Science.gov

Sample records for area west valley

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Dugway Valley-Government Creek area, West-Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Jerry C.; Sumsion, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    The Dugway Valley-Government Creek area covers about 890 square miles (2,300 square kilometers) in west-central Utah. Total annual precipitation on the area averages about 380,000 acre-feet (470 cubic hectometers). Most streams are ephemeral except for a few in their upper reaches--all are ephemeral below the altitude of about 6,000 feet (1,830 meters). Surface-water development and use in the area are insignificant.

  3. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB

  4. Estimated natural ground-water recharge, discharge, and budget for the Dixie Valley area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, J.R.; Hines, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Dixie Valley area includes seven valleys in west-central Nevada (Dixie, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys; total, 2,380 square miles). Dixie Valley receives surface-water and ground-water flow from Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys and subsurface flow from Fairview Valley, which is a topographically closed basin. The relation between precipitation and altitude was re-evaluated for the Dixie Valley area using new data, and empirical estimates of recharge were revised accordingly. The revised estimate of total recharge is 23,000 acre-feet per Re-evaluation of ground-water discharge focused on Dixie Valley as the largest basin in the study area. Phreatophytic vegetation was mapped and partitioned into nine zones on the basis of species composition and foliage density. For woody phreatophytes, annual evapotranspiration rates of 0.7 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for greasewood and 1.1 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for rabbitbrush were adapted from lysimeter studies near Winnemucca, Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the foliage density of the respective phreatophytes in each zone to estimate a specific rate for that zone. Rates for salt-grass (0.5 to 0.8 foot per year) and the playa surface (0.1 to 0.3 foot per year) were based on a range of rates. used in other recent studies in western and central Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the areas of the zones to produce estimates of the annual volume of ground water discharged. The discharge estimated for Dixie Valley is between 17,000 and 28,000 acre-feet per year. The revised discharge estimate for the entire Dixie Valley area is between 20,000 and 31,000 acre-feet per year. The revised ground-water budget for the entire Dixie Valley study area has a total recharge of about 23,000 acre-feet per year. This is within the range of estimates of natural discharge--from 20,000 to 31,000 acre-feet per year. For Dixie Valley

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    SciTech Connect

    Marschke, Stephen F.

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  6. Aerial radiological survey of the Nuclear Fuel Services Center (NFS) and surrounding area, West Valley, New York, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey encompassing the Western New York Nuclear Fuel Services Center (NFS) near West Valley, New York, was conducted during 7-12 September 1979. The survey data showed that the average ground surface radiation levels for the site and its environs are less than were measured during the 1969 survey when reprocessing was occurring. The area exhibiting above-background radiation levels is decreasing with time due to (1) radioactive decay, (2) dilution and dispersion of man-made radionuclide reprocessing plant effluents produced during the period April 1966 to early 1972, and (3) the discontinuation of reprocessing operations. Excluding specific, localized NFS site facility areas, the background radiation levels for the recently surveyed area approximate the preoperational background radiation levels.

  7. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Antelope Valley-Bedell Flat area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewel, Eleanore B.; Ponce, David A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    In April 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established 211 gravity stations in the Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat area of west-central Nevada (see figure 1). The stations were located about 15 miles north of Reno, Nevada, southwest of Dogskin Mountain, and east of Petersen Mountain, concentrated in Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat (figure 2). The ranges in this area primarily consist of normal-faulted Cretaceous granitic rocks, with some volcanic and metavolcanic rocks. The purpose of the survey was to characterize the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in support of future hydrologic investigations. The information developed during this study can be used in groundwater models. Gravity data were collected between latitude 39°37.5' and 40°00' N and longitude 119°37.5' and 120°00' W. The stations were located on the Seven Lakes Mountain, Dogskin Mountain, Granite Peak, Bedell Flat, Fraser Flat, and Reno NE 7.5 minute quadrangles. All data were tied to secondary base station RENO-A located on the campus of the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR) in Reno, Nevada (latitude 39°32.30' N, longitude 119°48.70' W, observed gravity value 979674.69 mGal). The value for observed gravity was calculated by multiple ties to the base station RENO (latitude 39°32.30' N, longitude 119°48.70' W, observed gravity value 979674.65 mGal), also on the UNR campus. The isostatic gravity map (figure 3) includes additional data sets from the following sources: 202 stations from a Geological Survey digital data set (Ponce, 1997), and 126 stations from Thomas C. Carpenter (written commun., 1998).

  8. Late quaternary vegetation and climatic history of the Long Valley area, west-central Idaho, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doerner, J.P.; Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Paleoenvironmental data, including pollen and sediment analyses, radiocarbon ages, and tephra identifications of a core recovered from a fen, provide a ca. 16,500 14C yr B.P. record of late Quaternary vegetation and climate change in the Long Valley area of west-central Idaho. The fen was deglaciated prior to ca. 16,500 14C yr B.P., after which the pollen rain was dominated by Artemisia, suggesting that a cold, dry climate prevailed until ca. 12,200 14C yr B.P. From ca. 12,200 to 9750 14C yr B.P. temperatures gradually increased and a cool, moist climate similar to the present prevailed. During this period a closed spruce-pine forest surrounded the fen. This cool, moist climate was briefly interrupted by a dry and/or cold interval between ca. 10,800 and 10,400 14C yr B.P. that may be related to the Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. From ca. 9750 to 3200 14C yr B.P. the regional climate was significantly warmer and drier than at present and an open pine forest dominated the area around the fen. Maximum aridity occurred after the deposition of the Mazama tephra (ca. 6730 14C yr B.P). After 3200 14C yr B.P. regional cooling brought cool, moist conditions to the area; the establishment of the modern montane forest around the fen and present-day cool and moist climate began at ca. 2000 14C yr B.P. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Hahn, D.A.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because of concerns about potential effects of irrigation drainage on fish and wildlife resources and on human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior initiated a program in 1985 to assess water-quality problems associated with Federal irrigation projects in the Western United States. Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected for a detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, during 1991-92. This report lists onsite measurements and concen- trations of major constituents, trace elements, and stable isotopes for surface-water- and ground-water-sampling sites. Insecticide data collected in the Grand Valley are presented. Ranges of specific-conductance measurements and dissolved- oxygen concentrations for selected wells and a daily record of water-level altitude and specific conduc- tance for a well in the Grand Valley are presented. The report presents historical water-level and dissolved-solids data for two wells in the Grand Valley. Concentrations of trace elements, major constituents, total carbon, and organic carbon in bottom-sediment, bedrock, and in aquifer-sediment samples and semiquantitative data on clay and bulk mineralogy of samples of the Mancos Shale are presented. The report contains selenium-speciation data for selected water and bottom-sediment samples and selected aquifer-test results. Biological samples collected in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley included aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, and bird eggs. The report lists concentrations of trace elements in biological samples collected in 1991-92. A limited number of biological samples were analyzed for pesticides, PCB's, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  13. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  14. 114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley in distance, alligator back, and overlook in foreground. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  16. West Valley waste removal system study

    SciTech Connect

    Janicek, G P

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank.

  17. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C.; Sonntag, T.L.; Denault, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  18. 77. Rocky Knob Recreation area. View of the valley from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Rocky Knob Recreation area. View of the valley from Belcher's Curve. Notice that the scenic easement allows A the boundary of the parkway to disappear creating a park that appears bigger than it is. View to west-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes miscellaneous full size details. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes elevations and sections of chemistry department shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch t other foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plan of entrance, section EE showing tiling and typical transom design, and a full size detail of a door jamb for inside concrete walls. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  5. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  6. West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: southwest corner, showing stairs to commander's quarters and viewing bridge, windows to controller's room (room 102), south end of control consoles, and holes in pedestal floor for computer equipment cables (tape drive I/O?) - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: north part, showing senior battle staff viewing bridge), projection booths, control consoles, and pneumatic tube message port - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: south part, showing commander's quarters and viewing bridge on second floor, controller's room, console, and projection booth on main floor - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  9. West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: northwest corner, with D.M. logistics office below (room 137), and D.O./D.D.O. offices above. Lower stairs lead to entry shown in view 13 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. Elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. West, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. West, south, east elevations, elevation of loggia, areaway railing detail. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 7, job no. 692. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 3/4 inch to the foot (detail). March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-05-06

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable.

  13. FINDING SOLUTIONS AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John L.; Gramling, James M.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) faces a number of sizeable challenges as it begins to transform its mission from managing risk to reducing and eliminating risk throughout the DOE Complex. One of the greatest challenges being addressed by DOE-EM as this transformation takes place is accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning of thousands of facilities within the DOE Complex that were once used to support nuclear-related programs and projects. These facilities are now unused and aging. Finding solutions to complete the cleanup of these aging facilities more safely, efficiently, and effectively while reducing costs is critical to successfully meeting DOE-EM's cleanup challenge. The Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) of Hot Cells at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a near-term project funded through the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) for the specific purpose of identifying, evaluating, demonstrating, and deploying commercially available technologies that are capable of streamlining the cleanup of hot cells in unused facilities while improving worker safety. Two DOE project sites are participating in this LSDDP: the WVDP site in West Valley, New York and the Hanford River Corridor Project (RCP) site in Richland, Washington. The WVDP site serves as the host site for the project. Technologies considered for demonstration and potential deployment at both LSDDP sites are targeted for application in hot cells that require the use of remote and semi-remote techniques to conduct various cleanup-related activities because of high radiation or high contamination levels. These hot cells, the type of cleanup activities being conducted, and technologies selected for demonstration are the main topics discussed in this paper. The range of cleanup-related activities addressed include in-situ characterization, size-reduction, contamination control, decontamination, in

  14. Functional description of the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.; McMahon, C.L.

    1990-07-01

    The primary objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560,000 gallons) of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) which resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Since the original plant was not built to accommodate the processing of waste beyond storage in underground tanks, HLW solidification by vitrification presented numerous engineering challenges. Existing facilities required redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose. Vitrification technology and systems needed to be created and then tested. Equipment modifications, identified from cold test results, were incorporated into the final equipment configuration to be used for radioactive (hot) operations. Cold operations have defined the correct sequence and optimal functioning of the equipment to be used for vitrification and have verified the process by which waste will be solidified into borosilicate glass.

  15. Hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat, Washoe County, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Ponce, D.A.; Ross, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Description of the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in west-central Nevada adds to the general knowledge of regional ground-water flow north of the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area. The hydrogeologic framework is defined by the rocks and deposits that transmit ground water or impede its movement and by the combined thickness of Cenozoic deposits. When data are lacking about the subsurface geology of an area, geophysical methods can be used to provide additional information. In this study, gravimetric and seismic-refraction methods were used to infer the form of structural features and to estimate the thickness of Cenozoic deposits in each of the two valleys. In Antelope Valley, the thickness of these deposits probably does not exceed about 300 feet, suggesting that ground-water storage in the basin-fill aquifer is limited. Beneath Bedell Flat is an elongated, northeast-trending structural depression in the pre-Cenozoic basement; the maximum thickness of Cenozoic deposits is about 2,500 feet beneath the south-central part of the valley. Shallow ground water in the northwest corner of Bedell Flat may be a result of decreasing depth to the pre-Cenozoic basement.

  16. Depositional environments and sedimentary tectonics of subsurface Cotton Valley group (upper Jurassic), west-central Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Sydboten, B.D. Jr.; Bowen, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    Study of data from 65 selected wells in a 6-county area (about 60 by 60 mi) north and west of Jackson, Mississippi, discloses that Cotton Valley strata, now within the axial trough of the Mississippi embayment, display thickness variations which demonstrate that Late Jurassic sedimentation was strongly controlled by maximum subsidence along the same trough axis. Examination of well logs, other records, and cutting sets from 38 wells has resulted in preparation of dip and strike cross sections that permit information definition of lower, middle, and upper parts of the Cotton Valley Group throughout the area evaluated. Within these lithostratigraphic diversions, lithofacies are discriminable that represent alluvial, upper delta plain, lower delta plain, and prodeltaic environments. These facies display a general variation from coarse, commonly red, oxidized sediments on the north and east, to mudrocks, locally calcareous and carbonaceous, on the southwest. Within the Cotton Valley Group examined, two persistent clastic lobes demonstrate relative environmental stability while deposits ranging in thickness from 1500 ft (northwestern corner of study area) to 4500 ft (axial depocenter on the south) accumulated. During Cotton Valley deposition, west-central Mississippi was the site of a two-toed birdfoot delta within which lignites were deposited. Major sediment supply was from the east and north; a minor source was to the northwest (Ouachita-Ozarks). Irregulatories in both rates of supply of clastics and of shelf subsidence permitted intermittent shallow, clear-water, marine incursions from the south during which thin carbonate beds were deposited, interfingering with the clastics. Thus, potential source and host rocks for hydrocarbon traps are closely associated, for thick, organic-rich, interlobate mudrocks pass laterally and vertically into fluvial sands of the delta lobes.

  17. Assessing the continuity of the blue ice climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Kate; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart A.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Hein, Andrew S.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Bingham, Robert G.; Marrero, Shasta M.; Sugden, David E.; Ross, Neil

    2016-03-01

    We use high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to assess the continuity of the Blue Ice Area (BIA) horizontal climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica. The sequence contains three pronounced changes in deuterium isotopic values at ~18 cal ka, ~12 cal ka, and ~8 cal ka. GPR surveys along the climate sequence reveal continuous, conformable dipping isochrones, separated by two unconformities in the isochrone layers, which correlate with the two older deuterium shifts. We interpret these unconformities as discontinuities in the sequence, rather than direct measures of climate change. Ice sheet models and Internal Layer Continuity Index plots suggest that the unconformities represent periods of erosion occurring, as the former ice surface was scoured by katabatic winds in front of mountains at the head of Horseshoe Valley. This study demonstrates the importance of high-resolution GPR surveys for investigating both paleoflow dynamics and interpreting BIA climate records.

  18. Lone Tree prospect area, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-02-01

    Continued exploration in the Basin and Range of Nevada has resulted in a number of small field discoveries that confirm widespread oil generation and suggest potential in local prospect settings. One such setting, the Lone Tree prospect area, lies approximately 6.5 mi (10.4 km) southwest of Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley. Discovered in 1983, this field had produced nearly 20 million bbl of oil by June 1996, mostly from two wells. Oil is entrapped in a slide block of fractured Paleozoic strata juxtaposed against Mississippian source rocks along a detachment fault of probable early Tertiary age. Subsequent exploration has focused on attempts to identify such blocks elsewhere in east-central Nevada, particularly in Railroad and Pine Valleys. Well, gravity, and two-dimensional seismic data suggested the existence of such a block in the Lone Tree area. These data were used as a basis for a three-dimensional seismic survey. Information from this survey identified a prospect at the structural culmination of the interpreted block. The resulting well, the 13-14 Timber Mountain, was commercially unsuccessful but yielded important new data, suggesting a need to revise existing stratigraphy and structural history. In addition, a second prospect, located farther updip, was indicated.

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin. West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  20. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  1. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project full-scale canister impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, K.F.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Lutz, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    Five West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) high-level waste (HLW) canisters were impact tested during 1994 to demonstrate compliance with the drop test requirements of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. The specifications state that the canistered waste form must be able to survive a 7{minus}m (23 ft) drop unbreached. The 10-gauge (0.125 in. wall thickness) stainless steel canisters were approximately 85% filled with simulated vitrified waste and weighed about 2100 kg (4600 lb). Each canister was dropped vertically from a height of 7 m (23 ft) onto an essentially unyielding surface. The integrity of the canister was determined by the application and analysis of strain circles, dimensional measurements, and helium leak testing. The canisters were also visually inspected before and after the drop for physical damage. The results of the impact test verify that the canisters survived the 7{minus}m drops unbreached. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the reference canister meets the drop test specification of the Waste Acceptance Product Specification.

  3. Redox systematics in model glass compositions from West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, H.D.; Schreiber, C.W.; Ward, C.C.

    1993-12-31

    At a processing temperature of 1150{degrees}C for model West Valley glass composition, the prescribed range of oxygen fugacities needed to achieve an [Fe{sup 2+}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] of 0.1 to 0.5 is 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -7} atm. Establishment of the Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 0} equilibrium, resulting in metal precipitation from the melt, occurs at oxygen fugacities lower than 10{sup -11} atm at this temperature. The target processing range as defined by the iron redox ratio is equally valid at both lower and higher temperatures ({+-}100{degrees}C). Elevations of the concentrations of redox-active components to 1 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 1 wt% NiO, 1 wt% CeO{sub 2}, and 4 wt% Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the waste glass will not affect the redox limits as established by the iron redox ratio of 0.1 to 0.5; these limits provide sufficiently large margins of safety to assure no stabilization of reduced or oxidized forms of these elements.

  4. Use of Optical and Imaging Techniques for Inspection of Off-Line Joule-Heated Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M. J.; Jang, P-R; Long, Z.; Monts, D. L.; Philip, T.; Su, Y.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley melter has been taken out of service. Its design is the direct ancestor of the current melter design for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Over its eight years of service, the West Valley melter has endured many of the same challenges that the Hanford melter will encounter with feeds that are similar to many of the Hanford double shell tank wastes. Thus, inspection of the West Valley melter prior to its disposal could provide valuable--even crucial--information to the designers of the melters to be used at the Hanford Site, particularly if quantitative information can be obtained. The objective of Mississippi State University's Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory's (DIAL) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the West Valley melter that will (i) be remotely operable in the West Valley process cell; (ii) provide quantitative information on melter refractory wear and deposits on the refractory; and (iii) indicate areas of heterogeneity (e.g., deposits) requiring more detailed characterization. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to inspect their melter.

  5. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  6. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  7. WEST CLEAR CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    Results of geologic, geochemical, and aeromagnetic studies and review of mineral records and prospect examination for the West Clear Creek Roadless Area, Arizona, indicate that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. No concentrations of minerals were identified within the boundary of the area. A small manganese deposit occurs 1-3 mi east of the area but does not extend into the area. Slightly anomalous values for certain trace metals were found in samples taken within the area, but do not indicate the presence of metallic resources. Gypsum, basaltic cinders, and sandstone occur in the area.

  8. Areas subject to inundation by the 100-year flood in Avra Valley, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeske, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Avra Valley in Pima County, Arizona, is sparsely populated and is used mainly for agriculture and cattle grazing; however, its proximity to Tucson makes it desirable for urban development. Administrators and planners concerned with future land development may use the map report to determine the approximate areas that are subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. Avra Valley is drained mainly by Brawley Wash; Blanco Wash drains the west side of the valley. Most of the natural drainage system consists of small braided channels bordered by narrow bands of dense vegetation, which cause floodwater to spread over wide areas of shallow depths. During the 100-year flood, the areas inundated by Brawley and Blanco Washes may join in several places. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. The distribution of 129I around West Valley, an inactive nuclear fuel reprocessing facility in Western New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Usha; Fehn, Udo

    1997-03-01

    A study of 129I levels in surface waters around an inactive nuclear fuel reprocessing facility at West Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York shows a strong presence of this long-lived radoiisotope (T{1}/{2} = 15.7 Ma) of iodine around the facility. The signal is strong in creeks which drain the facility as well as those in the general vicinity over two decades after reprocessing activities at the site ceased in 1972. Highest 129I levels (1.36 × 1011 atoms/L) are observed at the site boundary in Buttermilk Creek which drains the site, and the resulting plume can be tracked into Lake Erie via Cattaraugus Creek. Other creeks in the West Valley area which do not receive drainage from the site have 129I concentrations on the order of 109-1010 atoms/L, indicating that atmospheric transport of the radionuclide is significant. 129I levels in surface waters around West Valley are 10-1000 times higher than background lelels in western New York, including 129I levels around active nuclear power plants (reported in Rao and Fehn, in preparation), and 100-10000 times higher than levels of 129I in areas outside western New York. However, {36Cl}/{Cl} and 3H measurements in Buttermilk Creek at the site boundary are consistent with present day rainwater values for the region.

  10. Aeromagnetic map of the West Clear Creek roadless area, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Willard E.; Ulrich, George E.

    1983-01-01

    The greater part of the surface is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks, mainly alkali olivine basalts. These overlie Lower Per i an sedimentary rocks consisting mostly of dolomite, limestone, and sandstone strata that dip gently westward. Late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks and deposits mantle several ridges (terrace gravels) and cover basalt flows in Verde Valley at the west end of the area (Verde Formation). Quaternary alluvial deposits occur in the main West Clear Creek drainage and its larger tributaries at the west end of the area.

  11. Front-end planning and evaluation for West Valley Demonstration Project completion

    SciTech Connect

    Gramling, J.; Sharma, V.; Marschke, S.

    1995-12-31

    In December 1988, the U.S. Department of Energy and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority announced their intent to prepare a joint environmental impact statement (EIS) to evaluate alternatives for West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) completion and closure and/or long-term maintenance of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) in West Valley, New York. Planning was initiated for the eventual closure of the site, even though vitrification of the high-level waste (HLW) stored at the site was, at that time, a number of years in the future. West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSC), the WVDP management and operations contractor, and their architect/engineer, Raytheon Nuclear Incorporated, were authorized to develop characterization studies and engineering evaluations of closure alternatives for the various facilities of the WNYNSC. This paper presents a summary of the status of that effort, including the resolution of unique problems.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel removal program at the West Valley Demonstration Project: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, B. J.; Golden, M. P.; Valenti, P. J.; Winkel, J. J.

    1987-03-01

    The spent nuclear fuel removal program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) consisted of removing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the storage pool in the plant, loading them in shielded casks, and preparing the casks for transportation. So far, four fuel removal campaigns have been completed with the return of 625 spent nuclear fuel assemblies to their four utility owners. A fifth campaign, which is not yet completed, will transfer the remaining 125 fuel assemblies to a government site in Idaho. A spent fuel rod consolidation demonstration has been completed, and the storage canisters and their racks are being removed from the fuel receiving and storage pool to make way for installation of the size reduction equipment. A brief history of the West Valley reprocessing plant and the events leading to the storage and ownership of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies and their subsequent removal from West Valley are also recorded as background information. 3 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-12

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning

  14. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. Results 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Conclusion Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. PMID:24079706

  15. Pleistocene drainage incision in the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The deep dissection of the Wisconsin Driftless Area and topographically similar, but glaciated areas in adjacent states is generally acknowledged to have occurred during the Pleistocene, but the precise chronology has been poorly understood. The distribution of pre-Illinoian glacial outwash gravels on uplands and valley side benches near the Mississippi River, on the western margin of the Wisconsin Driftless Area, indicates that the major incision (50-60 m) of drainage had occurred during the very early Pleistocene. Deposits in cut-off valley meanders, a common feature in the lower reaches of Driftless Area rivers, provide a basis for relative dating of the valley incision. The cut-offs appear to have evolved episodically when, at various times during the Pleistocene, glacial debris blocked the drainages of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers causing massive alluviation of side valley tributaries. A radiocarbon date of 21,910 +/- 350 year B.P., representing a buried soil horizon at 22 m depth and about 9 m above the bedrock floor of a cut-off valley meander and 18 m above the bedrock floor of the adjacent present-day valley, supports stratigraphic interpretations that suggest modest valley incision into bedrock probably occurred during the Illinoian and may have also occurred during the early Wisconsinan.

  16. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  17. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  19. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Tuolumne River east of Modesto, a feature that may have important implications for ground-water flow and transport in the region. Although extensive work has been done by earlier investigators to define the structure of the Modesto area aquifer system, this report has resulted in some modification to the lateral extent of the Corcoran Clay and the regional dip of the Mehrten Formation. Well logs in the database indicating the presence of the Corcoran Clay were used to revise the eastern extent of the Corcoran Clay, which lies approximately parallel to the axis of valley. The Mehrten Formation is distinguished in the well-log database by its characteristic black sands consisting of predominantly andesitic fragments. Black sands in wells listed in the database indicate that the formation may lie as shallow as 120 meters (400 feet) below land surface under Modesto, approximately 90 meters (300 feet) shallower than previously thought. The alluvial aquifer system in the Modesto area comprises an unconfined to semiconfined aquifer above and east of the Corcoran Clay confining unit and a confined aquifer beneath the Corcoran Clay. The unconfined aquifer is composed of alluvial sediments of the Modesto, Riverbank, and upper Turlock Lake formations. The unconfined aquifer east of the Corcoran Clay becomes semiconfined with depth due to the numerous discontinuous clay lenses and extensive paleosols throughout the aquifer thickness. The confined aquifer is composed primarily of alluvial sediments of the Turlock Lake and upper Mehrten Formations, extending from beneath the Corcoran Clay to the base of fresh water. Ground water in the unconfined to semiconfined aquifer flows to the west and southwest. The primary source of present-day recharge is percolating excess irrigation water. The primary ground-water discharge is extensive ground-water pumping in the unconfined to semiconfined aquifer, imposing a significant component of vertical flo

  20. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST SIDE OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING EAST. FORGE IS IN FOREGROUND, WITH THE ANVIL BLOCK JUST TO THE RIGHT AND BEHIND IT. A TRAM CAR IS UPSIDE DOWN TO THE LEFT OF THE FORGE. THE PIPE GOING INTO THE FORGE ON THE RIGHT CARRIED COMPRESSED AIR TO BLOW THE COALS. AT CENTER RIGHT ON THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE THE OPENING AND CLOSING MECHANISMS FOR THE ORE BUCKETS. AT CENTER LEFT IS A BRAKE WHEEL. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE STATIONARY TRAM CABLES ARE JUST BELOW THIS WHEEL. THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL IS JUST OFF FRAME ON THE RIGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  3. CRANBERRY WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meissner, Charles R., Jr.; Mory, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, West Virginia contains a large demonstrated resource of bituminous coal of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources in beds more than 14 in. thick are about 110 million short tons of which 56. 5 million tons are in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. Other mineral resources in the study area include peat, shale and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone suitable for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. These commodities are found in abundance in other areas throughout the State. Study of the drill-hole data did not reveal indications of a potential for oil and gas resources in the study area. Evidence of metallic mineral potential was not found during this investigation.

  4. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  5. West Valley College Comprehensive Plan for Special Education, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuscher, Melvin; And Others

    The West Valley Community College District has developed a comprehensive plan for providing special programs and services for its students with communication, learning, and physical disabilities. This document discusses the needs assessments and other preliminary work that went into developing the plan and describes the objectives, functions,…

  6. AQUATIC IMPACTS STUDY OF MOUNTAINTOP MINING AND VALLEY FILL OPERATIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The practice of mountaintop mining and valley fill operations in West Virginia is fraught with controversy. In 1999, EPA, along with several state and federal agencies, initiated an environmental impact study (EIS) to investigate the economic, social and ecological impacts of th...

  7. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2006-09-21

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

  11. A Rural New Town for the West Side of the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Edward M.; And Others

    There are three major phases in the process of community development projected for the San Joaquin Valley's west side. The first phase involves agricultural experiments using different kinds of crops, agricultural techniques, and ownership arrangements. Beginning when enough people have returned to the land to create a demand for an expanded town,…

  12. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  13. Instructional Television Transmission System for the Genesee Valley Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Associates, Rochester, NY.

    In the entire Genessee Valley area of New York, only two channels are available to educators. Therefore, a study was made of the feasibility of constructing a multi-channel system for the transmission of television and data signals to schools in the area. Field strength measurements were taken of the local educational broadcast signal WXXI-TV to…

  14. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. 7.17 Section 7.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can,...

  15. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for middle Tertiary counterclockwise block rotation in the Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    Paleomagnetic data from late Oligocene to early Miocene ash-flow tuffs at four localities in the northern Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada, indicate that parts of the crust have rotated counterclockwise by at least 25/sup 0/ and perhaps significantly more in late Cenozoic time. Field relations in White Rock Canyon, Stillwater Range, suggest that rotation (1) was accommodated by right-lateral slip on northwest-trending faults, (2) spanned ash-flow tuff emplacement, and (3) probably ceased before eruption of overlying middle Miocene basalts. Accurate estimates of Cenozoic extension, as well as evaluation of earlier Mesozoic structures, must include the strain partitioned into rotation in the area.

  16. Valley fill in the Roswell-Artesia area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.

    1973-01-01

    Drill samples from 225 water and oil wells in an area 70 miles long and 20 miles wide in the Roswell-Artesia area, southeastern New Mexico were examined. A thickness map and a saturated thickness map of the valley-fill sediments were constructed. Maximum depth of valley fill is about 300 feet in large closed depressions near Roswell, Hagerman, and Artesia. The depressions were formed by the solution of carbonates and evaporites that underlie the fill. Maximum saturated thickness is about 250 feet in depressions near Hagerman and Artesia and about 300 feet in a depression near Roswell.

  17. View of west elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 21 in foreground. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  19. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  20. Route No. 1 near west edge of Badlands Topographical Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near west edge of Badlands Topographical Area, view to west - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  1. Decontamination of the Warm Aisles at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Final topical report, January 1985-February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.

    1986-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project is a DOE project to solidify in a glass form the 2,120 m/sup 3/ (560,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste stored in two underground steel tanks at the site of the world's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, West Valley, New York. One project objective is to utilize as much of the existing plant areas as practical for the installation of solidification support systems. Previously, Extraction Cell Three (XC3) and the Product Purification Cell (PPC) had been chosen as the location of the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS). Subsequently, it was decided that areas of the Upper Warm Aisle (UWA) and the Lower Warm Aisle (LWA) which are located adjacent to the south wall of XC3 and PPC would also be needed for the installation of LWTS equipment. Shielded concrete niches which contained pumps and valve manifolds are located in the warm aisles. One pump niche and one valve manifold niche in the UWA and one pump niche in the LWA were identified as needed for the LWTS. Also, it was necessary to remove some equipment which was located outside the niches. Subsequently, decontamination plans were made and carried out to prepare these areas for modification and installation activities. Predecontamination survey activities began in January 1985, and decontamination operations were completed in February 1986. Decontamination efforts, results, and lessons learned are reported.

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-09-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Pendl, Michael P.

    2014-09-16

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Klenk, David P.

    2013-09-19

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  5. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Moore, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft{sup 3} of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-09-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  7. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  8. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS Corporation

    2010-09-17

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Pendl, Michael P.; Biedermann, Charles A.; Steiner, II, Robert E.; Fox, James R.; Hoch, Jerald J.; Werchowski, Rebecca L.

    2015-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2014. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2014 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  11. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ..., 715e, 715f-r). The Federal money used to acquire conservation easements is from the Land and Water... Conservation Stamp Act (16 U.S.C. 718-718j, 48 Stat. 452)]. Additional funding to acquire lands, water, or... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish...

  12. Geomorphic processes and evolution of Buttermilk Valley and selected tributaries, West Valley, New York. Phase II. Fluvial systems and erosion study

    SciTech Connect

    Boothroyd, J.C.; Timson, B.S.; Dunne, L.A.

    1982-07-01

    Repetitive bar and channel mapping at several scales, clast size and movement measurements, suspended-sediment sampling, and stream gaging of a 5 km reach of Buttermilk Creek and selected tributaries at West Valley, New York, have been carried out to determine short-term depositional and erosional processes as well as long-term valley changes adjacent to the low-level nuclear waste disposal site and other areas of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. Changes to bar-and-channel geometry in Buttermilk Creed are the result of migration of large transverse bars in equilibrium with large floods, such as occurred during Hurricane Fredric, September 1979. Large amounts of lower terrace gravel are also recycled during these events. Downslope movement of landslides by slumping and earthflow appears to be a continuous process (1.5 m/sup 3/yr/sup -1/). Volumetrically it is a small sediment source except when sudden failure by block gliding deposits a large mass in Buttermilk Creek. Quantitative values of bedload transport, suspended-load sediment transport, and reservoir infill rates compare well with a simple denudation rate (6600 m/sup 3/yr/sup -1/). The middle-to high-level fluvial terraces in Buttermilk Creek are either adjacent to tributary confluences and preserved by an excess of bedload over transport capacity, or survive because the channel is stable on the opposite side of the valley for unknown reasons. The convex longitudinal profile of Franks Creek/Erdman Brook suggests that it is unstable and will continue to downcut rapidly. Valley widening will occur by parallel retreat of slopes. The future lowering of Buttermilk Creek is controlled by bedrock floors in Cattaraugus Creek and lower Buttermilk Creek. However, tributary lowering and widening will continue independent of a change in base-level of Buttermilk Creek.

  13. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

  14. TARZAN: A REMOTE TOOL DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE WEST VALLEY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce R. Thompson; James Veri

    1999-09-30

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. undertook a development project to build Tarzan, a Remote Tool Delivery system to work inside nuclear waste storage tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The removal of waste deposits from large storage tanks poses significant challenges during tank operations and closure. Limited access, the presence of chemical, radiological, and /or explosive hazards, and the need to deliver retrieval equipment to all regions of the tank exceed the capabilities of most conventional methods and equipment. Remotely operated devices for mobilizing and retrieving waste materials are needed. Some recent developments have been made in this area. However, none of these developments completely and cost-effectively address tanks that are congested with internal structures (e.g., support columns, cooling coils, fixed piping, etc.). The Tarzan system consists of the following parts: Locomotor which is deployed in the tank for inspection and cleanup; Hydraulic power unit providing system power for the locomotor and deployment unit; and Control system providing the man machine interface to control, coordinate and monitor the system. This document presents the final report on the Tarzan project.

  15. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  16. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  17. Ground-water conditions in the Grand County area Utah, with emphasis on the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley Area

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater conditions were evaluated in bedrock aquifers in Grand County and parts of northern San Juan County, Utah. Special emphasis was given to the aquifers in the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate Sandstones, and to the Glen Canyon aquifer in the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area. Springs and flowing wells producing water from the Cedar Mountain Formation and the Brushy Basin Shale and Salt Wash Sandstone Members of the Morrison Formation locally discharges lightly saline water at rates typically less than 1 gal/min. Springs issuing from the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate Sandstone locally discharge freshwater throughout their outcrop areas at rates typically less than 5 gal/min. Wells drilled in the Cutler Formation on the west side of Castle Valley produce slightly saline to moderately saline water at rates of about 1 to 40 gal/min, and the water typically has concentrations of selenium larger than the State of Utah's primary drinking-water standard of 10 microg/L. In the City of Moab well field, spring and well discharges from the Glen Canyon aquifer reportedly area as large as 390 gal/min and 2,000 gal/min, respectively, and concentrations of dissolved solids are typically less than 200 mg/L. The largest discharges are from the fractured rocks of the Glen Canyon aquifer. Small concentrations of dissolved solids similar to values for water in recharge areas are the result of groundwater mocing in the area primarily from outcrops of the Glen Canyon Group to the east. West and south of the city of Moab well field, the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate increase as the ratio of water from the outcrop area to water from farther up Spanish Valley decreases.

  18. [HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF TERRITORIES OF FERGANA VALLEY RECREATIONAL AREAS].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to hygienic monitoring ofrecreational areas of Fergana Valley. The aim is a hygienic evaluation of the Fergana Valley's (FV) mountain green areas on the basis of studies of heavy metals content in soil and indices of the anthropogenic load. The main contribution to the overall rate of chemical contamination of soils of the study areas was made by As, Zn, Cu and Ni, the average values of which exceed their respective PAC phytoaccumulation by 1.5-12 times. Out of studied 10 regions the one was classified as most permissible with the total allowable ratio of pollution in 13 relative units, the one--as dangerous (33 rel. units.) and eight regions were considered as moderately hazardous (18.2-27.2 rel. units). According to the degree of anthropogenic load seven studied FV areas were oppressed and three territories were classified as relatively prosperous. PMID:26859041

  19. Geophysical Investigation of Avon Valley, West-Central Montana, using Gravity and Seismic Reflection Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knatterud, L.; Mosolf, J.; Speece, M. A.; Zhou, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Avon Valley and adjacent mountains in west-central Montana lie within the Lewis and Clark Line, a major system of WNW-striking faults and folds that transect the more northerly structural grain of the northern Rockies and represent alternating episodes of transtensional and transpressional deformation. The northwest-trending valley has been previously interpreted as an extensional half graben filled with Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits; however, little-to-no geophysical constraints on basin architecture or the thickness of Tertiary fill have been reported. A major northwest-striking fault with significant normal displacement clearly bounds the valley to the northeast, juxtaposing Tertiary sedimentary deposits against Proterozoic-Mesozoic units deformed by shortening structures and crosscut by Cretaceous granitic intrusions. Tertiary volcanic deposits unconformably overlying faulted and folded Phanerozoic-Proterozoic sequences in the eastern Garnet Range bound the valley to the southwest, but in the past no faults had been mapped along this margin. New mapping by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) has identified a system of high-angle, northwest- and northeast-striking, oblique-slip faults along the southwest border of the Avon calling into question if the valley is a half, full, or asymmetrical graben. Geophysical data has recently been acquired by Montana Tech to help define the structural architecture of the Avon Valley and the thickness of its Tertiary fill. Gravity data and a short seismic reflection profile have been collected and a preliminary interpretation of these data indicates a half graben with a series of normal faults bounding the western side of the valley. Ongoing gravity data collection throughout 2014 should refine this interpretation by better defining the bedrock-Tertiary interface at depth.

  20. Paleomagnetic evidence for the age and extent of middle Tertiary counterclockwise rotation, Dixie Valley region, west central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data obtained from Oligocene to lower Miocene igneous rocks and middle Miocene basaltic rocks of fifteen localities from a region surrounding Dixie Valley in west central Nevada indicate that parts of the area experienced counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation, and these data provide constraints on the extent and timing of rotation. Counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation probably exceeding 30?? is indicated for Oligocene to lower Miocene rocks in the central part of the study area. Paleomagnetic data indicate that Oligocene to lower Miocene rocks at some localities in the northern and southern parts of the study area (e.g., the Golconda Canyon locality) probably did not experience significant Tertiary counterclockwise rotation. -from Authors

  1. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  2. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  3. Phase 1 Final status survey plan for the West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-05-31

    This plan provides the technical basis and associated protocols to support Phase 1 final status survey (FSS) data collection and interpretation as part of the West Valley Demonstration Project Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan process. This plan is consistent with the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). The Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan provides the relevant derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for the Phase 1 radionuclides of interest. This plan includes protocols that will be applied to the deep excavations planned for Waste Management Area (WMA) 1 and WMA 2, for surface soils outside the WMA 1 and WMA 2 excavations that do not have contamination impacts at depths greater than one meter, and for areas that are used for Phase 1 contaminated soil lay-down purposes. All excavated and lay-down areas will be classified as MARSSIM Class 1 areas. Surface soils that have not been excavated, are not expected to exceed DCGLs, and do not have contamination impacts at depths greater than one meter will be divided into either Class 1 or Class 2 areas depending on the expected potential for surface soil contamination in those areas. The plan uses gamma scans combined with biased soil samples to address DCGLemc concerns. The plan uses systematic soil sampling combined with area factors to address DCGLw and DCGLemc concerns. The Sign test will be used to statistically evaluate DCGLw compliance. If the results from the characterization sampling and analysis plan (CSAP) data collection indicate that background may be a significant issue for Sign test implementation, the Wilcoxon rank sum (WRS) test will be used instead to demonstrate DCGLw compliance. A reference area will be selected on the basis of CSAP data results if the WRS test becomes a necessity. The WMA 1 excavation footprint includes approximately 476 foundation pilings that will be trimmed and left in place. Piling-specific systematic and biased sampling will be conducted to

  4. Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

    2012-05-01

    The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

  5. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  6. The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)

    PubMed

    Brunet, M; Beauvilain, A; Coppens, Y; Heintz, E; Moutaye, A H; Pilbeam, D

    1995-11-16

    The first sites with Pliocene and Pleistocene mammals west of the Rift Valley in Central Africa in northern Chad were reported in 1959 (ref. 1), and documented the presence of mixed savannah and woodland habitats. Further sites and a probable Homo erectus cranio-facial fragment were subsequently discovered. In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal (classical Arabic for River of the Gazelles) near Koro Toro. One site, KT 12 (15 degrees 58'10"N, 18 degrees 52'46"E) yielded an australopithecine mandible associated with a fauna biochronologically estimated to be 3.0-3.5 Myr old. Australopithecine species described since 1925 are known from southern Africa and from sites spread along the eastern Rift Valley from Tanzania to Ethiopia (Fig. 1). This new find from Chad, which is most similar in morphology to Australopithecus afarensis, documents the presence of an early hominid a considerable distance, 2,500 km, west of the Rift Valley. PMID:7477344

  7. Biomass analyses for four areas in the Tennessee Valley Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Analyses for four biomass procurement areas in the Tennessee Valley are presented. The Marlow and Perryville, Tennessee, sites can provide 38,000 dry tons of industrial residue annually. Mulberry Creek, Alabama, and Watts Bar, Tennessee, can annually provide 330,000 dry tons of industrial residue and/or forest biomass. Methanol can be produced at the Perryville and Marlow sites and ethanol at Mulberry Creek and Watts Bar. 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  9. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  10. Regional fracture analysis in western valley and ridge and adjoining plateau, West Virginia and Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L.; Baranoski, M.; Bertoli, L.; Kribbs, G.; Stephens, T.; Kulander, B.; Lockman, D.; Mumpower, D.

    1983-03-01

    Approximately 2500 stations were occupied for joint analysis in the western Valley and Ridge and eastern Allegheny Plateau of West Virginia and Maryland. As many as eight different joint sets are present within the study area although only four to five major systematic sets are pervasive throughout the entire region. Consideration of joint crosscutting and offset relationships, tendential and transient features, fibrous mineralization, stylolites, and slickenlines has permitted the establishment of a consistent chronology of joint development throughout the region. Joint set I (N30/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/W) formed first as extension fractures early in the lithification history of all formations, followed by a less commonly developed orthogonal set trending N40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/E. Joint set II(N55/sup 0/ to 70/sup 0/W) formed second in response to early Alleghenian compressive stress, coupled with continuous subsidence, before folding. Joint set III (N20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/E) formed as extension fractures parallel to fold axes, with fracture inception early in fold development. Joint set IV (N75/sup 0/E to N75/sup 0/W) shows slickenlines more commonly than other sets and formed late in the folding history, possibly as shear joints where structures were effectively locked. A moderately to poorly developed joint set V (N10/sup 0/E to N10/sup 0/W) formed last in the region as an orthogonal set to IV. Prediction for joint trends, and possible hydrocarbon migration timing at depth in potential fractured reservoirs, must consider this aspect as well as chronological development, especially in view of the different stress fields within lower and upper thin-skinned plates.

  11. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  12. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  13. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.A.

    1995-06-05

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

  14. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  15. Conversion of the chemical process cell at West Valley to a high-level-waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A. )

    1989-11-01

    A former spent-fuel dissolver cell has been decontaminated at the West Valley demonstration project to provide a shielded storage area for the temporary storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW). The cell, called the chemical process cell (CPC), contained two chopped fuel dissolvers, three waste and recycle evaporators, and three accountability tanks. The cell is 28 m (93 ft) long, 6.7 m (22 ft) wide, 13 m (43 ft) high and is serviced by two overhead, remotely operated bridge cranes. Engineering work is under way to design a storage rack system, decay heat coolers, waste solution rerouting jumpers, and reliability and service upgrades for the remotely operated bridge cranes.

  16. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Caroline and Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the valley-fill aquifer system in upper Sixmile Creek and headwaters of West Branch Owego Creek valleys in the Town of Caroline, NY. The purpose of the study is to provide geohydrologic data to county and town planners as they develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. The first aquifer reach investigated in this series is in the Town of Caroline and includes the upper Sixmile Creek valley and part of West Branch Owego Creek valley. The portions of the valley-fill aquifer system that are comprised of saturated coarse-grained sediments including medium to coarse sand and sandy gravel form the major aquifers. Confined sand and gravel units form the major aquifers in the western and central portions of the upper Sixmile Creek valley, and an unconfined sand and gravel unit forms the major aquifer in the eastern portion of the upper Sixmile Creek valley and in the headwaters of the West Branch Owego Creek valley. The valley-fill deposits are thinnest near the edges of the valley where they pinch out along the till-mantled bedrock valley walls. The thickness of the valley fill in the deepest part of the valley, at the western end of the study area, is about 100 feet (ft); the thickness is greater than 165 ft on top of the Valley Heads Moraine in the central part of the valley. An estimated 750 people live over and rely on groundwater from the valley-fill aquifers in upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek valleys. Most groundwater withdrawn from the valley-fill aquifers is pumped from wells with open-ended 6-inch diameter casings; the remaining withdrawals are from shallow dug wells or cisterns that collect groundwater that discharges to springs (especially in the Brooktondale area). The valley-fill aquifers are the sources of water for about 200 households, several apartment complexes, two mobile home parks

  17. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, C.

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  18. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. 11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL (Numbers painted on stones for reconstruction purposes) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

  1. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  2. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  3. West Valley glass product qualification durability studies, FY 1987--1988: Effects of composition, redox state, thermal history, and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Piepel, G.F.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-11-01

    The product qualification subtask of the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides support for the waste form qualification efforts at West Valley Nuclear Services Co. Testing is being conducted to determine waste form chemical durability in support of these efforts. The effects of composition, ferrous/ferric ratio (redox state), thermal history, and groundwater are being investigated. Glasses were tested using modified Materials Characterization Center (MCC) -3 and MCC-1 test methods. Results obtained in fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988 are presented here. 13 refs., 27 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  5. 1. General view of building front looking west from area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of building front looking west from area near abandoned fog signal building. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  6. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, SHOWING GRANITE OUTCROP BEING REMOVED, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  7. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 8. VIEW OF HELIPAD IN LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING WEST. BASKETBALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF HELIPAD IN LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING WEST. BASKETBALL COURT ON RIGHT, RETAINING WALL VISIBLE Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. CENTER AISLE, WEST STORAGE AREA, FROM EAST, SHOWING ADDED WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CENTER AISLE, WEST STORAGE AREA, FROM EAST, SHOWING ADDED WIRE MESH, GYPSUM BOARD PARTITIONS, AND EXPOSED CEILING FRAMING - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  13. 15. HANGAR AREA, INTERIOR, WEST SIDE, DETAIL OF WHEEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. HANGAR AREA, INTERIOR, WEST SIDE, DETAIL OF WHEEL AND TRACK SYSTEM FOR FRONT DOORS; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. DETAIL OF WEST STORAGE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WEST STORAGE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  17. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  18. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  19. Statistical Modeling of the Abundance of Vectors of West African Rift Valley Fever in Barkédji, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Cheikh; Diallo, Diawo; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Ndione, Jacques-André; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Morse, Andy; Diop, Aliou; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that represents a threat to human and animal health. The exophilic and exophagic behavior of the two main vector in West Africa (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes), adverse events post-vaccination, and lack of treatment, render ineffective the disease control. Therefore it is essential to develop an information system that facilitates decision-making and the implementation of adaptation strategies. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are linked with abnormally high rainfall, and can be predicted up to 5 months in advance by modeling approaches using climatic and environmental parameters. However, the application of these models in West Africa remains unsatisfactory due to a lack of data for animal and human cases and differences in the dynamics of the disease emergence and the vector species involved in transmission. Models have been proposed for West Africa but they were restricted to rainfall impact analysis without a spatial dimension. In this study, we developed a mixed Bayesian statistical model to evaluate the effects of climatic and ecological determinants on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two main vectors. Adult mosquito abundance data were generated from July to December every fortnight in 2005–2006 at 79 sites, including temporary ponds, bare soils, shrubby savannah, wooded savannah, steppes, and villages in the Barkédji area. The results demonstrate the importance of environmental factors and weather conditions for predicting mosquito abundance. The rainfall and minimum temperature were positively correlated with the abundance of Cx. poicilipes, whereas the maximum temperature had negative effects. The rainfall was negatively correlated with the abundance of Ae. vexans. After combining land cover classes, weather conditions, and vector abundance, our model was used to predict the areas and periods with the highest risks of vector pressure. This information could support decision-making to improve

  20. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Valley and West Brandywine townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May 1992 through August 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGovern, J.E.; Bossert, April; Wettstein, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Valley and West Brandywine Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in wells from May 1992 through August 1993. Pre-1992 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more recent data were not available. Because little ground-water development has occurred in the areas where pre-1992 water levels were used, levels are assumed to be the same in 1992 and 1993 as they were when the measurement was made.

  1. View from west to east of exclusion area sentry building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of exclusion area sentry building. A portion of the warhead handling building can be seen on the left. Launch area is in the background - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Exclusion Area Sentry Station, On Patrol Road at entrance to Missile Field, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. Environmental Compliance at the West Valley Demonstration Project: The Vitrification Permitting Program

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Salvatori; C. B. Banzer; W. T. Watters

    1996-05-28

    The major environmental laws that apply to the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are the: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Clean Air Act (CAA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA). Regulations developed in accordance with these laws are administered by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through state and federal programs, and regulatory requirements such as permitting. The Environmental Permits & Reports (EP&R) Group of the Environmental Affairs (EA) Department has the primary responsibility for developing a site-wide permitting program for the WVDP and obtaining the necessary permits. This report discusses the permits and the permitting process associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF).

  3. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS - Washington Division

    2009-09-24

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  5. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation.

  6. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M., III

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  7. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  8. 3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near northeast corner of room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Chemical quality of ground water in the Tehama-Colusa Canal service area, Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Tehama-Colusa Canal Service Area consists of about 450 square miles of irrigable land located on the west side of the Sacramento Valley, Calif. Upon the completion of the Tehama-Colusa Canal, it is expected that most of the service area will switch from passive forms of agriculture (dry farming and grazing) to intensive irrigated farming. Importation and application of surface water may affect the chemical quality of native ground water. This study documents the chemical quality of native ground water before large-scale importation and application of surface water provide the potential of altering the ground-water chemistry. Analyses of samples from 222 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic uses. In the vicinities of College City-Arbuckle and the city of Williams, boron, chloride, sodium, and dissolved solids may be a threat to future agricultural activities where boron- or chloride-sensitive crops would be grown. The source of degraded ground water in the two areas is local intermittent streams that drain areas having numerous saline springs and seeps. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Land-use legacies from dry farming in the Park Valley area of Box Elder County

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last fall in this newsletter, we reported on the initiation of a study on the land-use legacies of dry farming in the Park Valley area. Land-use legacies are the long lasting impacts of historic land uses; such as, cultivation for dry farming. The Park Valley area and Box Elder County experienced ...

  11. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

  12. Early Pleistocene Glacial Lake Lesley, West Branch Susquehanna River valley, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, Joan M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Sasowsky, Ira D.

    1998-02-01

    Laurentide glaciers extended into north central Pennsylvania repeatedly during at least the last 2 million years. Early Pleistocene glaciation extended farther south into central Pennsylvania than any subsequent glaciation, reaching the West Branch Susquehanna River (WBSR) valley. Early Pleistocene ice dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch Susquehanna River at Williamsport, forming Glacial Lake Lesley, a 100-km-long proglacial lake. In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the lake and its age. Maximum lake volume (˜ 100 km 3) was controlled by the elevation of the lowest drainage divide, ˜ 340 m above sea level at Dix, Pennsylvania. Stratified deposits at McElhattan and Linden are used to reconstruct depositional environments in Glacial Lake Lesley. A sedimentary section 40 m thick at McElhattan fines upward from crossbedded sand to fine, wavy to horizontally laminated clay, consistent with lake deepening and increasing distance from the sediment source with time. At Linden, isolated cobbles, interpreted as dropstones, locally deform glacio-lacustrine sediment. We use paleomagnetism as an age correlation tool in the WBSR valley to correlate contemporaneous glaciofluvial and proglacial lacustrine sediments. Reversed remanent polarity in finely-laminated lacustrine clay and silt at McElhattan ( I = 20.4°, D = 146.7°, α95 = 17.7°) and in interbedded silt and sand at Linden ( I = 55.3°, D = 175.2°, α95 = 74.6°) probably corresponds to the latter part of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron, indicating an age between ˜ 770 and ˜ 970 ka. At McElhattan, a diamicton deformed the finely laminated silt and clay by loading and partial fluidization during or soon after lake drainage. As a result, the deformed clay at McElhattan lacks discrete bedding and records a different characteristic remanent magnetism from underlying, undeformed beds. This difference indicates that the characteristic remanent magnetism is detrital. An electrical resistivity

  13. VIEW LOOKING WEST, HARDIETYNES IN MIDDLE GROUND, BIRMINGHAM AREA 'MAX' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST, HARDIE-TYNES IN MIDDLE GROUND, BIRMINGHAM AREA 'MAX' BUS FACILITY IN FOREGROUND. 10TH AVENUE TO THE LEFT, US 280 IN BACKGROUND. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, 800 Twenty-eighth Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. View of west elevation of Building No. 36. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation of Building No. 36. Parking Area No. 35 at left, South Twenty-sixth Street in foreground, Building No. 35 and right rear. Looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 36, Northeast corner of Foothill Avenue & South Twenty-sixth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. VIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD GRINDING AREA, OF MAINTENCE SHOP. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD GRINDING AREA, OF MAINTENCE SHOP. NOTE TRACK IN FLOOR FOR CARTS WITH HEAVY ITEMS, OVERHEAD JIB CRANE AT UPPER RIGHT, PARTIALLY OBSCURED "SG" LOGO ON CABINET, AND SIGNS ABOVE DOORWAY TO MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  17. 113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND WAS ONCE ENCLOSED AS PART OF THE SHOP. THE TRAM LINE AND SNOWSHED RAN TO THE RIGHT (SOUTH) TO EAGLE MINE PORTAL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. 16. DETAIL: West gate pivot area (south side). This feature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL: West gate pivot area (south side). This feature retains its curved timber quoin, post base and part of the lower joinery intact. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  19. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, SHOWING REMAINING GRANITE OUTCROP BEING BROKEN UP BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER MOUNTED ON A BACKHOE, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  20. Catch tank inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-06-21

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established.

  1. Use of the Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Citation Process at the West Valley Demonstration Project - 12250

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Dan; Suttora, Linda; Goldston, Sonny; Petras, Robert; Rowell, Laurene; McNeil, Jim

    2012-07-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project recently achieved a breakthrough in management of radioactive waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by taking advantage of lessons learned at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites in implementation of the waste-incidental-to-reprocessing citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. This breakthrough involved a revision to the site procedure on waste-incidental to reprocessing. This procedure revision served as the basis for a determination by the DOE West Valley field office using the citation process that three secondary waste streams consisting of equipment that had once been contaminated by association with HLW are not HLW following decontamination and may be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) or transuranic waste. These waste streams, which comprised much of the approximately 380 cubic meters of West Valley waste contaminated by association with HLW, included several vessels and certain tank farm equipment. By making use of lessons learned in use of the citation process by other DOE sites and information developed to support use of the citation process at the Hanford site and the Savannah River Site, the team developed a technical basis for showing that use of the citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1 for the three new waste stream was appropriate and technically justified. The Waste Management Working Group of the EFCOG assisted in transferring lessons learned by drawing on experience from around the DOE complex. This process shared knowledge about effective implementation of the citation process in a manner that proved to be beneficial to the West Valley Demonstration Project and resulted in a technical basis document that could be used to determine that the three new waste streams were not HLW. (authors)

  2. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site

  3. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1991-12-31

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation.

  4. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  6. Benchmarking the Remote-Handled Waste Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    O. P. Mendiratta; D. K. Ploetz

    2000-02-29

    ABSTRACT Facility decontamination activities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a former commercial nuclear spent fuel reprocessing facility near Buffalo, New York, have resulted in the removal of radioactive waste. Due to high dose and/or high contamination levels of this waste, it needs to be handled remotely for processing and repackaging into transport/disposal-ready containers. An initial conceptual design for a Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RHWF), completed in June 1998, was estimated to cost $55 million and take 11 years to process the waste. Benchmarking the RHWF with other facilities around the world, completed in November 1998, identified unique facility design features and innovative waste pro-cessing methods. Incorporation of the benchmarking effort has led to a smaller yet fully functional, $31 million facility. To distinguish it from the June 1998 version, the revised design is called the Rescoped Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RRHWF) in this topical report. The conceptual design for the RRHWF was completed in June 1999. A design-build contract was approved by the Department of Energy in September 1999.

  7. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  8. BELL STAR EAST AND WEST ROADLESS AREAS, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Harris, Lyle E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral and geologic surveys, it was concluded that Bell Star East and West Roadless Areas, Arkansas, have inferred resources of coal in areas of substantiated coal resource potential from the Lower Hartshorne coal bed at depths of 2000 to 4000 ft below the surface. These areas also have a probable potential for natural gas from the Atoka and Hall Formations at depths as much as 6000 ft below the surface. No metallic mineral resources were identified in the roadless areas.

  9. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Antelope Valley of the California High Desert viticultural area in the Federal Register (75 FR 53877) on... western tip of the valley, is a sedimentary bed dating to the Miocene epoch (about 23 to 5 million years... granitic rock on alluvial fans and terraces. Generally, they vary in drainage, slope, elevation,...

  10. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Interior, building 810, view to west from approximately midhangar. Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, building 810, view to west from approximately mid-hangar. Area of photo encompasses approximately 1/4 of the interior space, with the KC-10 tanker aircraft and the figures beneath it giving an idea of scale, 90mm lens plus electronic flash fill lightening. - Travis Air Force Base, B-36 Hangar, Between Woodskill Avenue & Ellis, adjacent to Taxiway V & W, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Hydrology of Area 5, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 5 of the Eastern Coal Province, the 7,384 square-mile Monongahela River basin in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and north-central West Virginia. One hundred thirty-four streams were sampled about three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and bottom material samples were analyzed for metals. Eleven streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved-sulfate levels indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Tygart Valley River basin, although indicators of acid-mine drainage were found throughout the Monongahela basin. No benthic invertebrates were found in 25 of 129 streams sampled. Such streams were most common in the Cheat and Tygart Valley River basins. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 5. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, WATSTORE, and indexes to water-data activities in coal provinces are presented. (USGS)

  13. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z.

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  14. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

    2002-02-25

    The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  16. An information system for the utility of the ephemeral tributaries west of the Nile Valley in Sudan. Based on remote sensing and geological techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Al Biely, A.I.; Mohamed, A.H.A.; Khidir, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Interpretation of landsat MSS and TM satellite and NOAA-AVHRR images, climatological data and conventional geological methods were integrated in this study to arrive at a rigorous scientific geoinformation system that could assist the on-going endeavours to rehabilitate areas west of the Nile Valley. The study area, which repetitively suffered severe spells of drought, extends between latitudes 12{degrees}N-18{degrees}N and longitudes 27{degrees}E-32{degrees}E. The area considered abodes four major ephemeral tributaries of the River Nile, they are Wadi Howar, Wadi El Milk, Wadi El Mugaddam and Khor Abu Habil. Visual interpretation of remotely sensed data coupled with geological investigations revealed that these ephemeral tributaries are structurally controlled and their lower courses are buried under extensive sand sheets, that block their channels from reaching the Nile Valley. Sites where those tributaries disappear could constitute huge reservoirs of groundwater that could be utilized to harness desert encroachment and to plan rehabilitation projects. It is envisaged that, surface and subsurface hydrological engineering constructions in favourable sites, across those tributaries may lead to permanent surface water ponding. The performed study demonstrated the possibility of combating the environmental degradation on the area under consideration through carefully designed rehabilitation and development projects based on the integration of available data in a geoinformation system.

  17. A summary of the geology and mineral resources of the Paris Plateau-House Rock Valley area, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Morris W.; Pierson, C.T.; Bauer, D.P.; Umshler, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The Paria Plateau-House Rock Valley area of north-central Arizona is located on the southwestern edge Of the Colorado Plateau physiographic province in an area underlain by about 5,000 meters of fossiliferous marine and continental sedimentary rock ranging in age from Precambrian through Quaternary. The area, which lies north of the Grand and Marble Canyons, is bounded on the west by the East Kaibab monocline and on the east by the Echo monocline. The Paria Plateau, bounded on the South by the scenic Vermilion Cliffs, is composed of continental red-beds of Triassic and Jurassic age, which dip gently northward at 2? to ? away from the north end of the Marble Platform upon which the Paria Plateau sits.

  18. Hydrologic Evaluation of the Jungo Area, Southern Desert Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    RecologyTM, the primary San Francisco waste-disposal entity, is proposing to develop a Class 1 landfill near Jungo, Nevada. The proposal calls for the landfill to receive by rail about 20,000 tons of waste per week for up to 50 years. On September 22, 2009, the Interior Appropriation (S.A. 2494) was amended to require the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the proposed Jungo landfill site for: (1) potential water-quality impacts on nearby surface-water resources, including Rye Patch Reservoir and the Humboldt River; (2) potential impacts on municipal water resources of Winnemucca, Nevada; (3) locations and altitudes of aquifers; (4) how long it will take waste seepage from the site to contaminate local aquifers; and (5) the direction and distance that contaminated groundwater would travel at 95 and 190 years. This evaluation was based on review of existing data and information. Desert Valley is tributary to the Black Rock Desert via the Quinn River in northern Desert Valley. The Humboldt River and Rye Patch Reservoir would not be affected by surface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site because they are in the Humboldt basin. Winnemucca, on the Humboldt River, is 30 miles east of the Jungo landfill site and in the Humboldt basin. Groundwater-flow directions indicate that subsurface flow near the proposed Jungo landfill site is toward the south-southwest. Therefore, municipal water resources of Winnemucca would not be affected by surface or subsurface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site. Basin-fill aquifers underlie the 680-square-mile valley floor in Desert Valley. Altitudes around the proposed Jungo landfill site range from 4,162 to 4,175 feet. Depth to groundwater is fairly shallow in southern Desert Valley and is about 60 feet below land surface at the proposed Jungo landfill site. A groundwater divide exists about 7 miles north of the proposed Jungo landfill site. Groundwater north of the divide flows north towards the Quinn River. South of

  19. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  20. Early Eocene Molluscan biostratigraphy, Mount Pinos-Lockwood Valley area, northern Ventura County, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, R.L.; Wilson, M.

    1987-05-01

    A 600-m thick unnamed marine, predominantly transition-zone siltstone unit along the south flank of the Mount Pinos uplift, in the northern Lockwood Valley area, previously has been suggested to be early Eocene (Capay Stage) in age at its base. This present study shows the entire unit to be this age. Unconformably overlying the pre-Tertiary granite basement is 30 m of unfossiliferous muddy siltstone that grades upward into 50 m of very fine sandstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of medium to coarse sandstone. Gradationally above the sandstone is 100 m of muddy siltstone with less rarely fossiliferous lenses of conglomeratic sandstone. Macrofossil collections made at 10 localities in these lower 180 m yielded a sparse fauna of subtropical shallow-marine gastropods and bivalves, as well as rare specimens of discocyclinid foraminifera. from 180 to 500 m above the base of the section is unfossiliferous siltstone with local occurrences of lower shoreface, alternating laminated and bioturbated very fine sandstone. The uppermost 100 m of the section is siltstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of fine to medium sandstone. Collections made at five localities yielded subtropical shallow-marine mollusks. Evidence of a West Coast provincial molluscan Capay Stage (early Eocene) age for all the fossiliferous beds of the siltstone unit is the presence of Turritella andersoni, a species diagnostic of this stage. Commonly associated mollusks are Cryptoconus cooperi, Cylichnina tantilla, Ectinochilus (Macilentos) macilentus, and Turritella buwaldana. Unconformably overlying the unit is the Oligocene-lower Miocene nonmarine Plush Ranch Formation.

  1. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  2. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007–2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean. PMID:24016237

  3. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia and West Virginia, Using Variable-Direction Anisotropy in Hydraulic Conductivity to Represent Bedrock Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Southworth, Scott C.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2008-01-01

    ) variable strike and dip, in which conductivity tensors were aligned with the strike and dip of the bedding, and (2) uniform strike in which conductivity tensors were assumed to be horizontally isotropic with the maximum conductivity direction parallel to the N30 deg E axis of the valley and the minimum conductivity direction perpendicular to the horizontal plane. Simulated flow penetrated deeper into the aquifer system with the uniform-strike tensor than with the variable-strike-and-dip tensor. Sensitivity analyses suggest that additional information on recharge rates would increase confidence in the estimated parameter values. Two applications of the model were conducted - the first, to determine depth of recent ground-water flow by simulating the distribution of ground-water ages, showed that most shallow ground water is less than 10 years old. Ground-water age distributions computed by variable-strike-and-dip and uniform-strike models were similar, but differed beneath Massanutten Mountain in the center of the valley. The variable-strike-and-dip model simulated flow from west to east parallel to the bedding of the carbonate rocks beneath Massanutten Mountain, while the uniform-strike model, in which flow was largely controlled by topography, simulated this same area as an east-west ground-water divide. The second application, which delineated capture zones for selected well fields in the valley, showed that capture zones delineated with both models were similar in plan view, but differed in vertical extent. Capture zones simulated by the variable-strike-and-dip model extended downdip with the bedding of carbonate rock and were relatively shallow, while those simulated by the uniform-strike model extended to the bottom of the flow system, which is unrealistic. These results suggest that simulations of ground-water flow through folded fractured rock can be constructed using SUTRA to represent variable orientations of the hydraulic-conductivity tensor and produce a

  4. Comparison of West Valley and Savannah River waste glass: Part I, Durability of non-radioactive waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-09-29

    Simulated West Valley glass was prepared by Catholic University of America (CUA) and then tested at SRL. The simulated glass was non- radioactive (WV-205) and had ZrO/sub 2/ substituted for the ThO/sub 2/ component of the waste. The durability experiments demonstrated that WV-205 glass is of similar durability and composition to SRL-200 interim precipitate hydrolysis product (PHP) waste glass; WV-205 glass is not as durable as sludge-only SRL-165 but more durable than sludge-only SRL-131 waste glass formulations, and the relative durability of WV-205 glass can be assessed by hydration thermodynamics. 12 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the lower Big Chino Valley and Williamson Valley areas, Yavapai and Coconino Counties, Arizona--1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, B.L.; Laney, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Arizona is divided into 67 ground-water areas, and individual areas are selected for intensive data collection once every 6 years. The data collected in the lower Big Chino Valley and Williamson Valley areas are given on maps that show depth to water, well depth, and altitude of the water level, 1975-76; pumpage, 1950-74; and specific conductance, fluoride concentration, and irrigated area, 1974. Scale 1:125,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David; Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report

  7. Paired, facing monoclines in the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several major monoclines that trend northward through the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area of central Utah are paired and face one another. This pairing of monoclines may have occurred when near-horizontal sedimentary and volcanic strata subsided into voids created as salt was removed from a salt diapir concealed beneath valley fill. Removal was mostly by dissolution or extrusion during Neogene time. The paired monoclines, thus, are viewed as collapse features rather than as normal synclinal folds. -from Author

  8. Measuring ground movement in geothermal areas of Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, B. E.

    1974-01-01

    Significant ground movement may accompany the extraction of large quantities of fluids from the subsurface. In Imperial Valley, California, one of the potential hazards of geothermal development is the threat of both subsidence and horizontal movement of the land surface. Regional and local survey nets are being monitored to detect and measure possible ground movement caused by future geothermal developments. Precise measurement of surface and subsurface changes will be required to differentiate man-induced changes from natural processes in this tectonically active region.

  9. Serological evidence in sheep suggesting phlebovirus circulation in a Rift Valley fever enzootic area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J P; Le Guenno, B; Some, M J; Akakpo, J A

    1992-01-01

    Within the Phlebovirus serogroup, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is endemo-enzootic in the African sahelian zone. Recently an RVF epizootic in West Africa prompted a serosurvey in the major sheep and cattle raising areas. Because of the close antigenic relationship between the phleboviruses it appeared of interest to evaluate the prevalence of the other phleboviruses also. In 1987, 482 sheep serum samples were collected in 2 different ecological zones of Burkina Faso and tested for the presence of phlebovirus antibodies. A sensitive but non-specific immunofluorescent antibody test and a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used, with the following African phlebovirus antigens: Rift Valley fever (RVF), Arumowot, Gabek Forest, Gordil, Saint Floris and Odrenisrou. A total of 15.8% of the sera sampled had anti-RVF antibody in the ELISA. RVF virus appeared to be more active in drier areas such as the sahelian region, known to be an enzootic area for the disease. Antibodies to other phleboviruses were found in 11.8% of the samples, independent of RVF virus activity. It is assumed that sheep can be infected by different phleboviruses. PMID:1287944

  10. Quaternary geology and geologic hazards of the West Desert Hazardous Industry Area, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solomon, Barry J.; Black, Bill D.

    1990-01-01

    The study of Quaternary geology provides information to evaluate geologic conditions and identify geologic constraints on construction in the West Desert Hazardous Industry Area (WDHIA). The WDHIA includes portions of the Great Salt Lake Desert to the west, underlain by several thousand feet of sediments capped by saline mudflats, and Ripple Valley to the east, separated from the Desert by the Grayback Hills and underlain by several hundred feet of sediments in the Cedar Mountains piedmont zone. Quaternary surficial units include marginal, shore-zone, and deep-water lacustrine sediments deposited in Pleistocene Lake Bonneville; eolian deposits; and alluvial sediments. The level of Lake Bonneville underwent major oscillations resulting in the creation of four basin-wide shorelines, three of which are recognized in the WDHIA. Geologic hazards in the WDHIA include the possible contamination of ground water in basin-fill aquifers, debris flows and flash floods in the piedmont zone, and earthquakes and related hazards. Numerous factors contribute to unsafe foundation conditions. Silty and sandy sediments may be subject to liquefaction or hydrocompaction, clayey sediments and mud flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert may be subject to shrinking or swelling, and gypsiferous dunes and salt flats are subject to subsidence due to dissolution.

  11. Combining Hydrology and Mosquito Population Models to Identify the Drivers of Rift Valley Fever Emergence in Semi-Arid Regions of West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961–2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Conclusion/Significance Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the

  12. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Elko, Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and Sheep Range areas, eastern and southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Schaefer, D.H.; Frick, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Principal facts for 537 gravity stations in the carbonate-rock province of eastern and southern Nevada are tabulated and presented. The gravity data were collected in support of groundwater studies in several valleys. The study areas include the Elko area, northern Steptoe Valley, Coyote Spring Valley, and the western Sheep Range area. The data for each site include values for latitude, longitude, altitude, observed gravity, free- air anomaly, terrain correction, and Bouguer anomaly (calculated at a bedrock density of 2.67 g/cu cm. (USGS)

  13. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  14. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  15. 76 FR 75830 - Proposed Establishment of the Inwood Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) proposes to establish the 28,298-acre ``Inwood Valley'' viticultural area in Shasta County, California. TTB designates viticultural areas to allow vintners to better describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. TTB invites comments on this proposed addition to its...

  16. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval...

  17. Role of strain for cover geometry in Valley and Ridge province of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Billman, D.A.; Johnston, M.A.; Dunne, W.M.

    1988-08-01

    Within the study area, samples for strain determination were collected along six section lines, which extended from the Little North Mountain thrust in the east to the Alleghenian structural front in the west. Along each section line, 20-25 oriented samples of well-sorted, quartz-rich, framework-supported sandstones were collected from seven levels between the basal Silurian and basal Mississippian. The use of seven levels enabled sampling in both cover anticlines and synclines and allowed assessment of strain variation with stratigraphic level. Strain determination was performed on oriented sample thin sections using the normalized Fry and Rf/phi methods. These strain data are presented on the six new cross sections that were constructed from new field data and existing geologic maps. These strain data were used to determine whether microscale deformation (1) made little contribution to cover deformation, (2) occurred as a layer-parallel shortening preceding the emplacement of underlying horses, (3) occurred as only local strains in response to flexural flow during folding, or (4) occurred as flattening during emplacement of underlying horses.

  18. Map showing geothermal resources of The Lake City-Surprise Valley Known Geothermal Resource Area, Modoc County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal data are summarized from published and unpublished geophysical, geochemical, and geologic reports on Surprise Valley prepared during the past 26 years. Particular emphasis is placed on a comprehensive structural interpretation of the west half of the valley that is based on map compilation of concealed faults that have been inferred from geophysical methods and exposed faults that can be seen in the field and/or on aerial photographs. The faults apparently control the location of modern geothermal activity.

  19. Ground water in the Eola-Amity Hills area, northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1967-01-01

    The Eola-Amity Hills area ,comprises about 230 square miles on the west side of the Willamette Valley between Salem and McMinnville, Oreg. The area is largely rural, and agriculture is the principal occupation. Rocks ranging in age from Eocene to Recent underlie the area. The oldest rocks are a sequence more than 5,000 feet thick of marine-deposited shale and siltstone strata, with thin interbeds of sandstone that range in age from Eocene to middle Oligocene. They are widely exposed in and west of the Eola-Amity Hills and underlie younger sedimentary and volcanic rocks throughout the study area. In the Eola-Amity Hills and Red Hills of Dundee, the Columbia River Group, a series of eastward-dipping basaltic lava flows locally of Miocene age, and conformably overlies the marine sedimentary rocks. The Columbia River Group ranges in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 900 feet and has an average thickness of about 200 feet. The formation is exposed in the Eola-Amity Hills and Red Hills of Dundee and, at places, extends to the east beneath younger rocks. Overlying the Columbia River Group and marine sedimentary rocks are nonmarine sedimentary deposits that range in thickness from less than 1 foot, where they lap up (to an altitude of about 200 ft) on the flanks of the higher hills, to several hundred feet along the east margin of the study area. These deposits include the Troutdale Formation of Pliocene age, the Willamette Silt of late Pleistocene age, and alluvium of the Willamette River and its tributaries. The Troutdale Formation and the alluvium of the Willamette River contain the most productive aquifers in the Eola-Amity Hills area. These aquifers, which consist mainly of sand and gravel, generally yield moderate to large quantities of water to properly constructed wells. Basalt of the Columbia River Group yields small to moderate quantities of water to wells, and the marine sedimentary rocks and Willamette Silt generally yield small but adequate quantities

  20. Trends in chloride, dissolved-solids, and nitrate concentrations in ground water, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake Areas, Douglas County, Nevada, 1959-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Douglas County, an area of approximately 750 square miles in west-central Nevada, has led to concern about the present and future effects of development on ground water. This report describes the results of two nonparametric statistical procedures applied to detect trends in concentrations of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate in ground water. The water-quality data consist of analytical results from ground-water samples collected and analyzed by the U. S. Geological Survey and ground-water-quality data provided by the Nevada Bureau of Health Protection Services for the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County, Nevada. For purposes of this study, statistical significance, expressed as the p-value, was set at 0.1. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxan rank-sum test detected increasing step-trends for nitrate in one of seven residential areas and for dissolved-solids concentrations throughout the study area. Decreasing step-trends for chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations were detected in the west Carson Valley area. Kendall's Tau detected monotonic trends for increasing nitrate concentrations at four domestic wells and for increasing dissolved-solids concentrations at two domestic wells. No other statistically significant trends were indicated by either test. Land-use relations to areas where increasing trends were detected suggest that the density of individual wastewater-treatment systems may exceed the capacity of soils to treat wastewater leachate.

  1. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  2. Geology and ground water in Russian River Valley areas and in Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, G.T.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water in seven valley areas along the course of the Russian River in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, Calif., and in three valleys in the upper drainage reach of the Eel River in Mendocino County. Except for the westward-trending lower Russian River valley, the remaining valley areas along the Russian River (Healdsburg, Alexander, Cloverdale, Sanel, Ukiah, and Potter Valleys) lie in northwest-trending structurally controlled depressions formed in marine rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. The principal aquifer in all the valleys is the alluvium of Recent age, which includes highly permeable channel deposits of gravel and sand. Water for domestic, irrigation, industrial, and other uses is developed by (1) direct diversion from the Russian River and its tributaries, (2) withdrawal of ground water and river water from shallow wells near the river, and (3) withdrawals of ground water from wells in alluvial deposits at varying distances from the river. Surface water in the Russian River and most tributaries is of good chemical quality. The water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and contains 75,200 parts per million of dissolved solids. Ground water is also of good chemical quality throughout most of the drainage basin, but the concentration of dissolved solids (100-300 parts per million) is somewhat higher than that in the surface water. Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys are in central and northern Mendocino County in the drainage basin of the northwestward flowing Eel River. In Round Valley the alluvium of Recent age yields water of good chemical quality in large quantities. Yields are lower and the chemical quality poorer in Laytonville Valley. Ground water in Little Lake Valley is relatively undeveloped. Selected descriptions of wells, drillers' logs, chemical analyses, and hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations are included in the report. Accompanying maps show the

  3. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... viticultural area in the Federal Register (74 FR 35146) on July 20, 2009. In that notice, TTB invited comments... Pelona Valley is on a formation of Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks, mostly gneiss and other metamorphic rocks with granitic intrusions. The petition notes that these mineral-rich rocks are...

  4. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... description of the features of the viticultural area that affect viticulture, such as climate, geology, soils..., in the Federal Register (73 FR 49123) regarding the proposed expansion of the Russian River Valley....) ATF-159, published in the Federal Register (48 FR 48812) on October 21, 1983. It was expanded by...

  5. Earthquakes, active faults, and geothermal areas in the Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.; Mowinckel, P.; Peake, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    A dense seismograph network in the Imperial Valley recorded a series of earthquake swarms along the Imperial and Brawley faults and a diffuse pattern of earthquakes along the San Jacinto fault. Two known geothermal areas are closely associated with these earthquake swarms. This seismicity pattern demonstrates that seismic slip is occurring along both the Imperial-Brawley and San Jacinto fault systems.

  6. 75 FR 81846 - Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., published T.D. ATF-89 in the Federal Register at 46 FR 39811 (August 5, 1981), establishing the Santa Maria... the proposed expansion of the Santa Maria Valley viticultural area in the Federal Register at 75 FR... onto the Santa Maria N.I. 10-6 map to the 3,016-foot summit of Los Coches Mountain; then (4)...

  7. Earthquakes, active faults, and geothermal areas in the imperial valley, california.

    PubMed

    Hill, D P; Mowinckel, P; Peake, L G

    1975-06-27

    A dense seismograph network in the Imperial Valley recorded a series of earthquake swarms along the Imperial and Brawley faults and a diffuse pattern of earthquakes along the San Jacinto fault. Two known geothermal areas are closely associated with these earthquake swarms. This seismicity pattern demonstrates that seismic slip is occurring along both the Imperial-Brawley and San Jacinto fault systems. PMID:17772600

  8. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taie, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP.

  9. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the First West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Feed Batch

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Ronald A.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary L.; Smith, Monty R.; Russell, Renee L.; Patello, Gertrude K.

    2002-10-07

    To support the West Valley Demonstration Project's (WVDP) Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR) and data needs associated with the support flowsheet, equipment, and process testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to completely characterize a sample of the first batch of high-level waste (HLW) slurry transferred to the Concentrator Feed Make-Up Tank (CFMT) identified as CW-H. Cation, anion, and radionuclide concentrations as well as the slurry physical properties including density, total solids, and suspended solids were measured. This data will be compared to the predicted inventory of the waste. Also, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS) results for cation analysis will be compared to cation analysis results from inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Radionuclide analysis methods were developed during this work for iodine-129, selenium-79, actinium-227, and neptunium-236 and will also be presented.

  10. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Final report, August 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Potter, S.M.; Rogers, W.B.; Whitbeck, L.F.; LaFleur, R.G.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Timson, B.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report is the last in a series by the New York State Geological Survey on studies funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report covers five important aspects of the geology and hydrology of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near West Valley, New York: geomorphology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, surface water, and radionuclide analyses. We reviewed past research on these subjects and present new data obtained in the final phase of NYSGS research at the site. Also presented are up-to-date summaries of the present knowledge of geomorphology and stratigraphy. The report contains a significant bibliography of previous West Valley studies. Appendices include a report on the Fall 1983 Drilling Project and the procedures used, history and prognosis of Cattaraugus Creek and tributaries down cutting, and bar modification and landslide processes of Buttermilk Valley. 100 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Culex pipiens, an Experimental Efficient Vector of West Nile and Rift Valley Fever Viruses in the Maghreb Region

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 107.8 and 108.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14–21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology. PMID:22693557

  12. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  13. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  14. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  15. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  16. Investigation of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in the Sonoma Valley Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Bezore, Stephen P.; Majmundar, Hasu H.

    1983-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley area contains low-temperature geothermal resources (20 C {le} T {le} 90 C) having the potential for useful development. Sonoma Valley residents, local governments and institutions, private developers, and manufacturers may be able to utilize the geothermal resources as an alternate energy source. Historically, there have been at least six geothermal spring areas developed in the Sonoma Valley. Four of these (Boyes Hot Springs, Fetter's Hot Springs, Agua Caliente Springs, and the Sonoma State Hospital warm spring) lie on a linear trend extending northwestward from the City of Sonoma. Detailed geophysical surveys delineated a major fault trace along the east side of the Sonoma Valley in association with the historic geothermal areas. Other fault traces were also delineated revealing a general northwest-trending structural faulting fabric underlying the valley. Water wells located near the ''east side'' fault have relatively high boron concentrations. Geochemical evidence may suggest the ''east side'' fault presents a barrier to lateral fluid migration but is a conduit for ascending fluids. Fifteen of the twenty-nine geothermal wells or springs located from literature research or field surveys are located along or east of this major fault in a 10 km (6.2 miles) long, narrow zone. The highest recorded water temperature in the valley appears to be 62.7 C (145 F) at 137.2 meters (450 feet) in a well at Boyes Hot Springs. This is consistent with the geothermal reservoir temperature range of 52-77 C (126-171 F) indicated by geothermometry calculations performed on data from wells in the area. Interpretation of data indicates a low-temperature geothermal fluid upwelling or ''plume'', along the ''east side'' fault with subsequent migration into permeable aquifers predominantly within volcanic strata. It is quite likely other geothermal fluid ''plumes'' in association with faulting are present within the Sonoma Valley area. A 5.8 km{sup 2} geothermal zone

  17. Geologic Map of the Warm Spring Canyon Area, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California, With a Discussion of the Regional Significance of the Stratigraphy and Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrucke, Chester T.; Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.

    2007-01-01

    Warm Spring Canyon is located in the southeastern part of the Panamint Range in east-central California, 54 km south of Death Valley National Park headquarters at Furnace Creek Ranch. For the relatively small size of the area mapped (57 km2), an unusual variety of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rocks is present. The outcrop distribution of these rocks largely resulted from movement on the east-west-striking, south-directed Butte Valley Thrust Fault of Jurassic age. The upper plate of the thrust fault comprises a basement of Paleoproterozoic schist and gneiss overlain by a thick sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks, the latter of which includes diamictite generally considered to be of glacial origin. The lower plate is composed of Devonian to Permian marine formations overlain by Jurassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the area, and one pluton intrudes the Butte Valley Thrust Fault. Low-angle detachment faults of presumed Tertiary age underlie large masses of Neoproterozoic dolomite in parts of the area. Movement on these faults predated emplacement of middle Miocene volcanic rocks in deep, east-striking paleovalleys. Excellent exposures of all the rocks and structural features in the area result from sparse vegetation in the dry desert climate and from deep erosion along Warm Spring Canyon and its tributaries.

  18. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  19. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Southworth, C.

    1988-12-01

    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 × 10 6 m 3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 × 10 6 m 3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province.

  20. Comparison of storm response of streams in small, unmined and valley-filled watersheds, 1999-2001, Ballard fork, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messinger, Terence

    2003-01-01

    During storms when rainfall intensity exceeded about 1 inch per hour, peak unit runoff from the Unnamed Tributary (surface-mined and filled) Watershed exceeded peak unit runoff from the Spring Branch (unmined) Watershed in the Ballard Fork Watershed in southern West Virginia. During most storms, those with intensity less than about 1 inch per hour, peak unit (area-normalized) flows were greater from the Spring Branch Watershed than the Unnamed Tributary Watershed. One storm that produced less than an inch of rain before flow from the previous storm had receded caused peak unit flow from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed to exceed peak unit flow from the Spring Branch Watershed. Peak unit flow was usually similar in Spring Branch and Ballard Fork. Peak unit flows are expected to decrease with increasing watershed size in homogeneous watersheds; drainage area and proportion of the three watersheds covered by valley fills are 0.19 square mile (mi?) and 44 percent for the Unnamed Tributary Watershed, 0.53 mi? and 0 percent for the Spring Branch Watershed, and 2.12 mi? and 12 percent for the Ballard Fork Watershed. Following all storms with sufficient rainfall intensity, about 0.25 inches per hour, the storm hydrograph from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed showed a double peak, as a sharp initial rise was followed by a decrease in flow and then a delayed secondary peak of water that had apparently flowed through the valley fill. Hortonian (excess overland) flow may be important in the Unnamed Tributary Watershed during intense storms, and may cause the initial peak on the rising arm of storm hydrographs; the water composing the initial peaks may be conveyed by drainage structures on the mine. Ballard Fork and Spring Branch had hydrographs with single peaks, typical of elsewhere in West Virginia. During all storms with 1-hour rainfall greater than 0.75 inches or 24-hour rainfall greater than 1.75 inches during which all stream gages recorded a complete record, the Unnamed

  1. Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  3. Development and analysis of regional curves for streams in the non-urban valley and ridge physiographic province, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keaton, Jefferson N.; Messinger, Terence; Doheny, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area (often called 'regional curves') are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. Bankfull stream characteristics were assessed for stream reaches at 41 streamflow-gaging stations in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Regional curves were developed for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge with R2 values of 0.95, 0.89, 0.87, and 0.91, respectively. Examination of the regional curves residuals indicates that there is more variability in bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge for smaller streams than for larger streams. In contrast, there is more variability for bankfull mean depth for larger streams than for smaller streams. Geographic analysis of regional curve residuals indicated that there were no further subdivisions within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the three-state study area for which individual sets of regional curves should be developed. In addition, two separate sets of regional curves were developed with data from the 41 sites to examine potential differences in the relations between the southern (n = 9) and central (n = 32) sections of the province. There were differences in slope and intercept between the two bankfull discharge test relations and a difference in intercept for the width test relations at the 95-percent confidence level. However, the results of this analysis were inconclusive and therefore one set of regional curves for the study area is presented in this report. The regional curves were compared to regression models developed from

  4. Importance of migrants infected with Onchocerca volvulus in west African river valleys protected by 14 to 15 years of Simulium control.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-06-01

    A study was done to determine the importance of human migration from non-controlled endemic onchocerciasis foci to the river valleys that have been protected for the past 14 to 15 years by the vector control operations of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of migrants to the prevalence and intensity of infection in villages from 5 major river valleys and their potential role in causing relapse of transmission once the vector is allowed to return. In Burkina Faso the migrant population varied from 0.0% to 18.1% of the village population, and averaged 4.9%. Migrants accounted only for 0.6% of the population in Ghanaian and Ivorian villages along the Black Volta river. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in migrants (8.2%) than in non migrants (1.1%) in the surveyed villages in Burkina Faso, and 1.5% of migrants had infections with more than 16 microfilariae per snip as against 0.2% of non migrants. Nearly all infected migrants came from the south of the Côte d'Ivoire. The study shows that human migration has caused the importation of Onchocerca volvulus from non-controlled areas. However, the epidemiological importance of this phenomenon is limited because of the very small number of infected migrants per village while two-third of the infected migrants are believed to be infected with the less pathogenic forest strain of the parasite. Because migration patterns changes geographically and over time similar studies will be continued on a regular basis. PMID:1654591

  5. Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Holocene paleoceanography of Disko Bugt area, west Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet-Bernier, Marie-Michèle; de Vernal, Anne; Moros, Matthias; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Micropaleontological, palynological and isotopic analyses of sediment core MSM343300 (68° 28,311'N, 54° 00,118'W; 519 m water depth) raised off Disko Bugt area (West Greenland) were undertaken in order to document Holocene paleoceanographical changes in the Eastern Baffin bay, at a site now influenced by the Western Greenland Current. Palynological analyses were performed with special attention paid to dinocysts in order to characterize sea-surface conditions whereas isotopic analyses on benthic foraminifers aimed at documenting the "deep" water mass bathing the shelf edge. Palynological assemblages are largely dominated by dinocysts, which suggest high pelagic productivity during the Middle and Late Holocene. The assemblages are dominated by Islandinium minutum accompanied of the cyst of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Brigantedinium spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites elongatus, Selenopemphix quanta and Islandinium? cezare. The application of the Modern analogue technique (MAT) highlighted a major change in sea-surface conditions at ~7300 cal. yr BP. Harsh conditions with dense sea-ice cover, low temperature and low productivity prevailed at surface from at least ~ 10 000 (age of core bottom) until ~7300 cal. yr BP with a large dominance of Islandinium minutum in the dinocyst assemblages. The overall low productivity resulted in low benthic foraminiferal abundances. However a few benchmark isotopic values could be obtained. At ~10 000 cal. yr BP, delta 18O values near +4o pointed to the presence of cold and relatively saline waters at the sea floor. A short interval corresponding to a large amplitude 13C excursion is recorded at ~8200 cal. yr BP, with deltagalues as low as -4.5 and -6.03o in Islandiella norcrossi and Nonionella labradorica, respectively, whereas 13C content in total sedimentary organic carbon did not vary much from the background value of ~ -22o . We tentatively concluded at some linkage with a sea floor methane burst. Postglacial

  7. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  8. Hazard connected to tunnel construction in Mt Stena karstic area (Rosandra Valley, Classical Karst)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, F.; Boschin, W.; Visintin, L.; Zini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Rosandra Valley -a unique geomorphological environment- is located in the western side of the Classical Karst plateau. This deep limestone gorge is crossed by a stream that is fed by a large basin located in Slovenia. Rosandra Valley is the only example of Classical Karst river valley with surface hydrography; the torrent digs a deep gully into the rock, rich in rapids, swirl holes, small waterfalls, enclosed meanders and basins; here, the first seepage phenomena occur, and part of the water feeds the underground aquifer. Rosandra Valley is theatre to complex structural situation; the NE slope culminates in the structure of Mt Stena, a limestone tectonic scale located between two faults and firmly rooted in the karst platform. Tectonics is quite important for the development of deep karst in this area; Mt Stena, in particular, hosts a comprehensive net of articulated and diversely shaped caves, basically organised on several levels, which stretches over a total of 9,000 metres, bearing testimony to ancient geological and hydrogeological origins. The deepest areas of the system reach a suspended aquifer that is probably sustained by an overthrust and placed about 100 meters above Rosandra torrent underground aquifer. During feasibility studies about Trieste-Divača high velocity railway link, interaction between project and karst features was examined; in fact the proximity of proposal project and Mt Stena karst system suggest to improve the knowledge related to karst and hydrogeological aspects of the massif. Compatibly with the project requirements, risk of voids intersection and water contamination were analyzed. In fact the Mt Stena suspended aquifer partially feeds Rosandra torrent which flows in a protected natural area. Karst features were represented in a 3D model in order to better understand the spatial relationship between railway project and karst system.

  9. Long-term management of liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Environmental implications of possible alternatives for long-term management of the liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks in West Valley, New York were assessed and compared. Four basic alternatives, as well as options within these alternatives, considered in the EIS: (1) onsite processing to a terminal waste form for shipment and disposal in a federa repository; (2) onsite conversion to a solid interim form for shipment to a federal waste facility for later processing to a terminal form and shipment and subsequent disposal in a federal repository; (3) mixing the liquid wastes with cement and other additives, pouring it back into the existing tanks, and leaving onsite; and (4) no action (continued storage of the wastes in liquid form in the underground tanks at West Valley). Mitigative measures for environmental impacts were be required.

  10. Results of a shallow seismic-refraction survey in the Little Valley area near Hemet, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Little Valley, a small locally named valley southeast of the city of Hemet in Riverside County, California, is being evaluated for development of a constructed wetland and infiltration area as part of a water-resources management program in the area. The valley is a granitic basin filled with unconsolidated material. In August 1993 and June and July 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a seismic-refraction survey consisting of four lines northwest of the valley, eight lines in the valley, and six lines northeast of the valley. Two interpretations were made for the lines: a two-layer model yielded an estimate of the minimum depths to bedrock and a three-layer model yielded the most likely depths to bedrock. Results of the interpretation of the three-layer model indicate that the unsaturated unconsolidated surface layer ranges in thickness from 12 to 83 feet in the valley and 24 to 131 feet northeast of the valley. The mean compressional velocity for this layer was about 1,660 feet per second. A saturated middle layer was detected in some parts of the study area, but not in others--probably because of insufficient thickness in some places; however, in order to determine the "most likely" depths to bedrock, it was assumed that the layer was present throughout the valley. Depths to this layer were verified on three seismic lines using the water level from the only well in the valley. Data for additional verification were not available for wells near Little Valley. The bedrock slope from most of Little Valley is down toward the northeast. Bedrock profiles show that the bedrock surface is very uneven in the study area. The interpreted most likely depth to bedrock in the valley ranged from land surface (exposed) to a depth of 176 feet below land surface, and northeast of the valley it ranged from 118 to 331 feet below land surface. Bedrock depths were verified using lithologic logs from test holes drilled previously in the area. On the basis of a measured mean

  11. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized.

  12. The DEAD SEA VALLEY as a trap for Saharan dust transported by west winds, based on COSMO-ART high-resolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Vogel, Bernhard; Bangert, Max; Schaettler, Ulrich; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on the Earth which is located at approximately 400 m below sea level. It is surrounded by the Judean Mountains to the west and by the Moab Mountains to the east. The Dead Sea Valley is quite often affected by Saharan dust intrusions. It is also characterized by changeable meteorology, particularly by unsteady winds blowing along the valley. High-resolution modeling was used for studying Saharan dust transport over this region with complex topography and unsteady winds. It was the purpose of the current study to determine space - time variations of Saharan dust over the Dead Sea Valley using the COSMO-ART model with 3-km resolution. This was carried out for the extreme dust event observed on March 22, 2013, when PM10 measurements in the Dead Sea Valley showed surface dust concentration exceeding 6,000 µg m-3. An intensive low-pressure system, centered over the Eastern Mediterranean, created favorable conditions for dust transport by south-west winds from the Eastern Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean and particularly into Israel and Jordan. In the middle of the dust event, when the low-pressure system shifted eastward, dust was transported by strong west winds towards the Dead Sea Valley, across the Judean Mountains. It is reasonable to suggest that the greater the height of the Judean Mountains - the lower the dust concentration on the downwind slope of the mountains, in the Dead Sea Valley. The high-resolution COSMO-ART model shows the opposite result: the greater the height of the Judean Mountains - the higher the dust concentration in the Dead Sea Valley. COSMO-ART shows that the height of the Judean Mountains leads to high dust concentration of over 15,000 µg m-3 in the Dead Sea Valley. We analyzed east-west cross-sections of dust concentration and topography at different latitudes across the Dead Sea Valley. Our analysis showed that, over the North of the Dead Sea Valley, where the height of the Judean Mountains is greater

  13. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. Methods We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Results Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson’s r = 0.774, r = 0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r = 0.666,r = 0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of

  14. A review of geoscience characteristics and disposal experience at the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The West Valley Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is located about 48 km south of Buffalo, New York. Operation of the site began in 1961 by Nuclear Fuels Service and was terminated in 1975. The disposal trenches at the site are excavated about 5 m into glacial till that has a thickness of about 28 m. About 65,000 m{sup 3} of the waste containing approximately 710,000 Ci were disposed at the site during the operational period. Ground-water movement through the till is predominantly downward as indicated by measurements and numerical simulation of hydraulic head. Radionuclides do not appear to have migrated more than 3 m either laterally or vertically from the waste disposal trenches. Numerical simulations of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C migration are able to reproduce the observed concentration in the till beneath selected trenches. Uncertainty remains with respect to the continuity and heterogeneity of the hydrostratigraphic units and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity. More work is needed to better define the waste inventory and any long-term changes that might be expected. Erosion poses a potential threat to the long-term integrity of the disposal area. 56 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O.F.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  16. Ground-water flow and transport modeling of the NRC-licensed waste disposal facility, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a simulation study of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport from disposal at the NRC licensed waste disposal facility in West Valley, New York. A transient, precipitation driven, flow model of the near-surface fractured till layer and underlying unweathered till was developed and calibrated against observed inflow data into a recently constructed interceptor trench for the period March--May 1990. The results suggest that lateral flow through the upper, fractured till layer may be more significant than indicated by previous, steady state flow modeling studies. A conclusive assessment of the actual magnitude of lateral flow through the fractured till could however not be made. A primary factor contributing to this uncertainty is the unknown contribution of vertical infiltration through the interceptor trench cap to the total trench inflow. The second part of the investigation involved simulation of the migration of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239 from the one of the fuel hull disposal pits. A first-order radionuclide leach rate with rate coefficient of 10{sup {minus}6}/day was assumed to describe radionuclide release into the disposal pit. The simulations indicated that for wastes buried below the fractured till zone, no significant migration would occur. However, under the assumed conditions, significant lateral migration could occur for radionuclides present in the upper, fractured till zone. 23 refs., 68 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-10-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M>or=2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250km distance from the monitoring stations. PMID:19546007

  18. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    V. Jain; S. M. Barnes; B. G. Bindi; R. A. Palmer

    2000-04-30

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed.

  19. Geologic map of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys and surrounding areas, northwest Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Truini, Margot; Felger, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    A 1:250,000-scale geologic map and report covering the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento valleys in northwest Arizona is presented for the purpose of improving understanding of the geology and geohydrology of the basins beneath those valleys. The map was compiled from existing geologic mapping, augmented by digital photogeologic reconnaissance mapping. The most recent geologic map for the area, and the only digital one, is the 1:1,000,000-scale Geologic Map of Arizona. The larger scale map presented here includes significantly more detailed geology than the Geologic Map of Arizona in terms of accuracy of geologic unit contacts, number of faults, fault type, fault location, and details of Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Many sources were used to compile the geology; the accompanying geodatabase includes a source field in the polygon feature class that lists source references for polygon features. The citations for the source field are included in the reference section.

  20. Geochemical simulation of dissolution of West Valley and DWPF [Defense Waste Product Facility] glasses in J-13 water at 90{sup 0}C.

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.

    1987-11-01

    Dissolution of West Valley and Defense Waste Product Facility (DWPF) glasses in J-13 water at 90{sup 0}C at the candidate Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository was simulated using the EQ3/6 computer code package. The objectives of the study were to attempt to predict the concentrations of radionuclides and other glass components in solution resulting from glass dissolution, and to identify potential precipitates that sequester glass components. Modified projected inventories of 10,000 year-old West Valley and DWPF SRL-165 frit glasses were used as starting glass compositions. J-13 water was considered to be representative of groundwater at Yucca Mountain. A total of 10 grams of each glass was assumed to dissolve congruently into a kilogram of J-13 water in a closed system. No inhibitions to precipitation, except for crystalline SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, were assumed to exist. Radiolysis and materials interactions were not considered. Simulation results predict that radionuclides and other glass components precipitate predominantly in the form of oxides and hydroxides, together with carbonates, silicates and phosphates. Precipitates appear to be effective in limiting the concentrations of radionuclides and other elements in solution. The general compositional trends in precipitates and solution chemistry are the same in the West Valley and DWPF simulations, except for variations arising from differences in glass chemistry. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Features of the short-term position variation of the west Pacific subtropical high during the torrential rain in Yangtze-Huaihe river valley and its possible cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhaoyong; Yu, Bo; Wang, Lijuan; He, Jielin; Zeng, Gang

    2009-08-01

    By using the NCEP/NCAR daily reanalysis data, CMAP precipitation data , daily precipitation data of 740 stations in China and some remote sensing data, features of the short-term position variation of the west Pacific subtropical high(WPSH) during the torrential rain in Yangtze-Huaihe river valley and its possible cause are analyzed. Results show that the short-term position variation of WPSH is closely associated with the diabatic heating. During the torrential rain period, the apparent heating source and apparent moisture sink are exceptionally strong over Yangtze-Huaihe river valley( on the northwest side of WPSH )and the Bay of Bengal (to the west of WPSH). Based on the complete form of vertical vorticity tendency equation, it is found that the heating field over Yangtze-Huaihe river valley during the torrential rain period, which is in favor of the increase of cyclonic vorticity on the north side of WPSH, is unfavorable to the WPSH moving northward. And the heat source over the Bay of Bengal ,which is in favor of the increase of anti-cyclonic vorticity on the west of WPSH, may induce the westward extension of WPSH.

  2. 76 FR 72405 - San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  3. Exploration for areas suitable for ground-water development, central Connecticut Valley lowlands, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    Drilling and geophysical borehole logs for a 25-sq-mi section of the Connecticut River valley lowlands area of Amherst, Hadley, and Sunderland, Massachusetts, indicate that the area is mostly underlain by fine-grained lacustrine deposits. Nine test wells ranging in depth from 100 to 303 ft completely penetrate the unconsolidated valley fill. Geophysical logs indicate that the lacustrine deposits grade from clay to slightly coarser silt or fine sand with increasing depth. Seismic-refraction surveys indicate bedrock surfaces ranging from 138 to 476 ft below land surface. Interpretation of a continuous seismic-reflection profile on 10.8 mi of the Connecticut River indicates some areas where coarse deposits may underlie the fine-grained lake deposits. These deposits appear to range in thickness from 0 to 165 ft. Bedrock surfaces with elevations down to 190 ft below sea level also were indicated. Water is presently being withdrawn from limited and irregularly distributed sand and gravel deposits for municipal supplies. These deposits may be continuous with previously mapped surficial ice-contact sand and gravel deposits. Areas that are most favorable for future groundwater exploration are mainly in the southern part of the area, between the Connecticut River and the Holyoke Range. (USGS)

  4. 75 FR 29310 - Designation for the Muncie, IN; Fremont, NE; Maryland; and West Lafayette, IN Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... the September 4, 2009, Federal Register (74 FR 45803), GIPSA requested applications for designation to... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Muncie, IN; Fremont, NE; Maryland; and West Lafayette, IN Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  5. Aeromagnetic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.

    2002-03-12

    This aeromagnetic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area was prepared from numerous separate aeromagnetic surveys that were gridded, merged, and described by Hildenbrand and Kucks (1988) and by McCafferty and Grauch (1997). These data are available in grid format from the EROS Data Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198, and from the National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, E/GC4, Boulder, Colo., 80303. Magnetic investigations of the Death Valley ground-water basin are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and adjacent parts of California (Blakely and others, 2000b). The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  6. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  7. Hydrology and Water Quality of the Oljato Alluvial Aquifer, Monument Valley Area, Utah and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Larry E.; Johnson, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Navajo Indian Reservation in Utah and Arizona is situated in one of the most arid parts of the Western United States. Normal annual precipitation is less than 8 to about 10 in. over much of the region (Cooley and others, 1969). Generally, water supplies for residents on the Reservation come from wells and springs, but locally, these supplies are small and, in some areas, they are slightly to moderately saline and not suitable for domestic purposes (Naftz and Spangler, 1994). One such area where water supply is limited is Monument Valley, along the Utah-Arizona State line, in the northern part of the Navajo Indian Reservation. The main issue identified by the Navajo Nation Department of Water Resources (DWR) concerns adequate water supply for the residents of the Monument Valley area. Additional water sources need to be developed locally to avoid having water piped into the area and to minimize haulage of water for domestic use. In addition, supplemental water supplies need to be developed to meet the demands of an increasing number of tourists. Because of these needs, the Navajo Nation DWR, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, investigated the hydrology of, and quality of water in, an alluvial aquifer along a tributary of Oljato Wash, near Oljato, Utah.

  8. Ground-water quality in the West Salt River Valley, Arizona, 1996-98: relations to hydrogeology, water use, and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonds, Robert J.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed ground-water samples in the West Salt River Valley from 64 existing wells selected by a stratified-random procedure. Samples from an areally distributed group of 35 of these wells were used to characterize overall ground-water quality in the basin-fill aquifer. Analytes included the principal inorganic constituents, trace constituents, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Additional analytes were tritium, radon, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses of replicate samples and blank samples provided evidence that the analyses of the ground-water samples were adequate for interpretation. The median concentration of dissolved solids in samples from the 35 wells was 560 milligrams per liter, which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. Eleven of the 35 samples had a nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Pesticides were detected in eight samples; concentrations were below the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Deethylatrazine was most commonly detected. The pesticides were detected in samples from wells in agricultural or urban areas that have been irrigated. Concentrations of all trace constituents, except arsenic, were less than the Maximum Contaminant Levels. The concentration of arsenic exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in two samples. Nine monitoring wells were constructed in an area near Buckeye to assess the effects of agricultural land use on shallow ground water. The median concentration of dissolved solids was 3,340 milligrams per liter in samples collected from these wells in August 1997. The nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (10 milligrams per liter) in samples from eight of the nine monitoring wells in August 1997 and again in

  9. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  10. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2002-05-14

    The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

  11. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plant, West Virginia Numerical Simulation and Risk Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2008-03-31

    A series of numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection were conducted as part of a program to assess the potential for geologic sequestration in deep geologic reservoirs (the Rose Run and Copper Ridge formations), at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant outside of New Haven, West Virginia. The simulations were executed using the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl operational mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006). The objective of the Rose Run formation modeling was to predict CO{sub 2} injection rates using data from the core analysis conducted on the samples. A systematic screening procedure was applied to the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage site utilizing the Features, Elements, and Processes (FEP) database for geological storage of CO{sub 2} (Savage et al., 2004). The objective of the screening was to identify potential risk categories for the long-term geological storage of CO{sub 2} at the Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. Over 130 FEPs in seven main classes were assessed for the project based on site characterization information gathered in a geological background study, testing in a deep well drilled on the site, and general site conditions. In evaluating the database, it was apparent that many of the items were not applicable to the Mountaineer site based its geologic framework and environmental setting. Nine FEPs were identified for further consideration for the site. These FEPs generally fell into categories related to variations in subsurface geology, well completion materials, and the behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Results from the screening were used to provide guidance on injection system design, developing a monitoring program, performing reservoir simulations, and other risk assessment efforts. Initial work indicates that the significant FEPs may be accounted for by focusing the storage program on these potential issues. The

  12. Chemical evolution and periodic eruption of mafic lava flows in the west moat of Long Valley Caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Woodburne, T.B.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Layer, P.W.

    1994-10-10

    Continuous core from research drill hole Inyo-4 through a thick 300 m thick sequence of mafic lava flows in the west moat of the Long Valley Caldera has provided an unusual opportunity to investigate the chemical evolution of this exceptionally complete record of postcaldera mafic magmatism. Lavas are mainly basalts and trachyandesites ranging from 48 to 58% SiO{sub 2} having a nearly fourfold range in MgO contents. The lavas fall into five distinct chemical groups with little or no compositional overlap. These groups correlate remarkably well with stratigraphic position, and they define a trend toward more evolved compositions with time. The groups appear to represent periodic eruptions from a continuously evolving magma body. Preliminary {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dates indicate that these lavas erupted over a span of at least 0.264 m.y. between 0.415 Ma and 0.151 Ma. Except for the most evolved group, the chemical variation within a group was dominated by crystal fractionation. Except from the least evolved groups, the chemical contrasts between adjacent groups were dominated by assimilation. Warming the crustal environmental facilitated increasing assimilation. A zoned lava flow (more mafic upward) followed by a mafic flow in an otherwise progressively evolved sequence of flows provides evidence for eruption from a zoned magma reservoir. Deeper, more mafic portions of this zoned magma body were drawn up to shallower levels in the chamber during a period of high eruption rates. The heterogeneity of mafic clasts in the vent breccia dike beneath the 600-year-old South Inyo phreatic explosion crater indicates that these breccia clasts dropped > 300 m down the vent from the overlying lava sequence during waning stages of the phreatic activity, rather than forming by brecciation of an older feeder dike, as previously proposed. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Permeability of covers over low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Among the facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near the hamlet of West Valley in the northern part of Cattaraugus County, N.Y., is a State-licensed burial ground for commercial low-level radioactive wastes. The 11-acre burial ground contains a series of trenches excavated in a silty-clay till of low permeability that contains scattered pods of silt, sand, and gravel. Gas pressure in the unsaturated parts of radioactive waste burial trenches responds to fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Measurements of atmospheric pressure and the differential pressure between the trench gas and the atmosphere on several dates in 1977-78 were used to calculate hydraulic conductivity of the reworked silty-clay till that covers the trenches. Generally the hydraulic conductivity of covers over trenches that had a history of rapidly rising water levels are higher, at least seasonally, than covers over trenches in which the water level remained low. This supports the hypothesis that recharge occurs through the cover, presumably through fractures caused by desiccation and (or) subsidence. Hydraulic conductivities of the cover as calculated from gas- and air-pressure measurements at several trenches were 100 to 1,000 times greater than those calculated from the increase in water levels in the trenches. This difference suggests that the values obtained from the air- and gas-pressure measurements need to be adjusted and at present are not directly usable in ground-water flux calculations. The difference in magnitude of values may be caused by rapidly decreasing hydraulic conductivity during periods of recharge or by the clogging of fractures with sediment washed in by runoff. (USGS)

  14. The crystallization behavior of the West Valley reference borosilicate glass. Progress report, October 1, 1986--September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I.; Mathur, A.; Capozzi, C.; Sehgal, J.; Butts, D.; McPherson, D.; Pye, L.D.

    1988-04-01

    The crystallization behavior of a fully simulated reference borosilicate glass was studied. This work was required by the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications. It included preparing and characterizing the base glass in various redox states, and assessing the influence of redox state on crystallization behavior. Characterization tools included optical and electron microscopy, wet chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. Effect of cooling a melt at a rate and history simulating in-canister cooling used for full-scale vitrification at West Valley also was determined. The fully oxidized glass composition study contains residual crystalline phases (spinel and cerium-thorium oxide) at 0.4--1.6 vol %. Upon isothermal heat treatment above a measured glass transition temperature of 478C, but below the estimated liquidus of 1000C, crystallization would increase to 4--5 vol % for times up to 384 hours. Crystallization products included spine, acmite, cerium-thorium oxide, and alumino silicates. Crystallization rate was maximum at 700--800C. After 12 hours at 800C the glass crystallized to 3.0 vol %. This same glass, when reduced to a redox state where the ratio of Fe{sup ++}/total iron was 10%, showed a lower crystallization maximum, i.e., 600--700C. The glass transition temperature of this partially reduced glass also was lowered from 478C (fully oxidized) to 474C. All of these observations are in accord with the general theories of glass science. A critical cooling rate of 1.48C/min would be sufficient to limit crystallization to less than 2.0 vol %. This predicted value was confirmed by cooling a melt at this temperature and then estimating the volume percent crystallization.

  15. Geologic Map of Oasis Valley Spring-Discharge Area and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Minor, Scott A.; Slate, Janet L.; Ryder, Phil L.

    2007-01-01

    This map report presents the geologic framework of an area in southern Nye County, Nevada, that extends from the southern limit of the Oasis Valley spring-discharge site, northeastward to the southwest margin of the Pahute Mesa testing area, on the Nevada Test Site. This map adds new surficial mapping and revises bedrock mapping previously published as USGS Open-File Report 99-533-B. The locations of major concealed structures were based on a combination of gravity and magnetic data. This report includes a geologic discussion explaining many of the interpretations that are presented graphically on the map and sections. Additional discussion of the geologic framework of the Oasis Valley area can be found in an interpretive geophysical report and in a geologic report (USGS Open-File Report 99-533-A that was a companion product to the previously published version of this map. The map presented here covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on the Thirsty Canyon SW quadrangle. It is a compilation of one previously published quadrangle map and eight new quadrangle maps, two of which were published separately during the course of the study. The new bedrock mapping was completed by S.A. Minor from 1991 to 1995, by C.J. Fridrich from 1992 to 1998, and by P.L. Ryder from 1997 to 1998. New surficial-deposits mapping was completed by J.L. Slate and M.E. Berry in 1998 and 1999. The new bedrock and surficial mapping is partly a revision of several unpublished reconnaissance maps completed by Orkild and Swadley in the 1960's, and of previously published maps by Maldonado and Hausback (1990), Lipman and others (1966); and Sargent and Orkild (1976). Additionally, mapping of the pre-Tertiary rocks of northern Bare Mountain was compiled from Monsen and others (1992) with only minor modification. The cross sections were drawn to a depth of about 5 km below land surface at the request of hydrologists studying the Death Valley ground-water system. Below a depth of about 1 kilometer

  16. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational...

  17. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational...

  18. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational...

  19. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational...

  20. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational...

  1. Serum Levels of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Women Living in a Highly Industrialized Area of West Virginia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like constituents with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KV) of West Virginia have been well documented. This study evaluated the impact of potentially high background dioxin exposure to body burdens i...

  2. Effects of the 1997 flood on the transport and storage of sediment and mercury within the Carson River Valley, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Barr, R.; Grow, D.; Richardson, D.; Waltman, K.; Lechler, P.; Warwick, J.

    1999-05-01

    Intense, warm rains falling on a heavy snowpack in the Sierra Nevada at the end of December 1996 produced some of the largest floods on record in west-central Nevada. Within the Carson River basin, a peak discharge of 632 cm was recorded at the Fort Churchill gaging station on January 3, 1997, a flow exceeding the 100-yr event. Geomorphic impacts of the event, and the redistribution of mercury (Hg) released to the Carson River valley by Comstock mining operations during the mid- to late-1800s, were assessed by combining field data with the interpretation of aerial photographs. Geomorphic impacts included significant increases in channel width, measuring up to 280% of preflood conditions, and large-scale shifts in channel position, ranging from < 10 to 110 m. Both changes in channel width and position vary as a function of valley morphometry (width and slope) and differ from the long-term trends measured from 1965 to 1991. The 1997 flood also produced widespread overbank deposits that vary morphologically and sedimentologically according to distance from the channel and the nature of the vegetation on the valley floor. Within the overbank deposits, Hg is primarily associated with the fine-grained (< 63 {micro}m) sediment fraction, which makes up a larger percentage of the deposits immediately adjacent to the channel and at the extremities of overbank deposition. Mass balance calculations demonstrate that, along reaches with narrow valleys (< 450 m), approximately 10%--65% of the sediment eroded from the channel banks was stored in overbank deposits, whereas more than 90% of the sediment eroded along reaches with wider valleys was stored on the valley floor. Locally, however, storage exceeded 650% where meander cutoff was extensive. The above data indicate that the erosion, redeposition, and storage of sediment and sediment-bound Hg were greater along reaches characterized by low gradients and wide valley floors. Downstream trends in Hg concentration within the

  3. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  4. Geology and ore deposits of the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo counties, Arizona: Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Thaden, R.E.

    1958-01-01

    In 1951 and 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a program of uranium investigations and geologic mapping in the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo Counties, Ariz. About 700 square miles were mapped on the Navajo Indian Reservation. A resource appraisal of the area was an inherent part of the program, and is detailed in this report. Production of vanadium and uranium is from two areas, the Monument No. 1 mine area in Navajo County, and the Monument No. 2 mine area in Apache County. In the period 1942-53 about 200,300 tons of ore was produced from these two areas. This ore yielded about 1,700,000 pounds of U3O8 and about 6,500,000 pounds of V2O5. The grade ranged from 0.15 percent U3O8 to 0.60 percent U3O8, and from 0.38 percent V2O5 to 3.02 percent V2O5. The vanadium-uranium ratio is about 4:1. The ore deposits are composed principally of the hydrous calcium-uranium vanadate tyuyamunite in basal channel sediments of the Shinarump member off the Chinle formation. Four types of ore bodies are present: (1) rods, (2) tabular ore bodies, (3) corvusite-type ore bodies, and (4) rolls. The reserves of uranium- and vanadium-bearing material are classed as measured, indicated, inferred, and potential. The reserves are further divided into three grade classes for material 1 foot or more thick: (1) 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5 and above; (2) 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.50 percent V2O5 and less than 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5; and (3) 0.01 percent U3O8 and 0.10 percent V2O5 and less than 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.05 percent V2O5. Measured reserves as of June 1953, in the Monument Valley area, Arizona, (all in the Monument No. 2 mine) total about 36,000 tons. Indicated reserves in the first grade class amount to about 62,000 tons. In this same grade class inferred reserves total about 3,000,000 tons. In the second grade class indicated and inferred reserves amount to about 2,000,000 tons. Inferred reserves in the third grade class total about 345

  5. A Hydrostratigraphic Model of the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Drellack, Jr.; L. B. Prothro; J. L. Gonzales

    2001-12-01

    A 3-D hydrostratigraphic framework model has been built for the use of hydrologic modelers who are tasked with developing a model to determine how contaminants are transported by groundwater flow in an area of complex geology. The area of interest includes Pahute Mesa, a former nuclear testing area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and Oasis Valley, a groundwater discharge area down-gradient from contaminant source areas on Pahute Mesa. To build the framework model, the NTS hydrogeologic framework was integrated with an extensive collection of drill-hole data (stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration data); a structural model; and several recent geophysical, geological, and hydrological studies to formulate a hydrostratigraphic system. The authors organized the Tertiary volcanic units in the study area into 40 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 13 confining units, and 11 composite units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks were divided into six hydrostratigraphic units, including two aquifers and four confining units. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with all the major structural features that control them, including calderas and faults. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to address alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Six of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model.

  6. Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.

    2002-03-12

    Gravity investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W. An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model was prepared from over 40,000 gravity stations, most of which are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997). The map also includes gravity data recently collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (Mankinen and others, 1998; Morin and Blakely, 1999). A subset of these gravity data in the Nevada Test Site and vicinity were described in detail by Harris and others (1989) who included information on gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and digital and paper lists of principal facts. For display purposes only, gravity data within Yucca Flat were thinned by a factor of 10. The digital gravity data set was gridded at an interval of 400 m using a computer program (Webring, 1981) based on a minimum curvature algorithm by Briggs (1974). The resulting grid was then interpolated to a 200-m grid to minimize pixel size, and then it was color contoured.

  7. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Annual report, August 1981-July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Dunne, L.A.; Weir, B.A.

    1983-03-01

    This report details the research accomplished during the second part of the New York State Geological Survey's (NYSGS) three part program of geologic and hydrologic investigations at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) at West Valley, New York. During this reporting period, July 1981-July 1982, the surficial gravel and the underlying till surface of the North Plateau area were measured using core log data and seismic techniques. Contour and isopach maps are included and show the surficial gravel layer to be lenticular in cross section and approximately forty feet thick at its center. The history of drilling at the site and all available subsurface information pertaining to site stratigraphy has been compiled and standardized. Geologic sections based upon the locations of all wells and their geologic logs show that a sandy stratum, previously reported to extend under the entire site at an elevation of 1350 feet, is not a continous layer. Analyses of surface and subsurface till samples show that Lavery Till can be subdivided into three subfacies using grain size distributions and the Kent Till can be distinguished from it by its higher silt content. Initial measurements for movement determination on two landslides yield an average downslope movement rate of 0.23 meters/year. A site slope domain map, establishing five domains of varying sliding potential, has been compiled from aerial photos and field mapping. The final phase of the Buttermilk Creek investigation and the study of the erosional history of the Cattaraugus Creek drainage basin have been initiated. A preliminary characterization of the relationship between precipitation and runoff on the North Plateau shows the income to outflow ratio is 3:1 during the summer and nearly equal to one in the winter.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Selected Factors Influencing Student Enrollment at Area Vocational Schools in East, Middle and West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Willie E., Jr.

    An analysis was made of selected factors influencing students to enroll in area postsecondary vocational schools in East, Middle, and West Tennessee. Four hundred forty-three students were surveyed concerning three broad areas of dependent variables: domestic environment, perceived opportunities, and assessment of program. Data were analyzed by…

  11. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP`s mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP`s LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility.

  12. Geology and economic potential for chromite in the Zhob Valley ultramafic rock complex, Hindubagh, Quetta division, West Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.; Ahmad, Zaki; Rahman, Hamidur

    1971-01-01

    The ultramafic rocks making up the Zhob Valley igneous complex have yielded small amounts of metallurgical-grade chromite since the early part of the century. From 1968-1970 a cooperative study undertaken by the Geological Survey of Pakistan and the U. S. Geological Survey, under the auspices of the Government of Pakistan and the Agency for International Development, evaluated the chromite potential of the Zhob Valley area and provided data for effective exploration. The Jung Tor Ghar ultramafic rock mass, covering an area of about 45 square miles, is a thrust-fault block completely surrounded and underlain (?) by sedimentary rocks as young as Late Cretaceous in age. The igneous rocks were thrust from the northwest along an east-trending, north-dipping fault in Late Cretaceous or Paleocene time and were peneplaned, dissected, and deeply laterized by mid-Eocene time. The ultramafic rocks consist of interlayered harzburgite and dunite and a cross-cutting dunite here called transgressive dunite. Layered structure passes without discernible deviation from the interlayered harzburgite-dunite through the transgressive dunite. The lowest rocks in the mass, composed mainly of transgressive dunite, grade upward into the interlayered rock about 3,000 feet above the fault block base. The upper transgressive dunites tend to form interconnecting linear networks and probably a few pipe-like structures. The transgressive dunite is thought to have formed by action of water derived from the underlying sedimentary rocks; the water heated by the hot ultramafic rock (at the time of emplacement) altered the pyroxene to olivine and talc, and, with lowering temperature, to serpentine. Other interpretations are possible. Virtually all the chromite in the Jung Tor Ghar lies in or immediately above the masses of transgressive dunite. This fact provides a key to chromite exploration: The most favorable zone for prospecting lies in the vicinity of the upper contacts of the transgressive

  13. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  14. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project interim acceptance specifications for Defense Waste Processing Facility and West Valley Demonstration Project waste forms and canisterized waste

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1984-08-01

    The waste acceptance specifications presented in this document represent the first stage of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project effort to establish specifications for the acceptance of waste forms for disposal at a nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain tuff. The only waste forms that will be dealt with in this document are the reprocessed waste forms resulting from solidification of the Savannah River Plant defense high level waste and the West Valley high level wastes. Specifications for acceptance of spent fuel will be covered in a separate document.

  15. Process interpretation of laminated lacustrine sediments from the valley of the river Alf, Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Pirrung, Michael; Zolitschka, Bernd; Büchel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution annually laminated sediment archives from lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar located in the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field are in the focus of many investigations (e.g. Brauer et al. 2001, Zolitschka 1991). These publications are related to predominantly biogenic varves covering the last ca. 14 ka years, i.e. the Lateglacial and the Holocene. In our study, laminated sediments consisting of clay-silt couplets are presented from paleolake Alf. This paleolake formed in a valley dammed by volcanic products, and covers the Pleniglacial between 31 and 24 ka BP (Pirrung et al. 2007). The focus of our study is the characterization of the structure of clay-silt couplets and the determination of their origin. The applied granulometry revealed mean grain sizes of 10 μm for the light laminae (colors refer to core scan photo) and 14 μm for the dark laminae (both middle silt). X-ray diffraction confirms identical mineral phases for light and dark laminae, with light laminae being clay-enriched containing a higher amount of sericite and chlorite while dark laminae are enriched in quartz. X-ray fluorescence and detrital microfacies analysis on thin sections indicate that calcite dominates in the dark laminae. Microscopically, three different types of silt layers are present. Type I are laminae with homogeneous sublayers, Type II are graded laminae and Type III are laminae with graded sublayers. Processes causing the formation of these silt lamination types can be attributed to repeatedly occurring snow melting, permafrost thawing or rain events linked with sediment delivery from the catchment into the lake. The amount of precipitation and melt water, sediment discharge and density stratification lead to gravity suspension fall out, partial erosion of previously deposited unconsolidated sediments and resuspension in the lake. Brauer, A., et al. (2001). Lateglacial varve chronology and biostratigraphy of lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Boreas 30

  16. Tectonic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Workman; C.M. Menges; W.R. Page; E.B. Ekren; P.D. Rowley; G.L. Dixon

    2002-10-17

    The purpose of this map is to provide tectonic interpretations in the Death Valley ground-water model area to be incorporated into a transient ground-water flow model by the U.S. Geological Survey (D'Agnese, 2000; D'Agnese and Faunt, 1999; Faunt and others, 1999; and O'Brien and others, 1999). This work has been conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy in order to assess regional ground-water flow near the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The map is centered on the NTS and its perimeter encircles the entire boundary of the numerical flow model area, covering a total area of 57,000 square kilometers. This tectonic map is a derivative map of the geologic map of the Death Valley ground-water model, Nevada and California (Workman and others, 2002). Structures portrayed on the tectonic map were selected from the geologic map based upon several criteria including amount of offset on faults, regional significance of structures, fault juxtaposition of rocks with significantly different hydrologic properties, and the hydrologic properties of the structures themselves. Inferred buried structures in the basins were included on the map (blue and light blue dotted lines) based on interpretation of geophysical data (Ponce and others, 2001; Ponce and Blakely, 2001; Blakely and Ponce, 2001). In addition, various regional trends of fault zones have been delineated which are composed of multiple smaller scale features. In some cases, these structures are deeply buried and their location is based primarily on geophysical evidence. In all cases, these zones (shown as broad red and blue stippled bands on the map) are significant structures in the region. Finally, surface exposures of Precambrian crystalline rocks and igneous intrusions of various ages are highlighted (red and blue patterns) on the map; these rocks generally act as barriers to groundwater flow unless significantly fractured.

  17. Using SLAM to Look For the Dog Valley Fault, Truckee Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.; Ashburn, J. A.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee earthquake (9/12/1966, ML6.0) was a left-lateral event on a previously unrecognized NW-trending fault. The Prosser Creek and Boca Dams sustained damage, and the trace of the suspected causative fault passes near or through the site of the then-incomplete Stampede Dam. Another M6 earthquake occurred along the same general trend in 1948 with an epicenter in Dog Valley ~14 km to the NW of the 1966 epicenter. This trend is called the Dog Valley Fault (DVF), and its location on the ground surface is suggested by a prominent but broad zone of geomorphic lineaments near the cloud of aftershock epicenters determined for the 1966 event. Various ground effects of the 1966 event described by Kachadoorian et al. (1967) were located within this broad zone. The upper shoreface of reservoirs in the Truckee-Prosser-Martis basin are now exposed due to persistent drought. We have examined fault strands in a roadcut and exposed upper shoreface adjacent to the NE abutment of Stampede Dam. These are interpreted to be small-displacement splays associated with the DVF -- perhaps elements of the DVF damage zone. We have used the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to help us constrain the location of the DVF, based on earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismo-lineaments were computed, using recent revisions in the SLAM code (bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/), for the 1966 main earthquake and for the better-recorded earthquakes of 7/3/1983 (M4) and 8/30/1992 (M3.2) that are inferred to have occurred along the DVF. Associated geomorphic analysis and some field reconnaissance identified a trend that might be associated with a fault, extending from the NW end of Prosser Creek Reservoir ~32° toward the Stampede Dam area. Triangle-strain analysis using horizontal velocities of local Plate Boundary Observatory GPS sites P146, P149, P150 and SLID indicates that the area rotates clockwise ~1-2°/Myr relative to the stable craton, as might be expected because the study area is

  18. Phenotypic Variation among Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus, Diapause Potential, Autogeny, and Host Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A.; Savage, Harry M.; Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause. PMID:24043690

  19. New frontiers in old producing areas: Two west Texas examples

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, R.J., Jr.; Reeves, J.J.; Swift, D.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Identification of hydrocarbons in neglected areas is linked to (1) acceptance of geological models suggesting hydrocarbon presence, and (2) the willingness to apply geophysical techniques necessary to explore these areas. This is especially true in areas not previously believed to have hydrocarbon potential. Basic reprocessing procedures, detailed velocity and statics analyses, and direct involvement of an interpreter as processor can result in significant data quality improvement. Interactive reprocessing of 1970-72 seismic data along the Diablo Platform-Delaware Basin margin shows structural and stratigraphic plays not previously demonstrated. These include reverse and thrust faults, footwall anticline development, clastic pinchout trends, and carbonate debris flows. Lack of interest in this area is attributed to poor seismic quality and no good geologic model to support hydrocarbons locally. Seismic data from 1982 in the Palo Duro Basin displays interbasement reflections of potential sedimentary nature in addition to tectonic activity not reflected in the Paleozoic section. These reflections are below volcanic flows encountered at the Paleozoic-Precambrian interface. Reprocessing, with special attention to velocity analysis, would enhance these reflections which locally suggest onlap, erosional, and channel-like geometries. The deep basin-like character of the Precambrian is supported by a large low density gravity anomaly. The potential of sedimentary Precambrian rock is unknown, however petroleum production has been established from Precambrian strata in other parts of the world, a concept not totally unreasonable for the Palo Duro Basin.

  20. New frontiers in old producing areas: Two west Texas examples

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, R.J. Jr.; Reeves, J.J.; Swift, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Identification of hydrocarbons in neglected areas is linked to (1) acceptance of geological models suggesting hydrocarbon presence, and (2) the willingness to apply geophysical techniques necessary to explore these areas. This is especially true in areas not previously believed to have hydrocarbon potential. Basic reprocessing procedures, detailed velocity and statics analyses, and direct involvement of an interpreter as processor can result in significant data quality improvement. Interactive reprocessing of 1970-72 seismic data along the Diablo Platform-Delaware Basin margin shows structural and stratigraphic plays not previously demonstrated. These include reverse and thrust faults, footwall anticline development, clastic pinchout trends, and carbonate debris flows. Lack of interest in this area is attributed to poor seismic quality and no good geologic model to support hydrocarbons locally. Seismic data from 1982 in the Palo Duro Basin displays interbasement reflections of potential sedimentary nature in addition to tectonic activity not reflected in the Paleozoic section. These reflections are below volcanic flows encountered at the Paleozoic-Precambrian interface. Reprocessing, with special attention to velocity analysis, would enhance these reflections which locally suggest onlap, erosional, and channel-like geometries. The deep basin-like character of the Precambrian is supported by a large low density gravity anomaly. The potential of sedimentary Precambrian rock is unknown, however petroleum production has been established from Precambrian strata in other parts of the world, a concept not totally unreasonable for the Palo Duro Basin.

  1. West Valley feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Pirro, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

  2. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  3. Uranium in Holocene valley-fill sediments, and uranium, radon, and helium in waters, Lake Tahoe-Carson Range area, Nevada and California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Been, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Uraniferous Holocene sediments occur in the Carson Range of Nevada and California, U.S.A., between Lake Tahoe and Carson Valley. The hosts for the uranium include peat and interbedded organic-rich sand, silt, and mud that underly valley floors, fens, and marshes along stream valleys between the crest of the range and the edge of Lake Tahoe. The known uranium accumulations extend along the Carson Range from the area just southeast of South Lake Tahoe northward to the area just east of Carson City; however, they almost certainly continue beyond the study area to the north, west, and south. Due to the young age of the accumulations, uranium in them is in gross disequilibrium with its highly radioactive daughter products. These accumulations have thus escaped discovery with radiation detection equipment in the past. The uranium content of these sediments approaches 0.6 percent; however, the average is in the range of 300-500 ppm. Waters associated with these sediments locally contain as much as 177 ppb uranium. Modest levels of helium and radon also occur in these waters. Uraniferous waters are clearly entering the private and public water supply systems in some parts of the study area; however, it is not known how much uranium is reaching users of these water supplies. Many of the waters sampled in the study area exceed the published health effects guidance level of the Environmental Protection Agency. Regulatory standards for uranium in waters have not been published, however. Much uranium is stored in the sediments along these stream valleys. Estimates for a marsh and a fen along one drainage are 24,000 and 15,000 kg, respectively. The potential effects of man-induced environmental changes on the uranium are uncertain. Laboratory studies of uraniferous sediment rich in organic matter may allow us to evaluate the potential of liberating uranium from such sediments and creating transient increases in the level of uranium moving in water in the natural environment

  4. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  5. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Nutmeg Valley area, Wolcott and Waterbury, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, J.R.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Stone, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogeologic investigations in an industrial area in Wolcott and Waterbury, Connecticut, have provided information on the geology, ground-water flow, and water quality of the area. Ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds was discovered in the 1980?s in the Nutmeg Valley area, where approximately 43 industries and 25 residences use ground water for industrial and domestic supply. Unconsolidated surficial deposits, including glacial stratified deposits and till, are more than 85 feet thick and are interconnected with the underlying bedrock. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the stratified deposits ranges from 0.8 to 21 feet per day. Water in the surficial aquifer generally flows toward discharge points along Old Tannery Brook and the Mad River. Water in the bedrock aquifer flows through low-angle unroofing joints, high-angle fractures, and foliation-parallel fractures. Most high-angle water-bearing fractures strike north with an easterly dip. Most of the water pumped from bedrock wells in the study area comes from shallow fractures that are probably in hydraulic connection with the surficial aquifer. Short-circuit flow between fracture zones in wells is a likely pathway for contaminant transport. During periods of low streamflow, only a small amount of ground water discharges directly to Old Tannery Brook or to the Mad River. The amount of discharge is on the same order of magnitude as the estimated ground-water withdrawals. In northern parts of the valley bottom within the study area, downward vertical hydraulic gradients were present between wells in the surficial and bedrock aquifers. In southern parts of the valley, however, vertical gradients were upward from the bedrock to the surficial aquifer. Vertical gradients can change seasonally in response to different amounts of ground-water recharge and to stresses caused by ground-water withdrawals, which can in turn facilitate the spread of contamination. Vapor-diffusion samplers were

  6. Water resources of the Cumberland area, Maryland-West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, R. R.; LeFever, F. F.; Martin, R. O. R.; Otton, E. G.

    1950-01-01

    The report was prepared in response to a request from the United States Department of Commerce, which desired an appraisal of the water resources of the Cumberland atra in order to evaluate the effect of the availability of water on the economic development of the area. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to summarize the available water information and to describe the hydrologic factors that affect the availability of water.

  7. Age of K-feldspar authigenesis in Lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks of the Mississippi Valley area

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.L.; Liu, J. . Dept. of Geology); Deino, A. . Geochronology Center); Kyser, T.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Published K-Ar dates (n = 12) of authigenic K-feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Mississippi Valley area range from 448 to 375 Ma (Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian), suggesting a lengthy episode of K-feldspar authigenesis. Here the authors report an age span of 465--400 Ma (Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian) for authigenic K-feldspar of two samples from the alteration profile widely developed over Precambrian rocks at the unconformity with Cambrian deposits. This dating was done on 42 to 48 mesh grains of K-feldspar by the laser incremental-heating Ar-40/Ar-39 method. One sample, from west-central Wisconsin, is from a vein formed along a fracture in kaolinitic altered granite. Three grains nearest the fracture yielded plateau ages with a range of 9 Ma and an average of 430 Ma. Three grains distant from the fracture yielded a similar range of 10 Ma but with an average age of 397 Ma. Thus the grains grew over an extended period from at least 430 to 400 Ma. The other sample, from the St. Francois Mts. of Missouri, is of diabase replaced by K-feldspar. Three grains yielded plateau ages ranging over 20 Ma and apparently recording an extended history of K-feldspar growth. The average age of these grains is 454 Ma, compared to a K-Ar date of 444 [+-] 9 Ma obtained from a split of the same sample. The period(s) of K-feldspar authigenesis does not support its linkage with orogenic activity. Oxygen-isotope values of authigenic K-feldspar from lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks range from +19.8 to +23.0 [per thousand] and average 21.4 [per thousand] (N = 11). These values are compatible with formation of the K-feldspar from similar fluids and comparable temperatures.

  8. Age of authigenic K-feldspar in Lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks of the Mississippi Valley area

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.L.; Liu, J. . Dept. of Geology); Deino, A. . Geochronology Center); Kyser, T.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Published K-Ar dates of authigenic K-feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Mississippi Valley area range from 448 to 375 Ma (Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian), suggesting a lengthy episode of K-feldspar authigenesis. Here the authors report an age span of [approximately]464--400 Ma (Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian) for authigenic K-feldspar of two samples from the alteration profile widely developed over Precambrian rocks at the unconformity with Cambrian deposits. This dating was done on 42 to 48 mesh grains of K-feldspar by the laser incremental-heating [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar method. One sample, from west-central Wisconsin, is from an 8-mm-thick vein formed along a fracture in kaolinitic altered granite. Three grains nearest the fracture yielded plateau ages with a range of [approximately]9 Ma and an average of 430 Ma. Three grains distant from the fracture yielded a similar range of 10 Ma but with an average age of 397 Ma. Thus the grains grew over an extended period from at least [approximately]430 to 400 Ma. A K-Ar date of 411 Ma was obtained from a sample representing the entire thickness of the vein. The other sample, from the St. Francois Mts. of Missouri, is of diabase replaced by K-feldspar. Three grains yielded plateau ages ranging from [approximately]444 to 464 Ma. Oxygen-isotope values of authigenic K-feldspar from lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks range from +19.8 to +22.2[per thousand] and average 21.4[per thousand] (n = 11). These values are compatible with formation of the K-feldspar from similar fluids and comparable temperatures.

  9. Map of the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas and well hydrographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; McIntyre, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map, scale 1:125,000, showing ground-water subunits and areas, and well hydrographs in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Forest area and distribution in the Mississippi alluvial valley: Implications for breeding bird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Knowing the current forest distribution and patch size characteristics is integral to the development of geographically defined, habitat-based conservation objectives for breeding birds. Towards this end, we classified 2.6 million ha of forest cover within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley using 1992 thematic mapper satellite imagery. Although historically this area, from southern Illinois to southern Louisiana, was dominated by forested wetlands, forest cover remains on less than 25% of the floodplain. Remaining forest cover is comprised of > 38,000 discrete forest patches > 2 ha. Mean patch area (64.1?5.2 ha; 0 ?SE) was highly skewed towards small fragment size. Larger patches had a higher proportion of more hydric forest cover classes than did smaller patches which had a higher proportion of less hydric forest cover classes. Public lands accounted for 16% of remaining forested wetlands. Fewer than 100 forest patches exceeded our hypothesized habitat objective (4000 ha minimum contiguous forest area) intended to support self-sustaining populations of forest breeding birds. To increase the number of forest patches exceeding 4000 ha contiguous area, and thereby increase the likelihood of successful forest bird conservation, we recommend afforestation adjoining existing forest fragments ?1012 ha and focused within designated Forest Bird Conservation Regions.

  11. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs.

  12. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-03-12

    This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  13. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  14. Projected Allied Health and Nursing Training Needs for a Seven-County Area in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and field tested a model for projecting state-wide manpower needs in the allied health and nursing occupations in West Virginia and presents projections made for sixteen allied health and nursing occupations in the Charleston area. The content of the report is presented in three sections. The first…

  15. West all, showing truck entrance in former darkroom area, worker’s ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West all, showing truck entrance in former darkroom area, worker’s break room at upper left, top of stairs, work bench at far right - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  16. Why the Sacramento Delta area differs from other parts of the great valley: Numerical modeling of thermal structure and thermal subsidence of forearc basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. O.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R. W.; Timoshkina, E. P.; Williams, C.

    2007-01-01

    Data on present-day heat flow, subsidence history, and paleotemperature for the Sacramento Delta region, California, have been employed to constrain a numerical model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of forearc basins. The model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age subjected to refrigeration caused by a subducting slab. Subsidence in the Sacramento Delta region appears to be close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of age 150 Ma, demonstrating that effects from both the initial thermal profile and the subduction process are necessary and sufficient. Subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento Valley is considerably less, approximating subsidence expected from the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. These results, together with other geophysical data, show that Sacramento Delta lithosphere, being thinner and having undergone deeper subsidence, must differ from lithosphere of the transitional type under other parts of the Sacramento Valley. Thermal modeling allows evaluation of the rheological properties of the lithosphere. Strength diagrams based on our thermal model show that, even under relatively slow deformation (10-17 s-1), the upper part of the delta crystalline crust (down to 20-22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with deeper earthquake occurrence. Hypocentral depths of earthquakes under the Sacramento Delta region extend to nearly 20 km, whereas, in the Coast Ranges to the west, depths are typically less than 12-15 km. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that, for fault segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.

  17. Why the sacramento delta area differs from other parts of the great valley: numerical modeling of thermal structure and thermal subsidence of forearc basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikhailov, V.O.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R.W.; Timoshkina, E.P.; Williams, C.

    2007-01-01

    Data on present-day heat flow, subsidence history, and paleotemperature for the Sacramento Delta region, California, have been employed to constrain a numerical model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of forearc basins. The model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age subjected to refrigeration caused by a subducting slab. Subsidence in the Sacramento Delta region appears to be close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of age 150 Ma, demonstrating that effects from both the initial thermal profile and the subduction process are necessary and sufficient. Subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento Valley is considerably less, approximating subsidence expected from the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. These results, together with other geophysical data, show that Sacramento Delta lithosphere, being thinner and having undergone deeper subsidence, must differ from lithosphere of the transitional type under other parts of the Sacramento Valley. Thermal modeling allows evaluation of the rheological properties of the lithosphere. Strength diagrams based on our thermal model show that, even under relatively slow deformation (10−17 s−1), the upper part of the delta crystalline crust (down to 20–22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with deeper earthquake occurrence. Hypocentral depths of earthquakes under the Sacramento Delta region extend to nearly 20 km, whereas, in the Coast Ranges to the west, depths are typically less than 12–15 km. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that, for fault segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.

  18. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  19. 76 FR 81929 - San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request...

  20. Seismic evaluation of the Devonian Ohio Shale in the Big Ugly area, southwestern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Li; Wilson, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Devonian Ohio Shale was studied in the Big Ugly area of southwestern West Virginia by reprocessing and interpreting existing seismic and geologic data. These data suggest the presence of detached structures above three decollement zones and cross-strike discontinuities associated with the Alleghanian deformation west of Mann Mountain anticline. A basement growth structure, the Griffithsville basement high, localized detached structures along its southeast flank. High producing trends of gas from the Devonian Ohio Shale occur either near northwest-trending cross-strike structural discontinuities or in the northeast-trending detached structures where fracture density should be increased.

  1. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Foraminifera and paleoenvironments in the Etchegoin and lower San Joaquin Formations, west-central San Joaquin valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lagoe, M.B.; Tenison, J.A.; Buehring, R. )

    1991-02-01

    The Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations preserve a rich stratigraphic record of paleoenvironments, deposition, and tectonics during the late Miocene-Pliocene development of the San Joaquin basin. The distribution of foraminifera within these formations can help constrain this record, which includes final filling of the basin, facies responses to sea level changes, and active movement on the San Andreas fault system. The distribution of foraminifera in core samples is analyzed from seven wells along the west-central San joaquin basin - four from Buena Vista oil field, one from western Elk Hills oil field, and two from an area just south of South Belridge oil field. A model of modern, shallow- to marginal-marine foraminiferal biofacies is used to interpret the Etchegoin-San Joaquin faunal distributions. This modern model distinguishes marsh, tidal channel, intertidal, lagoonal, littoral, and shallow sublittoral environments. Ongoing work calibrating this foraminiferal record to the lithologic and macrofossil records in addition to interpreted depositional systems within these formations will further define relationships between paleoenvironments, relative sea level, and tectonics.

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  4. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  5. Constraining chemical geothermometry with reactive transport models: An example study of the Dixie Valley geothermal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, C.; Peiffer, L.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Iovenitti, J. L.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, 1D and 2D reactive transport simulations of the Dixie Valley geothermal area (Nevada, USA) were performed using Toughreact [1] to evaluate the fluid flow pathways and rates of equilibration of hydrothermal fluids. Modeling studies were combined with new multicomponent geothermometry, which is being used to estimate the temperature of geothermal reservoirs based on chemical analysis of geothermal springs. The concept is based on the assumption of chemical equilibrium between the thermal fluid and minerals of the reservoir rock [2]. If re-equilibration occurs between the reservoir at depth and the surface, then the 'deep' chemical signature of the fluid is lost and the obtained reservoir temperature is underestimated. The simulations were run for a vertical cross-section that has been structurally and geologically characterized. Model calibration was performed using available site information such as chemical analysis of geothermal springs, isotherms inferred from geothermal wells and results of a previous flow simulation study [3]. Model runs included the simulation of typical near-surface processes such as dilution, mixing and salt leaching occurring at the Dixie Valley geothermal area. Each reactive transport model produced 'synthetic' waters that were processed using the multicomponent chemical geothermometer code GeoT [4]. This code computes the saturation indices of reservoir minerals as a function of the temperature. Reservoir temperature is inferred when mineral saturation indices all cluster around zero. GeoT results were also compared with classical solute geothermometers (silica, Na-K-(Ca), K-Mg) [5]. Simulation results reveal that a minimum vertical fluid velocity on the order of a meter per day is needed to preserve the geochemical signature of a geothermal reservoir and to predict its temperature. The simulations also show that deep geochemical signatures are well preserved if fracture surfaces are partially coated by secondary minerals

  6. Evaluation of areas of contribution and water quality at receptors related to TCE plumes in a valley fill aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, R.; Ouellon, T.; Blais, V.; Ballard, J.; Brunet, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Val-Belair sector is located within Quebec City, about 20 km from downtown. Potential source zones and TCE plumes in groundwater are found at the western limit of the sector. At the center of the sector, four municipal water supply wells pump groundwater from an aquifer in surficial sediments where dissolved TCE is found. Private residential wells are also found in the sector. The Nelson River and its tributaries drain the sector and flows from west to east. New characterization results and available data were used to develop a numerical model of groundwater flow and mass transport to 1) define geological and hydrogeological contexts, 2) delineate the distribution of TCE and identify its migration paths and 3) evaluate the effect of TCE on the water quality of receptors (Nelson River, municipal and residential wells). In the sector, 30 to 40 m of sediments filling a buried valley form two aquifers separated by an aquitard: an unconfined deltaic aquifer at surface, an underlying silty prodeltaic aquitard and a semi-confined aquifer of deltaic sands and diamictons. Groundwater exchanges between the aquifers are generally downward through the aquitard, but near the Nelson River there is upward flow. Monitoring has led to sparse TCE detections in the Nelson River, regular detections at a mean value of 0.62 μg/L at one municipal well, occasional detections at another well and no detection at the other two wells. No TCE was detected in private wells, which are located outside the migration paths of TCE plumes. The context and numerical modeling with particle tracking and mass transport show the relationships between the two source zones, three TCE plumes and three receptors. Municipal wells pump in the semi-confined aquifer at a level appearing sustainable, but use most of the recharge in the sub-watershed. Areas of contribution to the wells thus cover almost all the study area with a complex pattern. These wells compete with the effect of the Nelson River to drain

  7. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  8. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  9. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  11. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  12. Geologic interpretation of ERTS-1 satellite images for West Aswan Area, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Elkassas, I. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of West Aswan area were interpreted in terms of geology, drainage, and structure. Twenty-two geological units were distinguished on ERTS-1 images in West Aswan area covering geological formations and erosional levels within some formations ranging from the Precambrian to the Quaternary. Apart from the distinction of Aswan monumental granite the investigated area shows very interesting exposures of sedimentary rocks ranging from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary. Of special interest is the delineation of the iron-ore member of the Nubian Sandstone and the phosphate-bearing formation. The tracing of the geological formations from south to north and the distinction of the varied geological units within the Pliocene and Quaternary, and the discussion on the origin of tufa are of particular significance. Also, the tracing on these images of major fractures and faults intercepting Aswan Dam Reservoir and their significance on the seepage and possible future development of diversion channels from reservoir is emphasized.

  13. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  14. Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter

    SciTech Connect

    May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility that houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS), was

  15. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; R.J. Blakely; P.D. Denning

    2001-11-09

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3 degree x 3 degree area (approximately 70,000 square kilometers) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative.

  16. Potential hazards from floodflows and debris movement in the Furnace Creek area, Death Valley National Monument, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crippen, John R.

    1979-01-01

    Death Valley is known as the driest and hottest region in the United States. Despite the aridity of the valley itself, however , very heavy rainfall sometimes occurs in the nearby mountains. Such violent rainstorms are likely to be of relatively short duration and to occur over rather small areas; nevertheless, they sometimes produce large floodflows that in turn cause severe erosion and flows of debris. The debris-laden flows may be hazardous to life and property. Given sufficient knowledge of the hydrologic and hydraulic environment, the degree of hazard can be estimated. Potential hazards are defined for areas in the vicinity of the Furnace Creek fan and the Park Service residential area. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  18. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  19. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from groundwater. Analytical , two-dimensional numerical and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas of groundwater pollution. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial drift, river valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial drift aquifers in New England. These controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and degree of well penetration. Numerical models of valley aquifers are deemed best suited to determine the approximate contributing area of a well because of their capability to simulate more accurately the variable geohydrologic conditions typical of glacial drift valley aquifers. On the basis of results obtained with the two-dimensional numerical model, for which a wide range of hydrologic conditions were simulated, the contributing area in a typical glacial drift, river valley setting for a well pumped at a rate of 1.0 million gal/day--a common pumping rate--can be expected to range from about 0.9 to 1.8 sq mi. Model analysis also shows that the contributing area of pumped wells may be expected to extend to the opposite side of the river and to include significant areas of till uplands adjacent to the aquifer on both sides of the valley

  20. FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Moline, G.R.; Schreiber, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems.

  1. Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. 2. Reentrainment and discharge of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W Jr

    1981-07-01

    This report describes results of a parametric study of quantities of radioactive materials that might be discharged by a tornado-generated depressurization on contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services' (NFS) fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, New York. The study involved the following tasks: determining approximate quantities of radioactive materials in the cells and characterizing particle-size distribution; estimating the degree of mass reentrainment from particle-size distribution and from air speed data presented in Part 1; and estimating the quantities of radioactive material (source term) released from the cells to the atmosphere. The study has shown that improperly sealed manipulator ports in the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) present the most likely pathway for release of substantial quantities of radioactive material in the atmosphere under tornado accident conditions at the facility.

  2. Installation of water and gas-sampling wells in low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1978-01-01

    A low-level radioactive-waste burial site, West Valley, N.Y., operated from 1963 to 1975, contains 12 refuse-filled trenches about 20 feet deep in till. Twenty-eight wells, 1.25 inch in diameter, were driven to selected depths in 11 of the 12 trenches to obtain gas and water samples for chemical and radiochemical analysis, water-level measurements for evaluation of trench-cover permeability. Gas from unsaturated refuse above the trench water level was detected in nearly all wells. Rapid water-level response in most wells to pumping of water from trench sumps 20 to 275 feet distant showed the refuse to be highly permeable. Described in detail are the methods and equipment used to (1) install the wells, (2) collect gas and water samples, and (3) monitor radiation and methane concentrations while driving wells into trenches. A record of each well driven into the burial trenches is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    .... However, Oso Canyon, at the western tip of the valley, is a sedimentary bed dating to the Miocene epoch... soils formed in alluvium derived from granitic rock on alluvial fans and terraces. Generally, they...

  4. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  5. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

  6. Analysis study of multispectral data, ERTS-A, from an area in West Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geomorphic features related to a known porphyry copper deposit at Saindak, western Chagai District, Pakistan, are easily distinguished on ERTS-1 images. No new prospecting sites were recognized on the basis of the images alone, but new information from the images was used in conjunction with known geology to evaluate two previously known speculative areas and to suggest one additional one. The study showed that Saindak-type deposits are less likely in some extensive areas of the Chagai District than formerly believed. The Saindak deposit is in an area of relatively soft folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The deposit is characterized by a linear zone of easily eroded sulfide-rich rock surrounded by a resistant rim of hornfels and propylitically altered rock. Both this rim and the central sulfide-rich valley are conspicuous features on the images. Swarms of dikes are probably useful for distinguishing real rims from other resistant rock types, but there is no expression of them on the image, although they are easily seen on aerial photographs of the Saindak rim. During field mapping, patches of strong red and yellow hue related to the mineral natrojarosite were noted in the central valley. Attempts to detect a color anomaly using simple false color composites were not successful.

  7. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Corning area, Steuben County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, T.S.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Steuben County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt, sand, and gravel, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till and silt deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the valley margin. Artesian conditions are found locally in sand and gravel confined under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs nearly everywhere on the valley floor, but principally along the margin of the valley, where highly permeable land surface conditions exist, and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is a mixture of residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. (USGS)

  8. The geology and hydrogeology of Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Areas A and B

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    A study was undertaken of the Oil Landfarm and Burial Grounds A and B, which are three disposal sites within the Bear Creek Waste Disposal Area. The area is located west of the Y-12 plant, about 3 miles southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this interim report is to present data collected at the Burial Grounds A and B, and to provide the results of hydrogeologic analyses. The Oil Landfarm geologic and hydrogeologic data and analyses have been submitted in a January 1984 interim report. The overall objectives of the study were to characterize the types and extent of wastes present and to define the occurrence and movement of ground water beneath the sites. The intention of this work is to provide criteria on which a design for containing the waste can be developed. Specific activities performed by Bechtel included: drilling for subsurface geologic data; installing monitoring wells; measuring permeability and ground-water flow directions; and collecting soil, sediment, surface- and ground-water, and liquid-waste samples for chemical analysis. Results are presented on the geology and ground waters.

  9. Glacier area and volume changes of Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal from ~1980s to 2010 based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, L.; Kayastha, R. B.; Maharjan, S. B.; Bajracharya, S. R.; Chand, M. B.; Mool, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    Glaciers are one of the important natural resources of freshwater and sources of water for hydropower, agriculture and drinking whenever the water is scarce. This mapping and change analysis helps to understand the status and decadal changes of glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mustang district, Nepal. The investigation is carried out using Landsat images of the years 1977 (~1980s), 1990, 2000 and 2010. We mapped 10 glaciers of the Hidden Valley covering an area of 19.79 km2 based on the object-based image classification method using an automatic method and manual delineation by a Geographic Information System (GIS), separately. The glacier outlines for 2010, 2000, 1990 and 1980s in both methods are delineated from the multispectral Landsat images of the respective years. The total area losses of the glaciers from the automatic method are 1.713 and 0.625 km2 between 1990-2000 and 2000-2010 and from manual delineation are 2.021, 1.264, 1.041 km2 between ~1980s-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. The amount of average estimated glacier ice reserves lost is 0.326 km3 (26.26 %) and the total glacier area loss is 4.33 km2 (21.87 %) from the 1980s to 2010 based on manual delineation. The glaciers of Hidden Valley are shrinking and fragmented due to decrease in glacier area and ice reserves.

  10. The evolution of the Shiwanghe River valley in response to the Yellow River incision in the Hukou area, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.

  11. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa: challenges, opportunities, and policy priority areas.

    PubMed

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Bromberg, Mel; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa has drawn attention to global health inequalities, in particular the inadequacies of health care systems in sub-Saharan African countries for appropriately managing and containing infectious diseases. The purpose of this article is to examine the sociopolitical and economic conditions that created the environment for the Ebola epidemic to occur, identify challenges to and opportunities for the prevention and control of Ebola and future outbreaks, and discuss policy recommendations and priority areas for addressing the Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks in West Africa. Articles in peer-reviewed journals on health system reforms in developing countries and periodicals of international organizations were used to gather the overview reported in this article. We identify individual, structural, and community challenges that must be addressed in an effort to reduce the spread of Ebola in West Africa. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for the overhaul and transformation of African health care systems to build the capacity in these countries to address infectious diseases. Public-private partnerships for investment in developing countries' health care systems that involve the international community are critical in addressing the current Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks. PMID:25645480

  12. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  13. Principal facts for new gravity stations in the Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley areas, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Jeffrey G.; Hildenbrand, Thoma G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Roberts, Carter W.

    1998-12-15

    Regional gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley region indicate the presence of several structures that may influence the flow of groundwater. For example, several prominent linear features expressed by both gravity and aeromagentic data could act either as barriers or conduits for groundwater. The current gravity study was undertaken to better define the boundaries of the interpreted major regional structures in the area.

  14. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  16. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  17. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  18. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. PMID:25260168

  19. Evidence for precipitation on Mars from dendritic valleys in the Valles Marineris area.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Nicolas; Quantin, Cathy; Ansan, Véronique; Delacourt, Christophe; Allemand, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Dendritic valleys on the plateau and canyons of the Valles Marineris region were identified from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images taken by Mars Odyssey. The geomorphic characteristics of these valleys, especially their high degree of branching, favor formation by atmospheric precipitation. The presence of inner channels and the maturity of the branched networks indicate sustained fluid flows over geologically long periods of time. These fluvial landforms occur within the Late Hesperian units (about 2.9 to 3.4 billion years old), when Mars was thought to have been cold. Our results suggest a period of warmer conditions conducive to hydrological activity. PMID:15232103

  20. Hydrology of Area 6, Eastern Coal Province, Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Staubitz, W.W.; Sobashinski, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    This report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 6, the 1329 square-mile North Branch Potomac River basin. Area 6 comprises parts of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia and is almost evenly divided between two physiographic provinces. The allegheny Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province encompasses the western half of the area and contains coal-bearing rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area contains two coal-producing regions. Coal production from the area amounted to 3.8 million tons in 1978 and has been steadily increasing in the last several years. Area 6 has a continental, temperate climate and receives between 36 and 45 inches of precipitation depending on elevation. The soils of the area were formed from noncarbonate, sedimentary rocks and are generally of high acidity and low fertility. Forest land occupies over 80% of the land surface, whereas surface mining occupies only about 1.5% of the land surface. The area is drained entirely by the North Branch Potomac River. Water used in the area is mostly from surface-water resources. Ground-water accounts for only 0.5% of total water withdrawals. Seventy-two percent of ground-water withdrawals are used by the coal-mining industry. More than 140 miles of streams in Area 6 are affected by mine drainage. These streams are devoid of fish life and otherwise have severely reduced biological communities. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations and specific conductances were more than three times greater for streams draining coal mining areas than for streams draining unmined areas. The mean pH and net alkalinity of streams draining unmined areas were higher than those of streams draining mined areas. Although concentrations of trace metals in water and bottom sediments were generally low for streams draining both mined and unmined areas, those from unmined areas were noticeably higher.

  1. Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Matanuska Valley area and the displacement history of the Castle Mountain fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, M. L.; Grantz, A.

    Primitive strontium-isotopic composition and overall bimodal distribution of silica in upper Paleocene and Eocene subalkalic tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt and low-potassium rhyolite of the Matanuska Valley and southern Talkeetna Mountains suggest that these rocks were derived from the mantle with little contamination by continental crust. The volcanic rocks consist of rhyolite tuff and ash flows, as well as basalt flows and dikes, in the nonmarine Arkose Ridge Formation of the southwestern Talkeetna Mountains; of subaerial basalt and andesite flows, tuff, and mafic intrusions in the southeastern Talkeetna Mountains; and of felsic and mafic dikes, sills, and small plutons in the Matanuska Valley. The generalized geology of the area in which the volcanic rocks occur and the localities sampled for potassium-argon-age determinations and for chemical and strontinum-isotopic analysis are shown. The analytical results are listed.

  2. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  3. Sources of salinity in ground water from Jericho area, Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Marie, A; Vengosh, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems in the lower Jordan Valley is the increasing salinization (i.e., chloride content) of local ground water. The high levels of salinity limit the utilization of ground water for both domestic and agriculture applications. This joint collaborative study evaluates the sources and mechanisms for salinization in the Jericho area. We employ diagnostic geochemical fingerprinting methods to trace the potential sources of the salinity in (1) the deep confined subaquifer system (K2) of Lower Cenomanian age; (2) the upper subaquifer system (K1) of Upper Cenomanian and Turonian ages; and (3) the shallow aquifer system (Q) of Plio-Pleistocene ages. The chemical composition of the saline ground water from the two Cenomanian subaquifers (K1 and K2) point to a single saline source with Na/Cl approximately 0.5 and Br/Cl approximately 7 x 10(-3). This composition is similar to that of thermal hypersaline spring that are found along the western shore of the Dead Sea (e.g., En Gedi thermal spring). We suggest that the increasing salinity in both K1 and K2 subaquifers is derived from mixing with deep-seated brines that flow through the Rift fault system. The salinization rate depends on the discharge volume of the fresh meteoric water in the Cenomanian Aquifer. In contrast, the chemical composition of ground water from the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer shows a wide range of Cl- (100-2000 mg/L), Na/Cl (0.4-1.0), Br/Cl (2-6 x 10(-3)), and SO4/Cl (0.01-0.4) ratios. These variations, together with the high SO4(2-), K+, and NO3- concentrations, suggest that the salinity in the shallow aquifer is derived from the combination of (1) upconing of deep brines as reflected by low Na/Cl and high Br/Cl ratios; (2) leaching of salts from the Lisan Formation within the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer, as suggested by the high SO4(2-) concentrations; and (3) anthropogenic contamination of agriculture return flow and sewage effluents with distinctive high K+ (80 mg/L) and NO3- (80 mg

  4. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): San Fernando Valley (Area 1), CA. (Second Remedial Action), June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-30

    The San Fernando Valley Basin (SFVB) Area 1 site is one of four Superfund sites (including SFVB Areas 2, 3, and 4) being remediated as one large site. The SFVB lies within the approximately 32B,500-acre Upper Los Angeles River area. The remedial action is for the Burbank Well Field operable unit of the SFVB Area 1 site, located within the city of Burbank, California, and addresses a portion of the overall ground-water problem in the SFVB Areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 sites. The primary contaminants of concern are VOCs including TCE and PCE. The selected remedial action for the site includes pumping and treatment of ground water contaminated with TCE exceeding 100 microg/l or PCE exceeding 5 microg/l using air or stream stripping, with vapor phase GAC adsorption units if air stripping is used, and discharge to the municipal-water-supply distribution system; and ground water monitoring.

  6. 14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM OBSERVATORY HILL AT NORTH END OF WEST DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  7. Ozone vertical flux within the lower troposphere over background areas of west Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antokhin, P. N.; Antokhina, O. Yu.; Belan, S. B.; Belan, B. D.; Kozlov, A. V.; Krasnov, O. A.; Pestunov, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper the results of the vertical ozone flux profiles calculated within the lower troposphere over background area of west Siberia are presented. The data on the vertical distribution of the ozone and meteorological parameters derived from AN-2 aircraft measurements supplemented by radiosonde launches. Profiles of turbulent diffusion coefficient were calculated based on "K-theory" with the use of nonlocal closure scheme - "Troen and Mahrt". Calculations confirmed earlier findings that the formation of the daytime ozone maximum in the atmospheric boundary layer occurs due to its photochemical production from precursors.

  8. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  9. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Randall, Allan D.

    1977-01-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y., are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and (or) reduced soil in their walls extend to 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975-76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 0.00001 to 0.001 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1990-03-01

    Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A New Strategy for the Electromagnetic Monitoring of Seismic Areas: the Case-Study of Agri Valley (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenna, V.; Balasco, M.; Giocoli, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Romano, G.; Siniscalchi, A.; Telesca, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Agri valley is one of the most active areas of Southern Apennine chain that was hidden by destructive events in historical and recent periods (i.e. the 1857 Great Neapolitan earthquake). The geological environment is extremely complex and the location of the main faults are still debated. The Agriu valley is a N- W elongated basin filled by quaternary deposits covering the pre-quaternary rock of the Apennine chain. The area is characterised by a very low man-made electromagnetic noise and it represents an ideal "outdoor laboratory" to test new strategies for geophysical monitoring of active faults. In this work we present a novel approach based on the integration of Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (DERT), Self-Potential (SP) and Magnetotelluric (MT) time-continuous measurements. The basic idea underlying this approach is to jointly analyse and modelling the electrical signals, observed on earth-surface, and the time-dependent changes of subsurface resistivity patterns. We are firmly convinced that any conclusions about the relationship between anomalous electrical signals and earthquake activity cannot be achieved without a good knowledge of subsurface resistivity structures and an accurate localisation of the electrical sources. In our work DERT has been applied for illuminating in-depth the geological structures and giving a contribute to better define the thickness and the shape of alluvial deposits covering the pre- quaternary bedrock of Agri valley. SP surveying and time-continuous monitoring have been carried to study electrokinetic effects due to groundwater patterns and to identify possible fingerprints of fluid migration phenomena. New SP stations with sensors in boreholes (200m) have been installed. MT time-continuous soundings have been performed to analyse the time-dependent changes in deep resistivity patterns. All data measured in the study area have been processed and filtered using robust statistical methodologies (DFA, wavelet, multi

  12. Master Agreement between Board of Directors of Iowa Valley Community College District (Merged Area VI) and Iowa Valley Community College Education Association/ISEA, 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Valley Community Coll. District, Marshalltown, IA.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Directors of the Iowa Valley Community College District and the Iowa Valley Community College Education Association outlines the terms of employment for all faculty, librarians, and counselors and certain other professional staff at Marshalltown and Ellsworth Community Colleges. The 13…

  13. Variations in alluvial style of Tertiary units in response to tectonism, Las Monas area, middle Magdalena valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Siemers, C.T.

    1989-03-01

    Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of Tertiary alluvial sandstone outcrops within and east of producing oil fields in the Las Monas area in Colombia, South America, indicate that depositional style changed from fluvial-deltaic to braided streams atop alluvial fans to high-sinuosity meandering streams in response to uplifts in the surrounding areas. Diverse paleocurrent trends in the Tertiary formations in the perimeter area demonstrate that streams flowed northeast and northwest. Streams in the oil field had easterly and southerly components. Source areas contributing sediment were different and reflected uplifts to the west and south of the Las Monas area. Petrographic composition of sandstones that have easterly and southerly paleocurrent trends in the field area contain more feldspar and less polycrystalline strained quartz than sandstones having a northerly trend in the perimeter area. Sandstones in the field area represent an unroofing of a western granitic terrain, possibly in the ancestral Central Cordillera.

  14. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): San Gabriel Valley (Area 4), Puente Valley Operable Unit, La Puente, CA, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Interim Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the contamination at the Puente Valley Operable Unit (PVOU) located within the San Gabriel Valley Superfund Site in Los Angeles County, California. This ROD addresses ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selected remedy is containment of ground water contaminated with VOCs in the shallow and intermediate zones at the mouth of Puente Valley to prevent further migration of existing ground-water contamination. This remedy includes performance criteria that will require extraction and treatment of contaminated ground water at certain locations along the downgradient edge of the contamination and will require continued monitoring and evaluation at other locations. Treated ground water will be provided to local water purveyors or discharged to Puente Creek, immediately upstream of San Jose Creek. In addition, this remedy includes monitoring in the shallow, intermediate, and deep ground-water zones at mid-valley and at the mouth of the valley.

  16. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

    2006-09-15

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  17. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    changes by region. In recent years, pumping depressions have developed southeast of Sonoma and southwest of El Verano. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 75 wells during 2002-04 indicate that the ground-water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. The water from some wells, however, contains one or more constituents in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water. The chemical composition of water from creeks, springs, and wells sampled for major ions plot within three groups on a trilinear diagram: mixed-bicarbonate, sodium-mixed anion, and sodium-bicarbonate. An area of saline ground water in the southern part of the Sonoma Valley appears to have shifted since the late 1940s and early 1950s, expanding in one area, but receding in another. Sparse temperature data from wells southwest of the known occurrence of thermal water suggest that thermal water may be present beneath a larger part of the valley than previously thought. Thermal water contains higher concentrations of dissolved minerals than nonthermal waters because mineral solubilities generally increase with temperature. Geohydrologic Characterization, Water-Chemistry, and Ground-Water Flow Simulation Model of the Sonoma Valley Area, Sonoma County, California Oxygen-18 (d18 O) and deuterium (dD) values for water from most wells plot along the global meteoric water line, indicating that recharge primarily is derived from the direct infiltration of precipitation or the infiltration of seepage from creeks. Samples from shallow- and intermediate-depth wells located near Sonoma Creek and (or) in the vicinity of Shellville plot to the right of the global meteoric water line, indicating that these waters are partly evaporated. The d18 O and dD composition of water from sampled wells indicates that water from wells deeper than 200 feet is isotopically lighter (more negative) than water from wells less than 200 feet deep, possibly indicating that older ground wate

  18. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Wetlands Planning Area in the State of Oregon and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau... Wetlands Planning Area and by this notice is announcing the beginning of the scoping process to solicit public comments and identify issues. The West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area comprises approximately...

  19. Chronology of late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanics, Long Valley and Mono Basin geothermal areas, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    mono magma chamber suggests that rhyolite magma may have been emplaced in the shallow crust as recently as 32,000 to 40,000 yrs ago. Calculations by Lachenbruch et al. (1976, Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 81, p. 769-784) that a thermal disturbance at this age would have propagated upward by solid conduction only 4 km and offer an explanation for the lack of a heat-flow anomaly and surface indications of hydrothermal activity over the Mono magma chamber and its associated ring-fracture system. This report also contains new information on the age and chemistry of volcanics on the Mono Lake island, the Inyo domes, and tephras within the Long Valley Caldera. A newly discovered rhyolite tuff ring of late Quaternary age in the Toowa volcanic field of the southern Sierra Nevada is briefly described for it represents a new area that should be examined for potential as a geothermal area.

  20. Broadband seismological observations at two phase geothermal area in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Hendriyana, Andry; Jaya, Makky; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Rachmat Sule, M.; Syahbana, Devy; Braeuer, Benjamin; Otto, Christopher; Merz, Michaela; Umar, Muksin; Kusnadi, Yosep; Erbas, Kemal

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve our understanding and enhancing the knowledge about structures and dynamics of geothermal reservoirs for geothermal exploration and a sustainable use of the resource, we assess geothermal reservoirs with an integrated multi-scale and multi-disciplinary approach. A passive seismic monitoring study started in October 2012 with the deployment of a network of 30 broadband seismic stations and 4 short period seismic stations around a two phase geothermal area in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is situated inside the volcanic zone in the center of West Java. Sediments and volcanic product were deposited less than 50,000 years ago. The presence of a complex tectonic setting may explain co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like fumaroles, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes (Guntur and Papandayan volcanoes). These co-existent features suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. We describe the set-up of the broadband network and discuss first observations.

  1. Observatory Design in the Mountain West: Scaling Measurements and Modeling in the San Joaquin Valley and Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Bales, R.; Boyer, E.; Cayan, D.; Dozier, J.; Fogg, G.; Harmon, T.; Kirchner, J.; Miller, N.; Molotch, N.; Redmond, K.

    2006-12-01

    This project represents a key step toward developing an environmental observatory in the semiarid mountain- valley landscape of the far western United States. Two specific aims of this project are: (i) to formulate basin- scale measurement and modeling strategies to meet priority research issues, through analysis of existing operational and research data, and (ii) to assess different instrument cluster designs to provide the ground- based measurements needed for hydrologic process research. Achieving these aims will both help to establish a "virtual" observatory, and provide direction for building new infrastructure in an actual observatory. The observatory design concept involves establishing intensive measurements at ground-based instrument clusters, integrated with broad coverage offered by satellite remote sensing, plus operational networks. The main science challenge is that of scaling between the instrument clusters. Basing an observatory design on instrument clusters at representative points across the landscape recognizes that it is logistically infeasible to measure everything, everywhere, all the time. Instrument clusters co-locate key measurements, in order to illuminate linkages among processes within each cluster's relatively small footprint. Design challenges include configuring instrument clusters to maximize the scientific payoff for a given investment of resources; and determining how well the data from these clusters represent the landscape that surrounds them, beyond the footprint of the measurements themselves.

  2. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  3. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 366 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended).

  5. Analysis study of multispectral data, ERTS-A, from an area in West Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geomorphic features related to a known porphyry copper deposit at Saindak, western Chagai District, Pakistan, are easily distinguished on ERTS-1 images. New geologic information from the images was used in conjunction with known geology to evaluate one previously known prospect area and to suggest two additional ones, but no new prospects were recognized on the basis of the images alone. The study also showed that Saindak-type deposits are not likely to be present in some extensive areas of the Chagai District. The Saindak deposit is in an area of relatively easily eroded folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The deposit is characterized by an elongate zone of easily eroded sulfide-rich rock surrounded by a resistant rim of hornfels and propylitically altered rock. Both this rim and the central sulfide-rich valley are conspicuous features on the images. Swarms of dikes are probably useful for distinguishing real rims from other resistant rock types, but there is no expression of them on the image, although they are easily seen on aerial photographs of the Saindak rim. The investigation showed that a rim like that at Saindak does not form if regional metamorphism has increased the resistance of the country rock to erosion, as in the Pakistan-Iran border region northwest of Saindak.

  6. Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Volume I. Tornado effects on head-end cell airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, L.J.; Andrae, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes results of a parametric study of the impacts of a tornado-generated depressurization on airflow in the contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, NY. The study involved the following tasks: (1) mathematical modeling of installed ventilation and abnormal exhaust pathways from the cells and prediction of tornado-induced airflows in these pathways; (2) mathematical modeling of individual cell flow characteristics and prediction of in-cell velocities induced by flows from step 1; and (3) evaluation of the results of steps 1 and 2 to determine whether any of the pathways investigated have the potential for releasing quantities of radioactively contaminated air from the main process cells. The study has concluded that in the event of a tornado strike, certain pathways from the cells have the potential to release radioactive materials of the atmosphere. Determination of the quantities of radioactive material released from the cells through pathways identified in step 3 is presented in Part II of this report.

  7. Ground-Water Quality in Unmined Areas and Near Reclaimed Surface Coal Mines in the Northern and Central Appalachian Coal Regions, Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Findings are presented from investigations during 1996-1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Ground-water quality in 58 wells downgradient of reclaimed surface coal mines is compared to ground-water quality from 25 wells in unmined areas (background concentrations) in the bituminous coal fields of the northern Appalachian coal region (high-sulfur coal region) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia and the central Appalachian coal region (low-sulfur coal region) in West Virginia. Ground water in the mined high-sulfur coal region has significantly greater median concentrations of sulfate, hardness, calcium, and specific conductance compared to the unmined high-sulfur coal region and to both mined and unmined areas in the low-sulfur coal region. Ground water in mined areas had median values of mine-drainage constituents (sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, hardness, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, and specific conductance) that were significantly greater than medians for wells in unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents include cations such as calcium and magnesium that become elevated compared to levels in unmined areas because of exposure of acidic mine drainage to calcareous materials. The transport of pyrite-oxidation products from the mined site and subsequent neutralization reactions by calcareous materials at the mine site or along the flow path are likely processes that result in greater concentrations of mine-drainage constituents in mined areas compared to unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents generally exceeded unmined-area background concentrations within about 500 feet of mined sites but were at or below background levels in wells more than 1,000 feet downgradient of mined sites. Concentrations of sulfate, hardness, and total dissolved solids were greatest at well depths of 50 to 150 feet but generally were less than background concentrations in wells deeper than 150 feet. Concentrations of iron, manganese

  8. Lead-rich sediments, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho: area, volume, tonnage, and lead content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Campbell, Julie K.; Foster, Kathryn I.; Jackson, Berne L.

    2001-01-01

    In north Idaho, downstream from the Coeur d?Alene (CdA) silver-lead-zinc mining district, lead-rich sediments, containing at least 1,000 ppm of lead, cover approximately 61 km2 (or 73 percent) of the 84-km2 floor of the CdA River valley, from the confluence of its North and South Forks to the top of its delta-front slope, in CdA Lake. Concentrations of lead (Pb) in surface sediments range from 15 to about 38,500 ppm, and average 3,370 ppm, which is 112 times the mean background concentration (30 ppm) of Pb in uncontaminated sediments of the CdA and St. Joe River valleys. Most of the highest concentrations of Pb are in sediments within or near the river channel, or near the base of the stratigraphic section of Pb-rich sediments. Ranges of Pb concentration in Pb-rich sediments gradually decrease with increasing distance from the river and its distributaries. Ranges of thickness of Pb-rich sediments generally decrease abruptly with increasing distance from the river, from about 3 + 3 m in the river channel to about 1 + 1m on upland riverbanks, levees and sand splays, to about 0.3 + 0.3 m in back-levee marshes and lateral lakes. Thickness of Pb-rich dredge spoils (removed from the river and deposited on Cataldo-Mission Flats) is mostly in the range 4 + 4 m, thinning away from an outfall zone north and west of the river, near the formerly dredged channel reach near Cataldo Landing. We attribute lateral variation in ranges of thickness and Pb content of Pb-rich sediments to the dynamic balance between decreasing floodwater flow velocity with increasing distance from the river and the quantity, size, density, and Pb content of particles mobilized, transported, and deposited. We present alternative median- and mean-based estimates of the volume of Pbrich sediments, their wet and dry tonnage, and their tonnage of contained Pb. We calculate separate pairs of estimates for 23 Estimation Units, each of which corresponds to a major depositional environment, divided into down-valley

  9. Assessment of the Impact of the California Water Project in the West Side of the San Joaquin Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Kuhn, M.; Golomb, B.; Senger, L. W.; Wester, L.; Fortune, P.; Viellenave, J.

    1971-01-01

    The ability of remote sensing techniques to effectively monitor, on a continuing basis, the impact of a change in the water supply of an arid area is considered. Research involves the collection of a substantial body of information relative to both physical and biological phenomena or systems operative within the study area by concentrating on the accumulation of library materials, and field data.

  10. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the great valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Larkin, S.P.; Boughton, C.J.; Reed, B.W.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg-1 for As in residential soi, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg-1 in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally <0.005 mg L-1. There was no spatial association between As concentrations in ground water and proximity to orchards. Arsenic had limited mobility into ground water from surface soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  11. Coda Attenuation Analysis in the West Bohemia/Vogtland Earthquake Swarm Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomáš

    2016-02-01

    Seismic coda represents a valuable source of information about the attenuation of the high-frequency waves in the studied region. The quality factor Q derived from coda is an integral parameter of the volume surrounding the hypocenter and seismic station and, according to the applied method, represents the total attenuation or the intrinsic and scattering parts. We analyzed records of 13 selected earthquakes in the magnitude range 1.7-2.9 of the 2011 swarm from West Bohemian/Vogtland area (central Europe), which were recorded at epicentral distances from 7 to 50 km. Two methods were applied: coda method for estimation of the Q c and the Multiple Lapse Time Windows Analysis for separation of the scattering and intrinsic loss by estimation of Q i and Q sc. Careful selection of the analyzed events was necessary due to the frequent contamination of coda decays by the running seismic swarm activity. The resulting coda Q c is relatively high with respect to the geodynamic activity and varies between 100 and 2500 within the analyzed frequency range of 1-18 Hz. The intrinsic loss dominates over scattering attenuation with Q i increasing from 100 and 1850 and Q sc from 300 to 3400 in the same frequency range, which is consistent with the geodynamic activity of the region. We find that the intrinsic attenuation in West-Bohemia/Vogtland is higher that in neighboring Germany, which could be attributed to the heterogeneity of the crust in central Europe.

  12. Ecological Succession, Land use Changes and Soil Organic C Stock in a Lake Retreat Area (Main Ethiopian Rift Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, J.; Temesgen, H.; Lemenih, M.; Zenebe, A.; Kindu, M.; Haile, M.

    2007-12-01

    In the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley, ecological succession is related to continuous lake retreat (Nyssen et al., 2004). Human activities, through their impact on land use and cover, affect this ecological succession. Through a remote sensing study, we extricated ecological succession and human activity as causative factors for land use and cover changes (LUCC) and explored which impact this has on soil organic C (SOC) stock in lake retreat areas. Remote sensing data used include a Landsat MSS from 1973, a Landsat TM from 1986 and a Landsat ETM+ from 2000. A conventional type of classification was used whereby supervised classification of the 2000 image was supplemented by unsupervised classification of the older datasets. Due to decreased rainfall and water abstraction for intense irrigated agriculture and floriculture in its catchment, Lake Abijata lost 46 % of its area between 2000 and 2006. On the emerged lands, a good ecological succession was observed between 1973 and 1986, with clear evidence for: emerged land -> grassland -> Acacia bushes -> open woodland. Between 1986 and 2000, LUCC tendencies were totally reversed and woody vegetation decreased strongly, indicating increased human impact (Habtamu et al., 2007). Based on an analysis of the Landsat imagery, coupled with soil and land use studies, determinants for SOC stock were found. Firstly, SOC stock significantly differs between cultivated land and grazing land (3301 and 2626 g m-2) on the one hand, and woodland (4594 g m-2) on the other. The strongest explanation of SOC stock is related to the duration of emergence and hence of pedogenesis. Its proxy, elevation, explains much of the variability of SOC (R2 = 0.48). Using a multiple regression model involving elevation and IR reflectance, the SOC stock in the study area could be assessed at 2196 (+ - 1517) g m-2 SOC in 2000, against 3222 (+ - 1639) g m-2 in 1973 (Nyssen et al., 2007), which is related to the post-1986 reversing of ecological succession in

  13. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  14. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part II. Water temperature and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Davis, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Geothermal reconnaissance techniques have identified five areas in Utah County warranting further investigation for low-temperature geothermal resources. One area in northern Utah Valley is along Utah Lake fault zone and includes Saratoga Hot Springs. Water temperatures within this area range from 21 to 43/sup 0/C. Common ion analyses as well as B and Li concentrations indicate waters sampled in this area are anomalous when compared to other samples from the same aquifer. Two other areas in southern Utah Valley also coincide with the Utah Lake fault zone. Common ion analyses, trace element concentrations, and C1/HCO/sub 3/ ratios distinguish these areas from all other waters in this valley. Temperatures within these southern areas range from 21 to 32/sup 0/C. All three thermal areas are possibly the result of deep circulation of meteoric water being warmed and subsequently migrating upward within the Utah Lake fault zone. The Castilla Hot Springs area has been expanded by this study to include a spring located 3 mi further up Spanish Fork Canyon near the Thistle earthflow. A temperature of 50/sup 0/C was recorded for this spring and chemistry is similar to Castilla. In Goshen Valley, the fifth geothermal area identified, measured temperatures range from 20 to 27/sup 0/C for some wells and springs. Chemical analyses, however, do not discern the location of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Analyses and descriptions of geochemical samples, Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mei, Leung; Fletcher, J.D.; Rait, Norma; Lesure, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 95 stream sediment and 122 rock samples from Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia and Monroe County, West Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of these iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc than in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. A few samples of Tuscarora Quartzite contain moderate amounts of manganese. These are from a submarginal manganese resource. No other obviously anomalous-values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

  16. Effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Sauk River Valley Aquifer and on streamflow in the Cold Spring area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The simulated contributing areas for selected watersupply wells in the Cold Spring area generally extend to and possibly beyond the model boundaries to the north and to the southeast. The contributing areas for the Gold'n Plump Poultry Processing Plant supply wells extend: (1) to the Sauk River, (2) to the north to and possibly beyond to the northern model boundary, and (3) to the southeast to and possibly beyond the southeastern model boundary. The primary effects of projected increased ground-water withdrawals of 0.23 cubic feet per second (7.5 percent increase) were to: (1) decrease outflow from the Sauk River Valley aquifer through constant-head boundaries and (2) decrease leakage from the valley unit of the Sauk River Valley aquifer to the streams. No appreciable differences were discernible between the simulated steady-state contributing areas to wells with 1998 pumpage and those with the projected pumpage.

  17. Literature review and need for additional study of surface-water quality in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area encompasses about 24 miles of the middle reach of the Cuyahoga River and parts of four major tributaries -- Furnace Run, Brandywine Creek, Chippewa Creek, and TInkers Creek. Water quality in this reach does not meet Ohio water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen, fecal bacteria, ammonia, and lead. Point sources of effluent contribute contaminants. On the basis of a review of scientific and technical literature, National Park Service management goals, and water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, three subject areas for future study are suggested: (1) The dissolved oxygen regime, (2) chemical quality of base flow, and (3) quality of storm-water runoff.

  18. Assessment of the Impact of the California Water Project on the West Side of the San Joaquin Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in the regional scale parameters used to characterize the nature of area transformation caused by the California State Water Project are analyzed. Data were taken from Mission 164 and ERTS high flight simulation imagery. Indicators considered cover general and urban oriented land use, general and problem oriented vegetation, irrigation systems, and identification of crops.

  19. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Characteristics of deep-seated catastrophic landslide in a valley, movement process, and determination of deposition hazard area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chia-Ming; Weng, Meng-Chia

    2013-04-01

    During extreme rainfall, deep-seated catastrophic landslide is a frequent mishap in main stream and tributaries of Taiwan. Reviewing the histories of Taiwan landslide events, as a large and deep-seated rock/soil mass of simultaneous movements in a valley, it might cause serious disasters. Reviewing the present literatures, there are morphological indications that the potential deep-seated catastrophic landslide can be track and find. Especially, the slate slope is influenced by weathering and gravitation for a long time, it become weak and it may cause the sliding slope creep and folding rock that will become the sliding surface of deep-seated catastrophic landslide. But analysis deep-seated catastrophic landslides for disaster preparedness and response planning are sometimes inadequate due to the complexity of such slopes. Whereas, this study mainly focus on deep-seated catastrophic landslide in valley. The study area has chosen Xiandushan Mountain, the 115.9 k of Suhua highway, and Zhuoshui River which to discuss the characteristics of deep-seated catastrophic landslide in a valley, movement process, and deposition hazard area. Base on the past events of deep-seated catastrophic landslide, the geological investigation, morphological analysis, and remote sensing technology will helpful to induce the geological characteristics and the morphological evolution. Besides, the deep-seated catastrophic landslide events will simplify to set up the physical modeling, its interpret the variation conditions to influence the characteristics, movement process, and deposition hazard area for deep-seated catastrophic landslide. The results of physical modeling were compared with those produced by numerical analysis (Application of discrete element method by PFC3D program) so that the correctness of the numerical simulation could be justified. Subsequently, calibrated numerical methods adopted in the small-scale model were used to simulate the full-scale model. The simulation

  1. Ground-water conditions in the Cottonwood-West Oakley Fan area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.K.; Young, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive groundwater development in the Cottonwood-West Oakley Fan area, Cassia County, Idaho, has resulted in rapid water-level declines and establishment of two critical groundwater areas. A northwest-trending fault in nearly coincident with the boundary between the two critical groundwater areas. Southwest of the fault, water levels in limestone are as much as 200 feet higher than those in silicic volcanics northeast of the fault, which indicates the fault is an effective barrier to groundwater movement. Results of an aquifer test in limestone southwest of the fault further indicate no hydraulic connection with the silicic volcanics aquifer northeast of the fault. Water levels in wells completed in limestone and silicic volcanics aquifers have declined 5 and 5.5 feet per year since 1977. Groundwater withdrawals in 1980 were about 60,000 acre-free from the silicic volcanics aquifer and, between 1977 and 1982, averaged about 5,300 acre-feet per year from the limestone aquifer. Annual recharge to the silicic volcanics aquifer is between about 10,000 and 26,000 acre-feet; recharge to the limestone aquifer is near 4,000 acre-feet. Limited water-quality data indicate the groundwater is chemically suitable for irrigation and domestic use. (USGS)

  2. Seismic Velocities Imaging around "AFA" Hydrothermal Area in West Java, Indonesia derived from Dense Seimometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanani Akbar, Akhmad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Jousset, Philippe GM; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Gassner, Alexandra; Jaya, Makky S.; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Umar, Muksin; Indrinanto, Yudi; Erbas, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    We have deployed about 48 three component seismometers around "AFA" hydrothermal are in West Java, Indonesia from October 2012 up to October 2014 in order to detect microseismic event and to enhance our knowledge about subsurface seismic stucture. The seismometer network in this study, is the first dense seismometer array monitoring around hydrothermal area in Indonesia so far. We analyzed a huge waveform data set to distinguish microseismic, local and regional events. Then, we picked the onset of P-and S-wave arrival of microseismic events carefully visually by eye. We determined the initial microseismic event by applying Geiger's method with uniform seismic velocity model. Totally, we have been successfully determined 2,497 microseismic events around this hydrothermal area. We also improved 1D seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and simultaneously with hypocenter adjustment as input for the tomography inversion in this study. Overall, the microseismic events are concentrated around production area activities and we also found strong cluster microseismic event in Southern part of this region which still need to be investigated in more details. Now, we are going on tomographic inversion step by using double-difference method. We are going to show more information during the meeting.

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope studies of groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, David; Akiti, Tetteh T.; Osae, Shiloh; Appenteng, Michael K.; Gibrilla, Abass

    2013-09-01

    This paper assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl. The concentration of the Na-Cl was observed to increase substantially with well depths. The mixing of freshwater of the shallow hand dug wells with that of saline water of the deep boreholes was noted in the shift from Ca-HCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagram showed that groundwater in the study area is recharged from a similar source. The Schoeller diagram also showed the gradual increase in concentration of the major ions with depth. This leads to salinization in the deep boreholes. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2 ‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the foothills of the Akwapim-Togo Ranges.

  4. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  5. Seasonal variation of ozone and black carbon observed at Paknajol, an urban area in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Duchi, Rocco; Das Shrestha, Sunil; Pietro Verza, Gian; Landi, Tony Christian; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Busetto, Maurizio; Agrillo, Giacomo; Biancofiore, Fabio; Di Carlo, Piero; Panday, Arnico; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    be useful for implementing control measures to mitigate the occurrence of acute pollution levels in the Kathmandu Valley and the surrounding area.

  6. Oil exploration in Pine Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.H.; Chamberlain, A.K.

    1989-03-01

    Three oil fields have already been established in Pine Valley, which is located in north-central Nevada along the late Mesozoic thrust trend. The potential exists for much more future exploration because of excellent reservoir potential, favorable hydrocarbon generating system, and trapping mechanisms. The Devonian is one of the main target reservoirs of Pine Valley. Pine Valley lies near the Devonian shelf edge, and carbonate facies from that period undergo abrupt changes in the Pine Valley region. The Guilmette/Devil's Gate apparently develops into a reefal system along the Uinta-Cortez arch in this area. Fore-reef and basinal facies are found at Cortez Mountain on the west side of Pine Valley. Mississippian sandstones and Tertiary tuffs are two other reservoirs which produce oil. At Blackburn field, upper plate rocks are overmature. Produced oil has been identified as Mississippian. Regional studies show Mississippian source rocks of Pine Valley to be slightly immature to mature oil in the lower plate. Gravity of the oil is approximately 26-30/degree/ API. Oil from the Tomara Ranch and North Willow Creek fields is most probably also from the Mississippian. Its API gravity is similar to the oil produced from Blackburn field. Blackburn field is a Tertiary trap probably generated by shear faulting. Tertiary traps throughout Nevada, including Blackburn, are generally small and hydrocarbon potential is limited. Larger traps associated with the late Mesozoic compressional event have much more potential and hold hundreds of millions of barrels of oil.

  7. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  8. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area comprises about 7,720 acres in the Monongahela National Forest in east-central West Virginia, southeast of Elkins. The study area lies on a northeast-trending linear ridge bordered on the west by the Right Fork of Tygart River and on the east by Shavers Fork. It averages about 2 mi in length and 1½ mi in width. Altitudes on Cheat Mountain range from about 2,550 to 3,900 ft. 

  9. Soil-gas radon analyses in the Mt. Rose and Lovelock areas, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelli, A.R.; Rigby, J.G.; LaPointe, D.D. )

    1993-04-01

    Soil-gas radon has been sampled and analyzed in two area of differing surficial geology in west-central Nevada. Elevated levels of indoor radon have been found in both area. The Mt. Rose alluvial fan complex, located just southwest of Reno, is an alluvial fan/pediment formed by flow from major drainages in the Carson Range. The surface of the Mt. Rose fan is dominated by glacial outwash deposits believed to be of Donner Lake and Tahoe age. These two units have somewhat differing lithologies and degrees of soil development. The Donner Lake outwash is dominated by volcanic clasts and typically has a thick argillic B-horizon and a moderately to strongly developed duripan. The Tahoe outwash has a mixture of volcanic and granitic clasts and typically has a thinner argillic B-horizon and no duripan. Soil-gas radon levels are generally higher in the Tahoe outwash, probably reflecting either greater emanation from granitic clasts or differences in soil gas permeability. Radon levels along Holocene faults cutting these outwash deposits are fairly typical for the study area and minor differences may be due to the faults' effects on soil gas permeability. Lovelock, about 90 miles northeast of Reno, is located within the Humboldt Sink, one of the lowest parts of the pluvial Lake Lahontan basin. Surficial geology in this area is dominated by fine-grained lacustrine deposits and overbank alluvium from the Humboldt River. During interpluvial periods, this is commonly a marshy area resulting from Humboldt River flow into the basin. Elevated radon levels are likely due to uranium accumulation in black, organic-rich clay layers.

  10. An integrated paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and geochemical study of the Marcellus shale in the Valley and Ridge province in Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Earl Berry; Elmore, R. D.

    2015-02-01

    An integrated paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and diagenetic study of the Devonian Marcellus Subgroup from threefolds in the Valley and Ridge province in Pennsylvania and West Virginia indicates that the unit contains an intermediate temperature chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) with south-southeast declinations and shallow negative inclinations residing in pyrrhotite and a CRM with more southerly declinations and shallow positive inclinations residing in magnetite. Rock magnetic results confirm the presence of pyrrhotite and magnetite. Tilt tests indicate that pyrrhotite and magnetite CRMs are syntilting to posttilting, and paleopoles for both CRMs are similar and plot on the Permian part of the apparent polar wander path for North America. The Marcellus Subgroup has a complex paragenetic sequence which includes bitumen deposition and vein formation. The magnetite and pyrrhotite CRMs formed in the Permian, probably due to burial diagenetic processes and not orogenic fluids. The base of the unit contains the highest total organic content (TOC) values and highest magnetic intensities, both of which decrease up section. This connection between TOC and magnetic intensity suggests that the magnetite formed as a result of the maturation of the organic matter although more work is needed to test this hypothesis. The pyrrhotite may have formed as a result of thermochemical sulfate reduction involving organic matter during the production of methane in this gas reservoir. The similar Permian CRM ages may be explained by thrusting which resulted in rapid burial of the Marcellus Subgroup as it passed through the oil window and into the gas window quickly producing magnetite and pyrrhotite, respectively.

  11. Geologic Cross Section D-D' Through the Appalachian Basin from the Findlay Arch, Sandusky County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Hardy County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Lentz, Erika E.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hope, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic cross section D-D' is the second in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section D-D' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from the Findlay arch in northwestern Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in eastern West Virginia, a distance of approximately 290 miles. The information shown on the cross section is based on geological and geophysical data from 13 deep drill holes, several of which penetrate the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the basin and bottom in Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) crystalline basement rocks. This cross section is a companion to cross section E-E' (Ryder and others, 2008) that is located about 25 to 50 mi to the southwest. Although specific petroleum systems in the Appalachian basin are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on information shown on the cross section. Cross section D-D' lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank), but it does provide a general geologic framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section. Also, cross section D-D' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  12. Estimates of evapotranspiration from the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge area, Ruby Valley, northeastern Nevada, May 1999-October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Johnson, Michael J.; Tumbusch, Mary L.; Mackay, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    The Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Ruby Valley, Nevada, contains the largest area of perennial wetlands in northeastern Nevada and provides habitat to a large number of migratory and nesting waterfowl. The long-term preservation of the refuge depends on the availability of sufficient water to maintain optimal habitat conditions. In the Ruby Valley water budget, evapotranspiration (ET) from the refuge is one of the largest components of natural outflow. To help determine the amount of inflow needed to maintain wetland habitat, estimates of ET for May 1999 through October 2000 were made at major habitats throughout the refuge. The Bowen-ratio method was used to estimate daily ET at four sites: over open water, in a moderate-to-dense cover of bulrush marsh, in a moderate cover of mixed phreatophytic shrubs, and in a desert-shrub upland. The eddy-correlation method was used to estimate daily ET for periods of 2 to 12 weeks at a meadow site and at four sites in a sparse-to-moderate cover of phreatophytic shrubs. Daily ET rates ranged from less than 0.010 inch per day at all of the sites to a maximum of 0.464 inch per day at the open-water site. Average daily ET rates estimated for open water and a bulrush marsh were about four to five times greater than in areas of mixed phreatophytic shrubs, where the depth to ground water is less than 5 feet. Based on the seasonal distribution of major habitats in the refuge and on winter and summer ET rates, an estimated total of about 89,000 acre-feet of water was consumed by ET during October 1999-September 2000 (2000 water year). Of this total, about 49,800 acre-feet was consumed by ET in areas of open water and bulrush marsh.

  13. The hydro-geochemistry of groundwater resources in an area with prevailing saline groundwater, lower Shire Valley, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monjerezi, Maurice; Vogt, Rolf D.; Aagaard, Per; Saka, John D. K.

    2012-06-01

    The area considered in this study lies within the western section of the East African Rift System (EARS) and saline groundwater occurs in some parts of the valley plain. Hydrochemical groundwater types were classified into three groups (G1-G3), indicating different stages of groundwater chemical evolution. An overall incongruent weathering of aluminosilicate minerals causes the groundwater solution to generally be in equilibrium with montmorillonite. Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 groundwater (G1), with relatively low TDS (average TDS = 548 mg/L), are mainly found in areas with Karoo basalt and Precambrian basement complex rocks. This water type is mainly governed by aluminosilicate weathering. Towards the middle of the valley, Na- and mixed cation-HCO3 groundwater (G2; average TDS = 1061 mg/L) predominates. This water type results from a combination of aluminosilicate mineral weathering, cation exchange and precipitation of clays and carbonates. The increase in ionic strength of G2 samples, in comparison with G1 samples, is attributed to mixing with high TDS groundwater in G3. Brackish and saline groundwaters (G3; average TDS = 3457 mg/L) are dominated by sodium, chloride and sulphate ions, which is attributable to dissolution of Cl- and SO42- evaporative salts. These are found in clusters and in aquifers with low recharge capacity (low transmissivity) and are attributable to intrusion of mineralised groundwater probably through fault zones from mainly sedimentary Karoo and Cretaceous Lupata formations. Evaporation plays a role in brackish/saline groundwaters found in areas with shallow water table along the Shire River.

  14. Oil and gas developments in West Coast area in 1982. [Canada, Oregon, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dainty, N.D.; Woltz, D.

    1983-10-01

    Activity was brisk in the onshore area of California during 1982. Four hundred and seventy-five exploratory wells (41.4% successful) were drilled, including the discovery of 2 new oil and 4 new gas fields. The number of wells drilled decreased from a record 486 in 1981 to 475 in 1982; however, the total footage drilled increased from 2,711,217 ft in 1981 to 2,910,277 ft in 1982, and the average footage per well jumped sharply from 5,579 to 6,127 ft. In addition, 2,062 development wells were drilled (97.4% successfully). At various times during the year, up to 10 drilling vessels were active in state and federal waters. Four new offshore discoveries were announced by Texaco, Atlantic Richfield, Oxy, and Union. Texaco's ''Hueso'' discovery is a probable extension of the Chevron-Phillips Point Arguello field announced in October 1981. The field is believed to be a giant oil field containing over 100 million bbl of recoverable reserves. Union, Oxy, and Atlantic Richfield struck oil in the fractured Monterey Shale. Further delineation drilling will be needed to determine field reserves. California's total oil production for 1982 was 401.4 million bbl, a 4% increase from the 1981 record of 385 million bbl. Five unsuccesful wildcats were abandoned in Washington. Although there were some encouraging shows, the accumulations were deemed noncommercial. The bulk of drilling activity in Oregon centered around the Mist gas field. There were no discoveries announced for 1982. Geothermal activity in California was concentrated in The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and Coso areas. Oregon activity continued at the Newberry caldera.

  15. Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, Sean C.; McConchie, Alan; Glaser, Carol; Jean, Cynthia; Barker, Chris; Park, Bborie; Padgett, Kerry; Parker, Erin; Aquino, Ervic; Kramer, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time (DYCAST) system is a biologically based spatiotemporal model that uses public reports of dead birds to identify areas at high risk for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission to humans. In 2005, during a statewide epidemic of WNV (880 cases), the California Department of Public Health prospectively implemented DYCAST over 32,517 km2 in California. Daily risk maps were made available online and used by local agencies to target public education campaigns, surveillance, and mosquito control. DYCAST had 80.8% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for predicting human cases, and κ analysis indicated moderate strength of chance-adjusted agreement for >4 weeks. High-risk grid cells (populations) were identified an average of 37.2 days before onset of human illness; relative risk for disease was >39× higher than for low-risk cells. Although prediction rates declined in subsequent years, results indicate DYCAST was a timely and effective early warning system during the severe 2005 epidemic. PMID:21801622

  16. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to examine the suitability of three different micrometeorological methods for estimating evapotranspiration from selected areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida and to estimate annual evapotranspiration from those areas. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the energy- balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods. Potential evapotranspiration was computed using the Penman equation. The energy-balance Bowen ratio method was used to estimate diurnal evapotrans- piration at unforested sites and yielded reasonable results; however, measurements indicated that the magnitudes of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients above the forested sites were too small to obtain reliable evapotranspiration measurements with the energy balance Bowen ratio system. Analysis of the surface energy-balance indicated that sensible and latent heat fluxes computed using standard eddy correlation computation methods did not adequately account for available energy. Eddy correlation data were combined with the equation for the surface energy balance to yield two additional estimates of evapotranspiration. Daily potential evapotranspiration and evapotranspira- tion estimated using the energy-balance Bowen ratio method were not correlated at a unforested, dry prairie site, but they were correlated at a marsh site. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration for sites within the four vegetation types, which were based on energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation measurements, were 1,010 millimeters for dry prairie sites, 990 millimeters for marsh sites, 1,060 millimeters for pine flatwood sites, and 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site.

  17. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  18. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  19. The characteristics of the chemical flow within the Motru catchment area, south — west Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionuş, Oana

    2011-03-01

    The present paper, with reference to the Motru catchment area, contributes to the hydrochemical studies at an international level and to the completion of the characteristics regarding the chemical flow in Romania. In this regard, it emphasizes once again the dependence between the content of dissolved salts (fixed residue — mg/l) on the one hand and the lithological conditions, human activity, flow and the surface of the catchments on the other hand. The calculation and the analysis of the chemical flow for the Motru catchment area (located in the south-west of Romania) was performed on the basis of two parameters: the average flow of dissolved chemical substances (mg/s) and specific average chemical flow (t/kmp year) recorded at the monitoring stations on the Motru River and its tributaries during the period 2005-2009. The values obtained (for example: 2.63 mg/s and 47.7 t/km2 year, at the Fata Motrului station, on the Motru River, in 2009) confirm the importance of the areal factors of natural background in the analysis of chemical flow as a morpho-dynamic process and implicitly for the chemical quality of surface waters.

  20. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  1. 78 FR 16792 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ..., Arizona. On October 31, 1990 (55 FR 45799), EPA clarified the descriptions of several Group I and II areas... nonattainment area by operation of law effective November 15, 1990. On March 15, 1991 (56 FR 11101), EPA...'' PM 10 nonattainment area. On November 6, 1991 (56 FR 56694), EPA codified the PM 10...

  2. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

  3. Electromagnetic (EM-60) survey in the Panther Canyon Area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.; Stark, M.; Haught, R.

    1980-05-01

    Eight frequency domain electromagnetic soundings were measured over the Panther Canyon thermal anomaly in Grass Valley, Nevada. The data were collected with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's large moment horizontal loop system (EM-60). At the transmitter site located near the center of the thermal anomaly, square wave currents of up to 70 A were impressed into a fourturn 50 m radius coil at frequencies from 0.033 to 500 Hz. At the eight receiver sites, 0.5 to 1.5 km from the loop, magnetic fields were detected with a three-component SQUID magnetometer and vertical and radial magnetic field spectra were calculated. Data were interpreted with a computer program which fit filled spectra and associated ellipse polarization data to one-dimensional resistivity models and results were compared to interpretations from earlier dipole-dipole resistivity measurements. Comparison of these interpretations indicates fairly close agreement between the two, with both models clearly indicating the presence and dimensions of the conductivity anomaly associated with the thermal zone. Although the dc data was better able to resolve the high resistivity bedrock, the EM-data were able to resolve all major features without distortion at shorter transmitter receiver separations and in about one-third of the field time.

  4. Bovine trypanosomosis and Glossina distribution in selected areas of southern part of Rift Valley, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sheferaw, Desie; Birhanu, Belay; Asrade, Biruhtesfa; Abera, Mesele; Tusse, Turist; Fikadu, Amha; Denbarga, Yifat; Gona, Zemedkun; Regassa, Alemayehu; Moje, Nebyou; Kussito, Engida; Mekibib, Berhanu; Asefa, Teshome; Woldesenbet, Zerihun

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional study was conducted in 9 selected districts of the southern part the Rift Valley, Ethiopia to estimate the dry period prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis as well as assessment of Glossina species. From a total of 1838 cattle examined for trypanosomosis by buffy coat technique 133 (7.2%) were found infected by trypanosome species. From the total positive animals 66.9 and 33.1% of them accounted to Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence (19.4%., P<0.05) was recorded at Arba-Mnch district. Black colored cattle were the most highly affected (χ(2)=79.35, P<0.05) animals. The overall average PCV value for parasitaemic and aparasitaemic animals was 22.2 (95% CI=21.6-22.7) and 27% (95% CI=26.8-27.2), respectively. The fly caught per trap per day was 1.4 for Glossina species and 2.8 for other biting flies. Two species of Glossina identified namely Glossina pallidipes and Glossina fuscipes. PMID:26581831

  5. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  6. Mineral resources of the Meadow Valley Range Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln and Clark counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Pampeyan, E.H.; Blank, H.R. Jr. ); Campbell, H.W. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors report that no mines or active prospects are located within the study area. The only identified resource is perlite. The northern part of the study area has moderate resource potential for zeolites,marekanite (Apache tears), agate, and opaline rock associated with the perlite, and tin. The southern part of the study area has low resource potential for sediment-hosted gold, silver, zinc, copper, and lead. The study area has moderate potential for oil and gas resources. Identified resources of vanadium are present outside the study area and about 800,000 tons of subeconomic metalliferous resources are inferred in the outcrop area, however the potential for undiscovered vanadium resources within the immediately adjacent study area is unknown.

  7. Addendum to the performance assessment analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 west area active burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    An addendum was completed to the performance assessment (PA) analysis for the active 200 West Area low-level solid waste burial grounds. The addendum includes supplemental information developed during the review of the PA analysis, an ALARA analysis, a comparison of PA results with the Hanford Groundwater Protection Strategy, and a justification for the assumption of 500 year deterrence to the inadvertent intruder.

  8. 76 FR 61667 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-West Tennessee Area Under Alternative Site Framework; Application Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170-1173, 1/12/09 (correction 74 FR 3987, 1/22/09); 75 FR 71069... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone--West Tennessee Area Under Alternative Site...) by the Northwest Tennessee Regional Port Authority to establish a general-purpose foreign-trade...

  9. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…

  10. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  11. 77 FR 76451 - Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the May 30, 2012 Federal Register (77 FR 31830), GIPSA requested applications for... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the West Sacramento, CA... Headquarters location and telephone start end Cal-Agri West Sacramento, CA(916) 374-9700.. 1/1/2013...

  12. 4. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF MILL SITE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTICE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF MILL SITE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTICE WEST TAILINGS DAM SHOWN IN CA-290-3 IS LOCATED RIGHT OF CENTER FRAME, NEAR EDGE OF TAILINGS (WHITE) AREA. FOR MORE DESCRIPTION OF MILL COMPONENTS, SEE CA-290-9 BELOW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  14. Cleopatra's Bedroom west facade with 12' scale (in tenths) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cleopatra's Bedroom west facade with 12' scale (in tenths) with picture tube wall along walkway. Structure is made solely of amber colored bottles. Roof supported by telephone poles. Areas of wall collapsed in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing east. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  15. Hydrogeological aspects and environmental concerns of the New Valley Project, Western Desert, Egypt, with special emphasis on the southern area

    SciTech Connect

    Assaad, F.A. )

    1988-12-01

    The New Valley Project has been given much attention in the past 20 years especially from the hydrogeological point of view concerning groundwater utilization for the reclamation of a large area of the Western Desert. Lithological, petrophysical, and petrographical studies were conducted on four wells south of Beris Oasis. The Nubian sandstones in the area south of Beris Oasis contain hematitic stains and/or fine granular authigenic hematite, thin laminae of brown ferruginous quartzite is also recorded denoting oxidizing conditions in the basin of deposition. Thin streaks of carbonaceous shales are met with in different depths to the south of Beris area, may be taken to denote oscillations in the sea level and accordingly its depths, and are responsible for the change in the oxidation-reduction potential during the deposition of the corresponding beds. Petrographic examination of a thin section of the subsurface Nubia sandstones in the South of Beris Oasis showed that the lithified rocks fail into three types depending on the nature of cement being, silicious or ferruginous, and on the amount of primary matrix, which at present is reorganized into iron oxides, microquartz, and muscovite flakes, thus reaching the phyllomorphic stage of diagenesis. Rounding of the quartz grains shows that transportation had a minor effect on the grain morphology and favor a fluviatile transporting agent.

  16. Monitoring CO2 emissions in tree kill areas near the resurgent dome at Long Valley Caldera, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of yearly measurements of the diffuse CO2 flux and shallow soil temperatures collected since 2006 across two sets of tree-kill areas at Long Valley Caldera, California. These data provide background information about CO2 discharge during a period with moderate seismicity, but little to no deformation. The tree kills are located at long-recognized areas of weak thermal fluid upflow, but have expanded in recent years, possibly in response to geothermal fluid production at Casa Diablo. The amount of CO2 discharged from the older kill area at Basalt Canyon is fairly constant and is around 3-5 tonnes of CO2 per day from an area of about 15,000 m2. The presence of isobutane in gas samples from sites in and around Basalt Canyon suggests that geothermal fluid production directly effects fluid upflow in the region close to the power plant. The average fluxes at Shady Rest are lower than average fluxes at Basalt Canyon, but the area affected by fluid upflow is larger. Total CO2 discharged from the central portion of the kill area at Shady Rest has been variable, ranging from 6 to11 tonnes per day across 61,000 m2. Gas collected at Shady Rest contains no detectable isobutane to link emissions chemically to geothermal fluid production, but two samples from 2009-10 have detectable H2S and suggest an increasing geothermal character of emitted gas. The appearance of this gas at the surface may signal increased drawdown of water levels near the geothermal productions wells.

  17. Stratigraphic Control on CCl4 and CHCl3 Concentrations in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Winsor, Kelsey; Last, George V.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of Washington State’s Hanford Site. Remediation requires a high-resolution model of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these units have on CCl4 migration through the unconfined aquifer. To increase detail of previous models, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater flow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were systematized and used to create a cross section displaying lithofacies depth and continuity. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and other that fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. Influence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

  18. Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, T; Uchino, T; Tokunaga, H; Ando, M

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of total arsenic in food composites, collected from the villagers, was carried out in arsenic-affected areas of the Murshidabad district, West Bengal where the agricultural system is mostly groundwater dependent. The shallow, large-diameter tubewells installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean 0.085 mg/l, n=6). Even the soil is arsenic-contaminated (mean 11.35 mg/kg, n=36), so some arsenic can be expected in the food chain from crops cultivated in this area. The results revealed that the individual food composite and food groups containing the highest mean arsenic concentrations (microg/kg) are potato skin (292.62 and 104), leaf of vegetables (212.34 and 294.67), arum leaf (331 and 341), papaya (196.50 and 373), rice (226.18 and 245.39), wheat (7 and 362), cumin (47.86 and 209.75), turmeric powder (297.33 and 280.9), cereals and bakery goods (156.37 and 294.47), vegetables (91.73 and 123.22), spices (92.22 and 207.60) and miscellaneous items (138.37 and 137.80) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. Arsenic is absorbed by the skin of most of the vegetables. The arsenic concentration in fleshy vegetable material is low (mean 2.72 microg/kg, n=45). Higher levels of arsenic were observed in cooked items compared with raw. Daily dietary intakes of arsenic (microg) from the foodstuffs for adults are 171.20 and 189.13 and for children are 91.89 and 101.63 in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. PMID:12176088

  19. Factors controlling groundwater hydrogeochemistry in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwan, Mostafa; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality suffers from various degradation mechanisms such as extensive urbanization, agricultural and industrial activities in many developing countries. This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the change in the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt. The Piper diagrams show the predominance of Na-Cl (75%) with minor Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Cl water-types. The equiline diagrams and ionic ratios show the dominance of Ca2+ + Mg2+ over Na+ + K+ and HCO3- + SO42- over Cl- suggesting silicate minerals dissolution and reverse ion exchange reactions Results of Gibb's diagram revealed that the chemical budget of the groundwater in this area is mainly derived from water-rock interaction and evaporation-crystallization dominances. The R-mode factor analysis applied to quantify the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the anthropogenic impacts that affect groundwater quality, revealed that the Pliocene clays are the major sources of Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater due to silicate minerals dissolution and ion exchange reactions and, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are mainly from dissolution of carbonates and silicate minerals abundant in the Pleistocene Qena Formation lithologies. Higher concentration of SO42- at the newly reclaimed lands may be due to the effect of rainfall, addition of potassium sulfates fertilizers to the agricultural soils and gypsum-anhydrite dissolution. The results of this study suggest that the R-mode factor analysis combined with the geological-hydrogeological analyses of the aquifer is useful in recognizing the geochemical trends and identifying the anthropogenic sources affecting the groundwater quality.

  20. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  1. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  2. Geologic Cross Section E-E' through the Appalachian Basin from the Findlay Arch, Wood County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Pendleton County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic cross section E-E' is the first in a series of cross sections planned by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section E-E' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basin from the Findlay arch in northwestern Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in eastern West Virginia, a distance of approximately 380 miles (mi) (fig. 1, on sheet 1). Cross section E-E' updates earlier geologic cross sections through the central Appalachian basin by Renfro and Feray (1970), Bennison (1978), and Bally and Snelson (1980) and a stratigraphic cross section by Colton (1970). Although other published cross sections through parts of the basin show more structural detail (for example, Shumaker, 1985; Kulander and Dean, 1986) and stratigraphic detail (for example, Ryder, 1992; de Witt and others, 1993; Hettinger, 2001), these other cross sections are of more limited extent geographically and stratigraphically. Although specific petroleum systems in the Appalachian basin are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on information shown on the cross section. Cross section E-E' lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank), but it does provide a general framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section. Also, cross section E-E' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste (for

  3. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Dennis L

    2012-05-01

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustainability of its reuse on soil is unknown. Similarly, nothing is known of the ramifications of terminating drainage water reuse. The objective of this study is (i) to monitor the long-term impact on soil chemical properties and thereby the sustainability of drainage water reuse on a marginally productive, saline-sodic, 32.4 ha field located on the west side of California's productive San Joaquin Valley and (ii) to assess spatially what happens to soil when drainage water reuse is terminated. The monitoring and assessment were based on spatial chemical data for soil collected during 10 years of irrigation with drainage water followed by 2 years of no applied irrigation water (only rainfall). Geo-referenced measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC(a)) were used to direct the soil sampling design to characterize spatial variability of impacted soil properties. Chemical analyses of soil samples were used (i) to characterize the spatial variability of salinity, Na, B, and Mo, which were previously identified as critical to the yield and quality of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (l.) Pers.) grown for livestock consumption and (ii) to monitor their change during the 12 year study. Soil samples were taken at 0.3 m increments to a depth of 1.2 m at each of 40 sample sites on five occasions: August 1999, April 2002, November 2004, August 2009, and May 2011. Drainage water varying in salinity (1.8-16.3 dS m(-1)), SAR (5.2-52.4), Mo (80-400 μg L(-1)), and B (0.4-15.1 mg L(-1)) was applied from July 2000 to June 2009. Results indicate that salts, Na, Mo, and B were leached from the root zone causing a significant improvement in soil quality from 1999 to 2009. Salinity and SAR

  4. Reflections upon the Development of a Dementia Screening Service for Individuals with Down's Syndrome across the Hyndburn and Ribble Valley Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Victoria; Lamb, Isobel; Smith, Esther

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of dementia in individuals with Down's syndrome has led learning disability services in the Hyndburn and Ribble Valley (HRV) area to develop a screening service to address this need; this paper offers reflections upon this process by its members after the first 12 months of operation. A multidisciplinary team comprising…

  5. The Politics of Place: Official, Intermediate and Community Discourses in Depopulated Rural Areas of Central Spain. The Case of the Riaza River Valley (Segovia, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical and methodological arguments to study the politics of space in small marginal and depopulated areas of Spain. The case for research is the Riaza river valley in the province of Segovia. Usually the analysis of rural space (and the geographical space in general) provides opposing presentations: vertical, between…

  6. Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.

    PubMed

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics. PMID:22285769

  7. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. The view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

  8. Ground-water conditions in Las Veags Valley, Clark County, Nevada; part 1 Hydrogeologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    1989-01-01

    bounded on the east by normal faults at the base of Frenchman Mountain, on the west by a possible normal fault that coincides with a zone of fault scarps, on the north by vertical or strike-slip displacement along the Las Vegas shear zone, and on the northwest by a bedrock high that underlies the area between Tule Springs and Corn Creek Springs. The shallow bedrock surface (as much as 1,000 feet deep) underlies the west side of the valley from La Madre Mountain to the McCullough Range. Some of the fault scarps in the valley fill coincide with possible bedrock faults, which suggests a tectonic origin for some of the faulting of valley-fill deposits; however, the area of fault scarps on the west side of the valley also coincides with a rapid lateral change from incompressible bedrock to more compressible valley-fill deposits. Thus, both differential compaction and tectonic movement may be responsible for faulting of valley-fill deposits.

  9. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  10. Geophysical logs and hydrologic data for eight wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area, Clark and Lincoln counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Kilroy, K.C.; Schaefer, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical logs, drilling operations, pump-test data, and water quality determinations are presented for eight wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area of southeastern Nevada. The wells are in an area where thick units of Paleozoic carbonate rock are overlain by Tertiary semiconsolidated basin-fill deposits and Quaternary alluvial deposits. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were augmented with data from previous investigations; however, complete sets of logs and other data are not available for all eight wells. Geophysical data presented included natural-gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma density, caliper, temperature, acoustic, single-point resistance, long- and short-natural resistivity, and spontaneous-potential logs. Drilling penetration rates, lithologic columns, and well construction are also summarized and presented. Measurements of drawdown and recovery during and after constant-discharge pumping periods are also included. Also presented are results of chemical and physical analyses for major-ion chemistry, trace constituents, stable and radioactive isotopes, temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. (USGS)

  11. Tritium-helium 3 dating under complex conditions in hydraulically stressed areas of a buried-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, S.D.; Rowe, G.; Schlosser, P.; Ludin, A.; Stute, M.

    1998-01-01

    The 3H-3He dating method is applied in a buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. The study area is large, not all sampling locations lie along well-defined flow paths, and existing wells with variable screen lengths and diameters are used. Reliable use of the method at this site requires addressing several complications: (1) The flow system is disturbed because of high pumping rates and induced infiltration; (2) tritium contamination is present in several areas of the aquifer; and (3) radiogenic helium concentrations are elevated in a significant number of the wells. The 3H-3He ages are examined for self-consistency by comparing the reconstructed tritium evolution to the annual weighted tritium measured in precipitation; deviations result from dispersion, tritium contamination, and mixing. The 3H-3He ages are next examined for consistency with chlorofluorocarbon ages, the agreement is poor because of degradation of CFCs. Finally, the 3H-3He ages are examined for consistency with the current understanding of local hydrologic processes; the ages are generally supported by hydrogeologic data and the results of groundwater flow modeling coupled with particle-tracking analyses.

  12. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Bath area, Lower Cohocton River, Steuben County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Timothy S.; Terry, D.B.; Shaw, M.L.; Ingram, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Bath valley-fill aquifer, southern New York, composed of outwash, ice-contact, and ice-disintegration sand and gravel, is highly productive and is in many areas in hydraulic contact with the Cohocton River. Potential well yields range 50 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Most of the aquifer is under shallow water-table conditions and vulnerable to surface contamination. Thickness ranges from 20 to 40 feet. Buried aquifers are present locally. The aquifer system underlies an area containing only a few small communities and therefore is not heavily pumped. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale and on a sheet of geologic sections. The maps depict surficial geology, soil-infiltration capacity, potentiometric surface, aquifer thickness, well yields, and land use. This map report set is one in a series of four that depict selected aquifers in Wester New York. It supplements a series that is being done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State agencies. The maps are based largely on published reports, data filled in several State agencies, and some additional field data collection. (USGS)

  13. Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Adam Leland

    Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

  14. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

  15. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SECONDARY SULFATE IN PORTNEUF VALLEY, IDAHO PM-10 NONATTAINMENT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 10 will use Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling in a effort to apportion secondary sulfate that significantly contributes to the total PM-10 mass observed on ambient filters in the Pocatello, Idaho area. This study will investigate whether it is reasonable to apportion ...

  16. 78 FR 58266 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin... standard. DATES: The proposed rule published on August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43654) is withdrawn with respect to...-4102, israels.ken@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43654), EPA...

  17. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 366 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 11 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 · CAS 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 · CAS 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A · CAS 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B · CAS 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C · CAS 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D Site characterization activities were performed in 2011 and 2012, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for CAU 366 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2012a). The following closure alternatives were recommended in the CADD: · No further action for CAS 11-23-01 · Closure in place for CASs 11-08-01, 11-08-02, 11-23-02, 11-23-03, and 11-23-04 The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives includes the following: · Non-engineered soil covers approximately 3 feet thick will be constructed at CAS 11-08-01 over contaminated waste dump (CWD) #1 and at CAS 11-08-02 over CWD #2. · FFACO use restrictions (URs) will be implemented for the areas where the total effective dose (TED) exceeds the final action level (FAL) of 25 millirems per Occasional Use Area year (mrem/OU-yr). The FAL is based on an assumption that the future use of the site includes occasional work activities and that workers will not be assigned to the area on a regular basis. A site worker under this scenario is assumed to be on site for a maximum of 80 hours per year for 5 years. The FFACO UR boundaries will encompass the areas where a worker would be exposed to 25 millirems of radioactivity per year if they are present for 80

  19. Carbon-dioxide flow measurement in geodynamically active area of West Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Josef; Fischer, Tomas; Heinicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to degassing flux of magmatic origin occurring in natural moffettes and mineral springs. While monitoring of earthquakes is done by a standard local seismic network, monitoring of amount of CO2 is at its initial stage. Despite lack of data, the 2014 earthquake swarm showed also very interesting increase in CO2 flow. This correlation with seismicity motivated us to develop robust and reliable methods of CO2 flow measurement, which would be sufficient to create denser monitoring network. Standard usage of gas-flowmeter for the purpose of gas flow measurement is dependent on the weather and device conditions, which makes the measurement instable in time and unreliable. Although gas-flowmeter is also accompanied with measurement of the gas pressure in the well to check flow rate value, reliability of this method is still low. This problematic behavior of the flow measurement was the reason to test new methods to measure CO2 amount - the first is based on measuring the density water with bubbles in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second one utilizes electric conductivity measurement to determine the density of bubbles in the water-gas mixture. Advantage of these methods is that their probes are directly in the well or moffette, where the concentration is measured. This approach is free of the influence of moving parts and assures the independence of measurements of environmental conditions. In this paper we show examples of obtained data series from selected sites and compare the trend of the curves, the mutual relations of the measured quantities and the influence of environmental conditions.

  20. Prehistory of Silicon Valley, from 1910 to 1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmor, Stewart

    2009-03-01

    The term ``Silicon Valley'' was coined in 1971, some six decades after the emergence of the San Francisco Bay Area as a center of innovation and invention in the fields of radio and electronics. The geographical position of San Francisco with respect to continental and Pacific transportation and communication needs; the growth of West Coast universities, markets, and population; the importation of talent from the East; innovative industrial and business methods--all these provided a thriving center of instrumentation, electronics, avionics, and high energy physics when Silicon arrived in the ``Valley of the Heart's Delight.''

  1. Hydrothermal Chloride Flux from the Area of Ongoing Uplift West of South Sister Volcano, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, E. A.; Randolph-flagg, N. G.; Newman, A. C.; Murveit, A. M.; Mariner, R. H.; Evans, W. C.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Uplift west of South Sister began in 1997 at a rate of 3-5 cm/yr and is ongoing at a rate of ~1 cm/yr. Many springs in the area of uplift have anomalous chloride (up to 20 mg/L) and sulfate concentrations (up to 20 mg/L), are anomalously warm (up to 5oC above expected ambient), and have high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.6 times RA). There is a strong intercorrelation among chloride (Cl-) concentration, temperature, and 3He concentration, suggesting a common magmatic source. Since uplift was detected in 2002 we have monitored hydrothermal Cl flux at two locations: the first site several hundred m below the spring vent with the highest 3He/4He ratio and the second site ~20 km downstream of that spring in Separation Creek, which captures the total hydrothermal Cl flux (~12 g/s) from the ~175 km2 area of uplift. Best fit lines for long-term trend in Cl flux at both sites have shallow slopes ( < 0.2 g/s per year at Separation Creek). There is, however, a strong seasonality to the Cl flux. At the site with the highest 3He/4He ratio, the Cl flux varies from ~0.1 g/s in late spring to ~0.2 g/s in late fall. The periods of decrease/increase in Cl flux coincide with presence/absence of snow cover. The temperature at the vent with highest 3He/4He ratio shows almost constant temperature (ranging from 7.7-7.8oC over a 13-month period of record in 2009-2010). Spectral analysis done using a 0.5-2.5 cycle/day bandpass filter shows significant peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies for Cl flux, discharge, temperature, and specific-conductance time series from both sites, suggesting sensitivity to Earth tides. Data gaps and changes in sampling interval complicate determination of significance at longer (fortnightly to annual) periods. Published compilations indicate that earthquake-induced hydrologic changes are fairly common for seismic energy density e > 0.01 J/m3 (Wang and Manga, Earthquakes and Water, 2010), and during the 2002-2010 period of record, local to regional

  2. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  3. The Natural Background Gamma Radiation Exposure in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mary Feild

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for "real-time" measurements was a portable NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 (mu)Rh('-1). The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 (mu)Rh('-1), the outdoor reading 7.5 (mu)Rh('-1). Results of one-way and multi-way analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  4. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood modelling for populated valley areas of Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, V. V.; Krylenko, I. N.; Alabyan, A. M.; Sazonov, A. A.; Glotko, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of flood modelling for three cities located in different parts of Russia: (1) Veliky Ustyug at the Northern Dvina river (Europe); (2) Mezhdurechensk at the Tom river (Siberia); and (3) Blagoveschensk at the Amur river (Far East) are presented. The two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of flow in channels and on floodplain STREAM_2D on the basis of the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh was used for the simulations. Verification of the model through a comparison of simulated inundated areas with outlines of flooded zones from satellite images for known hydrologic situations demonstrate close correspondence (relative errors of 7-12% in terms of the area for peaks of the analysed floods). Analyses of embankment influence of large-scale levees on the water flow demonstrate that, in some cases, water levels could rise by more than 1 m and the patterns of the flooding zones could significantly differ.

  5. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  6. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  7. Performance of a liquid argon time projection chamber exposed to the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Arneodo, F.; Cavanna, F.; Mitri, I. De; Mortari, G. Piano; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rubbia, C.; Terrani, M.; Vignoli, C.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Cavalli, D.; Curioni, A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low-multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  8. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Cohocton area, upper Cohocton River, Steuben County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terry, David B.; Pagano, Timothy S.; Shaw, Martha L.; Ingram, Arlynn W.

    1984-01-01

    The Cohocton valley-fill aquifer, composed of outwash, kame, and alluvial sand and gravel, is highly productive and is in hydraulic contact with the Cohocton River. Potential well yields range from 50 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Most of the aquifer is under shallow water-table conditions and vulnerable to surface contamination. Thickness ranges from 20 to 100 feet. The aquifer lies in an area containing only small communities and therefore is not heavily pumped. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale and in geologic sections. The maps depict surficial geology, soil-infiltration capacity, potentiometric surface, aquifer thickness, well yields, and land use. The maps are designed to help planners evaluate developments that may affect the aquifer, particularly potential contamination sources. This set is one in a series of four that depict selected aquifers in western New York. It supplements a series that is being done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State agencies. The maps are based largely on published reports, file data in several State agencies, and field notes. (USGS)

  9. Data on ground-water quality, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas, Douglas County, Nevada, for year ending September 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    Douglas County, Nevada encompasses 708 sq mi and has been one of the fastest growing counties in the Nation, according to the 1980 census. This rapid population growth has led to concern about the present and future impacts of development upon the groundwater. A network of 33 wells was recently established (1985) in the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County to characterize the current groundwater quality and its seasonal variability and to monitor temporal responses to changing land-use activities. This report presents data collected from that network during November 1985 through September 1986. The primary drinking water standard was exceeded for fluoride at two domestic wells, for nitrate-nitrogen at one domestic well, and for arsenic in one non-domestic shallow monitoring well. Secondary drinking water standards were exceeded as follows: pH at one public-supply well and one domestic well; sulfate at one shallow monitoring well; and manganese at three shallow monitoring wells and one public-supply well. Concentrations of unidentified organic compounds were estimated by gas chromatograph and flame ionization detector for groundwater samples collected from 30 network wells. Seven wells (2 domestic and 5 non-domestic) had concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/L relative to the internal standard compound perdeuteronaphthalene. (Thacker-USGS)

  10. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  11. Groundwater-Mining-Induced Subsidence and Earth Fissures in Cedar Valley, Southwestern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, T. R.; Inkenbrandt, P.; Lund, W. R.; Lowe, M.; Bowman, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pumping in excess of recharge (groundwater mining) has lowered the potentiometric surface in Cedar Valley, southwestern Utah, by as much as 114 feet since 1939. Lowering the potentiometric surface (head decline) has caused permanent compaction of fine-grained sediments of the Cedar Valley aquifer. Recently acquired interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery shows that land subsidence is occurring over an ~100 square-mile area, including two pronounced subsidence bowls in the northeastern (Enoch graben) and southwestern (Quichapa Lake area) parts of the valley. A lack of accurate historical benchmark elevation data over much of the valley prevents detailed long-term quantification of subsidence. In response to the land subsidence, earth fissures have formed along the margins of the Enoch graben and north and west of Quichapa Lake. Our initial inventory of Cedar Valley fissures, which relied on aerial-photography analysis, identified 3.9 miles of fissures in 2009. With newly acquired light detection and ranging (LiDAR) coverage in 2011, we more than doubled the total length of mapped fissures to 8.3 miles. Fissures on the west side of the Enoch graben exhibit ongoing vertical surface displacement with rates as high as 1.7 inches/year. The largest Enoch-graben-west fissure has displaced street surfaces, curb and gutter, and sidewalks, and has reversed the flow direction of a sewer line in a partially developed subdivision. Several Cedar Valley fissures are closely associated with, and in some places coincident with, mapped Quaternary faults. While the majority of Cedar Valley fissures are mapped in agricultural areas, continued groundwater mining and resultant subsidence will likely cause existing fissures to lengthen and new fissures to form that may eventually impact other developed areas of the valley.

  12. The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva Area, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, J. )

    1993-02-01

    The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva area covers 5120 km[sup 2] and includes 18 fields with ultimate recoverable reserves of 83.8[times]10*6 m[sup 3] (527 million bbl) of oil and 5.7[times]10*9 m[sup 3] (201 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas. Sedimentary rocks range in age from Aptian through Holocene, and were deposited in rift, margin-sag, and foreland basins. The hydrocarbons were sourced mainly from two intervals within the Albian-Santonian Villeta Formation and migrated from the footwall of the Chusma fault and the center of the Neiva syncline beginning at the end of the Oligocene to the present. The two main reservoirs are Cretaceous sandstones of the Caballos and Monserrate formations. Secondary reservoirs of significance are the Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Honda Group. The traps are mainly structures associated with the formation of a fold and thrust belt which began in the Oligocene and is still active. The system extends in time from the Aptian (-110 Ma) to the present. The first event was the deposition of the lower Caballos reservoir. The source rock was deposited a few million years later and reached maturity in synchronism with the formation of structural traps during the last 25 m.y. Destruction of some of the accumulations, by uplift and erosion in the fold belt, started in the Miocene. The volume of the hydrocarbons generated by the system was calculated using an average TOC content of 2.1 wt% for 235 m of total source interval in two intervals, and an area of mature source of 1650 km[sup 2]. A hydrocarbon generation of 325 mgHC/gTOC was used based on the Hydrogen Index measurements of immature Villeta source rock and a hydrocarbon generation algorithm. The efficiency of the system and the percentage of hydrocarbons generated that are present in discovered traps was determined to be about 10%.

  13. Assessment of the Santa Margarita Sandstone as a source of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Scotts Valley, Calif., is a rural residential area with a rapidly expanding population. Its mediterranean-type climate yields an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The Santa Margarita Sandstone is the principal aquifer in the area, supplying about 90 percent of all water for domestic purposes. Sources of recharge for the Santa Margarita Sandstone are natural recharge, subsurface inflow from adjacent areas, artificial recharge, and deep penetration of excess irrigation water. Total domestic water use in 1979 was about 2,600 acre-feet. The quantity of ground water pumped for domestic use is expected to increase at a rate of 7 percent per year. Evapotranspiration, estimated to be about 29 inches per year, is the largest form of ground-water discharge. Ground water from the Santa Margarita Sandstone is generally suitable for domestic use. Potential for water-quality degradation exists from urban runoff, leachates from a solid-waste disposal site, and liquid wastes. Several agencies and individuals monitor surface-water and ground-water quality in the Scotts Valley area. Water from streams and the city of Santa Cruz are potential alternate sources of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area. (USGS)

  14. Hydrologic data, 1974-77, Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Charles Edwin; Downing, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water levels in most wells did not change significantly from 1974 to 1977 in the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, California. The average water-level decline was less than 0.10 foot between August 1974 and August 1977 in 10 observation wells. Water-level contours show a depression centered on the two pumping wells, but this depression existed before the National Park Service started pumping its well. The chemical quality of the ground water is poor. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples ranged from 2,730 to 6,490 milligrams per liter. Analyses of water samples from two wells showed large changes in some constituents from 1976 to 1977. Streamflow in Salt Creek has been monitored since February 1974. Base flow is seasonal, being 0.10 to 0.20 cubic foot per second during the summer and as much as three times that amount during the winter. Two chemical analyses of water from Salt Creek, representing summer and winter flow conditions, show large differences for many constituents. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  16. Spatial interpolation of GPS PWV and meteorological variables over the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia during 2013 Klang Valley Flash Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, Wayan; Rahman, Rosnani

    2016-02-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are widely installed throughout the Peninsular Malaysia, but the implementation for monitoring weather hazard system such as flash flood is still not optimal. To increase the benefit for meteorological applications, the GPS system should be installed in collocation with meteorological sensors so the precipitable water vapor (PWV) can be measured. The distribution of PWV is a key element to the Earth's climate for quantitative precipitation improvement as well as flash flood forecasts. The accuracy of this parameter depends on a large extent on the number of GPS receiver installations and meteorological sensors in the targeted area. Due to cost constraints, a spatial interpolation method is proposed to address these issues. In this paper, we investigated spatial distribution of GPS PWV and meteorological variables (surface temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) by using thin plate spline (tps) and ordinary kriging (Krig) interpolation techniques over the Klang Valley in Peninsular Malaysia (longitude: 99.5°-102.5°E and latitude: 2.0°-6.5°N). Three flash flood cases in September, October, and December 2013 were studied. The analysis was performed using mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R2) to determine the accuracy and reliability of the interpolation techniques. Results at different phases (pre, onset, and post) that were evaluated showed that tps interpolation technique is more accurate, reliable, and highly correlated in estimating GPS PWV and relative humidity, whereas Krig is more reliable for predicting temperature and rainfall during pre-flash flood events. During the onset of flash flood events, both methods showed good interpolation in estimating all meteorological parameters with high accuracy and reliability. The finding suggests that the proposed method of spatial interpolation techniques are capable of handling limited data sources with high

  17. Predicted liquefaction in the greater Oakland area and northern Santa Clara Valley during a repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by young Holocene levee deposits along major drainages where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906.

  18. An Integrated Paleomagnetic, Rock Magnetic, and Geochemical Study of the Marcellus Shale in the Valley and Ridge Province in Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, E. B.; Elmore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    With increasing interest in the middle Devonian Marcellus Subgroup as a gas play in the Appalachians, an integrated paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and geochemical study was undertaken to understand the diagenetic history of the shale. Specimens were collected from outcrops of the Oatka Creek (OC), Union Springs (US), upper Onondaga, Marcellus, and Mahantango Formations and the Purcell limestone from three folds in the Valley and Ridge Province in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Many specimens contain an intermediate temperature (IT) component with south-southeasterly declinations and shallow up inclinations that was removed by 300-350°C and is interpreted as a CRM that resides in pyrrhotite. Most specimens contained a higher temperature (350-520°C) characteristic remanent magnetization with more southerly declinations and shallow down inclinations that is interpreted as a CRM in magnetite. No specimens from the OC contain a stable magnetization. Low temperature demagnetization prior to thermal demagnetization resulted in more stable thermal decay which allowed the IT component to be more easily identified. Triaxial thermal decay an isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and cumulative log-Gaussian analysis of the IRM indicate the presence of two dominant minerals: pyrrhotite and magnetite. Low temperature saturation IRM experiments show the 32 K Besnus transition and saturation of magnetization between 200 and 250 K which are indicative of pyrrhotite. Some specimens also showed the Verwey transition at 120 K which indicates the presence of magnetite. Tilt tests indicate that pyrrhotite and magnetite CRMs are syn-tilting to post-tilting. The paleopoles plot on the early Permian part of the apparent polar wander path for North American. The 87Sr/86Sr data indicate radiogenic values for all host rock and vein samples including those without a stable magnetization. At one location, the radiogenic values increase vertically from the Onondaga/US transition while the

  19. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  20. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  1. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  2. Socio-Cultural Factors and Energy Resource Development in Rural Areas in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    Drawing upon and synthesizing social and demographic data (1940-70) from 14 counties in the Rocky Mountain West which are currently facing extensive population growth as the result of large scale energy resource development, a preliminary model of potential sociocultural impact was developed. Including national energy needs and traditional…

  3. Structural and geochemical constraints on the reassembly of disrupted mid-Miocene volcanoes in the Lake Mead-Eldorado Valley area of southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Michael E.; Smith, Eugene I.

    1987-06-01

    In the Lake Mead-Eldorado Valley (LMEV) area of southern Nevada, mid-Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks in the River, McCullough, and Eldorado mountains lie in the upper plate of a regional detachment structure. The detachment structure and strike-slip faults of the Lake Mead fault zone are temporally and kinematically related. Strike-slip systems and normal faults (Eldorado Valley fault) serve as boundaries between regions of variable extension in the upper plate of this detachment. Geochemical correlation and geometric reconstructions suggest that prior to extension, the LMEV area was characterized by three stratovolcano complexes, each above or adjacent to a chemically correlative pluton. Geochemical correlation techniques are useful tools that may have general application in reconstructing structurally disrupted volcanic-plutonic terranes. *Present address: Department of Geology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

  4. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers are modest resources within the area, as indicated by the common practice of completing supply wells in the underlying bedrock rather than the overlying glacial deposits. Groundwater turbidity problems curtail use of the resource. However, additional groundwater resources have been identified by test drilling, and there are remaining untested areas. New groundwater supplies that stress localized aquifer areas will alter the groundwater flow system. Considerations include potential water-quality degradation from nearby land use(s) and, where withdrawals induce infiltration of surface-water, balancing withdrawals with flow requirements for downstream users or for maintenance of stream ecological health.

  5. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of the 100th meridian. 785.19 Section 785.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  6. Prevalence and Morbidity Data on Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Two Rural Areas of Jequitinhonha and Rio Doce Valleys in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Maria José; Carlôto, Aline Eduardo; de Melo, Eric Vinaud; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and morbidity data on Schistosoma mansoni infection in two rural areas: the Jequitinhonha valley (area 1) and the Rio Doce valley (area 2) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, covering the period from 2007 to 2010. Material and Methods. The parasitological stool tests were based on the quantitative method of Kato modified by Katz et al. Three clinical forms were considered: type I—schistosomiasis infection, type II—hepatointestinal form, and type III—hepatosplenic form. Results. The prevalence of infection among inhabitants of area 1 was 22.9%, with 2.1% presenting the hepatosplenic form and two cases of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. The infection prevalence rate in area 2 was 20.2%, with 3.3% presenting the hepatosplenic form. Conclusion and Recommendation. There was no difference in the prevalence and in the morbidity of Schistosoma mansoni infection between the two areas, but it was predominant in young men with a low intensity of infection. The cases of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy in area 1 can be highlighted: these emphasize that schistosomiasis should not be neglected in Brazil. The lack of infection control in both areas may be related to the poor sanitation system, the absence of previous treatment, and the reinfection process. PMID:27335859

  7. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

  8. Annual ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from areas of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest area of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged annually from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian areas. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs area using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley area. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge area. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge area totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high

  9. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  10. Waste Management Plan for the Expedited Response Action for 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Plume & the 200-ZP-1 & 200-PW-1 Operable Units

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES, M.E.

    2003-05-01

    The 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume expedited response action (ERA) involves both passive and active vapor extraction, and this document includes the requirements for management and disposal of waste generated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit.

  11. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  12. Fretted Terrain Valley in Coloe Fossae Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    The image in figure 1 shows lineated valley fill in one of a series of enclosed, intersecting troughs known as Coloe (Choloe) Fossae. Lineated valley fill consists of rows of material in valley centers that are parallel to the valley walls. It is probably made of ice-rich material and boulders that are left behind when the ice-rich material sublimates. Very distinct rows can be seen near the south (bottom) wall of the valley. Lineated valley fill is thought to result from mass wasting (downslope movement) of ice-rich material from valley walls towards their centers. It is commonly found in valleys near the crustal dichotomy that separates the two hemispheres of Mars. The valley shown here joins four other valleys with lineated fill near the top left corner of this image. Their juncture is a topographic low, suggesting that the lineated valley fill from the different valleys may be flowing or creeping towards the low area (movement towards the upper left of the image). The valley walls appear smooth at first glance but are seen to be speckled with small craters several meters in diameter at HiRISE resolution (see contrast-enhanced subimage). This indicates that at least some of the wall material has been stable to mass wasting for some period of time. Also seen on the valley wall are elongated features shaped like teardrops. These are most likely slightly older craters that have been degraded due to potentially recent downhill creep. It is unknown whether the valley walls are shedding material today. The subimage is approximately 140 x 400 m (450 x 1280 ft).

    Image PSP_001372_2160 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 11, 2006. The complete image is centered at 35.5 degrees latitude, 56.8 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 290.3 km (181

  13. Evidence for Subglacial Volcanic Activity Beneath the area of the Divide of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing body of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, heat flow, subglacial volcanic earthquakes, several exposed active and subglacial volcanoes and other lines of evidence for volcanic activity associated with the West Antarctic Rift System (WR) since the origin (~25 Ma) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which flows through it. Exposed late Cenozoic, alkaline volcanic rocks, 34 Ma to present concentrated in Marie Byrd Land (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990), but also exposed along the rift shoulder on the Transantarctic Mountains flank of the WR, and >1 million cubic kilometers, of mostly subglacially erupted 'volcanic centers' beneath the WAIS inferred from aeromagnetic data, have been interpreted as evidence of a magmatic plume. About 18 high relief, (~600-2000 m) 'volcanic centers' presently beneath the WAIS surface, probably were erupted subaerially when the WAIS was absent, based on the 5-km orthogonally line spaced Central West Antarctica aerogeophysical survey. All would be above sea level after ice removal and isostatic adjustment. Nine of these high relief peaks are in the general area beneath the divide of the WAIS. This high bed relief topography was first interpreted in the 1980s as the volcanic 'Sinuous Ridge ' based on a widely spaced aeromagnetic -radar ice sounding survey (Jankowski et al,. 1983). A 70-km wide, circular ring of interpreted subglacial volcanic rocks was cited as evidence of a volcanic caldera underlying the ice sheet divide based on the CWA survey (Behrendt et al., 1998). A broad magnetic 'low' surrounding the caldera area possibly is evidence of a shallow Curie isotherm. High heat flow reported from temperature logging (Clow et al., 2012) in the WAISCORE and a thick volcanic ash layer in the core (Dunbar et al., 2012) are consistent with this interpretation. A 2 km-high subaerially erupted volcano (subglacial Mt Thiel, ~78.5 degrees S, 111 degrees W) ~ 100 km north from the WAISCORE could be the source of the ash

  14. Analytical determinations from samples taken in the Ten Mile West Roadless Area, Boise and Elmore counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 584 stream-sediment and rock samples were collected from within or near the Ten Mile West Roadless Area, Boise and Elmore Counties, Idaho, as part of a geologic study aimed at appraising the mineral resource potential of the area. Emphasis was placed on stream-sediment samples because stream sediments represent the erosional products of a drainage system and offer a rapid means of locating anomalous concentrations of ore-forming elements. An unusually high proportion of the stream-sediment samples contained concentrations of silver and molybdenum. Unaltered rocks of the area contain normal quantities of the common rock-forming elements. Some exposures of altered or mineralized rocks and some quartz veins contain significant quantities of gold and silver.

  15. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  16. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

  17. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  18. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  19. Detailed microearthquake survey of Long Valley, California, known geothermal resource area, July-September 1981. Final technical report, 30 September 1980-31 June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, C.H.; Stierman, D.J.; Lee, T.C.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed microearthquake survey of the geothermal area at Long Valley, California. High quality digital data from a dense 3-component array covering a three-month period during the summer of 1981 have been processed for locations, velocity structure, magnitudes, focal mechanisms, and source parameters. Hypocenter locations determined from this array have estimated errors of 0.5 km in epicenter and 1.0 km in depth relative to one another. Detailed hypocentral locations show two complex zones of seismicity beneath the south moat of the caldera which seems associated with the major hot spring activity within the caldera and could be part of the conduit system feeding hydrothermal waters to these hot springs. Seismic activity at Long Valley appears to be influenced by both regional tectonic stresses and local volcanotectonic activity.

  20. Valley Fever

    MedlinePlus

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  1. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  2. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  3. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  4. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  5. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  6. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58... Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  7. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  8. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  9. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  10. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  11. The distribution of the simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the onchocerciasis control programme area.

    PubMed

    Vajime, C; Quillévéré, D

    1978-12-01

    A chromosomal identification of the Stimulium damnosum complex larvae collected from areas within and outside the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area revealed six species of the complex. Five of these (S. sirbanum, S. damnosum s.s., S. soubrense, S. yahense, S. squamosum) were observed within and south of the OCP area. S. sanctipauli was found exclusively outside the OCP zone. S. sirbanum: Predominated in the Sudan Savanna, spread into the Guinea and transition zones but was almost absent in the forest region. S. damnosum s.s.: Abundant in the Guinea Savanna; was well represented in the Sudan Savanna while smaller populations penetrated the forest region. S. sanctipauli: Identified almost exclusively from the forest zone; a few savanna foci were found on the upper course of the Sassandra R. in the Ivory Coast and on the Volta R. within the coastal savanna strip in Ghana. S. soubrense: Recorded from the forest, transition and Guinea Savanna zones; northern limits were established at the Léraba Bridge on the Upper Volta/Ivory Coast border. S. yahense: Predominantely distributed along creeks and small rivers in the forest region; a few records within the Guinea Savanna were found on the upper reaches of the Sassandra valley. S. squamosum: Observed in small rivers in the forest zone; extensively colonised heavily shaded or forested areas within the Guinea Savanna but in the Sudan Savanna only two records were observed near Bobo-Dioulasso in Upper Volta. PMID:741507

  12. Phenological monitoring of vine using MODIS imagery in the vineyard of Saumur-Angers (Loire Valley area, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Corgne, S.; Planchon, O.; Bonnefoy, C.; Quénol, H.; Lecerf, R.

    2012-04-01

    The present study focuses on the phenological monitoring of vine with MODIS multitemporal data. It takes part of two programs which deal with global change and agricultural adaptations: TERADCLIM (2011-2013) for wine makers and CLIMASTER (2008-2011) about agricultural resources in four administrative regions of Western France. Numerous studies use very high resolution remotely sensed data to monitor vineyard, despite their low acquisition frequency. Here we investigate the potential of images with moderate resolution (250-500m) but high temporal resolution to detect changes in phenology of vine. The investigated area, called the AOC (Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée) vineyard of Anjou-Saumur - AOC-SA (47°13'N-0°26'E), covers an area of 33,840 hectares and is located in West-Central France. In this monoculture area, the observed changes in biophysical variables strongly depend on temperature and precipitation variability, and, thus, represent an interesting opportunity to study relationships between climate change and evolution of vine phenology. We use a MODIS images dataset from 2000 to 2011 with a temporal resolution of one image every 10 days. Our workflow builds regular series of reflectance images from which biophysic variables (like fCOVER, vegetation cover fraction) are calculated. Thanks to the TERVICLIM (ANR-JC 07-194103) program, 13 weather stations were set up within the AOC-SA, between 2008 and 2011. The average climatic data (temperature, rainfall) from this network are linked to Modis data. The monthly records of the biophysical variables over the studied period clearly show annual oscillations including a seasonal and monthly variability of the fCOVER associated with climatic features. Furthermore, the remarkably mild and wet winters of 2000-2001 and 2006-2007 were favourable to an increase of photosynthetic activity and vegetation coverage ratio. The strong and long-term rainfall deficit (until autumn) in 2005 and the associated hydric stress

  13. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  14. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  15. An evaluation of Skylab (EREP) remote sensing techniques applied to investigation of crustal structure. [Death Valley and Greenwater Valley (CA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study of Greenwater Valley indicates that the valley is bounded on the north and east by faults, on the south by a basement high, and on the west by the dip slope of the black mountains, movement of ground water from the valley is thus Movement of ground water from the valley is thus restricted, indicating the valley is a potential water reservoir.

  16. Basin development and structure of the area covered by Tertiary basalts, offshore central West Greenland - implications of subvolcanic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Bate, K.J.; Chalmers, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The West Greenland shelf area between 68{degrees} and 72{degrees} is covered by Lower Tertiary basalts and has so far proved difficult to explore seismically compared to the offshore basins farther north (Melville Bay) and south (southern West Greenland). A first seismic and geological interpretation of the basalt area has lead to a better understanding of the tectonic events during the Tertiary and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration. After a period of extension accompanied by basalt volcanic in the Paleocene, a period of transpression occurred related to sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The crests of the anticlines formed were then eroded and transgressive marine sediments infilled the irregular topography and formed a number of restricted basins. Strike-slip faulting continued throughout the Eocene. Ongoing geophysical studies, including acquisition of additional seismic data in 1995, are aimed at improving seismic resolution beneath the basalts and deter- mining the structure and nature of the underlying sedimentary section. It has been possible, locally, to interpret horizons beneath the Paleocene volcanics where a thick sedimentary section is inferred to be present. The geological development of this succession has to be extrapolated from offshore southern West Greenland and the nearby onshore Nuussuaq basin. Active exploration including drilling started in the onshore basin in 1995 after the discovery of hydrocarbons in basalts at the surface and in shallow wells. The most promising play concept is subbasaltic reservoir sandstones with a mid- Cretaceous marine or a Paleocene deltaic oil-prone source rock. A possible post - basaltic play has also been identified and several large structural leads have been identified by mapping the Top Paleocene Volcanics horizon.

  17. Basin development and structure of the area covered by Tertiary basalts, offshore central West Greenland - implications of subvolcanic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Bate, K.J.; Chalmers, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The West Greenland shelf area between 68[degrees] and 72[degrees] is covered by Lower Tertiary basalts and has so far proved difficult to explore seismically compared to the offshore basins farther north (Melville Bay) and south (southern West Greenland). A first seismic and geological interpretation of the basalt area has lead to a better understanding of the tectonic events during the Tertiary and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration. After a period of extension accompanied by basalt volcanic in the Paleocene, a period of transpression occurred related to sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The crests of the anticlines formed were then eroded and transgressive marine sediments infilled the irregular topography and formed a number of restricted basins. Strike-slip faulting continued throughout the Eocene. Ongoing geophysical studies, including acquisition of additional seismic data in 1995, are aimed at improving seismic resolution beneath the basalts and deter- mining the structure and nature of the underlying sedimentary section. It has been possible, locally, to interpret horizons beneath the Paleocene volcanics where a thick sedimentary section is inferred to be present. The geological development of this succession has to be extrapolated from offshore southern West Greenland and the nearby onshore Nuussuaq basin. Active exploration including drilling started in the onshore basin in 1995 after the discovery of hydrocarbons in basalts at the surface and in shallow wells. The most promising play concept is subbasaltic reservoir sandstones with a mid- Cretaceous marine or a Paleocene deltaic oil-prone source rock. A possible post - basaltic play has also been identified and several large structural leads have been identified by mapping the Top Paleocene Volcanics horizon.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  19. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-09-01

    CAU 366 comprises six corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 • 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 • 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A • 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B • 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C • 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAA) for the six CASs within CAU 366. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 12, 2011, to May 14, 2012, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites.