scale (~500m) over irrigated alfalfa in an area affected by advection of warm and dry desert air. In these conditions the sensible heat becomes negative and the water vapor deficit is increased, both enhancing evapotranspiration. References: De Bruin, H.A.R.: 2002, 'Introduction, renaissance of scintillometry', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 105, 1-4. De Bruin, H.A.R., Hartogensis, O.K., Allen, R.G., and Kramer, J.W.J.L., 2004: 'Note on the Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment', Theor. Appl. Climatol. 80, 143-152. Hartogensis, O.K., De Bruin, H.A.R., Van De Wiel, B.J.H.: 2002, 'Displaced-Beam Small Aperture Scintillometer Test. Part II: Cases-99 Stable Boundary-Layer Experiment', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 105, 149-176. Meijninger, W.M.L.; Beyrich, F.; Lüdi, A.; Kohsiek, W.; De Bruin, H.A.R.: 2005, 'Scintillometer-Based Turbulent Fluxes of Sensible and Latent Heat Over a Heterogeneous Land Surface : a Contribution to Litfass-2003 Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 121, 89-110.

Hartogensis, O. K.; de Bruin, H. A.; Meijninger, W. M.; Kohsiek, W.; Beyrich, F.; Moene, A. F.

2007-12-01

79

High-resolution Average Forest Phenology and Annual Residuals for Quantifying the Start of Spring and Summer Leaf-area Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface phenology (LSP) is the seasonal pattern of vegetation dynamics that occur each spring and fall. Multiple drivers of spatial variation in LSP and its variation over time have been analyzed using satellite remote sensing. Until recently, these observations have been restricted to moderate- and low-resolution data, as it is only at these spatial resolutions for which temporally continuous data is available. However, understanding small scale variation in LSP over space and time may be key to linking pattern to process, and in particular, could be used to understand how ecological processes at the stand level scale to landscapes and continents. Through utilization of the large, and now free, Landsat record, recent research has led to the development of robust methods for calculating average phenological patterns at 30-m resolution by stacking two decades worth of data by acquisition day of year (DOY). Here we have extended these techniques to calculate the deviation from the average LSP for any given acquisition DOY-year combination. We model the average LSP as two sigmoid functions, one increasing in spring and a second decreasing in fall, connected by a sloped line representing gradual summer leaf area changes (see Figure). Deviation from the average LSP is considered here to take two forms: (1) residual vegetation cover in mid- to late-summer represent locations in which disturbance, drought, or (alternatively) better than average growing conditions have resulted a separation (either negative or positive) from the average vegetation cover for that DOY, and (2) climate conditions that result in an earlier or later onset of greenness, exhibited as a separation from the average spring onset of greenness curve in the DOY direction (either early or late.) Our study system for this work is the deciduous forests of the mid-Atlantic, USA, where we show that late summer vegetation cover is tied to edaphic properties governing the site specific soil moisture balance. Additionally, we show that climatic factors (mostly related to topography) strongly influence the average start of spring. Annual deviations in the start of spring do not always scale linearly suggesting a spatially complex relationship between climate and the onset of spring. Model fit for a single pixel of mid-Atlantic deciduous forest. Shades of gray represent the weight each datum has on the model fit (increasing, white to black). Data weights account for variable atmospheric conditions between acquisitions.

Elmore, A. J.; Guinn, S. M.

2009-12-01

80

Quantum mechanical close coupling approach to molecular collisions: Averaged definite parity jz approximation with Clebsch-Gordan weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new averaged definite parity jz(ADPjz) approximation is considered in detail from the standpoint of the exact body frame CC cross section equations. These cross section equations are decomposed into contributions from the various possible orbital angular momenta and projections of the total angular momentum J onto the scattering vector. This decomposition then permits a clearer examination of the quantities

Yair Shimoni; Donald J. Kouri

1977-01-01

81

Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty associated with each estimated annual load. The estimated annual loads for the eight primary sites then were used to estimate annual loads for five intervening reaches in the study area. Results were used as a screening tool to identify which subbasins contributed a disproportionate amount of pollutants to the Red River. To compare the relative water quality of the different subbasins, an estimated flow-weighted average (FWA) concentration was computed from the estimated average annual load and the average annual streamflow for each subbasin. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demands in the upper Red River Basin were fairly small, and medians ranged from 1 to 3 milligrams per liter. The largest estimated FWA concentration for dissolved solids (about 630 milligrams per liter) was for the Bois de Sioux River near Doran, Minn., site. The Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site had the smallest estimated FWA concentration (about 240 milligrams per liter). The estimated FWA concentrations for dissolved solids for the main-stem sites ranged from about 300 to 500 milligrams per liter and generally increased in a downstream direction. The estimated FWA concentrations for total nitrite plus nitrate for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.2 milligram per liter for the Red River below Wahpeton, N. Dak., site to about 0.9 milligram per liter for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site. Much of the increase probably resulted from flows from the tributary sites and intervening reaches, excluding the Otter Tail River above Breckenridge, Minn., site. However, uncertainty in the estimated concentrations prevented any reliable conclusions regarding which sites or reaches contributed most to the increase. The estimated FWA concentrations for total ammonia for the main-stem sites increased from about 0.05 milligram per liter for the Red River above Fargo, N. Dak., site to about 0.15 milligram per liter for the Red River near Harwood, N. Dak., site. T

Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

2004-01-01

82

Single leaf area estimation models based on leaf weight of eucalyptus in southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area is an important parameter for modeling tree growth and physiological processes of trees. The single young and mature\\u000a leaf area estimation models of eucalyptus were developed based on leaf fresh weight. In total, leaf area and leaf weight were\\u000a measured from 455 fresh leaves of 25 trees of eucalyptus in southern China. The majority of the data (80%)

Jun Diao; Xiang-dong Lei; Ling-xia Hong; Jian-tao Rong; Qiang Shi

2010-01-01

83

Determination of Area-Averaged Sensible Heat Fluxes with a Large Aperture Scintillometer over a Heterogeneous Surface Flevoland Field Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the applicability of the scintillation method over a heterogeneous area an experiment was carried out in the summer of 1998 in Flevoland (The Netherlands). In the patchy area only four crops were grown namely sugar beet, potatoes, wheat and onions. From eddy covariance measurements it was found that the heterogeneity was mainly caused by differences in thermal properties. No variations in the aerodynamics roughness length were observed. Two large aperture scintillometers were installed at a height of 11.6 and 20.4 m. A good resemblance was found between the sensible heat fluxes derived from both LAS instruments and the area-averaged fluxes obtained from the in-situ eddy covariance measurements. The slight underestimation of the lower LAS could be assessed using a blending height model and an analytical footprint model. The results also indicated that when scintillometer measurements are made below the blending height the violation to Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory is small and that reasonable fluxes can be obtained from path-averaged structure parameters.

Meijninger, W. M. L.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Kohsiek, W.; et al.

84

A meta-analysis comparing the effect of PCV2 vaccines on average daily weight gain and mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was, through a meta-analysis, to review the published literature concerning the effect of PCV2 vaccination on the average daily weight gain (ADG) and on the mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter.The review was restricted to studies investigating the effect of vaccines against PCV2 published from 2006 to 2008, identified using computerised literature databases.

Charlotte Sonne Kristensen; Niels Peter Baadsgaard; Nils Toft

2011-01-01

85

Residence in coal-mining areas and low-birth-weight outcomes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother's residence in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005-2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were from the US Department of Energy. Covariates regarding mothers' demographics, behaviors, and insurance coverage were included. We used nested logistic regression (SUDAAN Proc Multilog) to conduct the study. Mothers who were older, unmarried, less educated, smoked, did not receive prenatal care, were on Medicaid, and had recorded medical risks had a greater risk of low birth weight. After controlling for covariates, residence in coal mining areas of West Virginia posed an independent risk of low birth weight. Odds ratios for both unadjusted and adjusted findings suggest a dose-response effect. Adjusted findings show that living in areas with high levels of coal mining elevates the odds of a low-birth-weight infant by 16%, and by 14% in areas with lower mining levels, relative to counties with no coal mining. After covariate adjustment, the persistence of a mining effect on low-birth-weight outcomes suggests an environmental effect resulting from pollution from mining activities. Air and water quality assessments have been largely missing from mining communities, but the need for them is indicated by these findings. PMID:20091110

Ahern, Melissa; Mullett, Martha; Mackay, Katherine; Hamilton, Candice

2011-10-01

86

Racial Residential Segregation and Low Birth Weight in Michigan's Metropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the influence of racial residential segregation, independent of neighborhood economic factors, on the overall and specific etiological risks of low birth weight. Methods. We geocoded all singleton births in Michigan metropolitan areas during 2000 to census tracts. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate the association between low birth weight (< 2500 g) and neighborhood-level economic and racial segregation, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed competing risks of the 2 etiologies of low birth weight: intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Results. Living in a Black segregated area was associated with increased odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.29; P < .05) of low birth weight after adjusting for individual- and tract-level measures. The analysis suggested that the association between low birth weight and racial segregation was attributable primarily to increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.37; P < .05). Conclusions. Odds of low birth weight are higher in racially segregated Black neighborhoods in Michigan's metropolitan areas, independent of economic factors. The association appears to operate through intrauterine growth restriction rather than preterm birth.

Bader, Michael D. M.

2011-01-01

87

LightWeight and Large-Area Solar Cell Production Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production technologies for light-weight, large-area and flexible solar cells are reviewed. Roll-to-roll processes including an originally developed stepping-roll deposition process are used to fabricate large-area hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar cells in succession on plastic film substrates. A unique monolithic device structure for the insulating film substrates having through-hole contacts was developed and applied to simplify the production processes and to

Akihiro Takano; Tomoyoshi Kamoshita

2004-01-01

88

Body surface area and body weight predict total liver volume in Western adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computed tomography (CT) is used increasingly to measure liver volume in patients undergoing evaluation for transplantation or resection. This study is designed to determine a formula predicting total liver volume (TLV) based on body surface area (BSA) or body weight in Western adults. TLV was measured in 292 patients from four Western centers. Liver volumes were calculated from helical computed

Jean-Nicolas Vauthey; Eddie K. Abdalla; Dorota A. Doherty; Philippe Gertsch; Marc J. Fenstermacher; Evelyne M. Loyer; Jan Lerut; Roland Materne; Xuemei Wang; Arthur Encarnacion; Delise Herron; Christian Mathey; Giovanni Ferrari; Chuslip Charnsangavej; Alban Denys

2002-01-01

89

Mapping the time-averaged distribution of combustion-derived air pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is an ongoing and complicated problem for both residents and policy makers. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the geographic source and fate of organic pollutants in a dynamic urban environment. Natural and artificial hydrophobic substrates were employed for the passive monitoring and mapping of ground-level organic pollutants in the San Francisco Bay area. We focused specifically on volatile and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds are proxies for a broad range of combustion related air pollutants derived from local, regional, and global combustion sources. PAHs include several well-studied carcinogens and can be measured easily and accurately across a broad range of concentrations. Estimates of time-integrated vapor phase and particle deposition were made from measuring accumulated PAHs in the leaves of several widely distributed tree species (including the Quercus agrifolia and Sequoia sempervirens) and an artificial wax film. Samples were designed to represent pollutant exposure over a period of one to several months. The selective sampling and analysis of hydrophobic substrates providess insight into the average geographic distribution of ground-level air pollutants in a simple and inexpensive way. However, accumulated organics do not directly correlated with human exposure and the source signature of PAHs may be obscured by transport, deposition, and flux processes. We attempted to address some of these complications by studying 1) PAH accumulation rates within substrates in a controlled microcosm, 2) differences in PAH abundance in different substrate types at the same locality, and 3) samples near long-term high volume air sampling stations. We also set out to create a map of PAH concentrations based on our measurements. This map can be directly compared with interpolated data from high-volume sampling stations and used to address questions concerning atmospheric heterogeneity of these pollutants (i.e. due to both source localization and dominant wind patterns). Our initial results indicate that exposure to PAHs in the bay area is geographically heterogeneous and individual exposure may vary by more than two orders of magnitude. The signatures of PAH contamination also varies considerably, indicating different sources and differing transportation mechanisms may be important at different sites and times.

Yu, C.; Zinniker, D. A.; Moldowan, J.

2010-12-01

90

Body surface area estimation in children using weight alone: application in paediatric oncology  

PubMed Central

The majority of chemotherapy regimens and trials specify doses of cytotoxic drugs normalized to body surface area. Estimation of BSA in paediatric patients is particularly problematic, as conventional nomograms require accurate determination of both height and weight. The chemotherapy standards group of the UKCCSG (United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group) has evaluated a method for calculation of body surface area (BSA) estimation, based solely on patient weight. In comparison with BSA estimations using 2 commonly used methods, which require both weight and height measurements, deviation in the estimate of BSA was less than 10%. This method may be extended to the dosing of chemotherapeutic agents in infants of body weight less than 10?kg, with appropriate recommendations for dose modification. Until better correlates of drug clearance, such as GFR for carboplatin, are identified BSA is used to standardize doses for most chemotherapeutic agents. The formula presented here provides a more robust and reliable method of calculation of BSA from weight alone. Although this approach has been shown to be equivalent to other currently used methods, care should be taken extending this calculation of BSA to children less than 10?kg, to obese patients and to those with cachexia. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Sharkey, I; Boddy, A V; Wallace, H; Mycroft, J; Hollis, R; Picton, S

2001-01-01

91

Mapping human cortical areas in vivo based on myelin content as revealed by T1- and T2-weighted MRI.  

PubMed

Noninvasively mapping the layout of cortical areas in humans is a continuing challenge for neuroscience. We present a new method of mapping cortical areas based on myelin content as revealed by T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. The method is generalizable across different 3T scanners and pulse sequences. We use the ratio of T1w/T2w image intensities to eliminate the MR-related image intensity bias and enhance the contrast to noise ratio for myelin. Data from each subject were mapped to the cortical surface and aligned across individuals using surface-based registration. The spatial gradient of the group average myelin map provides an observer-independent measure of sharp transitions in myelin content across the surface--i.e., putative cortical areal borders. We found excellent agreement between the gradients of the myelin maps and the gradients of published probabilistic cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas that were registered to the same surface-based atlas. For other cortical regions, we used published anatomical and functional information to make putative identifications of dozens of cortical areas or candidate areas. In general, primary and early unimodal association cortices are heavily myelinated and higher, multimodal, association cortices are more lightly myelinated, but there are notable exceptions in the literature that are confirmed by our results. The overall pattern in the myelin maps also has important correlations with the developmental onset of subcortical white matter myelination, evolutionary cortical areal expansion in humans compared with macaques, postnatal cortical expansion in humans, and maps of neuronal density in non-human primates. PMID:21832190

Glasser, Matthew F; Van Essen, David C

2011-08-10

92

Estimation of individual leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight of hydroponically grown cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus L.) using leaf length, width, and SPAD value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive and mathematical approaches of modeling can be very convenient and useful for plant growth estimation. To predict individual leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), models were developed using leaf length, leaf width, SPAD value, and different combinations of these variables. Eight regression equations, commonly used for developing growth models, were compared for

Young Yeol Cho; Sungbong Oh; Myoung Min Oh; Jung Eek Son

2007-01-01

93

Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether girls and boys categorized from body mass index (BMI) values as overweight or obese for their age have lower bone mineral content (BMC) or lower bone area in relation to total body weight than children of normal adiposity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in a university bone research unit.SUBJECTS: Two hundred girls and 136 boys aged 3–19 y recruited

A Goulding; RW Taylor; IE Jones; KA McAuley; PJ Manning; SM Williams

2000-01-01

94

Comparison of muscle cross-sectional areas between weight lifters and wrestlers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscular development between Olympic weight lifters and wrestlers through the measurements of fat-free mass (FFM) and limb muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Subjects were college Olympic weight lifters (N = 34, age = 20.0 +/- 1.3 years, stature = 1.67 +/- 0.07 m, body mass = 70.1 +/- 10.2 kg, X +/- SD) and wrestlers (N = 33,20.3 +/- 1.2 years, 1.69 +/- 0.06 m, 71.0 +/- 1.8 kg) who had identical range of body mass. Body density and the CSAs of reciprocal muscle groups in the forearm, upper arm, lower leg and thigh were measured by underwater weighing and B-mode ultrasound methods, respectively. No significant difference was found in body density between the weight lifters (1.077 +/- 0.007 g x ml(-3)) and wrestlers (1.076 +/- 0.008 g x ml(-3)). Moreover, FFM and the CSA values of all muscle groups tested were similar in the two groups of weight-classified athletes, with an exception that the wrist flexor CSA was significantly larger in wrestlers than in weight lifters, and the knee extensor and thigh (extensors + flexors) CSAs were larger in weight lifters than in wrestlers. The total muscle CSA of every site was significantly correlated to FFM2/3 in the separate groups; r = 0.714 to 0.815 (p < 0.05) in weight lifters and r = 0.769 to 0.919 (p < 0.05) in wrestlers. While the CSA-to-FFM2/3 ratios of the upper arm and wrist flexor muscles were significantly higher in wrestlers than in weight lifters, those of the thigh and knee extensor muscles were higher in weight lifters than in wrestlers. Thus, the present results suggest that an event-related difference exists in the magnitude of limb muscle CSA between competitive weight lifters and wrestlers of similar FFM. PMID:9657367

Kanehisa, H; Ikegawa, S; Fukunaga, T

1998-05-01

95

Leaf non-structural carbohydrates and leaf dry weight per area in three altitudinal populations of Espeletia schultzii WEDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) content and total non-structural carbohydrate content (TNC) were measured on a\\u000a dry weight basis and on a leaf area basis in three altitudinal (3100, 3550 and 4200 m a.s.l.) populations ofE. schultzii. The values of leaf dry weight per area (LWA) increase with altitude. The leaf non-structural carbohydrate content (expressed\\u000a as g\\/kg dry weight) does

Marisol Castrillo; Milton Simoes

1997-01-01

96

Weight or body surface area dosing of steroids in nephrotic syndrome: is there an outcome difference?  

PubMed

Although prednisone is the treatment of choice for nephrotic syndrome (NS) in childhood, the dosing regimen varies between 60 mg/m(2)/day, as recommended in early studies, to the often prescribed 2 mg/kg/day dose, which is used in common practice. Mathematical models have demonstrated that weight-based dosing can be less than body surface area (BSA)-based dosing in smaller children. To test our hypothesis that weight-based dosing would result in altered treatment outcomes in children with NS, we analyzed a cohort of 56 children (mean age 5.4 ± 3.8 years) treated with a weight-based dosing regimen. Theoretical underdosing of corticosteroids was tested by calculating a relative underdosing percentage (RUP), which was defined as the dose difference between the theoretical BSA-based dose and the actual weight-based doses divided by the BSA-based dose × 100. We found that the mean "actual" prednisone dose in our patients was 43.6 ± 19.3 mg/day; in contrast, the mean theoretical BSA-based dose was calculated to be 48.8 ± 16.7 mg/day. Among the 56 patients, 43 (76.7%) were initial responders, of whom 58% followed a frequently relapsing (FR) course. RUP was significantly higher in FR (16.6 ± 7.9%) than in infrequent relapsers (8.7 ± 9.8%) (P = 0.03). RUP was not significantly different among initial responders and nonresponders. Based on these results, we conclude that prednisone underdosing, when dosing is prescribed according to weight, does not affect the initial response to treatment, but it does increase the likelihood of a FR course in responders. PMID:21769641

Saadeh, Sermin A; Baracco, Rossana; Jain, Amrish; Kapur, Gaurav; Mattoo, Tej K; Valentini, Rudolph P

2011-07-16

97

Costs Associated with Low Birth Weight in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is prevalent in low-income countries. Even though the economic evaluation of interventions to reduce this burden is essential to guide health policies, data on costs associated with LBW are scarce. This study aims to estimate the costs to the health system and to the household and the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) arising from infant deaths associated with LBW in Southern Mozambique. Methods and Findings Costs incurred by the households were collected through exit surveys. Health system costs were gathered from data obtained onsite and from published information. DALYs due to death of LBW babies were based on local estimates of prevalence of LBW (12%), very low birth weight (VLBW) (1%) and of case fatality rates compared to non-LBW weight babies [for LBW (12%) and VLBW (80%)]. Costs associated with LBW excess morbidity were calculated on the incremental number of hospital admissions in LBW babies compared to non-LBW weight babies. Direct and indirect household costs for routine health care were 24.12 US$ (CI 95% 21.51; 26.26). An increase in birth weight of 100 grams would lead to a 53% decrease in these costs. Direct and indirect household costs for hospital admissions were 8.50 US$ (CI 95% 6.33; 10.72). Of the 3,322 live births that occurred in one year in the study area, health system costs associated to LBW (routine health care and excess morbidity) and DALYs were 169,957.61 US$ (CI 95% 144,900.00; 195,500.00) and 2,746.06, respectively. Conclusions This first cost evaluation of LBW in a low-income country shows that reducing the prevalence of LBW would translate into important cost savings to the health system and the household. These results are of relevance for similar settings and should serve to promote interventions aimed at improving maternal care.

Sicuri, Elisa; Bardaji, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Macete, Eusebio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara

2011-01-01

98

Measurement of a time-weighted average concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environment using solid phase extraction cartridges and a portable pump  

SciTech Connect

There have been several different methods of measurement for waterborne pollutants. The most frequently utilized method for sample preparation has been a liquid-to-liquid partition or a liquid-to-solid partition. In these methods, pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are extracted to organic solvents directly from the sample water, or the pollutants are once adsorbed to solid phase adsorbent, and subsequently eluted with organic solvents. In either case, the measured level represents at the time of the sampling, namely a spot-sampling. On the other hand, a time-weighted average concentration (TWA) has been used as a determinant to evaluate an atmospheric environment. But it has been an elaborated work for us to estimate TWA of pollutants in water, since a frequent spot-sampling of water is required at a field site. Further no data on the TWA of PAHs in the field water has been published, however the TWA of pollutants could be an important factor for a chronic effect on biota. In our previous report, we set up a continuous sampling device, using Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and a peristaltic pump, which enabled us to measure a TWA of benzo(a)pyrene in an experimental water system. The present paper describes a portable sampling device that can continuously sample PAHs in water. We have evaluated basic characteristics of the sampling device in the laboratory, and optimized chromatographic detection of 4 PAHs, fluoranthene, perylene, benzo(b)-fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). After these procedures, we have brought this sampling device to field water sites to verify its performance. The levels of PAHs was calculated as TWA for 24 hr period of time in water at a site. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kira, S. [Okayama Univ. Medical School (Japan); Sakano, M.; Nogami, Y. [Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)

1997-06-01

99

Average Speed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is not an inquiry activity but will help students understand the meaning of average velocity. Students do not easily understand from a textbook that an object's velocity changes over a period of acceleration. They have difficulty understanding wh

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

100

Influence of average molecular weights of poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 on phase separation and in vitro drug release from microspheres.  

PubMed

The phase separation of fractionated poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 was determined by silicone oil addition. Polymer fractionation by preparative size exclusion chromatography afforded five different microsphere batches. Average molecular weight determined the existence, width, and displacement of the "stability window" inside the phase diagrams, and also microsphere characteristics such as core loading and amount released over 6 hr. Further, the gyration and hydrodynamic radii were measured by light scattering. It is concluded that the polymer-solvent affinity is largely modified by the variation of average molecular weights owing to different levels of solubility. The lower the average molecular weight is, the better methylene chloride serves as a solvent for the coating material. However, a paradoxical effect due to an increase in free carboxyl and hydroxyl groups is noticed for polymers of 18,130 and 31,030 SEC (size exclusion chromatography) Mw. For microencapsulation, polymers having an intermediate molecular weight (47,250) were the most appropriate in terms of core loading and release purposes. PMID:2235892

Ruiz, J M; Busnel, J P; Benoît, J P

1990-09-01

101

Quantum mechanical close coupling approach to molecular collisions: Averaged definite parity j\\/sub z\\/ approximation with Clebsch--Gordan weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new averaged definite parity j\\/sub z\\/(ADPj\\/sub z\\/) approximation is considered in detail from the standpoint of the exact body frame CC cross section equations. These cross section equations are decomposed into contributions from the various possible orbital angular momenta and projections of the total angular momentum j onto the scattering vector. This decomposition then permits a clearer examination of

Y. Shimoni; D. J. Kouri

1977-01-01

102

Influence of Average Molecular Weights of Poly(DL-Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Copolymers 50\\/50 on Phase Separation and in Vitro Drug Release from Microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase separation of fractionated poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50\\/50 was determined by silicone oil addition. Polymer fractionation by preparative size exclusion chromatography afforded five different microsphere batches. Average molecular weight determined the existence, width, and displacement of the “stability window” inside the phase diagrams, and also microsphere characteristics such as core loading and amount released over 6 hr. Further,

Jean-Marc Ruiz; Jean-Pierre Busnel; Jean-Pierre Benoît

1990-01-01

103

Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on

Tomoaki Nagaoka; Soichi Watanabe; Kiyoko Sakurai; Etsuo Kunieda; Satoshi Watanabe; Masao Taki; Yukio Yamanaka

2004-01-01

104

Socioeconomic status and birth weight: comparison of an area-based measure with the Registrar General's social class  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the relation of birth weight with socioeconomic status measured by an area-based measure of material deprivation and by the Registrar General's social class. SETTING: West Midlands Health Region 1991-93. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHOD: Birthweight data by enumeration district deciles ranked by Townsend Deprivation Index based on 1991 census data for all live births in the

N. Spencer; S. Bambang; S. Logan; L. Gill

1999-01-01

105

Development of the laser remote caliper as a method to estimate surface area and body weight in beef ca ttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear measurements combined with surface area and volume calculations were used to develop formulas t o estimate body weight (BW) in beef cattle. These measurements were evaluated directly or estimated using a lase r remote caliper (LRC) and digital imaging software. Seventy-two dry, late gestation beef cows aged 3-13 years were measured and weighed Six measurements for each cow were

Sarah Core; Stephen Miller; Matthew Kelly

106

INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: A Mixed Mechanism of Weighted-Driven and Inner Selection in Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most networks, the weight of connection is changing with their attachment and inner affinity. By introducing a mixed mechanism of weighted-driven and inner selection, the model exhibits wide range power-law distributions of node strength and edge weight, and the exponent can be adjusted by not only the parameter ? but also the probability q. Furthermore, we investigate the weighted average shortest distance, clustering coefficient, and the correlation of our network. In addition, the weighted assortativity coefficient which characterizes important information of weighted topological networks has been discussed, but the variation of coefficients is much smaller than the former researches.

Zhang, Gui-Qing; Wang, Lin; Chen, Tian-Lun

2009-05-01

107

Photoautotrophic growth of potato plantlets as affected by explant leaf area, fresh weight and stem length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoautotrophic growth in vitro of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Benimaru) explants varied with their initial leaf area and stem length. Photoautotrophic growth was much greater in leafy than in leafless explants. Variability in photoautotrophic growth was smallest in the explants with the greatest leaf area. The results indicated that use of explants with a large leaf area is important

Yoshie Miyashita; Yoshiaki Kitaya; Chieri Kubota; Toyoki Kozai

1996-01-01

108

Modeling retail trade areas using higher-order, multiplicatively weighted voronoi diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voronoi (Thiessen) trade area models are geometrically based procedures for generating theoretical trade areas using store characteristics and assumptions about consumer behavior. Existing models assume that customers patronize only one facility resulting in mutually exclusive trade areas. We introduce two new Voronoi models which include the assumption that a customer selects from the k (k = 1, 2, 3, …)

Robert South

1997-01-01

109

Myocardial area at risk and salvage measured by T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Reproducibility and comparison of two T2-weighted protocols  

PubMed Central

Background Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) and T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides a means to measure myocardial area at risk (AAR) and salvage. Several T2-weighted CMR sequences are in use, but there is no consensus in terms of which sequence to be the preferred. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to: (1) Assess the reproducibility and (2) compare the two most frequently used T2-weighted CMR protocols for measuring AAR and salvage. Methods 91 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention underwent a CMR scan 1-7 days after initial treatment. Two different T2-weighted protocols, varying in slice thickness and echo time (TE), were applied covering the entire left ventricle (LV) (protocol 1: TE 65 msec and slice thickness 15 mm; protocol 2: TE 100 msec and slice thickness of 8 mm). On a second scan performed 3 months later, infarct size was assessed with a standard LGE sequence. The two protocols were compared in terms of AAR and salvage index. Furthermore, intra- and interobserver reproducibility were assessed. Results Protocol 1 measures a larger AAR and salvage index than protocol 2 with a mean difference in AAR of 1 ± 8%LV (p < 0.01) and 6 ± 12 g (p < 0.01) and salvage index of 0.04 ± 0.12 (p < 0.01). Both protocols had a high intra- and interobserver reproducibility with acceptable limits of agreement (6-8%LV and 6-12 g in AAR and 0.06-0.08 in salvage index). Conclusions We report acceptable reproducibility for AAR and salvage index measured by T2-weighted images. Thus CMR is a reliable tool for measuring AAR and salvage index. Protocol 2 (8 mm slice thickness and 100 msec TE) measures slightly smaller AAR than protocol 1 (15 mm slice thickness and 65 msec TE), but the present study does not allow for a clear recommendation of either of the protocols.

2011-01-01

110

Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.

Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

2004-01-01

111

Repair of articular cartilage defect in non-weight bearing areas using adipose derived stem cells loaded polyglycolic acid mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was designed to observe chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) on fibrous polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold stabilized with polylactic acid (PLA), and to further explore the feasibility of using the resulting cell\\/scaffold constructs to repair full thickness articular cartilage defects in non-weight bearing area in porcine model within a follow-up of 6 months. Autologous ASCs

Lei Cui; Yaohao Wu; Lian Cen; Heng Zhou; Shuo Yin; Guangpeng Liu; Wei Liu; Yilin Cao

2009-01-01

112

Forecasting Sales by Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of computers for mechanized inventory control and production planning has brought with it the need for explicit forecasts of sales and usage for individual products and materials. These forecasts must be made on a routine basis for thousands of products, so that they must be made quickly, and, both in terms of computing time and information storage,

Peter R. Winters

1960-01-01

113

Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching  

PubMed Central

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (?95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities.

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-01-01

114

Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.  

PubMed

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (? 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-01-25

115

Magnetic Tape Containing Average Elevations of Topography in California and Adjacent Regions for Areas of 1x1 Minutes in Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average elevations of about 199,000 1x1 and 51,000 3x3 minute 'compartments' in California and vicinity are recored on a magnetic tape. The 1x1 minute coverage extends about 15 miles and the 3x3 minute about 100 miles in all directions beyond the Californ...

S. L. Robbins H. W. Oliver D. Plouff

1973-01-01

116

The Veteran-Student Services (Work-study) Program; Grade Point Average Increases of Veteran-Student Employees at Harrisburg Area Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the Veterans Administration (VA) work-study program and its implications for student/veterans at Harrisburg Area Community College in Pennsylvania. Unique advantages of the program include tax-free income, flexible working schedules around students' class schedules, additional study time, easy access to the office from classes,…

Kurtz, David K.

117

District Heating/Cogeneration Application Studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul Area. Impact of a District Heating/Cogeneration System on Annual Average SO sub 2 Air Quality in the Twin Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine the potential impact of a district-heating/cogeneration system on the air quality in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Annual average SO sub 2 concentrations in air at ground level were determined for a base year (1...

M. A. Karnitz F. C. Kornegay H. A. McLain B. D. Murphy R. J. Raridon

1981-01-01

118

Determination of Area-Averaged Water Vapour Fluxes with Large Aperture and Radio Wave Scintillometers over a Heterogeneous Surface – Flevoland Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) andradio wave scintillometer (RWS)were installed over a heterogeneous areato test the applicability of the scintillation method.The heterogeneity in the area, whichconsisted of many plots, was mainly caused bydifferences in thermal properties ofthe crops; the variations in theaerodynamic roughness lengthwere small. The water vapour fluxesderived from the combined LAS-RWSsystem, also known as the two-wavelengthmethod, agreed fairly

W. M. L. Meijninger; A. E. Green; O. K. Hartogensis; W. Kohsiek; J. C. B. Hoedjes; R. M. Zuurbier; H. A. R. De Bruin

2002-01-01

119

Determination of Area-Averaged Water Vapour Fluxes with Large Aperture and Radio Wave Scintillometers over a Heterogeneous Surface Flevoland Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) andradio wave scintillometer (RWS)were installed over a heterogeneous areato test the applicability of the scintillation method.The heterogeneity in the area, whichconsisted of many plots, was mainly caused bydifferences in thermal properties ofthe crops; the variations in theaerodynamic roughness lengthwere small. The water vapour fluxesderived from the combined LAS-RWSsystem, also known as the two-wavelengthmethod, agreed fairly

W. M. L. Meijninger; A. E. Green; O. K. Hartogensis

2002-01-01

120

5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.216 How does...and then averages these average prices together using equal weights to compute an...

2013-01-01

121

The Possibility Analysis on Application of New LightWeight Steel-Straw Bale Thermal Insulating Dwellings in Northeast Rural Areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The situations of low story dwelling in northeast rural areas of China was introduced, aggregate comparing analysis was carried out on thermal insulating performance of dwellings with different structure, building material and thermal insulating equipment. According to construction experience of rural thermal insulating and ecotypical dwellings, a new rural dwelling was provided here. The new light-weight steel-straw bale thermal insulating

Wenfeng Duan; Aihua Bai; Baozhu Cao

2010-01-01

122

Weight and chemical composition of some important oceanic zooplankton in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet and dry weight, total carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and ash contents were determined on 33 species of zooplankton distributed predominantly in the open sea region of the North Pacific. Sampling covered the waters from 44°N to the equator. Average percentage of dry weight to wet weight was about 19% of all samples from the whole area. Percentage dry weight of

Makoto Omori

1969-01-01

123

Higher incremental insulin area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test predicts less food intake and weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the correlation of peripheral insulin concentrations with food intake and body weight.Design:Cross sectional and longitudinal clinical study: we investigated the association of peripheral insulin concentrations in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with subsequent measures of ad libitum food intake and body weight change.Subjects:Food intake analysis: Pima Indians (n=67, 63% male; body mass index (mean±s.d.) 34.2±9.4

J He; S Votruba; C Venti; J Krakoff

2011-01-01

124

On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

Spalevic, Miodrag M.

2007-09-01

125

Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

2010-01-01

126

Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas  

PubMed Central

Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted regression results suggest spatial variability in effects, and also indicate that some rural communities may be impacted by upstream urban discharges. Conclusions There is evidence that permitted surface water chemical discharges are related to population mortality. Toxicity weights and upstream discharges are important for understanding some mortality effects. Chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may nevertheless play a role in contributing to cancer mortality risk. Spatial models allow for the examination of geographic variability not captured through the regression models.

2012-01-01

127

ESTIMATES OF GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH PELVIC AREA IN SlMMENTAL CATTLE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Field records (715) of pdvic measurements and growth characteristics were obtained from three herds of Simmental cattle in different areas of the country. Heritabilities for pelvic area, actual pelvic measures (horizontal and vertical measures), ratios of actual pelvic measures, birth weight, adjusted 205-d weaning weight, postweaning average daily gain, adjusted 365-d weight, weight\\/d of age and relative growth from

L. L. Benyshek

128

Distance, Weight, Height, Area and Temperature Percepts of School Children. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. XII. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is essential in communicative situations for teachers and students to have comparable percepts. A paucity of information is available on the percepts held by children regarding quantities and intervals of distance, height, weight, time, temperature and volume or on improvement (if any) that occurs as children mature. Teachers cannot be…

Swan, Malcolm D.; Jones, Orville E.

129

Study in landslide hazard zonation based on factor weighting-rating in Wan County, Three Gorges Reservoir area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-source earth observation data is highly desirable in current landslide hazard prediction modeling, as well as Landslide Hazard Zonation(LHZ) is a very important content of landslide hazard prediction modeling. In this paper, take Wan County for instance, we investigate the potentials of derivation from multi-source data sets to study landslide hazard zonation based on the ordinal scale relative weighting-rating technique.

Zhengjun Liu; Jian Wang; Changyan Chi

2008-01-01

130

Microcutting leaf area, weight and position on the stock shoot influence root vigour, shoot growth and incidence of shoot tip necrosis in grape plantlets in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological parameters of microcuttings, namely leaf area, weight (wt) and position on the stock shoot, had significant\\u000a effects on root vigour, microshoot growth and incidence of shoot tip necrosis (STN) in cultures of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) ‘Arka Neelamani’. Single-node leafy cuttings cultured in MS medium containing 1 ?M IAA and 0.1 ?M GA3 generally rooted first and subsequently

Pious Thomas

2000-01-01

131

ADME Evaluation in Drug Discovery. 2. Prediction of Partition Coefficient by Atom-Additive Approach Based on Atom-Weighted Solvent Accessible Surface Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the calculations of 1-octanol\\/water partition coefficient (log P) of organic molecules has been presented here. The method, SLOGP v1.0, estimates the log P values by summing the contribution of atom-weighted solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) and correction factors. Altogether 100 atom\\/ group types were used to classify atoms with different chemical environments, and two correlation factors

T. J. Hou; X. J. Xu

2003-01-01

132

Average Cost of Common Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper shows costs of elementary and secondary schools applicable to Oklahoma rural areas, including the long-run average cost curve which indicates the minimum per student cost for educating various numbers of students and the application of the cost curves determining the optimum school district size. In a stratified sample, the school…

White, Fred; Tweeten, Luther

133

Spatio-temporal Patterning of Small Area Low Birth Weight Incidence and Its Correlates: A Latent Spatial Structure Approach  

PubMed Central

Low birth weight (LBW) defined as infant weight at birth of less than 2500g is a useful health outcome for exploring spatio-temporal variation and the role of covariates. LBW is a key measure of population health used by local, national and international health organizations. Yet its spatio-temporal patterns and their dependence structures are poorly understood. In this study we examine the use of flexible latent structure models for the analysis of spatio-temporal variation in LBW. Beyond the explanatory capabilities of well-known predictors, we observe spatio-temporal effects, which are not directly observable using conventional modeling approaches. Our analysis shows that for county-level counts of LBW in Georgia and South Carolina the proportion of black population is a positive risk factor while high-income is a negative risk factor. Two dominant residual temporal components are also estimated. Finally our proposed method provides a better goodness-of-fit to these data than the conventional space-time models.

Kirby, Russell S.; Liu, Jihong; Lawson, Andrew B.; Choi, Jungsoon; Cai, Bo; Hossain, Md Monir

2011-01-01

134

Dry weight partitioning and hydraulic traits in young Pinus taeda trees fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus in a subtropical area.  

PubMed

Plants of Pinus taeda L. from each of four families were fertilized with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N?+?P at planting. The H family had the highest growth in dry mass while the L family had the lowest growth. Measurements of plant hydraulic architecture traits were performed during the first year after planting. Stomatal conductance (gs), water potential at predawn (?predawn) and at midday (?midday), branch hydraulic conductivity (ks and kl) and shoot hydraulic conductance (K) were measured. One year after planting, dry weight partitioning of all aboveground organs was performed. Phosphorus fertilization increased growth in all four families, while N fertilization had a negative effect on growth. L family plants were more negatively affected than H family plants. This negative effect was not due to limitations in N or P uptake because plants from all the families and treatments had the same N and P concentration in the needles. Phosphorus fertilization changed some hydraulic parameters, but those changes did not affect growth. However, the negative effect of N can be explained by changes in hydraulic traits. L family plants had a high leaf dry weight per branch, which was increased by N fertilization. This change occurred together with a decrease in shoot conductance. Therefore, the reduction in gs was not enough to avoid the drop in ?midday. Consequently, stomatal closure and the deficient water status of the needles resulted in a reduction in growth. In H family plants, the increase in the number of needles per branch due to N fertilization was counteracted by a reduction in gs and also by a reduction in tracheid lumen size and length. Because of these two changes, ?midday did not drop and water availability in the needles was adequate for sustained growth. In conclusion, fertilization affects the hydraulic architecture of plants, and different families develop different strategies. Some of the hydraulic changes can explain the negative effect of N fertilization on growth. PMID:23355634

Faustino, Laura I; Bulfe, Nardia M L; Pinazo, Martín A; Monteoliva, Silvia E; Graciano, Corina

2013-01-25

135

Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2006-06-01

136

Control Chart Tests Based on Geometric Moving Averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometrical moving average gives the most recent observation the greatest weight, and all previous observations weights decreasing in geometric progression from the most recent back to the first. A graphical procedure for generating geometric moving averages is described in which the most recent observation is assigned a weight r. The properties of control chart tests based on geometric moving

S. W. Roberts

1959-01-01

137

Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2006-11-01

138

Average Rate of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides students with a concrete understanding of the average rate of change for physical situations and for functions described in tabular or graphic form. Animations in gif and Quicktime format are available, as well as Excel programs for classroom or student use.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2005-04-21

139

An Average Lunch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This statistics activity requires students to find the mean using their TI-10 or TI-15 Explorer calculators. The task asks students to read part of Sideways Stories of Wayside School by Louis Sachar and find different combinations of lunches that would give an average price of $1.85. This resource includes a three-page PDF lesson plan with guiding questions, data collection page, and calculator instructions.

2008-06-09

140

Average density in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The Einstein-Straus (1945) vacuole is here used to represent a bound cluster of galaxies embedded in a standard pressure-free cosmological model, and the average density of the cluster is compared with the density of the surrounding cosmic fluid. The two are nearly but not quite equal, and the more condensed the cluster, the greater the difference. A theoretical consequence of the discrepancy between the two densities is discussed. 25 references.

Bonnor, W.B.

1987-05-01

141

Geodesic shape-based averaging.  

PubMed

A new method for the geometrical averaging of labels or landmarks is presented. This method expands the shape-based averaging framework from an Euclidean to a geodesic based distance, incorporating a spatially varying similarity term as time cost. This framework has unique geometrical properties, making it ideal for propagating very small structures following rigorous labelling protocols. The method is used to automate the seeding and way-pointing of optic radiation tractography in DTI imaging. The propagated seeds and waypoints follow a strict clinical protocol by being geometrically constrained to one single slice and by guaranteeing spatial contiguity. The proposed method not only reduces the fragmentation of the propagated areas but also significantly increases the seed positioning accuracy and subsequent tractography results when compared to state-of-the-art label fusion techniques. PMID:23286110

Cardoso, M Jorge; Winston, Gavin; Modat, Marc; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Duncan, John; Ourselin, Sebastien

2012-01-01

142

Convergence of weighted averages of independent random variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

nvariables and {w~} a sequence of Fositive numbers. Define Sn = ~. w~Xk and n 1 Wn = ~ wk. The purpose of this paper is to study the convergence properties of 1 Sn\\/Wn. We will say that the weak (strong) law holds for {Xk, wk} ff and only if Sn\\/Wn -+ c in probability (almost surely) for some constant

Benton Jamison; Steven Orey; William Pruitt

1965-01-01

143

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11

144

Large differences in blood measures, tissue weights, and focal areas of damage 1 year after postseizure treatment with acepromazine or ketamine.  

PubMed

Approximately 1 year after rats were seized as young adults with lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) and given acepromazine or ketamine, 18 blood measures, wet tissue weights, and detailed damage scores for 107 brain structures were completed. Compared with normal and ketamine-treated rats, acepromazine-treated seized rats (total n=54) had lighter pancreata and spleens and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase blood levels. Even though average damage did not differ, the mosaic of brain damage completely discriminated the two seized groups. Differential effects of postseizure treatment on functions of the thyroid, pancreas, and spleen were indicated. Ketamine-treated seized rats were healthier than acepromazine-treated seized rats or normal rats. This experiment demonstrates the importance of whole-organism assessment and that the single administration of a specific drug after onset of status epilepticus can produce marked differences in the evolution of brain damage and its influence on specific organs for the rest of the animal's life. PMID:19258049

George, Katherine R; Rico, Timothy; St-Pierre, Linda S; Dupont, Mathieu J; Dupont, Matthew J; Blomme, Christopher G; Mazzuchin, Angelo; Stewart, Lee S; Persinger, Michael A

2009-03-01

145

The causal meaning of Fisher's average effect  

PubMed Central

Summary In order to formulate the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, Fisher defined the average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Finding these notions to be somewhat opaque, some authors have recommended reformulating Fisher’s ideas in terms of covariance and regression, which are classical concepts of statistics. We argue that Fisher intended his two averages to express a distinction between correlation and causation. On this view, the average effect is a specific weighted average of the actual phenotypic changes that result from physically changing the allelic states of homologous genes. We show that the statistical and causal conceptions of the average effect, perceived as inconsistent by Falconer, can be reconciled if certain relationships between the genotype frequencies and non-additive residuals are conserved. There are certain theory-internal considerations favouring Fisher’s original formulation in terms of causality; for example, the frequency-weighted mean of the average effects equaling zero at each locus becomes a derivable consequence rather than an arbitrary constraint. More broadly, Fisher’s distinction between correlation and causation is of critical importance to gene-trait mapping studies and the foundations of evolutionary biology.

LEE, JAMES J.; CHOW, CARSON C.

2013-01-01

146

Panchromatic averaged stellar populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the spectral fitting of galaxies, in terms of light fractions, derived in one spectral region translates into another region, by using results from evolutionary synthesis models. In particular, we examine propagation dependencies on evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models (GRASIL, GALEV, Maraston and GALAXEV), age, metallicity and stellar evolution tracks over the near-ultraviolet-near-infrared (NUV-NIR, 3500 Å to 2.5 ?m) spectral region. Our main results are as follows: as expected, young (t? 400 Myr) stellar population fractions derived in the optical cannot be directly compared to those derived in the NIR, and vice versa. In contrast, intermediate to old age (t? 500 Myr) fractions are similar over the whole spectral region studied. The metallicity has a negligible effect on the propagation of the stellar population fractions derived from NUV to NIR. The same applies to the different EPS models, but restricted to the range between 3800 and 9000 Å. However, a discrepancy between GALEV/Maraston and GRASIL/GALAXEV models occurs in the NIR. Furthermore, the initial mass function is not important for the synthesis propagation. Compared to STARLIGHT synthesis results, our propagation predictions agree at ˜95 per cent confidence level in the optical, and ˜85 per cent in the NIR. In summary, spectral fitting performed in a restricted spectral range should not be directly propagated from the NIR to the UV/optical, or vice versa. We provide equations and an on-line form [panchromatic averaged stellar population (PaASP)] to be used for this purpose.

Riffel, R.; Bonatto, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Balbinot, E.

2011-03-01

147

Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively.

Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

2013-01-01

148

Improved averaging for non-null interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

2013-09-01

149

A User's Version View of a Robustified, Bayesian Weighted Least-Squares Recursive Algorithm for Interpolating AVHRR-NDVI Data: Applications to an Animated Visualization of the Phenology of a Semi-Arid Study Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying vegetation patterns remotely, the objective is to draw inferences on the development of specific or general land surface phenology (LSP) as a function of space and time by determining the behavior of a parameter (in our case NDVI), when the parameter estimate may be biased by noise, data dropouts and obfuscations from atmospheric and other effects. We describe the underpinning concepts of a procedure for a robust interpolation of NDVI data that does not have the limitations of other mathematical approaches which require orthonormal basis functions (e.g. Fourier analysis). In this approach, data need not be uniformly sampled in time, nor do we expect noise to be Gaussian-distributed. Our approach is intuitive and straightforward, and is applied here to the refined modeling of LSP using 7 years of weekly and biweekly AVHRR NDVI data for a 150 x 150 km study area in central Nevada. This site is a microcosm of a broad range of vegetation classes, from irrigated agriculture with annual NDVIvalues of up to 0.7 to playas and alkali salt flats with annual NDVI values of only 0.07. Our procedure involves a form of parameter estimation employing Bayesian statistics. In utilitarian terms, the latter procedure is a method of statistical analysis (in our case, robustified, weighted least-squares recursive curve-fitting) that incorporates a variety of prior knowledge when forming current estimates of a particular process or parameter. In addition to the standard Bayesian approach, we account for outliers due to data dropouts or obfuscations because of clouds and snow cover. An initial "starting model" for the average annual cycle and long term (7 year) trend is determined by jointly fitting a common set of complex annual harmonics and a low order polynomial to an entire multi-year time series in one step. This is not a formal Fourier series in the conventional sense, but rather a set of 4 cosine and 4 sine coefficients with fundamental periods of 12, 6, 3 and 1.5 months. Instabilities during large time gaps in the data are suppressed by introducing an expectation of minimum roughness on the fitted time series. Our next significant computational step involves a constrained least squares fit to the observed NDVI data. Residuals between the observed NDVI value and the predicted starting model are computed, and the inverse of these residuals provide the weights for a weighted least squares analysis whereby a set of annual eighth-order splines are fit to the 7 years of NDVI data. Although a series of independent 8-th order annual functionals over a period of 7 years is intrinsically unstable when there are significant data gaps, the splined versions for this specific application are quite stable due to explicit continuity conditions on the values and derivatives of the functionals across contiguous years, as well as a priori constraints on the predicted values vis-a-vis the assumed initial model. Our procedure allows us to robustly interpolate original unequally-spaced NDVI data with a new time series having the most-appropriate, user-defined time base. We apply this approach to the temporal behavior of vegetation in our 150 x 150 km study area. Such a small area, being so rich in vegetation diversity, is particularly useful to view in map form and by animated annual and multi-year time sequences, since the interrelation between phenology, topography and specific usage patterns becomes clear.

Hermance, J. F.; Jacob, R. W.; Bradley, B. A.; Mustard, J. F.

2005-12-01

150

Weight set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-11

151

Analytical Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analytical weights did not come up from empty space. In fact, our idea was taken from Hugo Riemann’s definition of metrical\\u000a weights: Meter relates to weights. So it was decided to generate an output in the form of numerical weights for any analytical\\u000a engine.

Guerino Mazzola

152

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Open Molding Resin and...Compliance using the emissions averaging...section to compute the weighted-average...point value for each open molding resin and...operation included in the average....

2012-07-01

153

Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the

M. Zavala; S. C. Herndon; R. S. Slott; E. J. Dunlea; L. C. Marr; J. H. Shorter; M. Zahniser; W. B. Knighton; T. M. Rogers; C. E. Kolb; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

2006-01-01

154

CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Evolutionary Games on Weighted Newman-Watts Small-World Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on weighted Newman-Watts (NW) networks. In weighted NW networks, the link weight wij is assigned to the link between the nodes i and j as: wij = (?i · ?j)?, where ?i(?j) is the degree of node i(j) and ? represents the strength of the correlations. Obviously, the link weight can be tuned by only one parameter ?. We focus on the cooperative behavior and wealth distribution in the system. Simulation results show that the cooperator frequency is promoted by a large range of ? and there is a minimal cooperation frequency around ? = - 1. Moreover, we also employ the Gini coefficient to study the wealth distribution in the population. Numerical results show that the Gini coefficient reaches its minimum when ? approx - 1. Our work may be helpful in understanding the emergence of cooperation and unequal wealth distribution in society.

Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Hong

2009-05-01

155

40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...used for each gasoline loading rack i to calculate the monthly weighted rack bulk liquid loading temperature: ER18AU95.009 Tj =Average annual bulk temperature of individual organic HAP loaded at the gasoline loading rack, kelvin (degrees...

2009-07-01

156

40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...used for each gasoline loading rack i to calculate the monthly weighted rack bulk liquid loading temperature: ER18AU95.009 Tj =Average annual bulk temperature of individual organic HAP loaded at the gasoline loading rack, kelvin (degrees...

2010-07-01

157

Aggregation operators for linguistic weighted information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to model the processes of the aggregation of weighted information in a linguistic framework. Three aggregation operators of weighted linguistic information are presented: linguistic weighted disjunction operator, linguistic weighted conjunction operator, and linguistic weighted averaging operator. A study of their axiomatics is presented to demonstrate their rational aggregation

Francisco Herrera; Enrique Herrera-Viedma

1997-01-01

158

Modular Approach to Physics: Average Speed versus Average Velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an interactive demonstration of average speed and velocity. The user can move the object, while average speed and velocity is calculated and available through the Data panel. A full lesson plan is available through the Help menu. This item is part of a larger collection of simulation based physics modules sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

Austin, David; Martin, Brian

2008-05-24

159

Spacetime averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2010-06-15

160

42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan described in section 1851(a...than fallback entities) and assigns MA-PD plans included in the national average bid a weight based on prior enrollment (new MA-PD plans are assigned zero weight)....

2012-10-01

161

76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...capacities of their product lines, to identify chassis suitable for the advertised passenger...and/or accommodate a heavier-duty chassis. FTA seeks comment regarding the adequacy...upgrade individual components, such as chassis, wheels, tires, brakes, or...

2011-03-14

162

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... weight... Read full story >> Healthy Weight Loss share Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your ... your own skin share The ABC's of Positive Body Image Feeling comfortable in your own skin can be ...

163

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

164

14-Day Boxcar averaged Terra-CERES (Reflected Solar Radiation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation displays one year of Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) Terra-CERES data (March 1, 2000 to May 25, 2001) with a 14-day boxcar average. Endpoints have the average re-weighted for the smaller amount of data. The data are 2.5 degree resolution.

Bridgman, Tom; Wielicki, Bruce; Wong, Takmeng; Barkstrom, Bruce

2001-06-20

165

Crosswind Weighting Functions for Direct-Fire Projectiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a theoretical analysis of the crosswind weighting functions for high-speed direct-fire projectiles. These weighting functions are analogous to the path averaging weighting functions of an optical crosswind sensor. The wind weighting functio...

D. L. Walters

1975-01-01

166

ULTRA HIGH RATE, WIDE AREA, PLASMA POLYMERIZED FILMS FROM HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT\\/LOW VAPOR PRESSURE LIQUID OR LIQUID\\/SOLID SUSPENSION MONOMER PRECURSORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process has been developed for the high rate vacuum deposition of solid films from high molecular weight\\/low vapor pressure liquid, or even liquid\\/solid suspension, monomer precursors. The gas resulting from the flash evaporation of a liquid monomer mixture, or from a suspension of insoluble solid particles in liquid monomer, is used as the support medium for a glow

J. D. Affinito; M. E. Gross; P. A. Mounier; M-K Shi; G. L. Graff

1999-01-01

167

The Averaging Problem in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis deals with the averaging problem in cosmology, which has gained considerable interest in recent years, and is concerned with correction terms (after averaging inhomogeneities) that appear in the Einstein equations when working on the large scales appropriate for cosmology. It has been claimed in the literature that these terms may account for the phenomenon of dark energy which causes the late time universe to accelerate. We investigate the nature of these terms by using averaging schemes available in the literature and further developed to be applicable to the problem at hand. We show that the effect of these terms when calculated carefully, remains negligible and cannot explain the late time acceleration.

Paranjape, Aseem

2009-06-01

168

Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis.

Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2007-02-15

169

Weighted LCS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) of two strings A and B is a well studied problem having a wide range of applications. When each symbol of the input strings is assigned a positive weight the problem becomes the Heaviest Common Subsequence (HCS) problem. In this paper we consider a different version of weighted LCS on Position Weight Matrices (PWM). The Position Weight Matrix was introduced as a tool to handle a set of sequences that are not identical, yet, have many local similarities. Such a weighted sequence is a 'statistical image' of this set where we are given the probability of every symbol's occurrence at every text location. We consider two possible definitions of LCS on PWM. For the first, we solve the weighted LCS problem of z sequences in time O(zn z + 1). For the second, we prove \\cal{NP}-hardness and provide an approximation algorithm.

Amir, Amihood; Gotthilf, Zvi; Shalom, B. Riva

170

Changes in Average Trip Length.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recommendations made by the Chicago Area Transportation Study, CATS, for the 1980 transportation requirements of its study area have been based in part upon an estimate of the total daily mileage which will be traveled within the area by that time. Th...

W. D. Stoll

1967-01-01

171

Comparison of mouse brain DTI maps using K-space average, image-space average, or no average approach.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is achieved by collecting a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). Signal averaging of multiple repetitions can be performed in the k-space (k-avg) or in the image space (m-avg) to improve the image quality. Alternatively, one can treat each acquisition as an independent image and use all of the data to reconstruct the DTI without doing any signal averaging (no-avg). To compare these three approaches, in this study, in vivo DTI data were collected from five normal mice. Noisy data with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) that varied between five and 30 (before averaging) were then simulated. The DTI indices, including relative anisotropy (RA), trace of diffusion tensor (TR), axial diffusivity (??), and radial diffusivity (??), derived from the k-avg, m-avg, and no-avg, were then compared in the corpus callosum white matter, cortex gray matter, and the ventricles. We found that k-avg and m-avg enhanced the SNR of DWI with no significant differences. However, k-avg produced lower RA in the white matter and higher RA in the gray matter, compared to the m-avg and no-avg, regardless of SNR. The latter two produced similar DTI quantifications. We concluded that k-avg is less preferred for DTI brain imaging. PMID:23988782

Sun, Shu-Wei; Mei, Jennifer; Tuel, Keelan

2013-08-27

172

Evaluations of average level spacings  

SciTech Connect

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01

173

WEIGHT GAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the last 40 years there have been dramatic changes in the recommendations for optimal maternal weight gain during pregnancy. In the past it was thought that it was necessary to restrict the diet of many pregnant women in order to reduce the perceived risks associated with higher weight gains....

174

Urban Bias in Area-averaged Surface Air Temperature Trends.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data set derived from the United States Historical Climate Network has been compared to two global land-based temperature data sets that have been commonly cited in connection with the detection of the greenhouse effect and in other studies of climate change. Results indicate that in the United States the two global land-based temperature data sets have an urban bias between +6.1°C and +0.4°C over the twentieth century (1901-84). This bias is as large or larger than the overall temperature trend in the United States during this time period, +0.16°C/84 yr. Temperature trends indicate an increasing temperature from the turn of the century to the 1930s but a decrease thereafter. By comparison, the global temperature trends during the same period are between +0.4°C/84 yr and +0.6°C/84 yr. At this time, we can only speculate on the magnitude of the urban bias in the global land-based data sets for other parts of the globe, but the magnitude of the bias in the United States compared to the overall temperature trend underscores the need for a thorough global study.

Karl, Thomas R.; Jones, Philip D.

1989-03-01

175

Optimal averaging of seasonal sea surface temperatures and associated confidence intervals (1860-1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal averaging (OA) is used to compute the area-average seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) for a variety of areas from 1860 to 1989. The OA gives statistically improved averages and the objective assignment of confidence intervals to these averages. For the global average, the early part of the record (1860-1890) and the times of the two world wars have largest

Thomas M. Smith; C. F. Ropelewski; R. W. Reynolds

1994-01-01

176

The Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymer Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Various methods for the determination of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of different polymer samples are presented. The study shows that the molecular weight averages and distribution of a polymerization completely depend on the characteristics of the reaction itself.|

Horta, Arturo; Pastoriza, M. Alejandra

2007-01-01

177

The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Averaging Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project has developed a new analysis framework for handling surface temperature records and constructing global temperature averages and maps. This has allowed us to achieve greater detail with less uncertainty than prior efforts. This framework adapts a weighted least-squares approach with spatial Kriging to allow us to utilize even very short and discontinuous temperature records. Further, we automate the process of assessing station reliability to allow data of unknown reliability to be included in the analysis. For the first time, this means that nearly all of the Earth ~40 thousand weather station time series can be directly incorporated into the construction of global temperature averages, rather than the 5-10 thousand long time series traditionally used. Applying the Berkeley Earth techniques, we broadly confirm the temperature histories presented by prior groups. However, the improved methodology allows the uncertainties to be reduced (often by 50%) and also has allowed the instrumental temperature record to be extended back to 1800. This session will present the Berkeley Earth Averaging Framework and results, with emphasis on the techniques employed.

Rohde, R. A.; Brillinger, D.; Curry, J. A.; Groom, D.; Jacobsen, B.; Muller, R. A.; Perlmutter, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Wickham, C.; Wurtele, J.

2011-12-01

178

Averaging facial expression over time  

PubMed Central

The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time.

Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

2010-01-01

179

Weight-height indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight\\/height2 (W\\/H2) was found to be the `best' power-type weight-height index for men of all ages above 40 when examining the 10,000 Israel civil servants. These were all men aged 40 and over from six major areas of birth in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Israel. This finding confirms other work done with widely different cultural groups.The association

Uri Goldbourt; Jack H. Medalie

1974-01-01

180

Weight Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Please visit www.diabetes.org Food & Fitness Fitness Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices Physical Activity FREE Diabetes Support On Your Cell Phone Receive info, recipes, tips and reminders from Care4life ...

181

Average trajectory of returning walks.  

PubMed

We compute the average shape of trajectories of some one-dimensional stochastic processes x(t) in the (t,x) plane during an excursion, i.e., between two successive returns to a reference value, finding that it obeys a scaling form. For uncorrelated random walks the average shape is semicircular, independent from the single increments distribution, as long as it is symmetric. Such universality extends to biased random walks and Levy flights, with the exception of a particular class of biased Levy flights. Adding a linear damping term destroys scaling and leads asymptotically to flat excursions. The introduction of short and long ranged noise correlations induces nontrivial asymmetric shapes, which are studied numerically. PMID:15169006

Colaiori, Francesca; Baldassarri, Andrea; Castellano, Claudio

2004-04-30

182

Robust averaging during perceptual judgment  

PubMed Central

An optimal agent will base judgments on the strength and reliability of decision-relevant evidence. However, previous investigations of the computational mechanisms of perceptual judgments have focused on integration of the evidence mean (i.e., strength), and overlooked the contribution of evidence variance (i.e., reliability). Here, using a multielement averaging task, we show that human observers process heterogeneous decision-relevant evidence more slowly and less accurately, even when signal strength, signal-to-noise ratio, category uncertainty, and low-level perceptual variability are controlled for. Moreover, observers tend to exclude or downweight extreme samples of perceptual evidence, as a statistician might exclude an outlying data point. These phenomena are captured by a probabilistic optimal model in which observers integrate the log odds of each choice option. Robust averaging may have evolved to mitigate the influence of untrustworthy evidence in perceptual judgments.

de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

2011-01-01

183

An orbit averaged particle code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for efficient computer simulation of long time-scale plasma physics phenomena is proposed which has proved successful in one- and two-dimensional magneto-inductive particle codes. The method relies on orbit-averaging charge and current densities in Maxwell's equations before solving for the self-consistent electric and magnetic fields in order to filter out unwanted high-frequency oscillations and reduce the number of

B. I. Cohen; T. A. Brengle; D. B. Conley; R. P. Freis

1980-01-01

184

Averaging-invariance of compressible Navier-Stokes equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the averaging-invariance property of incompressible Navier-Stokes (iNS) is well documented; there is a need to formally establish the property for the compressible Navier-Stokes (cNS) equations. We put forth two new weighted-moment definitions and derive the averaging-invariant form of the continuity, momentum and energy equations for a general compressible flow. The averaging-invariant equations have the form of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equations and reduce to it in the appropriate limit. Furthermore, we derive the average-invariant forms of the evolution equations of various turbulent fluxes encountered in compressible turbulence. This formalization of the averaging invariance property is expected to contribute towards developing mathematically rigorous RANS-LES hybrid and/or bridging models.

Suman, Sawan; Girimaji, Sharath

2008-11-01

185

Puzzles and Paradoxes Involving Averages: An Intuitive Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Questions involving (re)aggregating parts into wholes are fundamental to all branches of scientific inquiry Saari (2001).\\u000a After discussing two very general insights we derive from the aggregation literature, we look at how wholes may sometimes\\u000a be reconstructed from their parts when we weight the parts appropriately, and we show that the notion of weighted averages\\u000a can be used to make

Scott L. Feld; Bernard Grofman

186

New applications for high average power beams  

SciTech Connect

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

1993-08-01

187

New applications for high average power beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL's, and ICF drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

Neau, E. L.; Turman, B. N.; Patterson, E. L.

1993-06-01

188

Novel diet consumption and body weight gain are reduced in rats chronically infused with lithium chloride: mediation by the chemosensitive area postrema.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic lithium chloride infusions on consumption of, and subsequent preferences for, a novel diet were examined in rats with ablations of the area postrema (AP) and sham-lesioned control rats. Osmotic minipumps (Alza), filled with a saturated aqueous solution of LiCl (63 g/100 ml), were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of half of the lesioned rats (n = 9) and half of the control rats (n = 8). The remaining rats received empty pumps (n = 9 and n = 7 for lesioned and controls, respectively). The LiCl or sham drug phase was paired with free access to a highly palatable novel diet (AIN diet) during a 7-day conditioning period. Subsequent preferences for the novel diet relative to a familiar diet (ground Purina lab pellets) were determined using a two-food choice procedure. The only group to show a persistent and significant reduction in novel food consumption during the conditioning phase was the sham-lesioned group infused with LiCl (p < 0.01). This group also exhibited a marked aversion for the novel diet, indicative of a conditioned food aversion (CFA), during the preference tests. No significant differences in novel diet consumption or in novel diet preference were found between the two AP-lesioned groups. This study provides evidence that anorexia and CFAs to a novel diet, induced with chronic infusions of lithium, are abolished by destruction of the chemosensitive area postrema. PMID:8495383

Eckel, L A; Ossenkopp, K P

1993-01-01

189

Average neutronic properties of prompt fission products  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the average neutronic properties of the ensemble of fission products producted by fast-neutron fission of /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu, where the properties are determined before the first beta decay of any of the fragments, are described. For each case we approximate the ensemble by a weighted average over 10 selected nuclides, whose properties we calculate using nuclear-model parameters deduced from the systematic properties of other isotopes of the same elements as the fission fragments. The calculations were performed primarily with the COMNUC and GNASH statistical-model codes. The results, available in ENDF/B format, include cross sections, angular distributions of neutrons, and spectra of neutrons and photons, for incident-neutron energies between 10/sup -5/ eV and 20 MeV. Over most of this energy range, we find that the capture cross section of /sup 239/Pu fission fragments is systematically a factor of two to five greater than for /sup 235/U fission fragments.

Foster, D.G. Jr.; Arthur, E.D.

1982-02-01

190

76 FR 19275 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations governing the maximum weight and number of passengers that...increasing the Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP) to 185...provisions, the Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements rule became effective on March 14, 2011....

2011-04-07

191

Risk factors associated with the loss of cartilage volume on weight-bearing areas in knee osteoarthritis patients assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify, on a symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) cohort, the risk factors associated with the progression of the disease. More specifically, we investigated the correlation between knee cartilage volume loss from subregions over the span of 24 months by means of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) with demographic, clinical, radiological, and MRI structural changes. A cohort of 107 patients with knee OA selected from a large trial evaluating the effect of a bisphosphonate underwent x-rays and MRI of the knee at baseline and 24 months. Joint space width (JSW) and joint space narrowing (JSN) and cartilage volume loss over time in subregions of the tibial plateaus and femoral condyles were quantitated. Structural changes in the subchondral bone (hypersignal) and in the menisci (tear and extrusion) were also evaluated. The greatest cartilage volume loss was found in the medial compartment, and risk factors included female gender, JSW, meniscal lesions, and bone changes at baseline. Subregion analysis revealed that the greatest cartilage volume loss at 24 months was found in the central area of the medial tibial plateau (15%; p < 0.0001) and of the medial femoral condyle (12%; p < 0.0001). These findings were associated with the presence at baseline of meniscal extrusion, particularly severe meniscal extrusion, medial and severe meniscal tear, bone hypersignal, high body mass index (BMI), smaller JSW, increases in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and patient global scores over time, and greater JSN. Parameters predicting medial central femoral condyle cartilage volume loss at 24 months were lateral meniscal tear, SF-36 and BMI at baseline, and JSN. At the medial central tibial plateau, the parameters were severe meniscal extrusion, severe lateral meniscal tear, and bone hypersignal in the lateral compartment at baseline, and WOMAC pain change. Meniscal damage and bone changes are the features most closely associated with the greatest subregional cartilage volume loss. Interestingly, for the first time, JSN was strongly associated with cartilage loss in the central areas of plateaus and condyles. This study also further confirms the correlation between cartilage volume loss and JSN and symptomatic changes at 24 months.

Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Berthiaume, Marie-Josee; Abram, Francois; Choquette, Denis; Haraoui, Boulos; Beary, John F; Cline, Gary A; Meyer, Joan M; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne

2007-01-01

192

Sorted averaging--principle and application to auditory brainstem responses.  

PubMed

A new averaging method for evoked potentials, called sorted averaging, is presented. The method requires an ensemble of sweeps stored in memory and is based on the principle of interchangeability of individual sweeps within this ensemble. Sorted averaging is applied by sorting all sweeps according to their estimated background noise and successive averaging of this sorted ensemble, starting with low-noise sweeps. Signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR2) is estimated by calculating the inverse single point variance (Elberling & Don, 1984). This SNR2 estimate increases linearly with the number of sweeps for standard averaging and shows a clear maximum for sorted averaging. Auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli at 70 dB nHL in 20 normal hearing subjects were recorded and 4000 individual sweeps during each run were stored for analysis. In an off-line analysis, SNR2 for standard averaging with 10 microV artefact rejection, for weighted averaging and for sorted averaging were calculated. Sorted averaging was found to yield a significantly higher SNR2. PMID:10489863

Mühler, R; von Specht, H

1999-01-01

193

Recruiting and retaining postpartum women from areas of social disadvantage in a weight-loss trial--an assessment of strategies employed in the WeighWell feasibility study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the response of post-partum women from deprived backgrounds to weight management interventions, however behavioural intervention trials in disadvantaged communities are often characterised by recruitment difficulties. Recruitment and retention is key to the robust conduct of an effective trial, and exploratory work is essential prior to a definitive randomised controlled trial. This paper describes strategies used to recruit to the WeighWell feasibility study, which aimed to recruit 60 overweight or obese post-partum women living in areas of deprivation to a trial of a weight-loss intervention. Recruitment strategies included the following: (1) distribution of posters and 'business cards'; (2) newspaper advertisements; (3) visits to community groups; and (4) personalised letters of invitation sent via the National Health Service (NHS). Potential participants were screened for eligibility following response to a Freephone number. Body mass index was calculated using self-reported body weight and height. Over 6 months, 142 women responded of whom 65 (46%) met the eligibility criteria. The most effective methods for recruiting eligible women and those who went on to complete the study (n = 36) were visits to community groups (37% and 42%, respectively), personalised letters (26% and 17%, respectively) and posters and 'business cards' (22% and 31%, respectively). These results emphasise the need to utilise a range of strategies beyond traditional NHS settings. Current approaches might be enhanced by sending personal contact letters via their General Practitioner to women identified as eligible at post-natal discharge. Under-reporting of body weight by self-report suggests that a threshold lower than 25 kg/m(2) should be utilised for screening purposes. PMID:22284216

Macleod, Maureen; Craigie, Angela M; Barton, Karen L; Treweek, Shaun; Anderson, Annie S

2012-01-29

194

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15

195

Flexible time domain averaging technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

196

Optimal Averaging of Seasonal Sea Surface Temperatures and Associated Confidence Intervals (1860-1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal averaging (OA) is used to compute the area-average seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) for a variety of areas from 1860 to 1989. The OA gives statistically improved averages and the objective assignment of confidence intervals to these averages. The ability to assign confidence intervals is the main advantage of this method. Confidence intervals reflect how densely and uniformly an

Thomas M. Smith; Richard W. Reynolds; Chester F. Ropelewski

1994-01-01

197

40 CFR 63.150 - Emissions averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for each transfer rack i to calculate the monthly weighted rack bulk liquid loading temperature: ER22AP94.268 where: Tj = Average annual bulk temperature of individual organic HAP loaded at the transfer rack, Kelvin ( °C + 273). G, Gj...

2010-07-01

198

40 CFR 63.150 - Emissions averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for each transfer rack i to calculate the monthly weighted rack bulk liquid loading temperature: ER22AP94.268 where: Tj = Average annual bulk temperature of individual organic HAP loaded at the transfer rack, Kelvin ( °C + 273). G, Gj...

2009-07-01

199

Lorcaserin for weight management.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m(2) or ?27 kg/m(2) with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

2013-06-13

200

Combining forecast weights: Why and how?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

2012-09-01

201

76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing...the assumed average weight per person standard that will become effective in December 2011...an Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP...rule will become effective on December 1,...

2011-05-19

202

Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The

Nicky Welch; Wendy Hunter; Karina Butera; Karen Willis; Verity Cleland; David Crawford; Kylie Ball

2009-01-01

203

Holiday weight gain: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity continues to rise and controversy remains regarding the underlying specific causes of this trend. Recently, the magnitude of holiday weight gain and its contribution to annual weight gain were examined in a convenience sample of 195 adults. On average, weight gain during the 6-week winter period from Thanksgiving through New Year averaged only 0.37 kg. However, weight gain was greater among individuals who were overweight or obese, and 14% gained >2.3 kg (5 lb). In addition, among the entire population, weight gain during the 6-week holiday season explained 51% of annual weight gain. These results suggest that holiday weight gain may be an important contributor to the rising prevalence of obesity, even though absolute values for weight gain in this study were less than anticipated. Further studies using representative populations are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:11206847

Roberts, S B; Mayer, J

2000-12-01

204

Averaging of nonlinearity-managed pulses  

SciTech Connect

We consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the nonlinearity management which describes Bose-Einstein condensates under Feshbach resonance. By using an averaging theory, we derive the Hamiltonian averaged equation and compare it with other averaging methods developed for this problem. The averaged equation is used for analytical approximations of nonlinearity-managed solitons.

Zharnitsky, Vadim; Pelinovsky, Dmitry [Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Mathematics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

2005-09-01

205

The uncertainty of simple spatial averages using rain gauge networks  

SciTech Connect

A technique is presented whereby the standard error of a simple spatial average can be computed given any spatial configuration of measuring sites. The method should improve useful to those wishing to assess the time-averaged performance of a network of rain gauges where the site locations are fixed within the averaging area. It is demonstrated that in addition to the site density and the spatial structure of the measured variable, the spatial geometry of the network with respect to the averaging area must be accounted for in the standard error expression. By incorporating estimates of the long-term population mean in the method, bias and random error in the sample statistics are minimized. 18 refs., 9 figs.

Morrissey, M.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Maliekal, J.A. [State Univ. of New York College, Brockport, NY (United States); Greene, J.S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

206

Geodetic calculus with block-averages observations on the sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculus of spherical harmonic representation of fields of geodetic interest is often performed by applying integral formulas to block-averaged quantities. Due to the dependence of the block areas on latitude, it is difficult to perform a rigorous computation; in this paper the effects of approximations related to the loss of orthogonality in the discretization and averaging procedures are numerically studied; a simple numerical approach to improve the efficiency of the estimates is presented.

Albertella, A.; Sacerdote, F.; Sansò, F.

1993-09-01

207

Investigating two averaging methods for sea ice thickness and volume in the Southern Ocean from 1995-1998  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of sea ice thickness are necessary to understand complex polar climate systems. However, the records of sea ice thickness in the Southern Ocean have insufficient spatial coverage and irregular time intervals. One way to address the lack of data is to use operational ice charts which are based on multiple remotely sensed data sources. We use ice type as a proxy for sea ice thickness from ice charts to calculate the thickness distribution in the Southern Ocean on a regional scale. We explore how averaging a sea ice thickness distribution at different model grid scales impacts the end results of the sea ice thickness seasonal cycles. This paper reports the results of two calculations of sea ice thickness and volume based on measures of central tendency for the thickness distribution. The area-weighted average thickness is calculated from the ice type at the ice chart polygon scale, and the integrated thickness is calculated from the thickness distribution of an entire region. For regions in the Southern Ocean, integrated thickness from ice chart stage of development was always greater than average weighted thickness. At the Southern Ocean basin scale, the volume calculated with integrated thickness is up to 60% larger than volume calculated from average thickness at the ice chart polygon scale. This paper makes recommendations for calculating the thickness distribution and volume of sea ice over large scale regions.

Bernstein, E. R.; Geiger, C. A.; Deliberty, T. L.

2011-12-01

208

Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

2006-01-01

209

Jupiter's Radio Rotation Period: A 50-year Average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 50 years of continuous seasonal observations of Jupiter's decametric radio emissions from 18-22 MHz collected at the University of Florida Radio Observatory (UFRO), we calculate a new radio rotation period of Jupiter. The new period is the weighted mean of more than 20 independent measurements. Each measurement is found by determining the drift of the histograms of probability of occurrence versus the System III (1965) central meridian longitude (CML) over intervals of approximately 12, 24, 36, and 48 years. This multiple 12-year average technique is employed to reduce the uncertainty in the longitudes of the radio sources caused by Jupiter's 11.86 year orbit. Our weighted mean is 9 h 55 m 29.689 s, with a standard deviation of the weighted mean of 0.004 s. Our calculations show remarkably stable radio sources. An upper limit of any radio rotation period drift is discussed.

Higgins, C. A.; Reyes, F.; Solus, D.

2011-12-01

210

40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...States. (c) To use the averaging program, do the following things: (1) Certify each vehicle to a family emission limit...report. (1) Make sure your report includes the following things: (i) Calculate in detail your average emission level...

2011-07-01

211

RHIC BPM System Average Orbit Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RHIC beam position monitor (RPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contr...

C. Degen M. Minty P. Cerniglia R. Hulsart R. Michnoff

2009-01-01

212

RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations  

SciTech Connect

RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

2009-05-04

213

Synchronous averaging of epicyclic sun gear vibration  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In the method of detecting a localized sun gear fault, in the operation of an epicyclic gear train having ring, planet and sun gears, and a planet carrier, the steps that include detecting sun gear vibrations transmitted through each planet gear, computing separated averages of such detected vibrations, phase shifting the averages to account for the differences in gear meshing positions, and re-combining the phase shifted averages to produce a modified average value of the sun gear vibration.

Blunt; David Mark (Fishermans Bend, AU)

2005-05-31

214

The average mental age of adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the average mental age of adults by comparing the average intelligence of 9500 native whites, 3700 foreign-born men and 3300 Negroes. The intelligence of the former was judged on the basis of Army Mental Tests and that of the two latter groups was on the basis of the Surgeon General's report. The average mental age of adults was found

Edgar A. Doll

1919-01-01

215

Molecular Weight Determinations of Dimethylpolysiloxane Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a vapor phase osmometer and an automatic membrane osmometer the number-average molecular weight of two samples of dimethylpolysiloxane - 2300 and 8000 cstk - as well as samples made by mixing the two previously mentioned materials were determined. T...

Z. A. Luthey

1968-01-01

216

Constructing a meaningful evolutionary average at the phylogenetic center of mass  

PubMed Central

Background As a consequence of the evolutionary process, data collected from related species tend to be similar. This similarity by descent can obscure subtler signals in the data such as the evidence of constraint on variation due to shared selective pressures. In comparative sequence analysis, for example, sequence similarity is often used to illuminate important regions of the genome, but if the comparison is between closely related species, then similarity is the rule rather than the interesting exception. Furthermore, and perhaps worse yet, the contribution of a divergent third species may be masked by the strong similarity between the other two. Here we propose a remedy that weighs the contribution of each species according to its phylogenetic placement. Results We first solve the problem of summarizing data related by phylogeny, and we explain why an average should operate on the entire evolutionary trajectory that relates the data. This perspective leads to a new approach in which we define the average in terms of the phylogeny, using the data and a stochastic model to obtain a probability on evolutionary trajectories. With the assumption that the data evolve according to a Brownian motion process on the tree, we show that our evolutionary average can be computed as convex combination of the species data. Thus, our approach, called the BranchManager, defines both an average and a novel taxon weighting scheme. We compare the BranchManager to two other methods, demonstrating why it exhibits desirable properties. In doing so, we devise a framework for comparison and introduce the concept of a representative point at which the average is situated. Conclusion The BranchManager uses as its representative point the phylogenetic center of mass, a choice which has both intuitive and practical appeal. Because our average is intrinsic to both the dataset and to the phylogeny, we expect it and its corresponding weighting scheme to be useful in all sorts of studies where interspecies data need to be combined. Obvious applications include evolutionary studies of morphology, physiology or behaviour, but quantitative measures such as sequence hydrophobicity and gene expression level are amenable to our approach as well. Other areas of potential impact include motif discovery and vaccine design. A Java implementation of the BranchManager is available for download, as is a script written in the statistical language R.

Stone, Eric A; Sidow, Arend

2007-01-01

217

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years

C C McLaughlin; M S Baptiste; M J Schymura; P C Nasca; M S Zdeb

2006-01-01

218

Methodological issues in weight cycling.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that weight changes may be related to disease risk independent of weight status. A critical step in testing this assertion is the measurement of weight change and so-called "weight cycling". However intuitive the concept of weight cycling may appear, research in this area is hampered by complex methodological issues. This article discusses various measures of nominal weight cycling, including the standard deviation, coefficient of variation, regression techniques, and cycles. A cycle is a sequence of a gain followed by a loss or vice versa. The various measures are compared in seven hypothetical cases created to illustrate their strengths and weaknesses. Superior performance of the cycles measure over the coefficient of variation, number of fluctuations, and simple regression methods is argued. The linkage of the cycles measure with the statistical theory of runs also provides a basis for testing the significance of weight fluctuations or other variables that may cycle, such as blood lipids, etc. The cycles measure and runs test provide a viable definition for identifying weight cycling and a tool for evaluating the critical amount of weight gained and/or lost in relationship to risk. PMID:18425674

Cutter, G; St Jeor, S; Brunner, R; Wolfe, P; Foreyt, J; Dyer, A; Brownell, K D

1996-01-01

219

Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates distort estimated costs of climate change. We overlay the IPCC’s 20 GCM simulations on the global population distribution to estimate local climatic changes experienced by the world population in the 21st century. The A1B scenario leads to a well-known rise in global average surface temperature of +2.0°C between the periods 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Projected on the global population distribution in 2000, the median human will experience an annual average rise of +2.3°C (4.1°F) and the average human will experience a rise of +2.4°C (4.3°F). Less than 1% of the population will experience changes smaller than +1.0°C (1.8°F), while 25% and 10% of the population will experience changes greater than +2.9°C (5.2°F) and +3.5°C (6.2°F) respectively. 67% of the world population experiences temperature changes greater than the area-weighted average change of +2.0°C (3.6°F). Using two approaches to characterize the spatial distribution of income, we show that the wealthiest, middle and poorest thirds of the global population experience similar changes, with no group dominating the global average. Calculations for precipitation indicate that there is little change in average precipitation, but redistributions of precipitation occur in all income groups. These results suggest that economists and policy-makers using spatially averaged estimates of climate change to approximate local changes will systematically and significantly underestimate the impacts of climate change on the 21st century population. Top: The distribution of temperature changes experienced by the world population between 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Lower 3 panels: Temperatures experienced 2011-2030 (dashed, circle = mean) and 2080-2099 (solid, cross = mean) by income tercile. The poor do not experience larger changes than the wealthy. However, the poor begin the 21st century at higher temperatures.

Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

2009-12-01

220

Changes in 24-h area-under-the-curve ghrelin values following diet-induced weight loss are associated with loss of fat-free mass, but not with changes in fat mass, insulin levels or insulin sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine which parameters of body composition or metabolism best correlate with changes in 24 h ghrelin levels following weight loss.Design:A 3-month low-calorie diet followed by 3 months of weight stabilization.Subjects:Twelve overweight and obese adult men and women.Measurements:Body composition by underwater weighing, abdominal fat depots, leptin, ghrelin and parameters of insulin and lipid metabolism.Results:Increased 24 h ghrelin levels after weight

J Q Purnell; D Cummings; D S Weigle

2007-01-01

221

Average Daylight Factor: A Simple Basis for Daylight Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. Average daylight factor is especially suitable for this purpose as it can be used in the direct calculation of target glazing areas. The use of formulae developed at BR...

P. J. Littlefair

1988-01-01

222

Average Vaporisation Rate in Turbulent Subcritical Two-Phase Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers alternative expressions for turbulent evaporation rate used in the framework of an entirely Eulerian model based on a transport equation for the average liquid surface area. Commonly employed expressions for vaporisation rate derived from Spalding-Godsave theory fail to account for vaporisation enhancement induced by turbulence; moreover, they do not describe experimentally observed fact that the pressure affects

M. S. Sidhu; A. A. Burluka

2008-01-01

223

Effects of Average Childhood Dairy Intake on Adolescent Bone Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the effects of usual childhood dairy intake on adolescent bone health. Study design Dietary data collected in the Framingham Children's Study over 12 years were used to evaluate usual dairy consumption and adolescent bone health. Each child's average Food Pyramid servings were estimated from yearly sets of 3-day diet records. Bone mineral content (BMC) and area (BA)

LYNN L. MOORE; M. LORING BRADLEE; MARTHA R. SINGER

224

Ensemble Weight Enumerators for Protograph LDPC Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, LDPC codes with projected graph, or protograph structures have been proposed. In this paper, finite length ensemble weight enumerators for LDPC codes with protograph structures are obtained. Asymptotic results are derived as the block size goes to infinity. In particular, we are interested in obtaining ensemble average weight enumerators for protograph LDPC codes which have typical minimum distance that

Dariush Divsalar

2006-01-01

225

A model-averaging method for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty.  

PubMed

This study evaluates alternative groundwater models with different recharge and geologic components at the northern Yucca Flat area of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS), USA. Recharge over the DVRFS has been estimated using five methods, and five geological interpretations are available at the northern Yucca Flat area. Combining the recharge and geological components together with additional modeling components that represent other hydrogeological conditions yields a total of 25 groundwater flow models. As all the models are plausible given available data and information, evaluating model uncertainty becomes inevitable. On the other hand, hydraulic parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) are uncertain in each model, giving rise to parametric uncertainty. Propagation of the uncertainty in the models and model parameters through groundwater modeling causes predictive uncertainty in model predictions (e.g., hydraulic head and flow). Parametric uncertainty within each model is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation, and model uncertainty is evaluated using the model averaging method. Two model-averaging techniques (on the basis of information criteria and GLUE) are discussed. This study shows that contribution of model uncertainty to predictive uncertainty is significantly larger than that of parametric uncertainty. For the recharge and geological components, uncertainty in the geological interpretations has more significant effect on model predictions than uncertainty in the recharge estimates. In addition, weighted residuals vary more for the different geological models than for different recharge models. Most of the calibrated observations are not important for discriminating between the alternative models, because their weighted residuals vary only slightly from one model to another. PMID:19788638

Ye, Ming; Pohlmann, Karl F; Chapman, Jenny B; Pohll, Greg M; Reeves, Donald M

2009-09-25

226

The average distances in random graphs with given expected degrees  

PubMed Central

Random graph theory is used to examine the “small-world phenomenon”; any two strangers are connected through a short chain of mutual acquaintances. We will show that for certain families of random graphs with given expected degrees the average distance is almost surely of order log n/log d?, where d? is the weighted average of the sum of squares of the expected degrees. Of particular interest are power law random graphs in which the number of vertices of degree k is proportional to 1/k? for some fixed exponent ?. For the case of ? > 3, we prove that the average distance of the power law graphs is almost surely of order log n/log d?. However, many Internet, social, and citation networks are power law graphs with exponents in the range 2 < ? < 3 for which the power law random graphs have average distance almost surely of order log log n, but have diameter of order log n (provided having some mild constraints for the average distance and maximum degree). In particular, these graphs contain a dense subgraph, which we call the core, having nc/log log n vertices. Almost all vertices are within distance log log n of the core although there are vertices at distance log n from the core.

Chung, Fan; Lu, Linyuan

2002-01-01

227

The average distances in random graphs with given expected degrees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random graph theory is used to examine the "small-world phenomenon"; any two strangers are connected through a short chain of mutual acquaintances. We will show that for certain families of random graphs with given expected degrees the average distance is almost surely of order log n/log , where is the weighted average of the sum of squares of the expected degrees. Of particular interest are power law random graphs in which the number of vertices of degree k is proportional to 1/k for some fixed exponent . For the case of > 3, we prove that the average distance of the power law graphs is almost surely of order log n/log ? < 3 for which the power law random graphs have average distance almost surely of order log log n, but have diameter of order log n (provided having some mild constraints for the average distance and maximum degree). In particular, these graphs contain a dense subgraph, which we call the core, having nc/log log n vertices. Almost all vertices are within distance log log n of the core although there are vertices at distance log n from the core.


Chung, Fan; Lu, Linyuan

2002-12-01

228

Attitude stabilization of averaging magnetic torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability problems of two magnetic control systems are discussed. One uses a three-axis magnetic actuator only; the other includes an additional momentum-biased wheel. The so-called orbit-averaged magnetic controllers, derived from the orbit-averaged magnetic field, show an ability to ensure the global attitude stabilization. This is supported theoretically by the averaging method and Lyapunov theories, and also illustrated by the

Lin Huang; Wuxing Jing

2006-01-01

229

Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w -singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

d?browski, Mariusz P.

2011-08-01

230

Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation  

SciTech Connect

A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

Stroud, P.

1994-02-01

231

LIMITATIONS OF AVERAGE STRUCTURE DETERMINATION FOR HEAVY ENDS IN FOSSIL FUELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical analysis of the average molecular structure determination For high boiling and nondistll-lahle fractions in fossil fuels. The emphasis is on molecular weight distribution and compound-class composition. The wide molecular weight distribution, resulting from the different volatility of the various chemical classes of compounds comprising these complex mixtures, is demonstrated to be the major limitation.

Mieczyslaw M. Boduszynski

1984-01-01

232

Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.  

PubMed

Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability. PMID:22383947

González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

2012-02-22

233

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia  

PubMed Central

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years between 1985 and 2001 and born in New York State excluding New York City between 1978 and 2001. Controls (n=9686) were selected from the birth cohorts for the same years. Moderate increased risk of both ALL and AML was associated with birth weight 3500?g or more. For ALL, however, there was evidence of effect modification with birth weight and maternal prepregnancy weight. High birth weight was associated with ALL only when the mother was not overweight while heavier maternal weight was associated with ALL only when the infant was not high birth weight. Increased pregnancy-related weight gain was associated with ALL. For AML, birth weight under 3000?g and higher prepregnancy weight were both associated with increased risk. These findings suggest childhood leukaemia may be related to factors influencing abnormal fetal growth patterns.

McLaughlin, C C; Baptiste, M S; Schymura, M J; Nasca, P C; Zdeb, M S

2006-01-01

234

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years between 1985 and 2001 and born in New York State excluding New York City between 1978 and 2001. Controls (n=9686) were selected from the birth cohorts for the same years. Moderate increased risk of both ALL and AML was associated with birth weight 3500 g or more. For ALL, however, there was evidence of effect modification with birth weight and maternal prepregnancy weight. High birth weight was associated with ALL only when the mother was not overweight while heavier maternal weight was associated with ALL only when the infant was not high birth weight. Increased pregnancy-related weight gain was associated with ALL. For AML, birth weight under 3000 g and higher prepregnancy weight were both associated with increased risk. These findings suggest childhood leukaemia may be related to factors influencing abnormal fetal growth patterns. PMID:16736025

McLaughlin, C C; Baptiste, M S; Schymura, M J; Nasca, P C; Zdeb, M S

2006-06-01

235

Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts  

PubMed Central

Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics) often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA) is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure) towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to C? models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures). However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%); in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38) of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA [1], our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction [2], which could also benefit from our approach.

KC, Dukka B

2009-01-01

236

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01

237

Judging body weight from faces: the height-weight illusion.  

PubMed

Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670

Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian

2012-01-01

238

Different weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: postpartum weight and birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the effect of different gestational weight gains among women of normal weight before pregnancy on babies’ birth weights, and women’s weights 18–24 months postpartum.Methods: Two groups of women of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index [BMI] 19.6–25.4 kg\\/m2) took part in the study (n = 200). They gained either moderate weight (9–15 kg) or high weight

Inga Thorsdottir; Bryndis E Birgisdottir

1998-01-01

239

A note on generalized averaged Gaussian formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently proposed a very simple numerical method for constructing the averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas. These formulas exist in many more cases than the real positive Gauss?Kronrod formulas. In this note we try to answer whether the averaged Gaussian formulas are an adequate alternative to the corresponding Gauss?Kronrod quadrature formulas, to estimate the remainder term of a Gaussian rule.

Spalevic, Miodrag

2007-11-01

240

Bayes model averaging with selection of regressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a number of distinct models contend for use in prediction, the choice of a single model can offer rather unstable predictions. In regression, stochastic search variable selection with Bayesian model averaging offers a cure for this robustness issue but at the expense of requiring very many predictors. Here we look at Bayes model averaging incorporating variable selection for prediction.

P. J. Brown; M. Vannucci; T. Fearn

2002-01-01

241

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

242

Generalized averaging method for power conversion circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more general averaging procedure that encompasses state-space averaging and that is potentially applicable to a much broader class of circuits and systems is presented. Examples of its application in resonant and PWM power convertors are presented. The technique is shown to be effective on a number of examples. including resonant type converters. The approach offers refinements to the theory

Seth R. Sanders; J. M. Noworolski; X. Z. Liu; G. C. Verghese

1991-01-01

243

Evaluating template bias when synthesizing population averages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishing the average shape and spatial variability for a set of similar anatomical objects is important for detecting and discriminating morphological differences between populations. This may be done using deformable templates to synthesize a 3D CT/MRI image of the average anatomy from a set of CT/MRI images collected from a population of similar anatomical objects. This paper investigates the error associated with the choice of template selected from the population used to synthesize the average population shape. Population averages were synthesized for a population of five infant skulls with sagittal synostosis and a population of six normal adult brains using a consistent linear-elastic image registration algorithm. Each data set from the populations was used as the template to synthesize a population average. This resulted in five different population averages for the skull population and six different population averages for the brain population. The displacement variance distance from a skull within the population to the other skulls in the population ranged from 5.5 to 9.9 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average skulls to the population ranged from 2.2 to 2.7 mm2. The displacement variance distance from a brain within the population to the other brains in the population ranged from 9.3 to 14.2 mm2 while the displacement variance distance from the synthesized average brains to the population ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 mm2. These results suggest that there was no significant difference between the choice of template with respect to the shape of the synthesized average data set for these two populations.

Carlson, Blake L.; Christensen, Gary E.; Johnson, Hans J.; Vannier, Michael W.

2001-07-01

244

Time averaging of instantaneous quantities in HYDRA  

SciTech Connect

For turbulent flow the evaluation of direct numerical simulations (DNS) where all scales are resolved and large-eddy simulation (LES) where only large-scales are resolved is difficult because the results are three-dimensional and transient. To simplify the analysis, the instantaneous flow field can be averaged in time for evaluation and comparison to experimental results. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow code HYDRA has been modified for calculation of time-average quantities for both DNS and LES. This report describes how time averages of instantaneous quantities are generated during program execution (i.e., while generating the instantaneous quantities, instead of as a postprocessing operation). The calculations are performed during program execution to avoid storing values at each time step and thus to reduce storage requirements. The method used in calculating the time-average velocities, turbulent intensities, <{ital u}{sup ``}{sup 2}>, <{ital va}{sup ``}{sup 2}>, and <{ital w}{sup ``}{sup 2}>, and turbulent shear, <{ital u}{sup ``}{ital v}{sup ``}> are outlined. The brackets <> used here represent a time average. the described averaging methods were implemented in the HYDRA code for three-dimensional problem solutions. Also presented is a method for taking the time averages for a number of consecutive intervals and calculating the time average for the sum of the intervals. This method could be used for code restarts or further postprocessing of the timer averages from consecutive intervals. This method was not used in the HYDRA implementation, but is included here for completeness. In HYDRA, the running sums needed fro time averaging are simply written to the restart dump.

McCallen, R.C.

1996-09-01

245

Effect of clothing weight on body weight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

246

Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment, December 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Metropolitain Area Employment and Unemployment, in December 2000, 215 metropolitan areas recorded unemployment rates below the US average of 3.7 percent. However, 106 areas reported rates higher than the US average.

247

Urban\\/rural differences in body weight: Evidence for social selection and causation hypotheses in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average body weight differences between urban and rural areas have been reported in many countries, but it is unknown whether these are due to effects of social selection or social causation. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI) predicted selective urban\\/rural migration over a 21-year period and whether urban\\/rural living over the same period predicted differences in BMI increase

Markus Jokela; Mika Kivimäki; Marko Elovainio; Jorma Viikari; Olli T. Raitakari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2009-01-01

248

Molecular weights of lignite macromolecules  

SciTech Connect

A sample of the base-extractable product from the 4-nitroperbenzoic acid oxidation of lignite was converted to the methylated derivative with dimethyl sulfate followed by diazomethane in DMF-ether, and was reductively acetylated with zinc dust in acetic anhydride as in the humic acid derivatization above. A light tan THF-soluble material was obtained. The molecular weight was determined in the static LALLS cell in THF solution. A linear relationship was obtained in the Kc/R/sub theta/ versus c plot (r/sup 2/ = 0.95). The molecular weight obtained for the derivative of the oxidation product (1.3 x 10/sup 6/) was the same as the value obtained for the humic acid derivative. The reductively acetylated oxidation product was also examined with the SEC-LALLS-RI system. A symmetrical peak was observed for the LALLS response, and a nonsymmetrical peak for the RI response. Somewhat lower values for the number average, weight average and z average molecular weights were calculated from these data (Mn = 6.5 x 10/sup 5/, Mw = 7.8 x 10/sup 5/, Mz = 9.1 x 10/sup 5/). These data indicate that by oxidatively cleaving the benzyl ether groups with the peracid, a substantial macromolecule is produced which is comparable in size to that obtained by simple base extraction of the lignite. This implies that there is some basic unit of this molecular weight making up the coal structure, and that in base extraction some of these units are released, whereas in peracid oxidation a large number of them are released by scission of cross-linking bonds. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Olson, E.S.; Diehl, J.W.; Froehlich, M.L.

1985-10-01

249

Successes and barriers for a youth weight-management program.  

PubMed

A patient recruiting process was developed for a youth weight-management program in a metropolitan area, and the clinical effects of the program on overweight and obese children aged 7 to 17 years old were assessed. During the 12-month effort, 68 overweight children were enrolled. The program included exercise, nutrition coaching, and behavior change counseling. Clinical outcomes were measured. Patient recruiting methods were monitored and included working with physicians and schools and marketing to consumers. Program adherence was 71% attendance, 5% noncompliance, and 5% drop out rates. Clinical outcomes were excellent: 68% of participants lowered their body mass index by an average of 2.5% (mean, 24 weeks). The program was clinically successful, but patient recruitment initiatives were unsuccessful and the program was discontinued. Parents were the largest obstacle to patient recruiting efforts. For children's weight-management programs to be commercially viable, new models of patient recruiting and promotion of parental acceptance are needed. PMID:17766579

Rice, Jeffrey; Thombs, David; Leach, Rick; Rehm, Richard

2007-08-31

250

Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.  

PubMed

If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics. PMID:18999811

Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

2008-10-28

251

Solvated Ensemble Averaging in the Calculation of Partial Atomic Charges  

PubMed Central

In the calculation of partial atomic charges, for use in molecular mechanics or dynamics simulations, it is common practice to select only a single conformation for the molecule of interest. For molecules that contain rotatable bonds, it is preferable to compute the charges from several relevant conformations. We present here results from a charge derivation protocol that determines the partial charges by averaging charges computed for conformations selected from explicitly solvated MD simulations, performed under periodic boundary conditions. This approach leads to partial charges that are weighted by a realistic population of conformations and that are suitable for condensed phase simulations. This protocol can, in principle, be applied to any class of molecule and to nonaqueous solvation. Carbohydrates contain numerous hydroxyl groups that exist in an ensemble of orientations in solution, and in this report we apply ensemble averaging to a series of methyl glycosides. We report the extent to which ensemble averaging leads to charge convergence among the various monosaccharides and among the constituent atoms within a given monosaccharide. Due to the large number of conformations (200) in our ensembles, we are able to compute statistically relevant standard deviations for the partial charges. An analysis of the standard deviations allows us to assess the extent to which equivalent atom types may, nevertheless, require unique partial charges. The configurations of the hydroxyl groups exert considerable influence on internal energies, and the limits of ensemble averaged charges are discussed in terms of these properties.

BASMA, M.; SUNDARA, S.; CALGAN, D.; VERNALI, T.; WOODS, R. J.

2006-01-01

252

Modification of turbulent transport by orbit averaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect on plasma turbulence of orbit averaging by thermal ions is considered, and illustrated for two modes of potential importance for tokamaks. The effect can reduce the ion response below that in earlier treatments, modifying the predicted mode gro...

H. E. Mynick S. J. Zweben

1991-01-01

253

40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11...in an approved averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

2013-07-01

254

Reasonable Averages That Give Wrong Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Averages are meant to convey the essential features of a set of data, or a random variable, in a simple and a concise way. Like any other summary, an average can be misleading, misused and abused; there is a fair amount of literature on this aspect of averages, the book by D. Huff(1973) being a particularly readable account. In one intuitive use of averages there is a source of error which can be quite serious and which is often not recognized. This source of error is illustrated below by a quality control problem, a project, an experiment and a game. A Taylor series expansion gives an insight into the nature of the error.

Shahani, A. K. (Arjan Kewalram)

2009-03-09

255

Univariate Lp and lp Averaging, 0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present evidence that one can calculate generically combinatorially expensive Lp and lp averages, 0. < p < 1, in polynomial time by restricting the data to come from a wide class of statistical distributions. Our approach differs from the approaches in...

J. E. Lavery

2012-01-01

256

Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in Your Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 4-10 determine the Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in their community and develop, administer, and analyze a survey to determine attitudes toward carpooling. (DDR)

Stenstrup, Al

1995-01-01

257

Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous variances in average daily weight gain of commercial feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ?12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that heterogeneity of variances in ADG is prevalent in feedlot performance and indicate potential sources of heteroskedasticity. Further investigation of factors associated with heteroskedasticity in feedlot performance is warranted to increase consistency and uniformity in commercial beef cattle production and subsequent profitability. PMID:23482583

Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

2013-03-12

258

12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...investments. 702.105 Section 702.105 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION...CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105...

2013-01-01

259

Average daily weight gain of Iberian fattening pigs when grazing natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the growing interest in organic farming and sustainable production, there is a lack of information about the performance of pigs when they feed only on natural resources. This research studied the fattening pattern during the montanera (free-range grazing on acorns and grass during autumn and winter, without any supplementary feed or mineral complement) of the Iberian pig

Vicente Rodríguez-Estévez; Manuel Sánchez-Rodríguez; Antón R. García; A. Gustavo Gómez-Castro

2011-01-01

260

77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...considered each of the comments submitted...according to common themes and has responded...proposal to move to an A-A comparison...appropriate on a case-by-case...while the statutory definitions do not unambiguously...preclude the existence of negative dumping margins, they do at a minimum allow...

2012-02-14

261

A 19-bit low-power multibit sigma-delta ADC based on data weighted averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a low-power multibit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) which achieves 19-b resolution. Multibit quantization and feedback within a sigma-delta loop are shown to provide a power-efficient solution for high-resolution converters. As the linearity of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in the feedback path is a critical issue, a comparison of different DAC solutions is made demonstrating the efficiency of

Olivier Nys; Robert K. Henderson

1997-01-01

262

Evaluation of the Chengdu City Road Traffic Safety Based on Means of Weighted Average and AHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of the road traffic safety management is affected by many factors, which are related to the management of road traffic safety. Combining with the fact of Chengdu city, this paper establishes the evaluation index system of road traffic safety management, Based on abundant investigations and interrelated information of document, it operates the single-item evaluation with the means of

Luo Yong; Guo Xiuchun

2009-01-01

263

Implications of the method of capital cost payment on the weighted average cost of capital.  

PubMed Central

The author develops a theoretical and mathematical model, based on published financial management literature, to describe the cost of capital structure for health care delivery entities. This model is then used to generate the implications of changing the capital cost reimbursement mechanism from a cost basis to a prospective basis. The implications are that the cost of capital is increased substantially, the use of debt must be restricted, interest rates for borrowed funds will increase, and, initially, firms utilizing debt efficiently under cost-basis reimbursement will be restricted to the generation of funds from equity only under a prospective system.

Boles, K E

1986-01-01

264

PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain.

Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

2010-01-01

265

Approximation Algorithms for Minimizing Average Distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers embeddings f of arbitrary finite metrics into the line metric ? so that none of the distances is shrunk\\u000a by the embedding f; the quantity of interest is the factor by which the average distance in the metric is stretched. We call\\u000a this quantity the average distortion of the non-contracting map f. We prove that finding the

Kedar Dhamdhere; Anupam Gupta; R. Ravi

2006-01-01

266

Orbit-averaged implicit particle codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merging of orbit-averaged particle code techniques with recently developed implicit methods to perform numerically stable and accurate particle simulations are reported. Implicitness and orbit averaging can extend the applicability of particle codes to the simulation of long time-scale plasma physics phenomena by relaxing time-step and statistical constraints. Difference equations for an electrostatic model are presented, and analyses of the

B. I. Cohen; R. P. Frieis; V. Thomas

1982-01-01

267

Multifrequency averaging of DC\\/DC converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the issues involved in applying frequency-selective averaging to modeling the dynamic behavior of pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) DC-DC converters. We use the boost converter as an example to show the details involved in deriving some novel extended averaged models, and we use simulations to highlight the accuracy of the models even when traditional small-ripple conditions are not

V. A. Caliskan; O. C. Verghese; A. M. Stankovic

1999-01-01

268

Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

Schweitzer, Peter N.

1995-01-01

269

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS  

SciTech Connect

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10

270

Complete convergence of weighted sums under negative dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the complete convergence of weighted sums. In fact, we extend the result of Amini and Bozorgnia (J\\u000a Appl Math Stoch Anal 16(2):121–126, 2003) on unweighted average to a weighted average under mild conditions.

H. Zarei; H. Jabbari

2011-01-01

271

Self-averaging in complex brain neuron signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear statistical properties of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of limbic brain are studied in vivo. VTA plays key role in generation of pleasure and in development of psychological drug addiction. It is shown that spiking time-series of the VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit long-range correlations with self-averaging behavior. This specific VTA phenomenon has no relation to VTA rewarding function. Last result reveals complex role of VTA in limbic brain.

Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Fukayama, D.; Yadid, G.

2002-12-01

272

Changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and northern hemisphere snow cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

273

Gestational Weight Gain Among Hispanic Women.  

PubMed

To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

2013-02-28

274

Kid's Choice Program improves weight management behaviors and weight status in school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three “Good Health

Helen M. Hendy; Keith E. Williams; Thomas S. Camise

2011-01-01

275

When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

Ebenstein, Avraham

2009-01-01

276

Neutron average cross sections of Np237  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports Np237 neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the Np237 neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width =39.3±1.0 meV, a neutron strength function 104S0=1.02±0.14, a mean level spacing D0=0.60±0.03 eV, and a potential scattering length R'=9.8±0.1 fm.

Noguere, G.

2010-04-01

277

Unbiased Average Age-Appropriate Atlases for Pediatric Studies  

PubMed Central

Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard template. However, when studying pediatric populations, variation from the adult brain makes the MNI305 suboptimal for processing brain images of children. Morphological changes occurring during development render the use of age-appropriate templates desirable to reduce potential errors and minimize bias during processing of pediatric data. This paper presents the methods used to create unbiased, age-appropriate MRI atlas templates for pediatric studies that represent the average anatomy for the age range of 4.5–18.5 years, while maintaining a high level of anatomical detail and contrast. The creation of anatomical T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted templates for specific developmentally important age-ranges, used data derived from the largest epidemiological, representative (healthy and normal) sample of the U.S. population, where each subject was carefully screened for medical and psychiatric factors and characterized using established neuropsychological and behavioral assessments. . Use of these age-specific templates was evaluated by computing average tissue maps for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid for each specific age range, and by conducting an exemplar voxel-wise deformation-based morphometry study using 66 young (4.5–6.9 years) participants to demonstrate the benefits of using the age-appropriate templates. The public availability of these atlases/templates will facilitate analysis of pediatric MRI data and enable comparison of results between studies in a common standardized space specific to pediatric research.

Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; McKinstry, Robert C.; Collins, D. Louis

2010-01-01

278

A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control Among Rural Kansas Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary care providers around weight control. Design Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting and Participants Six focus groups among 31 women from 3 separate communities of rural Kansas during the fall, 2006. Intervention Two focus groups in each community, each of two-hour duration. A focus group moderator’s guide was used to explore the roles of individuals, primary care practice teams, and communities around weight control. Main Outcome Measures and Analysis This study used a qualitative analysis with an iterative process and standard techniques. The analysis team summarized central findings, descriptive topic areas, and general themes. Results There were five broad themes that emerged from these focus groups. These are lack of support from primary care providers, primary care offices as community resources, lack of resources for promoting dietary change but adequate resources for physical activity, the importance of group support and inclusiveness, and a need for more intensive interventions for weight control. Conclusions and Implications Rural populations have an above-average prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. Rural communities need better approaches for addressing the obesity epidemic.

Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

2009-01-01

279

Weight Loss Goals among African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes in a Behavioral Weight Control Program  

PubMed Central

African American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity treatment. We also explored associations among these factors and weight loss treatment outcomes. Self-identified African American women (N= 84) in a 24-session group program were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow up. At baseline, women indicated weight loss goals of 14.1 ± 6.6 kg (14% of initial weight). They also reported relatively high expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss (7–10%). On average, participants lost 3.0 ± 3.9 kg (3% of initial weight) and attended 73 ± 21% of group sessions. Neither weight loss goals nor expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss was correlated with either actual weight loss outcome or attendance. Having higher personal weight loss goals was associated with lower expectations of satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss. This suggests African American women with type 2 diabetes enter treatment hoping to lose far more weight than they are likely to achieve. It is important to understand the psychosocial sequelae of failing to reach these goals on subsequent weight maintenance and future weight loss attempts within this population.

White, D.B.; Bursac, Z.; DiLillo, V.; West, D.S.

2011-01-01

280

SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.

K. L. Goluoglu

2000-06-09

281

Recovery of petroleum with chemically treated high molecular weight polymers  

SciTech Connect

Plugging of reservoirs with high molecular weight polymers, e.g. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, is overcome by chemically treating a polymer having an excessively high average molecular weight prior to injection into a reservoir with an oxidizing chemical, e.g. sodium hypochlorite, and thereafter incorporating a reducing chemical, e.g., sodium sulfite, to stop degradation of the polymer when a desired lower average molecular weight and flooding characteristics are attained.

Gibb, C.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

1980-11-18

282

Weight-height indices *  

PubMed Central

Weight/height2 (W/H2) was found to be the `best' power-type weight-height index for men of all ages above 40 when examining the 10,000 Israel civil servants. These were all men aged 40 and over from six major areas of birth in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Israel. This finding confirms other work done with widely different cultural groups. The association of this W/H2 index was examined in respect of several demographic and other socio-economic variables. The major findings were as follows: W/H2 rises with age until 50, then plateaus until 60, after which there appears to be a slight drop. Israeli-born subjects showed the highest index and those born in the Middle East the lowest index. A general increase in the index occurred over the five years of observation except at age 60 and over. Low values were associated with `professionals' on the one hand, and `labourers' and those with `no schooling' on the other. Immigrants who came during or immediately after the second world war were the `leanest' of all immigrants when examined about 20 years later. The previous finding that cigarette smokers (particularly medium and heavy smokers) showed a low value in comparison with ex-smokers and those who had never smoked was confirmed. Ex-smokers, particularly those who had previously smoked heavily, were more overweight than smokers and those who had never smoked. The findings suggest that ex-smokers gain weight fairly rapidly and then gradually reduce to the weight of those who never smoked but not to that of smokers. In order to verify this finding, a follow-up of ex-smokers is needed. Self-reported physical activity was associated with a lower W/H2 index for smokers, and to a lesser extent for ex-smokers, but did not seem to have an appreciable effect on those who had never smoked. Dietary variables as measured by our questionnaire were not found to be associated with the W/H2 index.

Goldbourt, Uri; Medalie, Jack H.

1974-01-01

283

An Appropriate Weighting Function for the Nonlocal Means Denosing Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement to the efficiency of the nonlocal means (NLM) denoising method is proposed in this paper. The NLM denoising method replaces each pixel by the weighted average of pixels with the surrounding neighborhoods. We employ a cosine weighting function instead of the original exponential function used in the weight calculation. Experiments comparing the proposed function against the original function

Musab Elkheir Salih; Xuming Zhang; Mingyue Ding

2011-01-01

284

Evolving local and global weighting schemes in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method, using Genetic Programming, to automatically determine term weighting schemes for the vector space model. Based on a set of queries and their human determined relevant documents, weighting schemes are evolved which achieve a high average precision. In Information Retrieval (IR) systems, useful information for term weighting schemes is available from the query, individual documents and

Ronan Cummins; Colm O’Riordan

2006-01-01

285

PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

286

Optimal Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal birth weight and outcome are influenced by maternal weight gain. Low gestational weight gain is associated with poor\\u000a fetal growth and risk of preterm delivery. Excessive weight gain affects infant growth, body fatness in childhood, and the\\u000a potential for postpartum weight retention and future obesity. Guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommend that a woman\\u000a with a normal body

Grace A. Falciglia; Kristin H. Coppage

287

40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by a NOX FEL above the applicable emission standard. NOX credits used in averaging may be obtained...a nonroad engine family caused by an NMHC+;NOX FEL or a PM FEL above the applicable...

2012-07-01

288

Average Values of Mean Squares in Factorials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumptions appropriate to the application of analysis of variance to specific examples, and the effects of these assumptions on the resulting interpretations, are today a matter of very active discussion. Formulas for average values of mean squares play a central role in this problem, as do assumptions about interactions. This paper presents formulas for crossed (and, incidentally, for nested

Jerome Cornfield; John W. Tukey

1956-01-01

289

World average top-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01

290

Gauge invariant averages for the cosmological backreaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to provide suitable gauge invariant prescriptions for the classical spatial averages (resp. quantum expectation values) that are needed in the evaluation of classical (resp. quantum) backreaction effects. We also present examples illustrating how the use of gauge invariant prescriptions can avoid interpretation problems and prevent misleading conclusions.

Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.

2009-03-01

291

Average magnitude difference function pitch extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for using the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) and associated decision logic to estimate the pitch period of voiced speech sounds. The AMDF is a variation on autocorrelation analysis where, instead of correlating the input speech at various delays (where multiplications and summations are formed at each value of delay), a difference signal is formed

M. Ross; H. Shaffer; A. Cohen; R. Freudberg; H. Manley

1974-01-01

292

Modification of turbulent transport by orbit averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on plasma turbulence of orbit averaging by thermal ions is considered. This effect can reduce the ion response, modifying the mode growth rate, which in turn changes the turbulent transport. For the trapped electron mode, this mechanism provides a potential explanation of the observed more favourable scaling of ?i with Ti in supershots than in L-modes. Also, for

H. E. Mynick; S. J. Zweben

1992-01-01

293

Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

Sturrock, Alan

1997-01-01

294

Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

2010-01-01

295

New applications for high average power beams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL's, and ICF drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting n...

E. L. Neau B. N. Turman E. L. Patterson

1993-01-01

296

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

297

Evaluation of long-term weight changes after a multidisciplinary weight control program.  

PubMed

The American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs recently emphasized the importance of nutritionally sound weight reduction diets and changes in life-style to promote long-term weight control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term effectiveness and to identify predictors of success of an intensive multidisciplinary program utilizing the time-calorie displacement diet, a low-fat, high-complex-carbohydrate diet, to promote and maintain reduced body weight. In 213 obese adults consecutively entering the program, including dropouts, weight loss averaged 6.3 kg (0.4 kg/week) and 16% of excess weight over 7 months of treatment. The 78 (37%) completing the recommended 15 visits lost a mean of 10.8 kg and 28% of their excess weight while under treatment. Weight loss was largely predicted by number of visits, which was more important than treatment duration. An increased number of visits was predicted by being married, being female, and reporting a usual diet low in snack foods. Of 147 patients contacted at posttreatment follow-up, 53% maintained their weight loss or continued to lose weight an average of 25 months later and 24% experienced weight rebound but were still below their pretreatment weight; only 23% regained their lost weight. Mean net weight loss from pretreatment to follow-up was 8.0 +/- 1.0 kg (mean +/- standard error of the mean). No factor significantly predicted posttreatment weight rebound. Results suggest that a nutritionally sound diet, prescribed in a multidisciplinary program and emphasizing life-style changes, can result in long-term weight control in a majority of patients treated. PMID:2016489

Fitzwater, S L; Weinsier, R L; Wooldridge, N H; Birch, R; Liu, C; Bartolucci, A A

1991-04-01

298

Partitioned weight loss and body composition changes during a mountaineering expedition: a field study.  

PubMed

Weight loss and changes in body composition are recognized phenomena associated with high-altitude mountaineering expeditions. Attempts to partition the weight loss between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) have been inconclusive. Therefore, five male subjects, average age 40.0 +/- 5.5 years, were studied prior to, during, and following a 21-day expedition between 2200 m and 4300 m on Mt. McKinley, Alaska. Pre- to postexpedition body composition changes were determined by densitometry, skinfold thickness (12 sites), body girth measurements (14 sites), and cross-sectional area from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (three sites). Data analysis by Student's t-test (p < 0.05(1) tail) indicated decreases in body weight (4.2 +/- 2.8 kg, 220 g/day, 5.4% of initial weight), total skinfold thickness (10.8%), total body girth (2.8%), and percentage of fat by densitometry (15%). Total cross-sectional area of the three MRI slices (upper arm + thigh + calf) decreased 4.7%, muscle area decreased 9.1%, and fat area decreased 3.9%. The three methods used to partition the weight loss between FM and FFM did not agree: 77% FM vs 23% FFM by densitometry, 25% FM vs 75% FFM by skinfolds, and 38% FM vs 62% FFM by MRI. Energy intake (3640 +/- 1250 kcal/day) was negatively correlated (Pearson r > 0.88(2) tail) with losses in weight (r = -0.89), skinfolds (r = -0.93), and girths (r = -0.88), ie the greater the intake the less the decline. Therefore, insufficient energy intake appeared primarily responsible for the weight loss and changes in body composition during the expedition. PMID:11990186

Tanner, D A; Stager, J M

1998-01-01

299

Managing smoking cessation?related weight gain.  

PubMed

About 80% of smokers who stop smoking gain weight after they stop; on average 5 kg in the first year and about 6 to 7 kg overall. However, weight gain varies a lot between individuals, with some putting on 10 kg or more in a year. Although some factors predict who will gain excessive weight, they are not clinically useful for targeting individuals at high risk. Instead, it may be prudent to monitor weight gain after cessation and intervene with people gaining more than 1 kg/month. There is some evidence that weight gain after cessation can be prevented by dietary intervention that includes setting an energy intake goal and regular monitoring of weight and adjustment of energy intake. However, there are fears that such an approach may harm the success of a quit attempt because it may worsen craving for cigarettes. There is no evidence that this is the case, but the data are too imprecise to be completely reassuring. Exercise programs may reduce cravings for tobacco and increase the likelihood of achieving smoking abstinence, and there is some evidence that they reduce weight gain in the longer term. Consequently, they may be safely recommended but the effect on weight gain is modest. Long?term nicotine replacement therapy prevents several kilograms of weight gain but it may produce harmful metabolic changes that increase cardiovascular risk. Randomized trials are needed to assess efficacy. Thus, weight gain after cessation remains problematic with few interventions to prevent it that have only modest effectiveness. PMID:23123526

Aveyard, Paul; Lycett, Deborah; Farley, Amanda

2012-01-01

300

Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... System Measurement Project Search string Home Topical Areas Measures Data Sources Help About Hello, Unknown User Administration ... years and older with a healthy weight. This measure provides crude prevalence estimates (i.e. not age- ...

301

Effect of Physician-Delivered Nutrition Counseling Training and an Office-Support Program on Saturated Fat Intake, Weight, and Serum Lipid Measurements in a Hyperlipidemic Population Worcester Area Trial for Counseling in Hyperlipidemia (WATCH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program for physician-delivered nutrition counseling, alone and in combination with an office-support pro- gram, on dietary fat intake, weight, and blood low- density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with hy- perlipidemia. Participants and Methods: Forty-five primary care internists at the Fallon Community Health Plan, a cen- tral Massachusetts health maintenance organization, were

Ira S. Ockene; James R. Hebert; Judith K. Ockene; Gordon M. Saperia; Ed Stanek; Robert Nicolosi; Philip A. Merriam; Thomas G. Hurley

302

Effect of physician-delivered nutrition counseling training and an office-support program on saturated fat intake, weight, and serum lipid measurements in a hyperlipidemic population: Worcester Area Trial for Counseling in Hyperlipidemia (WATCH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program for physician-delivered nutrition counseling, alone and in combination with an office-support program, on dietary fat intake, weight, and blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipidemia.\\u000aPARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Forty-five primary care internists at the Fallon Community Health Plan, a central Massachusetts health maintenance organization, were randomized by site into

Ira S. Ockene; James R. Hebert; Judith K. Ockene; Gordon M. Saperia; Stanek Edward J. III; Robert Nicolosi; Philip A. Merriam; Thomas G. Hurley

1999-01-01

303

Average-case analysis of greedy pursuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work on sparse approximation has focused on the theoretical performance of algorithms for random inputs. This average-case behavior is typically far better than the behavior for the worst inputs. Moreover, an average-case analysis fits naturally with the type of signals that arise in certain applications, such as wireless communications. This paper describes what is currently known about the performance of greedy prusuit algorithms with random inputs. In particular, it gives a new result for the performance of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) for sparse signals contaminated with random noise, and it explains recent work on recovering sparse signals from random measurements via OMP. The paper also provides a list of open problems to stimulate further research.

Tropp, Joel A.

2005-08-01

304

High-average-power exciplex laser system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LUX high-average-power high-PRF exciplex laser (EL) system being developed at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Marseille is characterized, and some preliminary results are presented. The fundamental principles and design criteria of ELs are reviewed, and the LUX components are described and illustrated, including a closed-circuit subsonic wind tunnel and a 100-kW-average power 1-kHz-PRF power pulser providing avalanche-discharge preionization by either an electron beam or an X-ray beam. Laser energy of 50 mJ has been obtained at wavelength 308 nm in the electron-beam mode (14.5 kV) using a 5300/190/10 mixture of Ne/Xe/HCl at pressure 1 bar.

Sentis, M.

305

Average entanglement for Markovian quantum trajectories  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. We calculate the average of the concurrence of the qubits wave function over all quantum trajectories. For two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, this average decays exponentially with a rate depending on the measurement scheme only. This contrasts with the known disappearance of entanglement after a finite time for the density matrix in the absence of measurements. For two qubits coupled to a common bath, the mean concurrence can vanish at discrete times. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump or quantum state diffusion dynamics in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect entanglement in specific examples.

Vogelsberger, S. [Institut Fourier, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Spehner, D. [Institut Fourier, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

2010-11-15

306

On Reynolds Averaging of Turbulence Time Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that validity of Reynolds averaging for estimating the (ensemble) mean of a turbulence time series requires that the series values be both stationary and uncorrelated. In strict statistical terminology, these two conditions are jointly designated as independent identically distributed ( i. i. d.). Moreover, we show that when the series values are correlated, knowledge of the correlation between the values is needed to obtain a reliable estimate of the mean. Last, we contend that a viable averaging algorithm must be Reynolds number ( Re) dependent, requiring one version for low Re (Gaussian) turbulence and another for high Re (non-Gaussian) turbulence. Alternatively the median (as opposed to the mean) is recommended as a measure of the central tendency of the turbulence probability density function.

Treviño, George; Andreas, Edgar L.

2008-08-01

307

Skeleton of weighted social network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

2013-03-01

308

The Average Velocity in a Queue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

Frette, Vidar

2009-01-01

309

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

310

Geometric Orbital Transfer Using Averaging Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we focus on the coplanar orbital transfer of a satellite between Keplerian orbits, with low propulsion. We\\u000a compute and analyze averaged systems associated with the energy minimization problem with the full control or control oriented\\u000a in a single direction, tangential-normal or radial-orthoradial. This allows to understand the properties of each control direction\\u000a in the optimal control problems.

B. Bonnard; G. Janin

2008-01-01

311

Gridded electron guns for high average power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of electron guns producing high-average-power beams which are controlled by an intercepting-type grid are described. The design consists of a modification of the design of Pierce-type electron guns to allow for the effect of grid insertion, and calculation of the amplification factors based on the potential distribution. The performance is evaluated in terms of the beam

H. E. Gallagher

1962-01-01

312

The Average Velocity in a Queue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

Frette, Vidar

2009-01-01

313

Average Transitive Trustworthy Degrees for Trustworthy Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to investigate measurement models of transitive trustworthiness for trustworthy networks. The reals\\u000a in the interval [0,1] are used to define trust degrees in such a way that the larger its trust degree and the more it is trustworthy.\\u000a A basic contribution is to introduce the average algorithm for the measurement of the transitive trustworthiness

Yixiang Chen; Min Zhang; Hong Zhu; Tian-ming Bu

2009-01-01

314

On Reynolds Averaging of Turbulence Time Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that validity of Reynolds averaging for estimating the (ensemble) mean of a turbulence time series requires that the\\u000a series values be both stationary and uncorrelated. In strict statistical terminology, these two conditions are jointly designated as independent identically distributed (i.i.d.). Moreover, we show that when the series values are correlated, knowledge of the correlation between the values is

George Treviño; Edgar L. Andreas

2008-01-01

315

Averaging Processes in Children's Judgment of Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children of 6–7 years of age judged happiness of stimulus children on the basis of the nature of their father and mother. In Experiment I(N = 36), it was predicted and found consistent with the averaging rule of stimulus-combination that a pair of polar and mildly polar or neutral parents would contribute less to the happiness of the child than

Ramadhar Singh; Usha R. Sidana; Prabha Srivastava

1978-01-01

316

Gestational weight gain and early postpartum weight retention in a prospective cohort of alberta women.  

PubMed

Objective: To describe gestational weight gain during pregnancy, adherence to Health Canada 2010 Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines, and the effects of weight gain on postpartum weight retention in women with different pre-pregnancy body mass indices. Method: Body weight data were collected from women during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period as part of this prospective cohort study; analyses are presented for the first 600 women recruited. Multilinear regression was used to assess associations between pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention. Multinomial regression was used to assess adherence to guidelines for total weight gain and rates of weekly weight gain. Results: Women who gained above recommendations were more likely to be overweight (OR 5.5; 95% CI 2.7 to 10.9, P < 0.001) or obese (OR 6.5; 95% CI 2.5 to 16.5, P < 0.001) before pregnancy, to have a history of smoking (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.26, P = 0.01), or to be nulliparous (OR 2.23; 95% CI 0.99 to 5.05, P = 0.054). Women who gained weight above recommendations (P < 0.001) and women with low income (P < 0.01) were more likely to retain higher body weight at three months postpartum. Seventy-one percent of participants exceeded recommended rates of weekly weight gain; average weekly weight gain of these women was 0.65 ± 0.17 kg. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy BMI is a significant predictor of excessive weight gain in pregnancy. Higher gestational weight gain predisposes women to higher postpartum weight retention across all BMI categories. Future studies are warranted to design tools and intervention programs to monitor weight gain during pregnancy. PMID:22742482

Begum, Fatheema; Colman, Ian; McCargar, Linda J; Bell, Rhonda C

2012-07-01

317

Proximal Femur Mechanical Adaptation to Weight Gain in Late Adolescence: A Six-Year Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

The effect of weight gain in late adolescence on bone is not clear. Young women who consistently gained weight (n = 23) from 17 to 22 yr of age had increased BMD but a lack of subperiosteal expansion compared with stable weight peers (n = 48). Bone strength increased appropriately for lean mass in both groups but decreased relative to body weight in weight gainers, suggesting increased bone fragility in weight gainers. Introduction Weight gain leading to obesity often starts in adolescence, yet little is known about its effects on bone. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of weight gain in late adolescence (from 17 to 22 yr of age) on proximal femur BMD, geometry, and estimates of bending strength. Materials and Methods Participants were classified as either weight gainers (WG, n = 23) or stable weight (SW, n = 48) using a random coefficients model. Weight gainers had positive increases in weight (p < 0.05) at each clinic visit from age 17 onward. Proximal femur DXA scans (Hologic QDR 2000) taken annually from 17 to 22 yr of age were analyzed for areal BMD (g/cm2), subperiosteal width (cm), and bone cross-sectional area (CSA) at the proximal femoral shaft. Cortical thickness was measured, and section modulus (Z, cm3) was calculated as a measure of bone bending strength. Total body lean (g) and fat (g) mass were measured from DXA total body scans. Results Over ages 17–22, height remained stable in both groups. Weight remained static in the SW group but increased 14% on average in the WG group (p < 0.05). After controlling for age 17 baseline values, WG had higher BMD (+2.6%), thicker cortices (+3.6%), and greater bone CSA (+2.3%). Increased BMD did not translate to greater increases in bone bending strength (Z). The SW group achieved similar gains in Z by greater subperiosteal expansion. Bone strength index (SI = Z/height) normalized for body weight remained constant in the SW group but decreased significantly in the WG group. In contrast, SI normalized to lean mass did not change over time in either group. Other variables including physical activity, nutrition, and hormone levels (estradiol, testosterone, cortisol) did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions These data suggest that weight gain in late adolescence may inhibit the periosteal expansion known to normally occur throughout life in long bones, resulting in decreased bone strength relative to body weight.

Petit, Moira A; Beck, Thomas J; Hughes, Julie M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Bentley, Christy; Lloyd, Tom

2008-01-01

318

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change hy gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was related to increased alcohol consumption (P=0.014) in men and

Christina D. Economos; M. Lise Hildebrandt; Raymond R. Hyatt

319

Preventing Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic diseases and it can help keep your body healthy and strong. To learn more about how physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight, visit Physical Activity for Healthy Weight Physical Activity ...

320

Thyroid and Weight  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid, BMR & Weight What is the relationship between thyroid and weight? It has been appreciated for a ... be regained after treatment is discontinued. Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Hormone What is the relationship between hypothyroidism and ...

321

Basics of Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... true whether these calories came from fats, carbohydrates, proteins, or alcohol. Use more calories by increasing physical activity. Manage your weight by ... do you lose weight? • Set your daily calorie goal using this chart. • Find ...

322

Minimum Weight Structural Sandwich.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Includes a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

E. W. Kuenzi

1965-01-01

323

Your Child's Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... right weight for everyone. Among kids the same height and age, some are more muscular or more ... and testicular enlargement in boys and spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. ...

324

Unexplained Weight Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... possible causes of unexplained weight loss, including undiagnosed celiac disease and thyroid disorders. Potential causes of unexplained weight loss include: Addison's disease Cancer Celiac disease COPD Crohn's disease Dementia Depression (major depression) Diabetes ...

325

Weight Management and Calories  

MedlinePLUS

USDA Choose MyPlate.gov United States Department of Agriculture MyPlate Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils Weight Management & Calories Weight Management Calories Physical Activity What Is Physical Activity? ...

326

Handling Weight Plateaus  

MedlinePLUS

Handling Weight Plateaus When losing weight, it is common to have plateaus or times when you can’t seem to lose ... Here are tips that can help with managing plateaus and resetting your set-point: • Plateaus are often ...

327

Data Weighting Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the investigation was to determine what effect the weighting of observed data has on the accuracy of MUSAT aerotriangulation results. In the MUSAT program it is possible to weight three different sets of observations; image coordinates, c...

G. Gracie R. B. McEwen J. Kenefick J. Wang

1968-01-01

328

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.  

SciTech Connect

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01

329

The Monthly-Averaged and Yearly-Averaged Cosine Effect Factor of a Heliostat Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses are given to determine the monthly-averaged and yearly-averaged daily cosine effect factor for a heliostat field. The analyses showed that this factor depends on the latitude angle of the site, the month, and the relative position of the heliostat with respect to the tower. The position of the heliostat is defined in terms of its distance from the tower

Omar M. Al-Rabghi; Moustafa M. Elsayed

1992-01-01

330

Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)|

Dirks, Jean; And Others

1983-01-01

331

Average Run Lengths of Geometric Moving Average Charts by Numerical Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical procedure is presented for the tabulation of average run lengths (ARL's) of geometric moving average charts. Both one-and two-sided ARL's are given for various settings of the control limits, smoothing constant and shift in the nominal level of the process mean. Where comparison is possible. the tabulated ARL's are in agreement with those obtained by Roberts [3]. [4

P. B. Robinson; T. Y. Ho

1978-01-01

332

Average level crossing rate and average outage duration of generalized selection combining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an analytical methodology for the evaluation of the average level crossing rate and the average outage duration of generalized selection combining. More specifically, it presents a general approach when this scheme is employed over independent, but not necessarily identically distributed, fading channels. The general approach is then specialized to independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading paths. Selected numerical

Lin Yang; Mohamed-Slim Alouini

2003-01-01

333

Calculating Molecular Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

2013-06-17

334

What is Weight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The common use of the term 'weight' to denote either a mass or a force is discussed. It is shown that there is no acceptable precise definition of weight for moving objects. The conclusion is that a restriction on the use of 'weight' to mean only a force ...

C. H. Page

1974-01-01

335

Stabilised weighted linear prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighted linear prediction (WLP) is a method to compute all-pole models of speech by applying temporal weighting of the square of the residual signal. By using short-time energy (STE) as a weighting function, this algorithm was originally proposed as an improved linear predictive (LP) method based on emphasising those samples that fit the underlying speech production model well. The original

Carlo Magi; Jouni Pohjalainen; Tomas Bäckström; Paavo Alku

2009-01-01

336

Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and

Catherine Lombard; Amanda Deeks; Damien Jolley; Helena J Teede

2009-01-01

337

A study of T2-weighted MR image texture features and diffusion-weighted MR image features for computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to study T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image texture features and diffusionweighted (DW) MR image features in distinguishing prostate cancer (PCa) from normal tissue. We collected two image datasets: 23 PCa patients (25 PCa and 23 normal tissue regions of interest [ROIs]) imaged with Philips MR scanners, and 30 PCa patients (41 PCa and 26 normal tissue ROIs) imaged with GE MR scanners. A radiologist drew ROIs manually via consensus histology-MR correlation conference with a pathologist. A number of T2-weighted texture features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features were investigated, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to combine select strong image features. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to characterize feature effectiveness in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue ROIs. Of the features studied, ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average yielded AUC values (+/-standard error) of 0.95+/-0.03, 0.94+/-0.03, and 0.85+/-0.05 on the Phillips images, and 0.91+/-0.04, 0.89+/-0.04, and 0.70+/-0.06 on the GE images, respectively. The three-feature combination yielded AUC values of 0.94+/-0.03 and 0.89+/-0.04 on the Phillips and GE images, respectively. ADC 10th percentile, ADC average, and T2-weighted sum average, are effective in distinguishing PCa from normal tissue, and appear robust in images acquired from Phillips and GE MR scanners.

Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Antic, Tatjana; Giger, Maryellen L.; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

2013-02-01

338

Averaged run-and-tumble walks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A random walk consisting of a run phase at constant speed interrupted by tumble events is analyzed and analytically solved for arbitrary time distributions. A general expression is given for the Laplace-Fourier transform of the probability density function and for the mean square displacement averaging over initial conditions. Run-and-tumble bacteria and Lévy walks are considered as particular cases. The effects of an underlying Brownian noise are also discussed. Derived expressions can be used for a direct comparison with experimentally measured quantities.

Angelani, L.

2013-04-01

339

Averaging spherically symmetric spacetimes in general relativity  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the averaging problem in general relativity, using the form of the macroscopic gravity equations in the case of spherical symmetry in volume preserving coordinates. In particular, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. On cosmological scales, the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background is found to be of the form of a spatial curvature. On astrophysical scales the correlation tensor can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. We briefly discuss the physical implications of these results.

Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2006-10-15

340

Coherent averaging in the frequency domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum-mechanical evolution of systems with periodic time-modulated Hamiltonians is often described by effective interactions. Such average Hamiltonians, calculated as few terms of an expansion in powers of the interaction, are sometimes difficult to relate to experimental observations. We propose a frequency-domain approach to this problem, which offers certain advantages and produces an approximate solution for the density matrix, better linked to measurable quantities. The formalism is suitable for calculating the intensities of narrowed spectral peaks. Fast magic-angle-spinning NMR spectra of solids are used to experimentally illustrate the method.

Khitrin, A. K.; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2012-06-01

341

Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution.

Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S.

2012-07-01

342

Coherent averaging in the frequency domain  

PubMed Central

Quantum-mechanical evolution of systems with periodic time-modulated Hamiltonians is often described by effective interactions. Such average Hamiltonians, calculated as few terms of an expansion in powers of the interaction, are sometimes difficult to relate to experimental observations. We propose a frequency-domain approach to this problem, which offers certain advantages and produces an approximate solution for the density matrix, better linked to measurable quantities. The formalism is suitable for calculating the intensities of narrowed spectral peaks. Fast magic-angle-spinning NMR spectra of solids are used to experimentally illustrate the method.

Khitrin, A. K.; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2012-01-01

343

Average Lyman absorption from simulated QSO spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Averagae flux decrements are computed below Ly-alpha and above Ly-beta, D(A) and between Ly-beta and the Lyman limit, D(B) of QSOs from synthetic spectra as a function of emission redshift on the basis of the presently known statistics of absorption lines. These simulations indicate that a steepening of the intrinsic spectrum of the QSO up to the Lyman limit is not required in order to explain the observed run of D(B)/D(A) with redshift, and that the average observed absorption is consistent with absorption line statistics.

Giallongo, E.; Gratton, R.; Trevese, D.

1990-06-01

344

5 CFR 591.210 - What are weights?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The employment weight is the relative employment population of the survey area compared with the employment population of the COLA area as a whole. OPM uses the number of General Schedule employees in the survey area to compute employment weights. OPM...

2013-01-01

345

Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS  

PubMed Central

Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes. This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW) by the NHS. Method Data was obtained from the WW NHS Referral Scheme database for 29,326 referral courses started after 2nd April 2007 and ending before 6th October 2009 [90% female; median age 49 years (IQR 38 - 61 years); median BMI 35.1 kg/m2 (IQR 31.8 - 39.5 kg/m2). Participants received vouchers (funded by the PCT following referral by a healthcare professional) to attend 12 WW meetings. Body weight was measured at WW meetings and relayed to the central database. Results Median weight change for all referrals was -2.8 kg [IQR -5.9 - -0.7 kg] representing -3.1% initial weight. 33% of all courses resulted in loss of ?5% initial weight. 54% of courses were completed. Median weight change for those completing a first course was -5.4 kg [IQR -7.8 - -3.1 kg] or -5.6% of initial weight. 57% lost ?5% initial weight. Conclusions A third of all patients who were referred to WW through the WW NHS Referral Scheme and started a 12 session course achieved ?5% weight loss, which is usually associated with clinical benefits. This is the largest audit of NHS referral to a commercial weight loss programme in the UK and results are comparable with other options for weight loss available through primary care.

2011-01-01

346

Motional averaging in a superconducting qubit.  

PubMed

Superconducting circuits with Josephson junctions are promising candidates for developing future quantum technologies. Of particular interest is to use these circuits to study effects that typically occur in complex condensed-matter systems. Here we employ a superconducting quantum bit--a transmon--to perform an analogue simulation of motional averaging, a phenomenon initially observed in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By modulating the flux bias of a transmon with controllable pseudo-random telegraph noise we create a stochastic jump of its energy level separation between two discrete values. When the jumping is faster than a dynamical threshold set by the frequency displacement of the levels, the initially separate spectral lines merge into a single, narrow, motional-averaged line. With sinusoidal modulation a complex pattern of additional sidebands is observed. We show that the modulated system remains quantum coherent, with modified transition frequencies, Rabi couplings, and dephasing rates. These results represent the first steps towards more advanced quantum simulations using artificial atoms. PMID:23361011

Li, Jian; Silveri, M P; Kumar, K S; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Vepsäläinen, A; Chien, W C; Tuorila, J; Sillanpää, M A; Hakonen, P J; Thuneberg, E V; Paraoanu, G S

2013-01-01

347

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

348

MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS  

SciTech Connect

A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

Kevin Jordan; Trent Allison; Richard Evans; James Coleman; Albert Grippo

2003-05-01

349

Climatology of globally averaged thermospheric mass density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a climatological analysis of daily globally averaged density data, derived from orbit data and covering the years 1967-2007, along with an empirical Global Average Mass Density Model (GAMDM) that encapsulates the 1986-2007 data. The model represents density as a function of the F10.7 solar radio flux index, the day of year, and the Kp geomagnetic activity index. We discuss in detail the dependence of the data on each of the input variables, and demonstrate that all of the terms in the model represent consistent variations in both the 1986-2007 data (on which the model is based) and the independent 1967-1985 data. We also analyze the uncertainty in the results, and quantify how the variance in the data is apportioned among the model terms. We investigate the annual and semiannual variations of the data and quantify the amplitude, height dependence, solar cycle dependence, and interannual variability of these oscillatory modes. The auxiliary material includes Fortran 90 code for evaluating GAMDM.

Emmert, J. T.; Picone, J. M.

2010-09-01

350

The average optical depth of disc galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average optical depth of disc galaxies is calculated assuming that their infrared output originates from the dust reprocessing of stellar light. Essentially, the luminosity functions at both optical (B-band) and FIR (IRAS) wavelengths are integrated to give a local luminosity density in the optical and FIR. This method was first proposed by Saunders et al., who found a B-band optical depth of tau_B=0.26. In this paper we reconsider the method and employ more realistic models. We conclude that on average a B-band photon originates from a region with an optical depth of tau_B~0.9, a value that indicates that galaxies have high rather than low optical depths. Adjusting the FIR luminosity for flux at wavelengths longer than those detected by IRAS could increase this value further (to tau_B>1). Interpreting this, a galaxy with the dust distributed in a similar manner to the stars would have a central face-on optical depth of tau_B>2.5, and this `typical' galaxy would become optically thin at ~1 scalelength from the centre.

Trewhella, M.; Davies, J. I.; Disney, M. J.; Jones, H. G. W.

1997-06-01

351

Positional averaging explains crowding with letter-like stimuli  

PubMed Central

Visual crowding is a breakdown in object identification that occurs in cluttered scenes, a process that represents the principle restriction on visual performance in the periphery. When crowded objects are presented experimentally, a key finding is that observers frequently report nearby flanking items instead of the target. This observation has led to the proposal that crowding reflects increased noise in the positional code for objects; although how the presence of nearby objects might disrupt positional encoding remains unclear. We quantified this disruption using cross-like stimuli, where observers judged whether the horizontal target line was positioned above or below the stimulus midpoint. Overall, observers were poorer at judging position in the presence of crowding flankers. However, offsetting horizontal lines in the flankers also led observers to report that the horizontal line in the target was shifted in the same direction, an effect that held for subthreshold flanker offsets. In short, crowding induced both random and systematic errors in observers' judgment of position, with or without the detection of flanker structure. Computational modeling reveals that perceived position in the presence of flankers follows a weighted average of noisy target- and flanker-line positions, rather than a substitution of flanker-features into the target, as has been proposed previously. Together, our results suggest that crowding is a preattentive process that uses averaging to regularize the noisy representation of position in the periphery.

Greenwood, John A.; Bex, Peter J.; Dakin, Steven C.

2009-01-01

352

EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF SEX ON BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREWEANING GAIN IN BEEF CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

UMEROUS published reports indicate that the average weights of bulls and heifers differ at all ages, even when raised under similar environmental conditions. Adjustment of weights for these differences is often desired for statistical analysis or for comparisons of means. Two methods of adjustment have usually been used. One method is to add or subtract the average difference in weight

ROBERT M. KOCH; K. E. GREGORY; J. E. INGALLS; R. L. ARTHAUD

2010-01-01

353

Tight Bounds for Minimax Grid Matching, with Applications to the Average Case Analysis of Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The minimax grid matching problem is a fundamental combinatorial problem associated with the average case analysis of algorithms. The problem has arisen in a number of interesting and seemingly unrelated areas, including wafer-scale integration of systoli...

T. Leighton P. Shor

1986-01-01

354

High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System  

SciTech Connect

Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

Messerly, M J

2007-11-13

355

Reliability of Calculating Average Soil Composition of Apollo Landing Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar soil, i.e., the fine fraction of the lunar regolith, is the ground truth available for calibrating remotely sensed properties of virtually atmosphere-free planetary bodies. Such properties include albedo, IR-VIS-UV spectra, and secondary XRF, which are used to characterize the chemical and mineralogical compositions of planetary crusts. The quality of calibration, however, is dependent on the degree to which the ground truth is represented in the remotely sensed properties. The footprints and spatial resolution of orbital and Earth-based observations are much larger than the sampling areas at the landing sites. Yet an average composition of soils at each landing site is our best approximation for testing calibration. Previously, we have compiled chemical compositions of lunar soils and estimated the best average composition (CC) for each landing site. We have now compiled and estimated the best average mineralogical composition (MC) of soils (9 150-p n fraction) at each Apollo landing site. In this paper, we examine how these two estimates (Tables 1 and 2) compare and how representative they may be. For the purpose of comparison, we have calculated the normative mineralogy of each site (from Table 1) and recast them on a quartz-apatite-pyrite-free basis, i.e., in terms of feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite + chromite (Table 3).

Basu, Abhijit; Riegsecker, Sue E.

1998-01-01

356

The Multidimensional Self-Concept: A Comparison of Gifted and Average-Ability Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the self-concept of gifted and average-ability adolescents from a multidimensional perspective. Four dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, athletic, and social) were examined using an instrument that incorporates three theoretical perspectives (reflected appraisals, social comparison, and attribution). Ninety-eight junior high school students from a large urban centre in Western Canada participated in the

Michael C. Pyryt; Sal Mendaglio

1994-01-01

357

Determinants of underachievement as perceived by gifted, above?average, and average black students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined determinants of underachievement as perceived by 148 Black fifth?and sixth?grade students in an urban school district. Explored were the respective influences of social, psychological, and cultural determinants of underachievement as perceived by Black students in three different academic programs (gifted, above?average, and average). Students were placed into groups based on profiles of achievement behavior (Types I through

Donna Y. Ford

1992-01-01

358

Physical effects of consistent cosmological averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use cosmological perturbation theory to study the backreaction effects of a self-consistent and well-defined cosmological averaging on the dynamics and the evolution of the Universe. Working with a perturbed Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Einstein–de Sitter cosmological solution in a comoving volume-preserving gauge, we compute the expressions for the expansion scalar and deceleration parameter to second order, which we use to characterize the backreaction. We find that the fractional shift in the Hubble parameter with respect to the input background cosmological model is ?¯?10-5, which leads to ?eff of the order of a few times 10-5. In addition, we find that an appropriate measure of the fractional shift in the deceleration parameter Q¯ is very large.

Brown, Iain A.; Coley, Alan A.; Herman, D. Leigh; Latta, Joey

2013-10-01

359

Scaling crossover for the average avalanche shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universality and the renormalization group claim to predict all behavior on long length and time scales asymptotically close to critical points. In practice, large simulations and heroic experiments have been needed to unambiguously test and measure the critical exponents and scaling functions. We announce here the measurement and prediction of universal corrections to scaling, applied to the temporal average shape of Barkhausen noise avalanches. We bypass the confounding factors of time-retarded interactions (eddy currents) by measuring thin permalloy films, and bypass thresholding effects and amplifier distortions by applying Wiener deconvolution. We show experimental shapes that are approximately symmetric, and measure the leading corrections to scaling. We solve a mean-field theory for the magnetization dynamics and calculate the relevant demagnetizing-field correction to scaling, showing qualitative agreement with the experiment. In this way, we move toward a quantitative theory useful at smaller time and length scales and farther from the critical point.

Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Bohn, Felipe; Sommer, Rubem L.; Durin, Gianfranco; Zapperi, Stefano; Sethna, James P.

2010-03-01

360

Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01

361

Average power laser experiment (APLE) design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the details and the design requirements for the 100 kW CW radio frequency free electron laser at 10 ?m to be built at Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Division in Seattle with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. APLE is a single-accelerator master-oscillator and power-amplifier (SAMOPA) device. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate a fully operational RF-FEL at 10 ?m with an average power of 100 kW. The approach and wavelength were chosen on the basis of maximum cost effectiveness, including utilization of existing hardware and reasonable risk, and potential for future applications. Current plans call for an initial oscillator power demonstration in the fall of 1994 and full SAMOPA operation by December 1995.

Parazzoli, C. G.; Rodenburg, R. E.; Dowell, D. H.; Greegor, R. B.; Kennedy, R. C.; Romero, J. B.; Siciliano, J. A.; Tong, K.-O.; Vetter, A. M.; Adamski, J. L.; Pistoresi, D. J.; Shoffstall, D. R.; Quimby, D. C.

1992-07-01

362

The entropy in finite N-unit nonextensive systems: The normal average and q-average  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the Tsallis entropy in finite N-unit nonextensive systems by using the multivariate q-Gaussian probability distribution functions (PDFs) derived by the maximum entropy methods with the normal average and the q-average (q: the entropic index). The Tsallis entropy obtained by the q-average has an exponential N dependence: Sq(N)/N~=e(1-q)NS1(1) for large N (>>1/(1-q)>0). In contrast, the Tsallis entropy obtained by the normal average is given by Sq(N)/N~=[1/(q-1)N] for large N (>>1/(q-1)>0). N dependences of the Tsallis entropy obtained by the q- and normal averages are generally quite different, although both results are in fairly good agreement for |q-1|<<1.0. The validity of the factorization approximation (FA) to PDFs, which has been commonly adopted in the literature, has been examined. We have calculated correlations defined by Cm=<(?xi?xj)m>-<(?xi)m><(?xj)m> for i?j where ?xi=xi-, and the bracket <.> stands for the normal and q-averages. The first-order correlation (m=1) expresses the intrinsic correlation and higher-order correlations with m>=2 include nonextensivity-induced correlation, whose physical origin is elucidated in the superstatistics.

Hasegawa, Hideo

2010-09-01

363

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C.T. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States))

1992-01-01

364

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

1992-07-01

365

The Effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating Intervention on Weight Management in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention on weight management. Design Random control trial. Setting Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention The intervention, using 6 weekly 2 hour small group sessions, focused on reducing calorie and fat intake when eating out through education, behavior change strategies, and mindful eating meditations. Main Outcome Measures Weight, waist circumference, self-reported daily calorie and fat intake, self-reported calories and fat consumed when eating out, emotional eating, diet related self-efficacy, and barriers to weight management when eating out. Analysis General linear models examined change from baseline to final endpoint to determine differences in outcomes between the intervention and control group. Results Participants in the intervention group lost significantly more weight (P =.03), had lower average daily caloric (P =.002) and fat intake (P =.001), had increased diet related self-efficacy (P =.02), and had fewer barriers to weight management when eating out (P =.001). Conclusions and Implications Mindful Restaurant Eating intervention was effective in promoting weight management in perimenopausal women.

Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

2011-01-01

366

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PVTG = Weighted-average MACT model point value for tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MTG = Mass of tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. (c) At the end of every month, use equation 2...

2010-07-01

367

40 CFR 63.5710 - How do I demonstrate compliance using emissions averaging?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PVTG = Weighted-average MACT model point value for tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, kilograms per megagram. MTG = Mass of tooling gel coat used in the past 12 months, megagrams. (c) At the end of every month, use equation 2...

2009-07-01

368

Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to calibrate probabilistic surface temperature forecasts over Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM), with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME) of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009) over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data. The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.

Soltanzadeh, I.; Azadi, M.; Vakili, G. A.

2011-07-01

369

Mass vs. Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory activity worksheet engages students in an exploration of mass and weight. Students use a balance to measure the mass and a spring scale to measure the weight of a series of objects. They then analyze the data to determine the relationship between these two quantities and conceptualize the distinction between the mass and weight through questions regarding measurements on the moon and other planets.

Nelson, Jane; Nelson, Jim

2011-06-14

370

The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-related weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine prospectively whether physical activity can prevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activity affect body weight.Design\\/subjects:The study consisted of 8080 male and 4871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average (±standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20±2.30 and 2.59±2.17 years apart, respectively, as part of the National Runners’ Health Study.Results:Changes in running distance were inversely related to

P T Williams; P D Wood

2006-01-01

371

Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log n}} \\log \\epsilon^{-1})$ radio transmissions, which yields a $\\sqrt{\\frac{n}{\\log n}}$ factor improvement over standard gossip algorithms. We illustrate these theoretical results with experimental comparisons between our algorithm and standard methods as applied to various classes of random fields.

Dimakis, Alexandros D. G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

372

Image segmentation using intraregion averaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An iterative approach that partitions an image into piecewise-constant regions is presented. Each iteration consists of three steps. The first step extracts edges from the image. The extracted edges, which must exhibit high connectivity, are computed using a Laplacian-like morphological edge detector in the first iteration and a simple gradient thresholding in subsequent iterations. After the first iteration, the edge extractor operates on a piecewise-constant image for which the edge detection problem is well defined and well posed. In the second step, a fast averaging of connected pixels within closed boundaries defines the regions in the image. Finally, edge pixels (both true and spurious edge pixels) are each assigned to an underlying region. The iterative application of the three steps simplifies an input image in a diffusion- like manner. The advantages of this algorithm are that both local and region-based information is incorporated, convergence occurs in a few iterations, and the component operations are relatively simple.

Crespo, Jose; Schafer, Ronald W.; Maojo, Victor

1998-11-01

373

Weighted polynomial inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the weights exp (-|x|?), 0n for ?=1 and of order 1 for 0Pn can decrease on [-1,1] ifPn (0)=1. The answer to this problem has several other consequences in different directions; among others, it leads to a general theorem about the incompleteness of the set of polynomials in weightedLp spaces.

Paul Nevai; Vilmos Totik

1986-01-01

374

Therapy and Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... in exercise time. So many changes — so many opportunities to talk yourself out of your plan! Ways Counseling Helps You Stay on Track Weight-management therapists and counselors can help people bridge the gap between struggling and success. They can: Help you put knowledge about weight ...

375

Labor Supply and Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

2007-01-01

376

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

377

High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology  

SciTech Connect

Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.

Neau, E.L.

1995-05-01

378

Weight discrimination and bullying.  

PubMed

Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

2013-01-21

379

Reciprocity of weighted networks  

PubMed Central

In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

2013-01-01

380

Physical Activity and Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Physical Activity and Weight Control Physical Activity and Weight ... Weight-control Information Network (WIN) Additional Resources Websites Physical Activity and Weight Control Regular physical activity may ...

381

Liquid chromatography/proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry average composition analysis of fuels  

SciTech Connect

The use of a NMR spectrometer as a continuous flow liquid chromatographic detector (LC//sup 1/H NMR) generates a proton spectrum of each hydrocarbon class present in the sample. A detailed set of equations is presented which permits LC//sup 1/H NMR integration data from petroleum fuels to be interpreted as an average composition for each chromatographic fraction. Quantities calculated for each aromatic fraction include: the number average molecular weight, average degree of substitution on aromatic rings, the absolute number of moles of each structural type of carbon, an average structure (devoid of stereoisomer information), the total number of moles of carbon in each chromatographic fraction, and numerous other properties of interest in fuel characterization. The method is demonstrated for artifical fuels of known composition, for two experimental aviation fuels, and for a fuel blending stock sample which had been fully characterized at an independent laboratory by gas chromatography and GC/MS. The LC//sup 1/H NMR average composition method is shown to be very accurate for the monocyclic aromatic (substituted benzenes and tetralins) and dicyclic aromatic (substituted naphthalenes and acenaphthenes) fractions of petroleum fuels. Average molecular weights for these fractions can be routinely determined at an accuracy of +/-4 daltons. The other quantities are also determined at a high degree of accuracy. The applicability of the LC//sup 1/H NMR method to the aliphatic fraction of fuel samples is restricted by difficulties in accounting for quaternary carbons and cycloalkanes.

Haw, J.F.; Glass, T.E.; Dorn, H.C.

1983-01-01

382

Comparison of Actual Monthly Average Temperatures with 30-Year Average Monthly Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE recently completed a study of regional and seasonal influences on fuel economy shortfall. In a more recent study, the influence of vehicle use intensity, or average miles per day (AMPD), on fuel economy was determined. In both the regionalization ...

1982-01-01

383

20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation (disregarding...

2013-04-01

384

A Novel Method for Averaging Equations of Motion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most perturbation theories are based on successively averaging out those angular variables having increasingly longer periods. Sometimes even the straightforward application of averaging is not simple because the integrals required to average certain func...

F. Morrison

1972-01-01

385

Comparison of regression and kriging techniques for mapping the average annual precipitation of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of annual precipitation is important for many applications in hydrology, climatology, agronomy, ecology and other environmental sciences. In this study, we compared five different statistical methods to predict spatially the average annual precipitation of Turkey using point observations of annual precipitation at meteorological stations and spatially exhaustive covariate data (i.e. elevation, aspect, surface roughness, distance to coast, land use and eco-region). The methods compared were multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), universal kriging (UK), and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Average annual precipitation of Turkey from 1970 to 2006 was measured at 225 meteorological stations that are fairly uniformly distributed across the country, with a somewhat higher spatial density along the coastline. The observed annual precipitation varied between 255 mm and 2209 mm with an average of 628 mm. The annual precipitation was highest along the southern and northern coasts and low in the centre of the country, except for the area near the Van Lake, Keban and Ataturk Dams. To compare the performance of the interpolation techniques the total dataset was first randomly split in ten equally sized test datasets. Next, for each test data set the remaining 90% of the data comprised the training dataset. Each training dataset was then used to calibrate and apply the spatial prediction model. Predictions at the test dataset locations were compared with the observed test data. Validation was done by calculating the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-square and Standardized MSE (SMSE) values. According to these criteria, universal kriging is the most accurate with an RMSE of 178 mm, an R-square of 0.61 and an SMSE of 1.06, whilst multiple linear regression performed worst (RMSE of 222 mm, R-square of 0.39, and SMSE of 1.44). Ordinary kriging, UK using only elevation and geographically weighted regression are intermediate with RMSE values of 201 mm, 212 mm and 211 mm, and an R-square of 0.50, 0.44 and 0.45, respectively. The RK results are close to those of UK with an RMSE of 186 mm and R-square of 0.57. The spatial extrapolation performance of each method was also evaluated. This was done by predicting the annual precipitation in the eastern part of Turkey using observations from the western part. Results showed that MLR, GWR and RK performed best with little differences between these methods. The large prediction error variances confirmed that extrapolation is more difficult than interpolation. Whilst spatial extrapolation benefits most from covariate information as shown by an RMSE reduction of about 60 mm, in this study covariate information was also valuable for spatial interpolation because it reduced the RMSE with on average 30 mm.

Bostan, P. A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Akyurek, S. Z.

2012-10-01

386

Saturn kilometric radiation: Average and statistical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Cassini entered Saturn's magnetosphere in July 2004, the auroral Saturnian kilometric radiation (SKR), which dominates the kronian radio spectrum, is observed quasi-continuously. Consecutive orbits of the spacecraft covered distances to Saturn down to 1.3 Saturn radii, all local times and, since December 2006, latitudes as high as 60°. On the basis of carefully calibrated and cleaned long-term time series and dynamic spectra, we analyze the average properties, and characteristics of the SKR over 2.75 years starting at Cassini's Saturn orbit insertion. This study confirms and expands previous results from Voyager 1 and 2 studies in the 1980s: the SKR spectrum is found to extend from a few kHz to 1200 kHz; extraordinary mode emission dominates, i.e., left-handed (LH) from the southern kronian hemisphere and right-handed (RH) from the northern one, for which we measure directly a degree of circular polarization up to 100%; the variable visibility of SKR along Cassini's orbit is consistent with sources at or close to the local electron cyclotron frequency fce, in the Local Time (LT) sector 09 h-12 h, and at latitudes ?70°, with emission beamed along hollow cones centered on the local magnetic field vector; this anisotropic beaming results in the existence of an equatorial radio shadow zone, whose extent is quantified as a function of frequency; it also causes the systematic disappearance of emission at high latitudes above 200 kHz and below 30 kHz. In addition, we obtain new results on SKR: LH and RH intensity variations are found to match together at all timescales ?30 min; moreover their spectra are found to be conjugated as a function of the latitude of the observer; we use this conjugacy to merge LH and RH spectra and derive pronounced systematic dependences of the SKR spectrum as a function of the spacecraft latitude and LT (that will be the input of a subsequent modeling study); we identify for the first time ordinary mode SKR emission; finally, in addition to the SKR and n-SMR components, we discuss the narrowband kilometric component (named here n-SKR) which extends mainly between 10 and 40 kHz, preferentially observed from high latitudes.

Lamy, L.; Zarka, P.; Cecconi, B.; Prangé, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

2008-07-01

387

Weight loss goals among African-American women with type 2 diabetes in a behavioral weight control program.  

PubMed

African-American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests that overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African-American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African-American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity treatment. We also explored associations among these factors and weight loss treatment outcomes. Self-identified African-American women (N = 84) in a 24-session group program were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At baseline, women indicated weight loss goals of 14.1 ± 6.6 kg (14% of initial weight). They also reported relatively high expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss (7-10%). On average, participants lost 3.0 ± 3.9 kg (3% of initial weight) and attended 73 ± 21% of group sessions. Neither weight loss goals nor expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss was correlated with either actual weight loss outcome or attendance. Having higher personal weight loss goals was associated with lower expectations of satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss. This suggests that African-American women with type 2 diabetes enter treatment hoping to lose far more weight than they are likely to achieve. It is important to understand the psychosocial sequelae of failing to reach these goals on subsequent weight maintenance and future weight loss attempts within this population. PMID:21273996

White, Della B; Bursac, Zoran; Dilillo, Vicki; West, Delia S

2011-01-27

388

A Comparison of Instructional Methods for Weight Loss in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested effects of three methods for delivering a weight-loss education program for women. Seventy-four predominantly White participants at least 10 pounds over healthy weight began the program. Their average age was 41.7 years (range = 19 to 73), weight 173 pounds, Body Mass Index (BMI) 29.36, and waist\\/hip ratio .77. Participants were randomly placed into three groups: classroom

Katherine S. Jones; Lee N. Burkett

2002-01-01

389

Toward reduction of model uncertainty: Integration of Bayesian model averaging and data assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodeling in hydrologic forecasting has proved to improve upon the systematic bias and general limitations of a single model. This is typically done by establishing a new model as a linear combination or a weighted average of several models with weights on the basis of individual model performance in previous time steps. The most commonly used multimodeling method, Bayesian model averaging (BMA), assumes a fixed probability distribution around individual models' forecast in establishing the prior and uses a calibration period to determine static weights for each individual model. More recent work has focused on a sequential Bayesian model selection technique with weights that are adjusted at each time step in an attempt to accentuate the dynamics of an individual model's performance with respect to the system's response. However, these approaches still assume a fixed distribution around the individual models' forecast. A new sequential Bayesian model-averaging technique is developed incorporating a sliding window of individual model performance around the forecast. Additionally, this new technique relaxes the fixed distribution assumption in establishing the prior utilizing a particle filter data assimilation method that reflects both the performance dynamics of the models' forecasts along with their uncertainty. A comparative analysis of the different BMA strategies is performed across different rates of change in the hydrograph. Results show that methods employing the particle filter show higher probabilistic skill in high ranges of volatility but are overconfident in medium and low ranges of volatility.

Parrish, Mark A.; Moradkhani, Hamid; Dechant, Caleb M.

2012-03-01

390

Fully coupled discrete energy-averaged model for Terfenol-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully coupled 3D energy-avaraged model is presented which describes the magnetomechanical behavior of Terfenol-D. Conventional energy averaging with eight easy axis orientations yields an unphysical kink in the magnetization response and fails to describe the gradual approach to saturation present in Terfenol-D magnetostriction. Superposition of an empirically weighted global anisotropy energy onto an anisotropy energy locally defined around each easy axis eliminates the unphysical kink in the response, while an implicit definition of the domain volume fraction describes the gradual approach to saturation. Anhysteretic bulk material response is described through a weighted sum of individual domains; the weights (or domain volume fractions) are calculated using Boltzmann-type energy averaging. A hysteretic extension is built from an evolution equation for the domain volume fractions. Although solution of the implicit equation for the anhysteretic domain volume fractions requires iteration, the model takes only 20% longer than its original non-iterative version because of the small size of the iteration loop. Comparison of the model with sensing and actuation measurements reveals an average modeling error below 3%. A reduced version of the model, proposed by eliminating certain easy axis orientations, has a 30% lower computational time, with an average modeling error below 6%.

Chakrabarti, S.; Dapino, M. J.

2012-03-01

391

The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

Pape, K. E.; And Others

1978-01-01

392

ADHD and Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. ADHD and Weight HealthDay May 20, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Obesity Transcript Does having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ...

393

To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space  

SciTech Connect

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, University of Vaexjoe, Vaexjoe S-35195 (Sweden)

2007-01-15

394

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

395

Labeling Points with Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annotating maps, graphs, and diagrams with pieces of text is an important step in information visualization that is usually referred to as label placement. We dene nine label-placement models for label- ing points with axis-parallel rectangles given a weight for each point. There are two groups; xed-p osition models and slider models. We aim to maximize the weight sum of

Sheung-hung Poon; Chan-su Shin; Tycho Strijk; Alexander Wolff

2001-01-01

396

Labeling Points with Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Annotating maps, graphs, and diagrams with pieces of text is an important step in information visualization that is usually referred to as label placement. We define nine label-placement models for labeling points with axis-parallel rectangles given a weight for each point. There are two groups; fixed-position models and slider models. We aim to maximize,the weight sum of those points

Sheung-hung Poon; Chan-su Shin; Tycho Strijk; Takeaki Uno; Alexander Wolff

2003-01-01

397

What do bloggers do: an average day on an average political blog  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether average political bloggers engage in four distinct activities: informing readers, checking\\u000a the media, engaging in political advocacy, and gathering money for charitable causes. Findings show that most bloggers inform\\u000a their readers about articles in the media or to draw attention to key posts on other blogs. Somewhat less frequently, most\\u000a bloggers write posts that detect errors

Laura McKenna; Antoinette Pole

2008-01-01

398

Area-Depth Rainfall Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Area-depth formulas, expressing average precipitation over an area as a function of the area, have been proposed by half a dozen investigators in as many forms, involvinghe , 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, or other powers of the area, its logarithm, o.r its exponential. Comparison of these formulas reveals unsuspected similarities as well as restrictions. General. Area-depth relations for showers and larger

Arnold Court

1961-01-01

399

Human Biology of Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled

Edwin C. M. Mariman

2012-01-01

400

Weight Control Strategies of Overweight Adolescents Who Successfully Lost Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the differences in weight control behaviors, dietary intake, and physical activity between overweight adolescents who lost weight and overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. This cross-sectional study compared 62 overweight adolescents who lost weight in the past with 68 overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. Youth responded to questions

Kerri N. Boutelle; Heather Libbey; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Mary Story

2009-01-01

401

Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: variation among fish species.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas, and other fishery management systems that impart partial or total protection from fishing, are increasingly advocated as an essential management tool to ensure the sustainable use of marine resources. Beneficial effects for fish species are well documented for tropical and reef systems, but the effects of marine protected areas remain largely untested in temperate waters. We compared trends in sport-fishing catches of nine fish species in an area influenced by a large (500-km2) towed-fishing-gear restriction zone and in adjacent areas under conventional fishery management controls. Over the period 1973-2002 the mean reported weight of above-average-sized (trophy) fish of species with early age at maturity and limited home range was greatest within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. The reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature early also declined less and more slowly over time within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. Importantly, the mean reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature late and those that undertake extensive spatial movements declined at the same rate in all areas. Hence these species are likely to require protected areas > 500 km2 for effective protection. Our results also indicated that fish species with a localized distribution or high site fidelity may require additional protection from sport fishing to prevent declines in the number or size of fish within the local population. PMID:16909574

Blyth-Skyrme, Robert E; Kaiser, Michel J; Hiddink, Jan G; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Hart, Paul J B

2006-06-01

402

Time dependence of average regional sulfur oxide concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric burden of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4/ in a large regional area has been calculated as a function of time during the July 1978 SURE intensive period. A formulism is developed in which a highly parameterized description of deposition and chemical conversion is combined with a realistic emissions inventory and with realistic trajectories as calculated with the BNL long-range air quality model, AIRSOX. Temporal variations in the regional atmospheric burden are calculated as being due to variations in the advection of material through the region, with the pollutant being advected having a characteristic half-life for its formation and decay. The calculated atmospheric burdens are divided by a nominal mixing height to derive an average ground-level concentration. Comparison is made with the corresponding concentrations derived from SURE observations. The regions for which these comparisons have been made are in the Midwest and East and are similar in size (approx. 5 x 10/sup 5/ KM/sup 2/) and location to areas commonly affected by regional sulfate episodes.

Kleinman, L I; Carney, T A; Meyers, R E

1980-03-01

403

Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

1984-09-25

404

Enhanced Offset Averaging Technique for Flash ADC Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new combined AC\\/DC-coupled output averaging technique for input amplifier design of flash analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The new offset averaging design technique takes full advantage of traditional DC-coupled resistance averaging and AC-coupled capacitance averaging techniques to minimize offset-induced ADC nonlinearities. Circuit analysis allows selection of optimum resistance and capacitance averaging factors to achieve maximum offset reduction in

Siqiang Fan; He Tang; Hui Zhao; Xin Wang; Albert Wang; Bin Zhao; Gary G Zhang

2011-01-01

405

Efficiency of transportation on weighted extended Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a family of weighted extended Koch networks based on a class of extended Koch networks. They originate from a r-complete graph, and each node in each r-complete graph of current generation produces mr-complete graphs whose weighted edges are scaled by factor h in subsequent evolutionary step. We study the structural properties of these networks and random walks on them. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average weighted shortest path length (AWSP), average receiving time (ART) and average sending time (AST). Besides, the technique of resistor network is employed to uncover the relationship between ART and AST on networks with unit weight. In the infinite network order limit, the average weighted shortest path lengths stay bounded with growing network order (0 < h < 1). The closed form expression of ART shows that it exhibits a sub-linear dependence (0 < h < 1) or linear dependence (h = 1) on network order. On the contrary, the AST behaves super-linearly with the network order. Collectively, all the obtained results show that the efficiency of message transportation on weighted extended Koch networks has close relation to the network parameters h, m and r. All these findings could shed light on the structure and random walks of general weighted networks.

Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan

2013-10-01

406

Watershed area and discharge relationships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use USGS WaterData website to find data on area, average annual discharge and response to high-precip events in small watersheds in southern New England. Data for the class are compiled to generate graphs showing the regional relationships between (1) area and discharge, and (2) area and time-lag between precip and maximum discharge. terms: discharge, watershed, flood

Petsch, Steven

407

Birth weight: nature or nurture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relative role of environmental and genetic factors in the determination of birth weight following ovum donation. Methods: Data from 62 cases of ovum donation were used to examine the relative influence of donor and recipient on birth weight. Results: The only discernible factors that significantly influenced birth weight were gestational age and recipient's weight. Donor weight,

A. A. Brooks; M. R. Johnson; P. J. Steer; M. E. Pawson; H. I. Abdalla

1995-01-01

408

Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.

Buchele, Donald R.

1988-10-01

409

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

410

Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials  

SciTech Connect

High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology.

Eimerl, D.

1985-10-28

411

Greater maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicts a large but lean fetal phenotype: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to describe the fetal phenotype in utero and its associations with maternal pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain. This prospective longitudinal cohort included 179 Australian women with singleton pregnancies. Serial ultrasound measurements were performed at 19, 25, 30 and 36 (±1) weeks gestation and maternal anthropometry were collected concurrently. The ultrasound scans included the standard fetal biometry of head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length, and body composition at the abdomen and mid-thigh, including fat and lean mass cross-sectional areas. Maternal gestational weight gain was compared to current clinical guidelines. The participants had an average of 3.7 ± 0.8 scans and birth data were available for 165 neonates. Fifty four per cent of the cohort gained weight in excess of current recommendations, according to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Maternal gestational weight positively predicted fetal abdominal circumference (P 0.029) and lean abdominal mass area (P 0.046) in linear mixed model regression analysis, adjusted for known and potential confounders. At any pre-pregnancy BMI gaining weight above the current recommendations resulted in a larger fetus according to standard biometry, because of significantly larger lean muscle mass at the abdomen (P 0.024) and not due to an increase in fat mass (P 0.463). We have demonstrated the importance of maternal weight gain, independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, to support the growth of a large but lean fetus. Prenatal counselling should focus on achieving a healthy BMI prior to conception so that gestational weight gain restrictions can be minimised. PMID:22052171

Hure, Alexis Jayne; Collins, Clare Elizabeth; Giles, Warwick Bruce; Paul, Jonathan Winter; Smith, Roger

2012-10-01

412

Bogus Weight Loss Claims  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

Battles, Carol

2009-11-19

413

One-year follow-up study to a worksite weight control program.  

PubMed

Follow-up weights were obtained from 149 participants from two worksite weight control programs 1 year after the end of treatment. These participants regained, on average, 75% of the weight they had lost during treatment. Only 21% of this population maintained their post-treatment weight or continued to lose. We conclude that worksites do not appear to offer special advantages over clinic settings in aiding weight-loss maintenance. PMID:3362799

Forster, J L; Jeffery, R W; Snell, M K

1988-01-01

414

66 W average power from a microjoule-class sub-100 fs fiber oscillator.  

PubMed

Performance scaling of passively mode-locked ultrashort-pulse fiber oscillators in terms of average power, peak power, and pulse energy is demonstrated. A very-large-mode-area fiber laser in an all-positive group-velocity-dispersion ring cavity configuration with intracavity spectral filter, mode-locked by nonlinear polarization evolution, emits 66 W of average power at 76 MHz repetition rate, corresponding to 0.9 ?J pulse energy. The pulses are dechirped to 91 fs outside the cavity with an average power of 60 W remaining after the compressor. The generated pulse peak power is as high as 7 MW. PMID:22627522

Baumgartl, Martin; Lecaplain, Caroline; Hideur, Ammar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

2012-05-15

415

Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

416

Changes in weight bias following weight loss: the impact of weight-loss method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Many obese individuals lose weight to reduce weight stigma; however, little is known about whether other people's attitudes actually improve towards obese individuals after they have lost weight, and whether changes in attitudes depend on the method of weight loss. This study examined changes in people's perceptions of an obese target who had lost weight through diet and exercise or

J Fardouly; L R Vartanian

2012-01-01

417

Neural correlates of visual dimension weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of functional magnetic resonance experiments, we have investigated the neural basis of attentional dimension weighting in crossdimensional singleton search. Previous studies led to the characterization of a frontoposterior network of brain areas, which in part overlaps with the frontoparietal network supporting overt and covert attention shifts, but also involves anterior prefrontal components, which are likely to be

Stefan Pollmann; Ralph Weidner; Hermann J. Müller; D. Yves von Cramon

2006-01-01

418

High School Weight Training: A Comprehensive Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a weight training program, suitable for the general student population and the student-athlete, which is designed to produce improvement in specific, measurable areas including bench press (upper body), leg press (lower body), vertical jump (explosiveness); and 40-yard dash (speed). Two detailed charts are included, with notes on their…

Viscounte, Roger; Long, Ken

1989-01-01

419

Evaluating experimental design for soil-plant model selection with Bayesian model averaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective selection of appropriate models for realistic simulations of coupled soil-plant processes is a challenging task since the processes are complex, not fully understood at larger scales, and highly non-linear. Also, comprehensive data sets are scarce, and measurements are uncertain. In the past decades, a variety of different models have been developed that exhibit a wide range of complexity regarding their approximation of processes in the coupled model compartments. We present a method for evaluating experimental design for maximum confidence in the model selection task. The method considers uncertainty in parameters, measurements and model structures. Advancing the ideas behind Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), the model weights in BMA are perceived as uncertain quantities with assigned probability distributions that narrow down as more data are made available. This allows assessing the power of different data types, data densities and data locations in identifying the best model structure from among a suite of plausible models. The models considered in this study are the crop models CERES, SUCROS, GECROS and SPASS, which are coupled to identical routines for simulating soil processes within the modelling framework Expert-N. The four models considerably differ in the degree of detail at which crop growth and root water uptake are represented. Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted for each of these models considering their uncertainty in soil hydraulic properties and selected crop model parameters. The models were then conditioned on field measurements of soil moisture, leaf-area index (LAI), and evapotranspiration rates (from eddy-covariance measurements) during a vegetation period of winter wheat at the Nellingen site in Southwestern Germany. Following our new method, we derived the BMA model weights (and their distributions) when using all data or different subsets thereof. We discuss to which degree the posterior BMA mean outperformed the prior BMA mean and all individual posterior models, how informative the data types were for reducing prediction uncertainty of selected state variables, and how well the model structure can be identified based on the different data types and subsets.

Wöhling, Thomas; Geiges, Andreas; Nowak, Wolfgang; Gayler, Sebastian

2013-04-01

420

Weight For It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

Cosi

2009-01-01

421

Importance weighted active learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical and statistically con- sistent scheme for actively learning binary classiers under general loss functions. Our algorithm uses importance weighting to cor- rect sampling bias, and by controlling the variance, we are able to give rigorous label complexity bounds for the learning process.

Alina Beygelzimer; Sanjoy Dasgupta; John Langford

2009-01-01

422

Importance Weighted Active Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a practical and statistically con- sistent scheme for actively learning binary classiers,under general loss functions. Our algorithm uses importance weighting to cor- rect sampling bias, and by controlling the variance, we are able to give rigorous label complexity bounds for the learning process.

Alina Beygelzimer; Sanjoy Dasgupta; John Langford

2008-01-01

423

Weighting by Inverse Variance or by Sample Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most of the statistical procedures in meta-analysis are based on the estimation of average effect sizes from a set of primary studies. The optimal weight for averaging a set of independent effect sizes is the inverse variance of each effect size, but in practice these weights have to be estimated, being affected by sampling error. When assuming a…

Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

2010-01-01

424

Weighting by Inverse Variance or by Sample Size in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the statistical procedures in meta-analysis are based on the estimation of average effect sizes from a set of primary studies. The optimal weight for averaging a set of independent effect sizes is the inverse variance of each effect size, but in practice these weights have to be estimated, being affected by sampling error. When assuming a…

Marin-Martinez, Fulgencio; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

2010-01-01

425

Long-Run Performance of Bayesian Model Averaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hjort and Claeskens (HC) argue that statistical inference conditional on a single selected model underestimates uncertainty, and that model averaging is the way to remedy this; we strongly agree. They point out that Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been...

A. E. Raftery Y. Zheng

2003-01-01

426

Computer for Averaging Transients to Determine EEG Evoked Potentials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 'Computer for Averaging Transients' (CAT) has been designed, constructed, and tested; the CAT is capable of averaging overall electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns following repeated stimuli, thereby separating the EEG response waveform from the many unre...

F. Cruger

1973-01-01

427

Calculation of Monthly Average Insolation on Tilted Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several simplified design procedures for solar energy systems require monthly average meteorological data. Monthly average daily totals of the solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface are available. However, radiation data on tilted surfaces, requ...

S. A. Klein

1976-01-01

428

Error Bounds in the Averaging of Hybrid Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint analyzes the errors introduced by the averaging of hybrid systems. These systems involve linear systems which can take a number of different realizations based on the state of an underlying finite state process. The averaging technique (based...

J. Essine A. H. Haddad

1989-01-01

429

Longitudinal study of body weight changes in children: who is gaining and who is losing weight.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight. PMID:20885393

Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W

2010-09-30

430

Maternal Weight and Body Composition during Pregnancy Are Associated with Placental and Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh12  

PubMed Central

Placental growth is a strong predictor of fetal growth, but little is known about maternal predictors of placental growth in malnourished populations. Our objective was to investigate in a prospective study the associations of maternal weight and body composition [total body water (TBW) estimated by bioelectrical impedance and fat and fat-free mass derived from upper arm fat and muscle areas (UAFA, UAMA)] and changes in these with placental and birth weights. Within a cluster-randomized trial of maternal micronutrient supplementation, a subsample of 350 women was measured 3 times across gestation. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine independent associations of ?10-wk measurements and ?10–20 wk and ?20–32 wk changes with birth outcomes. Weight, TBW, and UAMA, but not UAFA, at ?10 wk were each positively and independently associated with placental weight and birth weight (P < 0.05). Of the maternal ?10–20 wk changes in measurements, only TBW change and placental weight, and maternal weight and birth weight were positively associated (P < 0.05). Gains in weight, TBW, and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively and UAFA gain was negatively associated with placental weight (P ? 0.01). Gains in weight and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively associated with birth weight (P ? 0.01). Overall, higher maternal weight and measures of fat-free mass at ?10 wk gestation and gains from 20 to 32 wk are independently associated with higher placental and birth weight.

Gernand, Alison D.; Christian, Parul; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P.

2012-01-01

431

Stability theory of the orbit-averaged Boltzmann equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the relation between the thermal runaway predicted in models of the collisional evolution of stellar systems and the onset of linear instability in equilibrium solutions of the Boltzmann equation obtained by averaging over the stellar orbits. The orbit-averaged Boltzmann equation is obtained by instantaneously averaging, over orbits of fixed energy and angular momentum, the Boltzmann equation

J. R. Ipser; H. E. Kandrup

1980-01-01

432

20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Average-monthly-wage method. 404.220 Section 404.220 Employees...Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this...

2013-04-01

433

Interaction between directional epistasis and average mutational effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relationship between the average fitness decay due to single mutations and the strength of epistatic interactions in genetic sequences. We observe that epistatic interactions between mutations are correlated to the average fitness decay, both in RNA secondary structure prediction as well as in digital organisms replicating in silico. This correlation implies that during adaptation, epistasis and average

Claus O. Wilke; Christoph Adami

2000-01-01

434

Calculation of monthly average insolation on tilted surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several simplified design procedures for solar energy systems require monthly average meteorological data. Monthly average daily totals of the solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface are available. However, radiation data on tilted surfaces, required by the design procedures, are generally not available. A simple method of estimating the average daily radiation for each calendar month on surfaces facing directly

S. A. Klein

1976-01-01

435

Robustness of spatial average equalization: A statistical reverberation model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, multiple listener room equalization is performed to improve sound quality at all listeners, during audio playback, in a multiple listener environment (e.g., movie theaters, automobiles, etc.). A typical way of doing multiple listener equalization is through spatial averaging, where the room responses are averaged spatially between positions and an inverse equalization filter is found from the spatially averaged result.

Sunil Bharitkar; Philip Hilmes; Chris Kyriakakis

2004-01-01

436

Substance Use by Adolescents on an Average Day Is Alarming  

MedlinePLUS

... 2130 Substance use by adolescents on an average day is alarming On an average day, 881,684 teenagers aged 12 to 17 smoked ... SAMHSA). The report also says that on average day 646,707 adolescents smoked marijuana and 457,672 ...

437

Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

Bauer, Ben

2009-01-01

438

Partitioning hydrologic contributions to an 'old-growth' riparian area ...  

Treesearch

Pacific Northwest ... Title: Partitioning hydrologic contributions to an 'old-growth' riparian area in the Huron Mountains of ... During a period of above-average snowfall, yet below average growing season precipitation, ¡80% of the riparian area's ...

439

Weight Control Needs and Experiences among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective Rural women are understudied in research on weight control among breast cancer survivors despite having higher obesity rates than their urban counterparts placing them at higher risk for recurrence. The purpose of this survey study was to describe weight status and methods used for weight control in rural breast cancer survivors and to examine psychosocial factors in this population associated with weight change since breast cancer diagnosis. Methods Women treated for breast cancer within the past six years at one of three rural Cancer Centers were mailed a survey with a cover letter from their oncology provider. Results Survey respondents (n = 918, 83% response rate) were 96% White non-Hispanic, on average 3.2 years from treatment, and 11% reported metastatic disease. Among respondents without known metastatic disease, 68% were overweight or obese, 37% were obese, and 25% reported a weight gain exceeding 5 kg since diagnosis. Among the overweight/obese women, 61% were currently attempting weight loss, and the most common weight loss method was dieting on one’s own without assistance. Psychosocial factors associated with weight gain since diagnosis included depression, fear of cancer recurrence, diminished physical strength, body image concerns, relationship changes, and financial stressors. Conclusions The high response rate indicates a general interest in body weight issues among rural BrCa survivors, and the findings highlight the need for weight control programs in this population. Findings also indicate that factors related to poor adjustment to breast cancer is associated with weight gain among rural women.

Befort, Christie; Austin, Heather; Klemp, Jennifer

2012-01-01

440

Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2010-01-01

441

Dietary Supplements in Weight Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake

Johanna T. Dwyer; David B. Allison; Paul M. Coates

2005-01-01

442

Does Weight Matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the same method for measuring friction that was used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction), students design and conduct an experiment to determine if weight added incrementally to an object affects the amount of friction encountered when it slides across a flat surface. After graphing the data from their experiments, students can calculate the coefficients of friction between the object and the surface it moved upon, for both static and kinetic friction.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

443

Vaccination against weight gain  

PubMed Central

Obesity endangers the lives of millions of people worldwide, through comorbidities such as heart disease, cancers, type 2 diabetes, stroke, arthritis, and major depression. New approaches to control body weight remain a high priority. Vaccines traditionally have been used to protect against infectious diseases and, more recently, for unconventional targets such as drug addiction. Methodologies that could specifically modulate the bioavailability of an endogenous molecule that regulates energy balance might provide a new foundation for treating obesity. Here we show that active vaccination of mature rats with ghrelin immunoconjugates decreases feed efficiency, relative adiposity, and body weight gain in relation to the immune response elicited against ghrelin in its active, acylated form. Three active vaccines based on the 28-aa residue sequence of ghrelin, a gastric endocrine hormone, were used to immunize adult male Wistar rats (n = 17). Synthetic ghrelin analogs were prepared that spanned residues 1–10 [ghrelin (1–10) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr1], 13–28 [ghrelin (13–28) hapten, Ghr2], and 1–28 [ghrelin(1–28) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr3], and included n-butanoyl esters at Ser-3. Groups immunized with Ghr1 or Ghr3 showed greater and more selective plasma binding capacity for the active, Ser-3-(n-octanoyl) form of ghrelin as compared with Ghr2 or keyhole limpet hemocyanin vaccinated controls. Accordingly, they gained less body weight, with sparing of lean mass and preferential reduction of body fat, consistent with reduced circulating leptin levels. The ratio of brain/serum ghrelin levels was lower in rats with strong anti-ghrelin immune responses. Effects were not attributable to nonspecific inflammatory responses. Vaccination against the endogenous hormone ghrelin can slow weight gain in rats by decreasing feed efficiency.

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Moss, Jason A.; Chang, Jason; Otsuji, Jonathan; Inoue, Koki; Meijler, Michael M.; Janda, Kim D.

2006-01-01

444

[Weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination of water environmental sensitive spots in Jiashan].  

PubMed

For the safety of the water environment in Jiashan county in Zhejiang Province, one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality models are established based on three large-scale monitoring of hydrology and water quality in Jiashan county, three water environmental sensitive spots including Hongqitang dam Chijia hydrological station and Luxie pond are selected to investigate weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination. Results indicate as follows (1) Internal pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than the external, the average weight parameters of internal chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution is 55.3%, internal ammonia nitrogen (NH(4+)-N) is 67.4%, internal total phosphor (TP) is 63.1%. Non-point pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than point pollution impact, the average weight parameters of non-point COD pollutions is 53.7%, non-point NH(4+)-N is 65.9%, non-point TP is 57.8%. (2) The risk of Hongqitang dam and Chijia hydrological station are in the middle risk. The risk of Luxie pond is also in the middle risk in August, and in April and December the risk of Luxie pond is low. The strategic decision will be suggested to guarantee water environment security and social and economic security in the study. PMID:23002597

Xie, Rong-Rong; Pang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Ke; Sun, Ming-Yuan

2012-07-01

445

On the average outage rate and average outage duration of wireless communication systems with multiple cochannel interferers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the average outage rate [or average level crossing rate (LCR)] and average outage duration (AOD) of wireless communication systems subject to cochannel interference. In particular, it presents closed-form expressions for the LCR and AOD when a minimum desired signal power requirement is specified for satisfactory reception. The results are quite general and account for systems operating over

Lin Yang; Mohamed-slim Alouini

2004-01-01

446

Prenatal Weight Gain: Who is Counseled?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Because prenatal counseling is associated with adherence to weight gain guidelines, we sought to identify patient-level characteristics associated with the receipt of counseling on weight gain, nutrition, and exercise during prenatal care. Methods We performed a secondary data analysis on a cohort of women enrolled in a prenatal counseling intervention study. We controlled for study group assignment (intervention versus usual care) as well as patient characteristics in a multivariable analysis. We performed three separate multivariable analyses for predictors of provider-patient discussions about (1) weight gain, (2) nutrition, and (3) exercise. Results The cohort consisted of 311 predominantly low-income prenatal patients receiving care at several sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. Prepregnancy body mass index, nutrition knowledge, maternal age, parity, and type of insurance were not significantly associated with receipt of counseling about weight gain, nutrition, and exercise. In the multivariable analysis, white women were significantly less likely to be counseled about nutrition than non-white women (p=0.02). Former smokers were more likely to receive counseling about nutrition and exercise than never smokers (p<0.05). More advanced gestational age was associated with a higher rate of counseling on weight gain (p=0.01). Conclusions Despite having the highest rates of excessive weight gain nationally, white women were the least likely to receive counseling about nutrition during pregnancy. Interventions that prompt clinicians and simplify counseling may improve counseling rates for all patients during prenatal care.

Tsoh, Janice Y.; Gerbert, Barbara

2012-01-01

447

Weight control strategies of overweight adolescents who successfully lost weight.  

PubMed

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the differences in weight control behaviors, dietary intake, and physical activity between overweight adolescents who lost weight and overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. This cross-sectional study compared 62 overweight adolescents who lost weight in the past with 68 overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. Youth responded to questions regarding weight control behaviors during the past year, physical activity, sedentary activity, and dietary intake. Results showed that adolescents who lost weight were more likely to report using healthful weight control behaviors such as drinking less soda and increasing their exercise level, self-weighing, consuming diets higher in protein, and spending less time watching television compared to overweight adolescents who did not lose weight. Unhealthful weight control behaviors and specific weight loss plans were not associated with weight loss in these teenagers. Adolescents would benefit from hearing this information to prevent the development of these behaviors. Providers should advise adolescents to engage in healthful weight control behaviors, such as increasing physical activity and decreasing the amount of time spent watching television, to assist with weight management. PMID:19942020

Boutelle, Kerri N; Libbey, Heather; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

2009-12-01

448

A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design  

SciTech Connect

To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here.

Kidner, Ronald

1999-06-02

449

The Influence of Model Averaging on Clade Posteriors: An Example Using the Triggerfishes (Family Balistidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although substantial uncertainty typically surrounds the choice of the best model in most phylogenetic analyses, little is known about how accommodating this uncertainty affects phylogenetic inference. Here we explore the influence of Bayesian model averaging on the phylogenetic inference of the triggerfishes (Family: Balistidae), a charismatic group of reef fishes. We focus on clade support as this area has received

Alex Dornburg; Francesco Santini; MICHAEL E. ALFARO

2008-01-01

450

Relationships among Fat Weight, Body Weight, Water Weight, and Condition Factors in Wild Atlantic Salmon Parr  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between fat content and condition indices in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr sampled from a wild population on a seasonal basis. Condition of individual fish was indexed by residuals from the least-squares regressions of fat weight, dry weight, wet weight, and water weight (separately on fork length) as well as by relative condition factor, Fulton's condition

Stephen G. Sutton; Tammo P. Bult; Richard L. Haedrich

2000-01-01

451

Maternal weight and weight gain in pregnancy and obstetric outcome.  

PubMed

We studied 3002 antenatal patients to assess the relationship between maternal weight at booking in the first trimester and the total weight gain during the pregnancy and the birth weight of infants, pregnancy complications and mode of delivery. We found if the weight of the mother in the first trimester was lower or higher by 20% as compared with the standard weight, and the weight gain was more than 16 kg and less than 2.5 kg, there was higher incidences of maternal and fetal morbidity (P less than 0.01). PMID:6145642

Varma, T R

1984-04-01

452

Improving low-dose X-ray CT images by Weighted Intensity Averaging over Large-scale Neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the patients is always an important concern since the introduction of computed tomography (CT). With respect to patients' care, the least possible radiation dose is demanded. Though clinically desired, low-dose CT (LDCT) images tend to be severely degraded by quantum noise and artifacts under low dose scan protocols. This paper proposes to

Yingsheng Li; Yang Chen; Wufan Chen; Limin Luo; Xindao Yin

2010-01-01

453

Measurement and analysis of 8-hour time-weighted average sound pressure levels in a vivarium decontamination facility.  

PubMed

Occupational noise exposure is a recognized hazard for employees working near equipment and processes that generate high levels of sound pressure. High sound pressure levels have the potential to result in temporary or permanent alteration in hearing perception. The cleaning of cages used to house laboratory research animals is a process that uses equipment capable of generating high sound pressure levels. The purpose of this research study was to assess occupational exposure to sound pressure levels for employees operating cage decontamination equipment. This study reveals the potential for overexposure to hazardous noise as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit and consistent surpassing of the OSHA action level. These results emphasize the importance of evaluating equipment and room design when acquiring new cage decontamination equipment in order to minimize employee exposure to potentially hazardous noise pressure levels. PMID:23566325

Pate, William; Charlton, Michael; Wellington, Carl

2013-01-01

454

Body image and psychosocial differences among stable average weight, currently overweight, and formerly overweight women: the role of stigmatizing experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial research has compared obese and nonobese persons on body image and psychosocial adjustment. While differences in body satisfaction are often observed, the literature is less clear on other dimensions. Extant differences are typically thought to result from the social stigmatization and maltreatment experienced by obese persons, especially females. The present study of 165 women compared three cohorts who were

Natasha Milkewicz Annis; Thomas F Cash; Joshua I Hrabosky

2004-01-01

455

Diatom-based Weighted-averaging Transfer Functions for Great Lakes Coastal Water Quality: Relationships to Watershed Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop indicators for Great Lakes near-shore conditions, diatom-based transfer functions to infer water quality variables were developed from 155 samples collected from coastal Great Lakes wetlands, embayments and high-energy shoreline sites. Over 2,000 diatom taxa were identified, and 352 taxa were sufficiently abundant to include in transfer function development. Multivariate data exploration revealed strong responses of

Euan D. Reavie; Richard P. Axler; Gerald V. Sgro; Nicholas P. Danz; John C. Kingston; Amy R. Kireta; Terry N. Brown; Thomas P. Hollenhorst; Michael J. Ferguson

2006-01-01

456

High Gestational Weight Gain Does Not Improve Birth Weight in a Cohort of African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because pregnant African American women and teensareatriskoflowbirthweight,theyarefrequentlycounseledto strive for gestational weight gains at the upper limits of the Institute of Medicine's recommended ranges. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminewhethersuchweightgains improvebirthoutcomesinacohortofdisadvantagedAfricanAmer- ican adolescents of low (19.8), average (19.8 to26.0), or high (26) prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2). Design: Data were extracted from the medical charts of 1120 Afri- can American adolescents who received

Jennifer Notkin Nielsen; Frank R. Witter; Shih-Chen Chang; Jeri Mancini; Maureen Schulman Nathanson; Laura E. Caulfield

2006-01-01

457

Modeling major histocompatibility complex binding by nonparametric averaging of multiple predictors and sequence encodings.  

PubMed

There has been considerable interest in statistical approaches that leverage the large volumes of experimental data to predict the binding of Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) molecules to peptides. Here we present our method for averaging together multiple predictors for MHC-peptide binding, where given a particular MHC molecule, a set of predictors and a set of training peptides, our method will average multiple simple predictors for MHC binding to produce a final prediction of the binding affinity between a given MHC molecule and a test peptide. The averaging of predictors is done using a nonparametric method, whereby for any test peptide, we identify similar peptides in the training set and average the predictions on the training set, weighted by each predictor's average accuracy for similar peptides in the training set. We show that our method significantly improves on individual predictors based on held-out data and also produces a predictor whose accuracy is competitive with state-of-the-art techniques based on the results from the Machine Learning in Immunology competition in which 21 submitted techniques were assessed on their accuracy in predicting the binding of HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0201 and HLA-B*0702 molecules to 9-mer and 10-mer peptides. PMID:20934429

Huang, Jim C; Jojic, Nebojsa

2010-10-08

458

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant psi, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate xi0, and the momentum magnitude p.

A. J. Brizard; J. Decker; Y. Peysson; F.-X. Duthoit

2009-01-01

459

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator  

SciTech Connect

A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

2009-10-15

460

Efficacy of Zotrim: a herbal weight loss preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consumer survey was undertaken to test the efficacy of Zotrim, a herbal preparation commercially available as an over the counter weight loss aid. A total of 48 subjects completed a 28-day trial of Zotrim, taken in tablet form just prior to main meals. The results showed a self-assessed average weight loss of 2.3kg (0.6kg per week). Questionnaire data suggested

C. H. S. Ruxton

2004-01-01

461

Normal organ weights in men: part I-the heart.  

PubMed

It has been shown that cardiac enlargement, whether hypertrophic or dilated, is an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death, although the definition of what constitutes cardiac enlargement is not universally established. This study was designed to address this issue and to determine normal cardiac weights in adult men. A prospective study was undertaken of healthy men dying from sudden traumatic deaths aged 18 to 35 years. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use; prolonged medical treatment was performed; there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death; body length and weight could not be accurately assessed; there was significant cardiac injury; or any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis, including evidence of systemic disease. A total of 232 cases met the criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had an average age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm with an average length of 173 cm. Their weights ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg with an average weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. Overall, their heart weights ranged from 188 to 575 g with an average of 331 g and an SD of 56.7 g. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between heart weight and body weight, body length, and body mass index and found insufficient associations to enable predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for heart weight in men, much like those in use for other laboratory tests including hemoglobin, hematocrit, or glucose. A reference range (95% inclusion) of 233 to 383 g for the adult male human heart is proposed. PMID:22182983

Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

2012-12-01

462

Molecular Weight Distribution of ?-Glucan in Oat-Based Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(3):356-360 Oats, different oat fractions as well as experimental and commercial oat-based foods, were extracted with hot water containing thermostable ?-amylase. Average molecular weight and molecular weight distributions of ?-glucan in extracts were analyzed with a calibrated high-performance size-exclusion chromatography system with Calcofluor detection, specific for the ?-glucan. Oats, rolled oats, oat bran, and oat bran concentrates all

Per Åman; Lena Rimsten; Roger Andersson

2004-01-01

463

Very-Low-Calorie Diets and Sustained Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review of the literature on the topic of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and the long-term weight-maintenance success in the treatment of obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: A literature search of the following keywords: VLCD, long-term weight maintenance, and dietary treatment of obesity.Results: VLCDs and low-calorie diets with an average intake between 400 and 800 kcal do not differ in body

Wim H. M. Saris

2001-01-01

464

7 CFR 701.117 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM, EMERGENCY FOREST RESTORATION PROGRAM, AND CERTAIN...ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART Emergency Conservation Program § 701.117 Average...

2013-01-01

465

Average g-Factors of Anisotropic Polycrystalline Samples  

SciTech Connect

Due to the lack of suitable single crystals, the average g-factor of anisotropic polycrystalline samples are commonly estimated from either the Curie-Weiss susceptibility or the saturation magnetization. We show that the average g-factor obtained from the Curie constant is always greater than or equal to the average g-factor obtained from the saturation magnetization. The average g-factors are equal only for a single crystal or an isotropic polycrystal. We review experimental results for several compounds containing the anisotropic cation [Fe(C5Me5)2]+ and propose an experiment to test this inequality using a compound with a spinless anion.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Miller, Joel S. [University of Utah

2010-01-01

466

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area

Richard D Feinman; Eugene J Fine

2007-01-01

467

Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that when tissue images are formed via a small solid angle in the backward direction (i.e., back-directional gating), the image intensity is dominantly determined by tissue scattering anisotropy. Thus, this configuration allows for scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging that can provide an intrinsic contrast by capturing tissue structures and organizations. To demonstrate the immediate feasibility, we apply scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging to tissue blocks including basal-cell carcinomas as a pilot study. The main feature of our imaging approach is the high sensitivity to tumor locations and the simplicity for large-area visualization. We further envision that scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging could potentially be used to visualize tissue microenvironments in a mesoscopic (between microscopic and macroscopic) imaging setting.

Xu, Zhengbin; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kim, Young L.

2012-09-01

468

Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging.  

PubMed

We report that when tissue images are formed via a small solid angle in the backward direction (i.e., back-directional gating), the image intensity is dominantly determined by tissue scattering anisotropy. Thus, this configuration allows for scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging that can provide an intrinsic contrast by capturing tissue structures and organizations. To demonstrate the immediate feasibility, we apply scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging to tissue blocks including basal-cell carcinomas as a pilot study. The main feature of our imaging approach is the high sensitivity to tumor locations and the simplicity for large-area visualization. We further envision that scattering anisotropy-weighted imaging could potentially be used to visualize tissue microenvironments in a mesoscopic (between microscopic and macroscopic) imaging setting. PMID:23085898

Xu, Zhengbin; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kim, Young L