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Sample records for area x-ray camera

  1. Performance of low-cost X-ray area detectors with consumer digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panna, A.; Gomella, A. A.; Harmon, K. J.; Chen, P.; Miao, H.; Bennett, E. E.; Wen, H.

    2015-05-01

    We constructed X-ray detectors using consumer-grade digital cameras coupled to commercial X-ray phosphors. Several detector configurations were tested against the Varian PaxScan 3024M (Varian 3024M) digital flat panel detector. These include consumer cameras (Nikon D800, Nikon D700, and Nikon D3X) coupled to a green emission phosphor in a back-lit, normal incidence geometry, and in a front-lit, oblique incidence geometry. We used the photon transfer method to evaluate detector sensitivity and dark noise, and the edge test method to evaluate their spatial resolution. The essential specifications provided by our evaluation include discrete charge events captured per mm2 per unit exposure surface dose, dark noise in equivalents of charge events per pixel, and spatial resolution in terms of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the detector`s line spread function (LSF). Measurements were performed using a tungsten anode X-ray tube at 50 kVp. The results show that the home-built detectors provide better sensitivity and lower noise than the commercial flat panel detector, and some have better spatial resolution. The trade-off is substantially smaller imaging areas. Given their much lower costs, these home-built detectors are attractive options for prototype development of low-dose imaging applications.

  2. X-Ray Shawdowgraph Camera Design

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. McCrea; Michael J. Doman; Randy A. Rohde

    1999-01-01

    An imagining camera that is used with X-Ray radiography systems in high explosive experiments has been built and fielded. The camera uses a 40mm diameter Micro-Channel Plate Itensifier (MCPI) for optical gain and photographic film for image recording. In the normal location of the X-ray film pack, a scintillating screen is placed instead. The camera system views the screen and records the image. The sensitivity of the MCPI to light makes the camera design sensitive to small details that a film pack does not need to consider. The X-ray image recording system was designed and bulit for situations where the film pack of the X-ray shadowgraph is not retrievable after the experiment. The system has been used in a number of experiments.

  3. Operational experience of a large area x-ray camera for protein crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Joachimiak, A.; Jorden, A. R.; Loeffen, P. W.; Naday, I.; Sanishvili, R.; Westbrook, E. M.

    1999-07-13

    After 3 years experience of operating very large area (210mm x 210mm) CCD-based detectors at the Advanced Photon Source, operational experience is reported. Four such detectors have been built, two for Structural Biology Center (APS-1 and SBC-2), one for Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (Gold-2) at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source and one for Osaka University by Oxford Instruments, for use at Spring 8 (PX-21O). The detector is specifically designed as a high resolution and fast readout camera for macromolecular crystallography. Design trade-offs for speed and size are reviewed in light of operational experience and future requirements are considered. Operational data and examples of crystallography data are presented, together with plans for more development.

  4. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  5. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  6. Mercuric iodide X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; Delduca, A.; Dolin, R.; Ortale, C.

    A prototype X-ray camera utilizing a 1.5- by 1.5-in., 1024-element, thin mercuric iodide detector array has been tested and evaluated. The microprocessor-based camera is portable and operates at room temperature. Events can be localized within 1 to 2 mm at energies below 60 keV and within 5 to 6 mm at energies on the order of 600 keV.

  7. Mercuric iodide X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; del Duca, A.; Dolin, R.; Ortale, C.

    1986-02-01

    A prototype X-ray camera utilizing a 1.5- by 1.5-in., 1024-element, thin mercuric iodide detector array has been tested and evaluated. The microprocessor-based camera is portable and operates at room temperature. Events can be localized within 1-2 mm at energies below 60 keV and within 5-6 mm at energies on the order of 600 keV.

  8. X-ray Pinhole Camera Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D. S.; Berninger, M. J.; Flores, P. A.; Good, D. E.; Henderson, D. J.; Hogge, K. W.; Huber, S. R.; Lutz, S. S.; Mitchell, S. E.; Howe, R. A.; Mitton, C. V.; Molina, I.; Bozman, D. R.; Cordova, S. R.; Mitchell, D. R.; Oliver, B. V.; Ormond, E. C.

    2013-07-01

    The development of the rod pinch diode [1] has led to high-resolution radiography for dynamic events such as explosive tests. Rod pinch diodes use a small diameter anode rod, which extends through the aperture of a cathode plate. Electrons borne off the aperture surface can self-insulate and pinch onto the tip of the rod, creating an intense, small x-ray source (Primary Pinch). This source has been utilized as the main diagnostic on numerous experiments that include high-value, single-shot events. In such applications there is an emphasis on machine reliability, x-ray reproducibility, and x-ray quality [2]. In tests with the baseline rod pinch diode, we have observed that an additional pinch (Secondary Pinch) occurs at the interface near the anode rod and the rod holder. This suggests that stray electrons exist that are not associated with the Primary Pinch. In this paper we present measurements on both pinches using an x-ray pinhole camera. The camera is placed downstream of the Primary Pinch at an angle of 60° with respect to the diode centerline. This diagnostic will be employed to diagnose x-ray reproducibility and quality. In addition, we will investigate the performance of hybrid diodes relating to the formation of the Primary and Secondary Pinches.

  9. A wide-field soft X-ray camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.

    1981-01-01

    A wide-field soft X-ray camera (WFSXC) sensitive in the 50 to 250 eV band is described. The camera features Wolter-Schwarzschild optics with an 8 degree field of view and 300 cu cu collecting area. The focal plane instrument is a microchannel plate detector. Broad-band energy discrimination is provided by thin-film filters mounted immediately in front of the focal plane. The WFSXC is capable of detecting sources with intensities greater than 5 percent of HZ 43 during typical sounding rocket exposures, and it would approach the same sensitivity range as EUVE during a typical exposure from the Shuttle.

  10. Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimchuk, A.; Kim, M.; Workman, J.; Korn, G.; Squier, J.; Du, D.; Umstadter, D.; Mourou, G.; Bouvier, M.

    1996-03-01

    We have developed an averaging picosecond x-ray streak camera using a dc-biased photoconductive switch as a generator of a high-voltage ramp. The streak camera is operated at a sweep speed of up to 8 ps/mm, shot-to-shot jitter is less than ±1 ps. The streak camera has been used to measure the time history of broadband x-ray emission from an ultrashort pulse laser-produced plasma. Accumulation of the streaked x-ray signals significantly improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the data obtained.

  11. X-ray framing camera for pulsed, high current, electron beam x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failor, B. H.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Riordan, J. C.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2007-07-01

    High power x-ray sources built for nuclear weapons effects testing are evolving toward larger overall diameters and smaller anode cathode gaps. We describe a framing camera developed to measure the time-evolution of these 20-50 ns pulsed x-ray sources produced by currents in the 1.5-2.5 MA range and endpoint voltages between 0.2 and 1.5 MV. The camera has up to 4 frames with 5 ns gate widths; the frames are separated by 5 ns. The image data are recorded electronically with a gated intensified CCD camera and the data are available immediately following a shot. A fast plastic scintillator (2.1 ns decay time) converts the x-rays to visible light and, for high sensitivity, a fiber optic imaging bundle carries the light to the CCD input. Examples of image data are shown.

  12. Image responses to x-ray radiation in ICCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jiming; Duan, Baojun; Song, Yan; Song, Guzhou; Han, Changcai; Zhou, Ming; Du, Jiye; Wang, Qunshu; Zhang, Jianqi

    2013-08-01

    When used in digital radiography, ICCD camera will be inevitably irradiated by x-ray and the output image will degrade. In this research, we separated ICCD camera into two optical-electric parts, CCD camera and MCP image intensifier, and irradiated them respectively on Co-60 gamma ray source and pulsed x-ray source. By changing time association between radiation and the shutter of CCD camera, the state of power supply of MCP image intensifier, significant differences have been observed in output images. A further analysis has revealed the influence of the CCD chip, readout circuit in CCD camera, and the photocathode, microchannel plate and fluorescent screen in MCP image intensifier on image quality of an irradiated ICCD camera. The study demonstrated that compared with other parts, irradiation response of readout circuit is very slight and in most cases negligible. The interaction of x-ray with CCD chip usually behaves as bright spots or rough background in output images, which depends on x-ray doses. As to the MCP image intensifier, photocathode and microchannel plate are the two main steps that degrade output images. When being irradiated by x-ray, microchannel plate in MCP image intensifier tends to contribute a bright background in output images. Background caused by the photocathode looks more bright and fluctuant. Image responses of fluorescent screen in MCP image intensifier in ICCD camera and that of a coupling fiber bundle are also evaluated in this presentation.

  13. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown.

  14. X-ray Pinhole Camera Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D. S.; Berninger, M. J.; Flores, P. A.; Good, D. E.; Henderson, D. J.; Hogge, K. W.; Huber, S. R.; Lutz, S. S.; Mitchell, S. E.; Howe, R. A.; Mitton, C. V.; Molina, I.; Bozman, D. R.; Cordova, S. R.; Mitchell, D. R.; Oliver, B. V.; Ormond, E. C.

    2013-06-20

    The rod pinch diode is made up of a cathode plate and a small diameter anode rod that extends through the cathode hole. The anode is charged positively. The rod tip is made of a high-z material which is chosen for its bremsstrahlung efficiency. When the diode is pulsed it produces an intense x-ray source used for pulsed radiography. The baseline or reference diode consists of a 0.75 mm diameter Tungsten (W) tapered anode rod which extends 10 mm through a 9 mm diameter 3 mm thick aluminum (Al) aperture. The majority of the current in the electron beam is created on the edges of the cathode aperture and when properly configured, the electrons will self insulate, travel down the extension of the rod, and pinch onto the tip of the rod. In this presentation, performance of hybrid diodes will be compared with the baseline diode.

  15. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  16. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  17. Improved camera for better X-ray powder photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, W.; Vajda, I. E.

    1969-01-01

    Camera obtains powder-type photographs of single crystals or polycrystalline powder specimens. X-ray diffraction photographs of a powder specimen are characterized by improved resolution and greater intensity. A reasonably good powder pattern of small samples can be produced for identification purposes.

  18. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most poweful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components relatedto x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  19. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  20. Streak cameras for soft x-ray and optical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Medecki, H.

    1983-09-01

    The principal component of a streak camera is the image converter tube. A slit-shaped photocathode transforms the radiation into a proportional emission of electrons. An electron - optics arrangement accelerates the electrons and projects them into a phosphor screen creating the image of the slit. A pair of deflection plates deflects the electronic beam along a direction perpendicular to the main dimension of the slit. Different portions of the phosphor screen show the instantaneous image of the slit with brightness proportional to the number of emitted electrons and, consequently, to the intensity of the radiation. For our x-ray streak cameras, we use the RCA C73435A image conventer tube intended for the measurement of the radiation of light and modified to have an x-ray sensitive photocathode. Practical considerations lead to the use of transparent rather than reflecting photocathodes. Several of these camera tubes are briefly described.

  1. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility high resolution camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen S.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1986-01-01

    The HRC (High Resolution Camera) is a photon counting instrument to be flown on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). It is a large field of view, high angular resolution, detector for the X-ray telescope. The HRC consists of a CsI coated microchannel plate (MCP) acting as a soft X-ray photocathode, followed by a second MCP for high electronic gain. The MCPs are readout by a crossed grid of resistively coupled wires to provide high spatial resolution along with timing and pulse height data. The instrument will be used in two modes, as a direct imaging detector with a limiting sensitivity of 10 to the -15th ergs/sq cm sec in a 10 to the 5th second exposure, and as a readout for an objective transmission grating providing spectral resolution of several hundreds to thousands.

  2. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to...

  7. Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, Harvey

    1996-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission study concept has evolved strongly over the last year culminating in the merging of LAXS with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) proposal for a similar mission, the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White). The resulting merger, re-named the High Throughput X-rays Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission has also expanded by the inclusion of another SAO proposed new mission concept proposal, the Hard X-Ray Telescope (PI: Paul Gorenstein). The resultant multi-instrument mission retains much of heritage from the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for robustness. These mergers resulted from a series of contacts between various team members, via e-mail, telecons, and in-person meetings. The impetus for the mergers was the fundamental similarity between the missions, and the recognition that all three proposal teams had significant contributions to make in the effort to define the next stage in the X-ray exploration of the universe. We have enclosed four items that represent some of the work that has occurred during the first year of the study: first, a presentation at the Leicester meeting, second a presentation that was made to Dan Goldin following the merging of LAXS and NGXO, third a copy of the first announcement for the Workshop, and finally the interim report that was prepared by the HTXS study team towards the end of the first year. This last document provides the foundation for the HTXS Technology Roadmap that is being generated. The HTXS roadmap will define the near-term goals that the merged mission must achieve over the next few years. A web site has been developed and populated that contains much of the material that has been generated over the past year.

  8. Synchronous time-resolved optical and x-ray emission from simultaneous optical and x-ray streak cameras driven by a master ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, J.E.; Lampert, W.; Roschger, E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    An optical and an x-ray streak camera have been synchronized by driving the deflection plates of both cameras from the same ramp generator. The relative timing of the two cameras was calibrated by running UV light onto the x-ray streak camera. The x-ray streak camera was then used to measure the time of the x-ray emission from a laser plasma with respect to the laser pulse.

  9. Picosecond-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at low signal contrast using a hard X-ray streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Jiao, Yishuo

    2015-06-24

    A picosecond-resolving hard-X-ray streak camera has been in operation for several years at Sector 7 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Several upgrades have been implemented over the past few years to optimize integration into the beamline, reduce the timing jitter, and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. These include the development of X-ray optics for focusing the X-rays into the sample and the entrance slit of the streak camera, and measures to minimize the amount of laser light needed to generate the deflection-voltage ramp. For the latter, the photoconductive switch generating the deflection ramp was replaced with microwave power electronics. With these, the streak camera operates routinely at 88 MHz repetition rate, thus making it compatible with all of the APS fill patterns including use of all the X-rays in the 324-bunch mode. Sample data are shown to demonstrate the performance.

  10. X ray sensitive area detection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device is disclosed which comprises a phosphor-containing film capable of receiving and storing an image formed by a pattern of incoming x rays, UV, or other radiation falling on the film. The device is capable of fluorescing in response to stimulation by a light source in a manner directly proportional to the stored radiation pattern. The device includes: (1) a light source capable of projecting light or other appropriate electromagnetic wave on the film so as to cause it to fluoresce; (2) a means to focus the fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film after light stimulation; and (3) at least one charged coupled detector or other detecting element capable of receiving and digitizing the pattern of fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film. The device will be able to generate superior x ray images of high resolution from a crystal or other sample and will be particularly advantageous in that instantaneous near-real-time images of rapidly deteriorating samples can be obtained. Furthermore, the device can be made compact and sturdy, thus capable of carrying out x ray or other radiation imaging under a variety of conditions, including those experienced in space.

  11. Spatial resolution of gated x-ray pinhole cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, H.F.; Budil, K.S.; Remington, B.A.

    1996-05-15

    The new camera FXI was investigated. Spatial resolution, or its Fourier transform, the modulation transfer function (MTF), is critical for quantitative interpretation of recent hydrodynamic instability data taken on the Nova laser. We have taken data corresponding to backlit straight edges, pinholes, and grids, both on the bench and {ital in}{ital situ} on Nova. For both the pinhole and edge data, the MTF at all wavelengths of interest can be deduced from a single image. Grids are of more limited usefulness, giving the MTF value only at the spatial period of the grid. These different techniques for characterizing the MTF of gated x-ray pinhole cameras are discussed, with results specific to the FXI presented.

  12. Transmission loss in x-ray framing cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaohong; Zhu, BingLi; Bai, Yonglin; Gou, Yongsheng; Xu, Peng; Jin, Jing; Wang, Bo; Liu, Baiyu; Qin, Junjun

    2015-02-01

    We present evidence that transmission loss in gated x-ray framing cameras can affect relative gains. Transmission loss is caused by a variety of factors including: incident voltage waveform, matched load, width of Au electrode gap, and so on. The transition electrode in MCP (Micro-channel Plate) is continuous gradual change line, and it has good capability of compensation. When continuous gradual change micro-strip line is designed, dielectric loss tangent is one of transmission loss factors too. The model structure is designed based on the analysis of modeling and simulation techniques and experiment data as well as forecast target. The transmission loss is reduced from 50% to 25%, the transmission efficiency is greatly improved.

  13. Benchmarking of Back Thinned 512x512 X-ray CCD Camera Measurements with DEF X-ray film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambo, N. A.; Workman, J.; Kyrala, G.; Hurry, T.; Gonzales, R.; Evans, S. C.

    1999-11-01

    Using the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory 25-micron thick, 2mm diameter titanium disks were shot with a 527nm(green) laser light to measure x-ray yield. 1.0 mil and 0.5 mil Aluminum steps were used to test the linearity of the CCD Camera and DEF X-ray film was used to test the calibration of the CCD Camera response at 4.75keV. Both laser spot size and incident laser intensity were constrained to give constancy to the experimental data. This poster will discuss both the experimental design and results.

  14. A new x-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Yongsheng; Bai, Yonglin; Liu, Baiyu; Bai, Xiaohong; Qin, Junjun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Bingli; Peng, Xu; Cao, Weiwei

    2015-10-01

    A new method to get a X-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution was proposed based on time amplification. Its principle comes from that we use high voltage electrical pulse to get speed dispersion of the photoelectrons pulse first, and then the photoelectrons pulse will be stretched in axial direction by drift area, at the end the photoelectrons pulse after stretched will be framing imaged by a traditional MCP microchannel plate gated framing camera. A model of the camera was built according to this method. Time amplification of the system is about 30, and image magnification of the system is about 0.4. Parameters for designing the camera system were presented after theoretical deriving and model simulation. At last, theoretical time resolution and spatial resolution of the camera were given.

  15. Laboratory x-ray CCD camera electronics: a test bed for the Swift X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Zugger, Michael E.; Shoemaker, Jason; Witherite, Mark E.; Koch, T. Scott; Chou, Lester L.; Case, Traci; Burrows, David N.

    2000-12-01

    The Penn State University Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics has been active in the design of X-ray CCD cameras for astronomy for over two decades, including sounding rocket systems, the CUBIC instrument on the SAC-B satellite and the ACIS camera on the Chandra satellite. Currently the group is designing and building an X-ray telescope (XRT), which will comprise part of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer satellite. The Swift satellite, selected in October 1999 as one of two winners of NASA Explorer contracts, will -- within one minute -- detect, locate, and observe gamma-ray bursts simultaneously in the optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma- ray wavelengths using three co-aligned telescopes. The XRT electronics is required to read out the telescope's CCD sensor in a number of different ways depending on the observing mode selected. Immediately after the satellite re-orients to observe a newly detected burst, the XRT will enter an imaging mode to determine the exact position of the burst. The location will then be transmitted to the ground, and the XRT will autonomously enter other modes as the X-ray intensity of the burst waxes and wanes. This paper will discuss the electronics for a laboratory X-ray CCD camera, which serves as a test bed for development of the Swift XRT camera. It will also touch upon the preliminary design of the flight camera, which is closely related. A major challenge is achieving performance and reliability goals within the cost constraints of an Explorer mission.

  16. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

    2008-10-31

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 μm square pixels, and 15 μm thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE≈10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  17. Characterization of X-ray streak cameras for use on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D.H.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.L.; Hammel, B.A.; Landen, O.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Hares, J.D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A.K.L.

    1996-09-01

    There are many different types of measurements that require a continuous time history of x-ray emission that can be provided with an x-ray streak camera. In order to properly analyze the images that are recorded with the x-ray streak cameras operated on Nova, it is important to account for the streak characterization of each camera. We have performed a number of calibrations of the streak cameras both on the bench as well as with Nova disk target shots where we use a time modulated laser intensity profile (self-beating of the laser) on the target to generate an x-ray comb. We have measured the streak camera sweep direction and spatial offset, curvature of the electron optics, sweep rate, and magnification and resolution of the electron optics.

  18. Characterization of X-ray streak cameras for use on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D.H.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.L.; Hammel, B.A.; Landen, O.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Hares, J.D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A.K.L.

    1996-10-01

    There are many different types of measurements that require a continuous time history of x-ray emission that can be provided with an x-ray streak camera. In order to properly analyze the images that are recorded with the x-ray streak cameras operated on Nova, it is important to account for the streak characterization of each camera. We have performed a number of calibrations of the streak cameras both on the bench as well as with Nova disk target shots where we use a time modulated laser intensity profile (self-beating of the laser) an the target to generate an x-ray comb. We have measured the streak camera sweep direction and spatial offset, curvature of the electron optics, sweep rate, and magnification and resolution of the electron optics.

  19. Experimental study of neutron induced background noise on gated x-ray framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N.; Hagmann, C.; Stone, G.; Hey, D.; Glenn, S.; Conder, A.; Teruya, A.; Sorce, C.; Tommasini, R.; Stoeffl, W.; Springer, P.; Landen, O. L.; Eckart, M.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Koch, J. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bahukutumbi, R.; and others

    2010-10-15

    A temporally gated x-ray framing camera based on a proximity focus microchannel plate is one of the most important diagnostic tools of inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, fusion neutrons produced in imploded capsules interact with structures surrounding the camera and produce background to x-ray signals. To understand the mechanisms of this neutron induced background, we tested several gated x-ray cameras in the presence of 14 MeV neutrons produced at the Omega laser facility. Differences between background levels observed with photographic film readout and charge-coupled-device readout have been studied.

  20. Energy discriminating x-ray camera utilizing a cadmium telluride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Purkhet, Abderyim; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Wantanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Hitomi, Keitaro; Tanaka, Etsuro; Kawai, Toshiaki; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2009-07-01

    An energy-discriminating x-ray camera is useful for performing monochromatic radiography using polychromatic x rays. This x-ray camera was developed to carry out K-edge radiography using iodine-based contrast media. In this camera, objects are exposed by a cone beam from a cerium x-ray generator, and penetrating x-ray photons are detected by a cadmium telluride detector with an amplifier unit. The optimal x-ray photon energy and the energy width are selected out using a multichannel analyzer, and the photon number is counted by a counter card. Radiography was performed by the detector scanning using an x-y stage driven by a two-stage controller, and radiograms obtained by energy discriminating are shown on a personal computer monitor. In radiography, the tube voltage and current were 60 kV and 36 μA, respectively, and the x-ray intensity was 4.7 μGy/s. Cerium K-series characteristic x rays are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast media, and iodine K-edge radiography was performed using x rays with energies just beyond iodine K-edge energy 33.2 keV.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Neutron Induced Noise on Gated X-ray Framing Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Stone, G; Hagmann, C; Sorce, C; Bradley, D K; Moran, M; Landen, O L; Stoeffl, W; Springer, P; Tommasini, R; Hermann, H W; Kyrala, G A; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Koch, J A

    2009-10-08

    A micro-channel plate based temporally-gated x-ray camera (framing camera) is one of the most versatile diagnostic tools of inertial confinement fusion experiments; particularly for observation of the shape of x-ray self emission from compressed core of imploded capsules. However, components used in an x-ray framing camera have sensitivity to neutrons induced secondary radiations. On early low-yield capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the expected neutron production is about 5 x 10{sup 14}. Therefore, the expected neutron fluence at a framing camera located {approx} 150 cm from the object is 2 x 10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. To obtain gated x-ray images in such harsh neutron environments, quantitative understanding of neutron-induced backgrounds is crucial.

  2. Sub-picosecond streak camera measurements at LLNL: From IR to x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kuba, J; Shepherd, R; Booth, R; Steward, R; Lee, E W; Cross, R R; Springer, P T

    2003-12-21

    An ultra fast, sub-picosecond resolution streak camera has been recently developed at the LLNL. The camera is a versatile instrument with a wide operating wavelength range. The temporal resolution of up to 300 fs can be achieved, with routine operation at 500 fs. The streak camera has been operated in a wide wavelength range from IR to x-rays up to 2 keV. In this paper we briefly review the main design features that result in the unique properties of the streak camera and present its several scientific applications: (1) Streak camera characterization using a Michelson interferometer in visible range, (2) temporally resolved study of a transient x-ray laser at 14.7 nm, which enabled us to vary the x-ray laser pulse duration from {approx}2-6 ps by changing the pump laser parameters, and (3) an example of a time-resolved spectroscopy experiment with the streak camera.

  3. Optimizing Data Recording for the NIF Core Diagnostic X-ray Streak Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D H; Bell, P M; Perry, T S; Sewall, N; Diamond, C; Piston, K

    2000-06-13

    The x-ray streak camera is an important instrument for recording a continuous time history of x-ray emitted from laser target experiments. X-ray streak cameras were used to diagnose experiments in inertially confined fusion and high energy density sciences on the Nova laser. These streak cameras are now used for similar experiments conducted at the OMEGA laser facility, and cameras of this type will be used for experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The Nova x-ray streak cameras (SSCs) used a sealed optical image intensifier coupled to film to record the streaked x-ray data. In order to develop the core x-ray streak camera for NIF (ref Kimbrough) using a CCD based recording system, we evaluate the performance of the SSCs under a variety of detector configurations. We performed laboratory bench characterization tests of the SSCs to measure the spatial resolution and to evaluate the dynamic range and signal to noise for different configurations of the SSC. We present results of these tests here.

  4. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  5. Microchannel plate pinhole camera for 20 to 100 keV x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.L.; Leipelt, G.R.; Nilson, D.G.

    1984-10-03

    We present the design and construction of a sensitive pinhole camera for imaging suprathermal x-rays. Our device is a pinhole camera consisting of four filtered pinholes and microchannel plate electron multiplier for x-ray detection and signal amplification. We report successful imaging of 20, 45, 70, and 100 keV x-ray emissions from the fusion targets at our Novette laser facility. Such imaging reveals features of the transport of hot electrons and provides views deep inside the target.

  6. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm/sup 2/ and a thickness of 100 ..mu..m. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150/sup 0/K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs.

  7. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

    2012-05-02

    Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

  8. Averaging picosecond streak camera for time resolved x-ray and XUV spectroscopy of ultrashort plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimchuk, A.; Nantel, M.; Workman, J.; Umstadter, D.; Mourou, G.; Pikuz, S.

    1996-11-01

    We have developed an averaging picosecond x-ray streak camera that uses a DC-biased semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive switch as a generator of a high-voltage ramp for the deflection plates of the streak camera. The streak camera is operated at a sweep speed of up to 8 ps/mm, with a shot-to-shot jitter of 1 ps. The streak camera driven by this switch is absolutely synhronized with the femtosecond laser pulse and allows the direct accumulation of the x-ray temporal signals at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The streak camera has been used for the investigation of temporal behavior of keV x-ray lines and spectrally resolved XUV emission from solid target at the laser intensity of 10^17 W/cm^2. This work is supported by NSF under Grant STC PHY 8920108.

  9. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Nagarkar, V V; Kudrolli, H; Madsen, K K; Koglin, J E; Christensen, F E; Brejnholt, N F

    2011-11-08

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and ASTRO-H. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization of the performance for all NuSTAR optics. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained during the ground calibration of the NuSTAR telescopes performed at Columbia University during 2010/2011. Finally, we give an outlook on ongoing

  10. Indirectly illuminated X-ray area detector for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yuya; Imai, Ryo; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Naoto; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    2010-11-01

    An indirectly illuminated X-ray area detector is employed for X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). The detector consists of a phosphor screen, an image intensifier (microchannel plate), a coupling lens and either a CCD or CMOS image sensor. By changing the gain of the image intensifier, both photon-counting and integrating measurements can be performed. Speckle patterns with a high signal-to-noise ratio can be observed in a single shot in the integrating mode, while XPCS measurement can be performed with much fewer photons in the photon-counting mode. By switching the image sensor, various combinations of frame rate, dynamic range and active area can be obtained. By virtue of these characteristics, this detector can be used for XPCS measurements of various types of samples that show slow or fast dynamics, a high or low scattering intensity, and a wide or narrow range of scattering angles. PMID:20975218

  11. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  12. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented. PMID:26931959

  13. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    SciTech Connect

    Trosseille, C. Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.; Beck, T.; Gazave, J.

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  14. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule.

    PubMed

    Trosseille, C; Aubert, D; Auger, L; Bazzoli, S; Beck, T; Brunel, P; Burillo, M; Chollet, C; Gazave, J; Jasmin, S; Maruenda, P; Moreau, I; Oudot, G; Raimbourg, J; Soullié, G; Stemmler, P; Zuber, C

    2014-11-01

    Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an "air-box" that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes. PMID:25430196

  15. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoulea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trosseille, C.; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Beck, T.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Gazave, J.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.

    2014-11-01

    Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an "air-box" that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  16. Area x-ray detector based on a lens-coupled charge-coupled device

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, Mark W.; Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M.

    2005-08-15

    An area x-ray detector constructed using commercially available 'off-the-shelf' parts is described and its performance is characterized. The detector consists of a 1024x1024 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) camera optically coupled to x-ray sensitive phosphor screen using a standard 35 mm camera lens. The conversion efficiency, spatial nonuniformity, spatial resolution and the detective quantum efficiency of the detector have been measured. Also shown is an example of data taken with the detector. The detector is a relatively low-cost device suitable for a wide variety of quantitative x-ray experiments where the input area need not be larger than about 70 mm across.

  17. Experimental calibration of x-ray camera performance: spatial resolution, flat field response, and radiation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongwei; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Linbo; Zhang, Faqiang; Chen, Dingyang

    2014-11-01

    Major parameters of X-rays camera include spatial resolution, flat field response and dynamic range. Such parameters were calibrated on a pulsed X-rays source with about 0.3MeV energy. Fluorophotometric method was used for the measurement of spatial resolutions of the penetrating lights and reflecting lights. Results indicated they were both basically same. And the spatial resolution of the camera was measured with edge method. Corresponding to 10% intensity, the modulator transfer function (MTS) of the resolution was about 5lp/mm, while the size of the point spread function (PSF) was about 0.8mm. Due to the system design with both short distance and big filed of view, the flat field non-homogeneity was about 15%. In addition, because of the relatively big gain of the scintillator and MCP image intensifier and the limited detecting efficiency of the X-rays and scintillator, the image intensity of the flat field response demonstrated a big standard deviation of about 1375. Due to the crosstalk throughout the system, the maximal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the X-rays camera was about 10:1.These results could provide important technical specifications for both applications of X-rays camera and data processing of other relevant images.

  18. Design and fabrication of a CCD camera for use with relay optics in solar X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Configured as a subsystem of a sounding rocket experiment, a camera system was designed to record and transmit an X-ray image focused on a charge coupled device. The camera consists of a X-ray sensitive detector and the electronics for processing and transmitting image data. The design and operation of the camera are described. Schematics are included.

  19. A grazing incidence x-ray streak camera for ultrafast, single-shot measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Engelhorn, K.; Cho, B.I.; Lee, H.J.; Greaves, M.; Weber, C.P.; Falcone, R.W.; Padmore, H. A.; Heimann, P.A.

    2010-02-18

    An ultrafast x-ray streak camera has been realized using a grazing incidence reflection photocathode. X-rays are incident on a gold photocathode at a grazing angle of 20 degree and photoemitted electrons are focused by a large aperture magnetic solenoid lens. The streak camera has high quantum efficiency, 600fs temporal resolution, and 6mm imaging length in the spectral direction. Its single shot capability eliminates temporal smearing due to sweep jitter, and allows recording of the ultrafast dynamics of samples that undergo non-reversible changes.

  20. Design of low noise, high performance X-ray charge-coupled-device cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Luppino, Gerard A.; Ricker, George R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes some of the critical details of the MIT X-ray CCD camera design. Special attention is given to those portions of the system that deviate from conventional practice in the design of CCD cameras. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to generalize the design so that both optical and X-ray requirements can be satisfied whenever possible. Currently, noise levels of less than 8 electrons rms are routinely achieved with this design, and even lower levels (less than 5 electrons) should be realizable.

  1. Standard design for National Ignition Facility x-ray streak and framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Holder, J. P.; Kalantar, D. K.; MacPhee, A. G.; Telford, S.

    2010-10-15

    The x-ray streak camera and x-ray framing camera for the National Ignition Facility were redesigned to improve electromagnetic pulse hardening, protect high voltage circuits from pressure transients, and maximize the use of common parts and operational software. Both instruments use the same PC104 based controller, interface, power supply, charge coupled device camera, protective hermetically sealed housing, and mechanical interfaces. Communication is over fiber optics with identical facility hardware for both instruments. Each has three triggers that can be either fiber optic or coax. High voltage protection consists of a vacuum sensor to enable the high voltage and pulsed microchannel plate phosphor voltage. In the streak camera, the high voltage is removed after the sweep. Both rely on the hardened aluminum box and a custom power supply to reduce electromagnetic pulse/electromagnetic interference (EMP/EMI) getting into the electronics. In addition, the streak camera has an EMP/EMI shield enclosing the front of the streak tube.

  2. Development of an x-ray diffraction camera used in magnetic fields up to 10 T

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Takahashi, Kohki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Koyama, Keiichi

    2011-12-15

    A high-field x-ray diffraction (HF-XRD) camera was developed to observe structural changes of magnetic materials in magnetic fields up to 10 T. The instrument mainly consists of a Debye-Scherrer-type camera with a diameter of 80.1 mm, a 10-T cryocooled superconducting magnet with a 100-mm room-temperature bore, an x-ray source, a power supply, and a chiller for the x-ray source. An x-ray detector (image plate) in the HF-XRD camera can be taken out and inserted into the magnet without changing the sample position. The performance of the instrument was tested by measuring the HF-XRD for silicon and ferromagnetic MnBi powders. A change of x-ray diffraction pattern was observed due to the magnetic orientation of MnBi, showing that the instrument is useful for studying field-induced orientation processes and structural properties of field-controlled materials.

  3. Development of an x-ray diffraction camera used in magnetic fields up to 10 T.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Koyama, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kohki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    A high-field x-ray diffraction (HF-XRD) camera was developed to observe structural changes of magnetic materials in magnetic fields up to 10 T. The instrument mainly consists of a Debye-Scherrer-type camera with a diameter of 80.1 mm, a 10-T cryocooled superconducting magnet with a 100-mm room-temperature bore, an x-ray source, a power supply, and a chiller for the x-ray source. An x-ray detector (image plate) in the HF-XRD camera can be taken out and inserted into the magnet without changing the sample position. The performance of the instrument was tested by measuring the HF-XRD for silicon and ferromagnetic MnBi powders. A change of x-ray diffraction pattern was observed due to the magnetic orientation of MnBi, showing that the instrument is useful for studying field-induced orientation processes and structural properties of field-controlled materials. PMID:22225246

  4. Large area soft x-ray collimator to facilitate x-ray optics testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, Samuel L.

    1994-01-01

    The first objective of this program is to design a nested conical foil x-ray optic which will collimate x-rays diverging from a point source. The collimator could then be employed in a small, inexpensive x-ray test stand which would be used to test various x-ray optics and detector systems. The second objective is to demonstrate the fabrication of the x-ray reflectors for this optic using lacquer-smoothing and zero-stress electroforming techniques.

  5. Initial Operation of the NSTX Fast Tangential Soft X-Ray Camera

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Stratton; R. Feder; S. von Goeler; G.F. Renda; J.L. Lowrance; V.J. Mastrocola

    2004-05-11

    Fast, two-dimensional, soft x-ray imaging is a powerful technique for the study of MHD instabilities in tokamak plasmas. We have constructed an ultra-fast frame rate soft x-ray camera for the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is based on a recently developed 64 x 64 pixel CCD camera capable of capturing 300 frames at up to 500,000 frames per second. A pinhole aperture images the plasma soft x-ray emission (0.2-10 keV) onto a P47 scintillator deposited on a fiber-optic faceplate; the scintillator visible light output is detected and amplified by a demagnifying image intensifier and lens-coupled to the CCD chip. A selection of beryllium foils provides discrimination of low-energy emission. The system is installed on NSTX with a wide-angle tangential view of the plasma. Initial plasma data and an assessment of the system performance are presented.

  6. A multiple-plate, multiple-pinhole camera for X-ray gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    Plates with identical patterns of precisely aligned pinholes constitute lens system which, when rotated about optical axis, produces continuous high resolution image of small energy X-ray or gamma ray source. Camera has applications in radiation treatment and nuclear medicine.

  7. X-ray streak camera diagnostics of picosecond laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, J.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Jones, L.A.; Kyrala, G.A.; Schappert, G.T.; Taylor, A.J.; Wahlin, E.K.

    1992-05-01

    An x-ray streak camera is used to diagnose a laser-produced Al plasma with time resolution of {approximately}10 ps. A streak record of filtered emission and a time-integrated transmission grating spectrum reveal that the plasma radiation is dominated by emission from He- and H-like resonance lines. 11 refs.

  8. X-ray streak camera diagnostics of picosecond laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, J.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Jones, L.A.; Kyrala, G.A.; Schappert, G.T.; Taylor, A.J.; Wahlin, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray streak camera is used to diagnose a laser-produced Al plasma with time resolution of {approximately}10 ps. A streak record of filtered emission and a time-integrated transmission grating spectrum reveal that the plasma radiation is dominated by emission from He- and H-like resonance lines. 11 refs.

  9. Progress on the Development of a Single Line of Sight X-ray Framing Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D; Holder, J; Damian, C; Piston, K; Bell, P; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A; Hares, J

    2004-04-09

    High-speed micro-strip micro-channel plate (MCP) x-ray framing cameras are a well established diagnostic for laser plasma experiments. Each frame acquired with these devices requires a separate image, and with most reasonable x-ray optics, a separate line of sight, causing potential parallax problems. Gated image tubes have a single line of sight capability, but the conventional designs have not been effectively extended to the short gating times of the micro-strip-line MCP camera. A hybrid camera combining image tube and micro-strip-line MCP technology has been under development at LLNL in collaboration with UR/LLE, and KENTECH Instruments. The key feature of this single line of sight (SLOS) hybrid image tube is a deflection assembly that continuously divides the electrons from a single photocathode x-ray image into a set of four electron images. Temporal gating of these images is carried out using a microstripline microchannel plate framing camera module positioned at the image plane of the electron tube. Characterization measurements performed using both X-rays from a Manson source and from laser generated plasmas, will be presented. Some implementation improvements will be discussed. The results will be compared to simulations carried out using the charged particle optics code SIMION. Various dissector designs were simulated in an effort to improve the image quality of the system.

  10. Progress on the development of a single line of sight x-ray framing camera

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.K.; Holder, J.P.; Damian, C.M.; Piston, K.W.; Bell, P.M.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A.K.L.; Hares, J.D.

    2004-10-01

    High-speed microstrip microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray framing cameras are a well established diagnostic for laser plasma experiments. Each frame acquired with these devices requires a separate image, and with most reasonable x-ray optics, a separate line of sight, causing potential parallax problems. Gated image tubes have a single line of sight capability, but the conventional designs have not been effectively extended to the short gating times of the microstrip-line MCP camera. A hybrid camera combining image tube and microstrip-line MCP technology has been under development at Lawrence Livermore National Lab in collaboration with University of Rochester Lab for Laser energetics, and KENTECH Instruments. The key feature of this single line of sight hybrid image tube is a deflection assembly that continuously divides the electrons from a single photocathode x-ray image into a set of four electron images. Temporal gating of these images is carried out using a microstrip-line microchannel plate framing camera module positioned at the image plane of the electron tube. Characterization measurements performed using both x rays from a Manson source and from laser generated plasmas, will be presented. Some implementation improvements will be discussed.

  11. Large Area Transition Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters for Diffuse X-ray Background Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing transition edge sensor (TES) mirocalorimeters with large area (0.72 mm) absorbers to study the keV diffuse X-ray background. The goal is to develop a 2 cm array of 256 pixels for a sounding rocket payload. We present a pixel design which includes a Mo/Au bilayer TES coupled to a large (850 x 850 x 0.2 m) gold absorber. Our simulations indicate that such a design can achieve energy resolution as good as 1.6 eV FWHM in our target bandpass of 0.05-1 keV. Additionally, thermal modelling shows that for typical gold layers, the position-dependent variation of the pulse shape over the large area of the absorber is not expected to significantly degrade this energy resolution. An array of devices will be fabricated in late 2013 to test this design.

  12. Characterization results from several commercial soft x-ray streak cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Stradling, G.L.; Studebaker, J.K.; Cavailler, C.; Launspach, J.; Planes, J.

    1986-01-01

    The spatio-temporal performance of four soft x-ray streak cameras has been characterized. The objective in evaluating the performance capability of these instruments is to enable us to optimize experiment designs, to encourage quantitative analysis of streak data and to educate the ultra high speed photography and photonics community about the x-ray detector performance which is available. These measurements have been made collaboratively over the space of two years at the Forge pulsed x-ray source at Los Alamos and at the Ketjak laser facility an CEA Limeil-Valenton. The x-ray pulse lengths used for these measurements at these facilities were 150 psec and 50 psec respectively. The results are presented as dynamically-measured modulation transfer functions. Limiting temporal resolution values were also calculated. Emphasis is placed upon shot noise statistical limitations in the analysis of the data. Space charge repulsion in the streak tube limits the peak flux at ultra short experiments duration times. This limit results in a reduction of total signal and a decrease in signal to noise ratio in the streak image. The four cameras perform well with 20 1p/mm resolution discernable in data from the French C650X, the Hadland X-Chron 540 and the Hamamatsu C1936X streak cameras. The Kentech x-ray streak camera has lower modulation and does not resolve below 10 1p/mm but has a longer photocathode. The C650X bi-lamellar design shows uniform high fidelity recording across both spatial and temporal dimensions. The other three streak cameras show resolution degradation off axis. This must be weighed against a 10X lower streak tube throughput for the C650X.

  13. Improvements in Off-Center Focusing in an X-ray Streak Camera

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J W; Weber, F; Holder, J P; Bell, P M

    2003-07-17

    Due to the planar construction of present x-ray streak tubes significant off-center defocusing is observed in both static and dynamic images taken with one-dimensional resolution slits. Based on the streak tube geometry curved photocathodes with radii of curvature ranging from 3.5 to 18 inches have been fabricated. We report initial off-center focusing performance data on the evaluation of these ''improved'' photocathodes in an X-ray streak camera and an update on the theoretical simulations to predict the optimum cathode curvature.

  14. The SLcam: a full-field energy dispersive X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjeoumikhov, A.; Buzanich, G.; Langhoff, N.; Ordavo, I.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Scharf, O.; Soltau, H.; Wedell, R.

    2012-11-01

    The color X-ray camera (SLcam®) is a full-field single photon imager. As stand-alone camera, it is applicable for energy and space-resolved X-ray detection measurements. The exchangeable poly-capillary optics in front of a beryllium entrance window conducts X-ray photons from the probe to distinguished energy dispersive pixels on a pnCCD. The dedicated software enables the acquisition and the online processing of the spectral data for all 69696 pixels, leading to a real-time visualization of the element distribution in a sample. No scanning system is employed. A first elemental composition image of the sample is visible within minutes while statistics is improving in the course of time. Straight poly-capillary optics allows for 1:1 imaging with a space resolution of 50 μm and no limited depth of sharpness, ideal to map uneven objects. Using conically shaped optics, a magnification of 6 times was achieved with a space resolution of 10 μm. We present a measurement with a laboratory source showing the camera capability to perform fast full-field X-ray Fluorescence (FF-XRF) imaging with an easy, portable and modular setup.

  15. Soft x-ray camera for internal shape and current density measurements on a noncircular tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Roney, P.; Simon, M.P.

    1988-05-01

    Soft x-ray measurements of the internal plasma flux surface shaped in principle allow a determination of the plasma current density distribution, and provide a necessary monitor of the degree of internal elongation of tokamak plasmas with a noncircular cross section. A two-dimensional, tangentially viewing, soft x-ray pinhole camera has been fabricated to provide internal shape measurements on the PBX-M tokamak. It consists of a scintillator at the focal plane of a foil-filtered pinhole camera, which is, in turn, fiber optically coupled to an intensified framing video camera (/DELTA/t />=/ 3 msec). Automated data acquisition is performed on a stand-alone image-processing system, and data archiving and retrieval takes place on an optical disk video recorder. The entire diagnostic is controlled via a PDP-11/73 microcomputer. The derivation of the polodial emission distribution from the measured image is done by fitting to model profiles. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Research relative to high resolution camera on the advanced X-ray astrophysics facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The HRC (High Resolution Camera) is a photon counting instrument to be flown on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). It is a large field of view, high angular resolution, detector for the x-ray telescope. The HRC consists of a CsI coated microchannel plate (MCP) acting as a soft x-ray photocathode, followed by a second MCP for high electronic gain. The MCPs are readout by a crossed grid of resistively coupled wires to provide high spatial resolution along with timing and pulse height data. The instrument will be used in two modes, as a direct imaging detector with a limiting sensitivity of 10 to the -15 ergs sq cm sec in a 10 to the 5th second exposure, and as a readout for an objective transmission grating providing spectral resolution of several hundreds to thousands.

  17. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  18. Performance of CID camera X-ray imagers at NIF in a harsh neutron environment

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, N. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Bell, P. M.; Piston, K. W.; Moody, J. D.; James, D. L.; Ness, R. A.; Haugh, M. J.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E. D.

    2013-09-01

    Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are solid-state 2D imaging sensors similar to CCDs, but their distinct architecture makes CIDs more resistant to ionizing radiation.1–3 CID cameras have been used extensively for X-ray imaging at the OMEGA Laser Facility4,5 with neutron fluences at the sensor approaching 109 n/cm2 (DT, 14 MeV). A CID Camera X-ray Imager (CCXI) system has been designed and implemented at NIF that can be used as a rad-hard electronic-readout alternative for time-integrated X-ray imaging. This paper describes the design and implementation of the system, calibration of the sensor for X-rays in the 3 – 14 keV energy range, and preliminary data acquired on NIF shots over a range of neutron yields. The upper limit of neutron fluence at which CCXI can acquire useable images is ~ 108 n/cm2 and there are noise problems that need further improvement, but the sensor has proven to be very robust in surviving high yield shots (~ 1014 DT neutrons) with minimal damage.

  19. Large-area Kapton x-ray windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimonov, M.; Khounsary, A.; Weigand, S.; Rix, J.; Keane, D.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Johnson, A.; Zhou, Z.; Jansma, W.

    2015-09-01

    Some X-ray instruments require the utilization of large-area windows to provide vacuum barriers. The necessary attributes of the window material include transparency to X-rays, low scattering, and possession of suitable mechanical properties for reliable long-term performance. Kapton is one such material except that it is a polymer and a large window made from Kapton with a pressure differential of one atmosphere across it can undergo substantial deformation at room temperature. In this paper, we report on the mechanical testing of Kapton samples including creep measurements, and comparison with published data. We use of these data together with analytical / numerical models to predict the changes in the profile of Kapton vacuum windows over time, and show good agreement with experimental measurements.

  20. Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Smith, G.W.; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or ``peaks`` binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

  1. Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends

    DOEpatents

    Nilson, David G.; Campbell, E. Michael; MacGowan, Brian J.; Medecki, Hector

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

  2. Advances in x-ray framing cameras at the National Ignition Facility to improve quantitative precision in x-ray imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benedetti, L. R.; Holder, J. P.; Perkins, M.; Brown, C. G.; Anderson, C. S.; Allen, F. V.; Petre, R. B.; Hargrove, D.; Glenn, S. M.; Simanovskaia, N.; et al

    2016-02-26

    We describe an experimental method to measure the gate profile of an x-ray framing camera and to determine several important functional parameters: relative gain (between strips), relative gain droop (within each strip), gate propagation velocity, gate width, and actual inter-strip timing. Several of these parameters cannot be measured accurately by any other technique. This method is then used to document cross talk-induced gain variations and artifacts created by radiation that arrives before the framing camera is actively amplifying x-rays. Electromagnetic cross talk can cause relative gains to vary significantly as inter-strip timing is varied. This imposes a stringent requirement formore » gain calibration. If radiation arrives before a framing camera is triggered, it can cause an artifact that manifests as a high-intensity, spatially varying background signal. Furthermore, we have developed a device that can be added to the framing camera head to prevent these artifacts.« less

  3. Synchrotron Area X-ray Detectors, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2010-06-23

    X-ray experiments are very frequently detector limited at today's storage ring synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, and will be even more so at future Energy Recovery Linac and X-ray Free Electron Laser sources. Image plate and phosphor-coupled CCD detectors that predominate at present-day sources were outgrowths of technologies initially developed for the medical and astronomical communities, respectively, with resultant limitations for SR. These limitations are enumerated. The growth of commercial silicon foundries and design tools enabling the production of large, customized integrated circuits is beginning to have a profound impact on SR detectors and is ushering in the age of 'designer detectors'. Novel area Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) are starting to appear in which each pixel has dedicated, complex circuitry capable of high speed and, in some cases, significant data processing power for specific applications. PADs now at, or near the horizon will be described. Integrated circuit methods continue to develop at a rapid pace. Implications for future x-ray detectors will be discussed.

  4. High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Matthieu N.; Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter; Scharf, Oliver; Cormode, David P.; Van Loo, Denis; Pauwels, Elin; Dierick, Manuel; Vincze, Laszlo; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations. In this paper, an energy dispersive CCD detector with high spectral resolution is characterized for use in high resolution radiography and tomography, where a focus is put on the experimental conditions and requirements of both measurement techniques.

  5. Standard design for National Ignition Facility x-ray streak and framing cameras.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, J R; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Holder, J P; Kalantar, D K; MacPhee, A G; Telford, S

    2010-10-01

    The x-ray streak camera and x-ray framing camera for the National Ignition Facility were redesigned to improve electromagnetic pulse hardening, protect high voltage circuits from pressure transients, and maximize the use of common parts and operational software. Both instruments use the same PC104 based controller, interface, power supply, charge coupled device camera, protective hermetically sealed housing, and mechanical interfaces. Communication is over fiber optics with identical facility hardware for both instruments. Each has three triggers that can be either fiber optic or coax. High voltage protection consists of a vacuum sensor to enable the high voltage and pulsed microchannel plate phosphor voltage. In the streak camera, the high voltage is removed after the sweep. Both rely on the hardened aluminum box and a custom power supply to reduce electromagnetic pulse/electromagnetic interference (EMP/EMI) getting into the electronics. In addition, the streak camera has an EMP/EMI shield enclosing the front of the streak tube. PMID:21034058

  6. Digital X-ray camera for quality evaluation three-dimensional topographic reconstruction of single crystals of biological macromolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgstahl, Gloria (Inventor); Lovelace, Jeff (Inventor); Snell, Edward Holmes (Inventor); Bellamy, Henry (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital topography imaging system for determining the crystalline structure of a biological macromolecule, wherein the system employs a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with antiblooming circuitry to directly convert x-ray signals to electrical signals without the use of phosphor and measures reflection profiles from the x-ray emitting source after x-rays are passed through a sample. Methods for using said system are also provided.

  7. An evaluation of a fluorescent screen-isocon camera system for x-ray imaging in radiology.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R S; Barbaric, Z L; Gomes, A S; Moler, C L; Deckard, M E

    1982-01-01

    A large field format imaging system which utilizes a flat fluorescent screen rather than the traditional image intensifier as the primary x-ray detector is discussed in this paper. A low light level image isocon camera is optically coupled to a rare-earth screen. An overview of the isocon camera and its return beam mode of operation is included. Theoretical limitations to this approach to real time radiographic imaging are discussed in terms of system efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements. The viability of this concept for radiographic imaging is considered with respect to the image intensifier-camera unit. The merits of employing a CsI:Na screen as the primary detector and an isocon tube with an improved SNR are presented as potential areas for further investigation. PMID:7155082

  8. Initial operation of the national spherical torus experiment fast tangential soft x-ray camera

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B.C.; Feder, R.; Goeler, S. von; Renda, G.F.; Mastrocola, V.J.; Lowrance, J.L.

    2004-10-01

    Fast, two-dimensional, soft x-ray imaging is a powerful technique for the study of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in tokamak plasmas. We have constructed an ultra-fast frame rate soft x-ray camera for the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX). It is based on a recently developed 64x64 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) camera capable of capturing 300 frames at up to 500 000 frames per second. A pinhole aperture images the plasma soft x-ray emission (0.2-10 keV) onto a P47 scintillator deposited on a fiber-optic faceplate; the scintillator visible light output is detected and amplified by a demagnifying image intensifier and lens-coupled to the CCD chip. A selection of beryllium foils provides discrimination of low-energy emission. The system is installed on NSTX with a wide-angle tangential view of the plasma. Initial plasma data and an assessment of the system performance are presented.

  9. Implementing an all-sky x-ray camera on space station

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.; Brandt, S.; Borozdin, K.; Black, K.

    1999-01-22

    A pinhole camera is an elegant but effective approach to an x-ray all-sky monitor. It is an ideal astrophysical instrument for the Space Station, because it does not require pointing, is robust against contamination, and requires modest resources (120 kg, 50 Watts, 10 kpbs). Nonetheless, it would be more sensitive than any previous all-sky x-ray monitor. By continuously monitoring the entire unocculted sky, this instrument would be sensitive to changes at all timescales. Besides monitoring the brightest few hundred x-ray sources, including about a dozen active galactic nuclei, this instrument would be uniquely sensitive to fast transients, unlike any scanning instrument. We would expect to detect several hundred events per year with timescales from a minute to a day, and better understand their correlation with magnetic activity on nearby stars. We would also expect to detect about 50 gamma-ray bursts per year and locate them to 1 square degree, independently verifying the BATSE sky distribution. We discuss the issues involved in flying this instrument on the Space Station. These include the management of image data from a continuously scanning 2-dimensional field, autonomous determination of aspect using x-ray image data, the detection and exclusion of solar panel occultation from the data, the optimum integration of a very wide-field instrument onto an EXPRESS pallet, safety validation of already-built hardware, and thermal considerations for a very low-power instrument. We conclude that Space Station is an attractive platform to conduct wide-field x-ray astronomy.

  10. Implementing an all-sky x-ray camera on space station

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.; Brandt, S.; Borozdin, K. Black, K.

    1999-01-01

    A pinhole camera is an elegant but effective approach to an x-ray all-sky monitor. It is an ideal astrophysical instrument for the Space Station, because it does not require pointing, is robust against contamination, and requires modest resources (120 kg, 50 Watts, 10 kpbs). Nonetheless, it would be more sensitive than any previous all-sky x-ray monitor. By continuously monitoring the entire unocculted sky, this instrument would be sensitive to changes at all timescales. Besides monitoring the brightest few hundred x-ray sources, including about a dozen active galactic nuclei, this instrument would be uniquely sensitive to fast transients, unlike any scanning instrument. We would expect to detect several hundred events per year with timescales from a minute to a day, and better understand their correlation with magnetic activity on nearby stars. We would also expect to detect about 50 gamma-ray bursts per year and locate them to 1 square degree, independently verifying the BATSE sky distribution. We discuss the issues involved in flying this instrument on the Space Station. These include the management of image data from a continuously scanning 2-dimensional field, autonomous determination of aspect using x-ray image data, the detection and exclusion of solar panel occultation from the data, the optimum integration of a very wide-field instrument onto an EXPRESS pallet, safety validation of already-built hardware, and thermal considerations for a very low-power instrument. We conclude that Space Station is an attractive platform to conduct wide-field x-ray astronomy. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Implementing PET-guided biopsy: integrating functional imaging data with digital x-ray mammography cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Irving N.; Zawarzin, Valera; Pani, Roberto; Williams, Rodney C.; Freimanis, Rita L.; Lesko, Nadia M.; Levine, E. A.; Perrier, N.; Berg, Wendie A.; Adler, Lee P.

    2001-05-01

    Purpose: Phantom trials using the PET data for localization of hot spots have demonstrated positional accuracies in the millimeter range. We wanted to perform biopsy based on information from both anatomic and functional imaging modalities, however we had a communication challenge. Despite the digital nature of DSM stereotactic X-ray mammography devices, and the large number of such devices in Radiology Departments (approximately 1600 in the US alone), we are not aware of any methods of connecting stereo units to other computers in the Radiology department. Methods: We implemented a local network between an external IBM PC (running Linux) and the Lorad Stereotactic Digital Spot Mammography PC (running DOS). The application used IP protocol on the parallel port, and could be run in the background on the LORAD PC without disrupting important clinical activities such as image acquisition or archiving. With this software application, users of the external PC could pull x-ray images on demand form the Load DSM computer. Results: X-ray images took about a minute to ship to the external PC for analysis or forwarding to other computers on the University's network. Using image fusion techniques we were able to designate locations of functional imaging features as the additional targets on the anatomic x-rays. These pseudo-features could then potentially be used to guide biopsy using the stereotactic gun stage on the Lorad camera. New Work to be Presented: A method of transferring and processing stereotactic x-ray mammography images to a functional PET workstation for implementing image-guided biopsy.

  12. 2-ps Hard X-Ray Streak Camera Measurements at Sector 7 Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chollet, M.; Ahr, B.; Walko, D.A.; Rose-Petruck, C.; Adams, B.

    2011-08-02

    A hard X-ray streak camera capable of 2-ps time resolution is in operation at the Sector 7 beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. It is used for laser-pump, X-ray probe experiments using the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system installed on the beamline. This streak camera, combined with standardized and prealigned experimental setups, can perform time-resolved liquid-phase absorption spectroscopy, reflectivity, and diffraction experiments.

  13. Be Foil "Filter Knee Imaging" NSTX Plasma with Fast Soft X-ray Camera

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Stratton; S. von Goeler; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; L.E. Zakharov

    2005-08-08

    A fast soft x-ray (SXR) pinhole camera has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This paper presents observations and describes the Be foil Filter Knee Imaging (FKI) technique for reconstructions of a m/n=1/1 mode on NSTX. The SXR camera has a wide-angle (28{sup o}) field of view of the plasma. The camera images nearly the entire diameter of the plasma and a comparable region in the vertical direction. SXR photons pass through a beryllium foil and are imaged by a pinhole onto a P47 scintillator deposited on a fiber optic faceplate. An electrostatic image intensifier demagnifies the visible image by 6:1 to match it to the size of the charge-coupled device (CCD) chip. A pair of lenses couples the image to the CCD chip.

  14. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source (HTPD 08 paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M; Schneider, M B

    2008-04-28

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 {micro}m square pixels, and 15 {micro}m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/{Delta}E {approx} 10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within {+-}1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  15. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Haugh

    2008-03-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 μm square pixels, and 15 μm thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE≈12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  16. Crosstalk in x-ray framing cameras: Effect on voltage, gain, and timing (invited).

    PubMed

    Benedetti, L R; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Brown, C G; Glenn, S M; Heeter, R; Holder, J P; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Lacaille, G; Simanovskaia, N; Smalyuk, V A; Thomas, R

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence that electromagnetic crosstalk between independent strips in gated x-ray framing cameras can affect relative gains by up to an order of magnitude and gate arrival times up to tens of picoseconds when strip separation times are less then ∼1 ns. Crosstalk is observed by multiple methods, and it is confirmed by direct measurements of voltage on the active surface of the detector and also by indirect voltage monitors in routine operation. The voltage measurements confirm that crosstalk is produced not only in the active regions of the microchannel plate, but also along the entire input path of the voltage pulses. PMID:23126956

  17. Saturn: A large area x-ray simulation accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, D.D.; Stinnett, R.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Lee, J.R.; Sharpe, A.W.; Halbleib, J.A.; Schlitt, L.G.; Spence, P.W.; Corcoran, P.

    1987-01-01

    Saturn is the result of a major metamorphosis of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I) from an ICF research facility to the large-area x-ray source of the Simulation Technology Laboratory (STL) project. Renamed Saturn, for its unique multiple-ring diode design, the facility is designed to take advantage of the numerous advances in pulsed power technology made by the ICF program in recent years and much of the existing PBFA-I support system. Saturn will include significant upgrades in the energy storage and pulse-forming sections. The 36 magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) that provided power flow to the ion diode of PBFA-I were replaced by a system of vertical triplate water transmission lines. These lines are connected to three horizontal triplate disks in a water convolute section. Power will flow through an insulator stack into radial MITLs that drive the three-ring diode. Saturn is designed to operate with a maximum of 750 kJ coupled to the three-ring e-beam diode with a peak power of 25 TW to provide an x-ray exposure capability of 5 x 10/sup 12/ rads/s (Si) and 5 cal/g (Au) over 500 cm/sup 2/.

  18. Fast X-Ray Fluorescence Camera Combined with Wide Band Pass Monochromatic Synchrotron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Kenji; Mizusawa, Mari

    2004-05-12

    A double W/B4C multilayer monochromator (2d=50.4A) was commissioned for non-scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging experiments. The combination of a brilliant multi-pole wiggler source and the present wide band pass monochromator permits 1.2 x 1013 photons/sec at the sample position for 8.04 keV X-rays. Energy resolution {delta}E and {delta}E/E are 300{approx}500 eV and {approx}5%, respectively. The exit beam height is constant for X-ray energy ranging from 5.5 to 13.0 keV. Indirect cooling of the 1st multilayer works successfully. In addition, a new fast CCD camera was developed for quick readout and transfer of the image data. It was found that the typical exposure time for one XRF image with 1000 x 1000 pixels is 0.03{approx}1 sec. This permits in-situ movie recording for the distribution of elements.

  19. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bitter, M.; Brandstetter, S.; Eikenberry, E.; Ellis, R.; Hill, K. W.; Hofer, P.; Schneebeli, M.

    2012-10-01

    A new energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera has been recently installed on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic is capable of 1D or 2D imaging with a spatial resolution of ≈1 cm, an energy resolution of ≈1 keV in the range of 3.5-15 keV and a maximum time resolution of 5 ms. A novel use of a Pilatus 2 hybrid-pixel x-ray detector [P. Kraft et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 368 (2009), 10.1107/S0909049509009911] is employed in which the lower energy threshold of individual pixels is adjusted, allowing regions of a single detector to be sensitive to different x-ray energy ranges. Development of this new detector calibration technique was done as a collaboration between PPPL and Dectris Ltd. The calibration procedure is described, and the energy resolution of the detector is characterized. Initial data from this installation on Alcator C-Mod is presented. This diagnostic provides line-integrated measurements of impurity emission which can be used to determine impurity concentrations as well as the electron energy distribution.

  20. Studies of x-ray and XUV radiation from wire-array z-pinches on COBRA using an x-ray streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.; Simar, D. B.

    2008-11-01

    Time- and space- resolved short-wavelength radiation from wire-array z-pinches has been studied using a low-magnification Kentech x-ray streak camera in experiments on the 1 MA COBRA pulsed power generator at Cornell University. In the x-ray spectral band, a standard photochode and imaging slit were used to record one-dimensional images in the axial direction. Axial and radial images of wire arrays were recorded in XUV radiaion using an open pinhole and a specially made transparent mesh-type photocathode. The development of the precursor plasma and hot spots in the stagnated plasma have been observed. The images were compared with results obtained with an optical streak camera and 4-frame gated microchannel plate imager.

  1. Measurement of electron energy distribution from X-rays diagnostics - foil techniques used with the hard X-ray camera on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Goeler, S. von; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Ignat, D.

    1995-12-31

    A half-screen foil technique is used with the Hard X-ray Camera on the PBX-M tokamak to determine the energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons generated during lower hybrid current drive. The ratio of perpendicular to parallel temperature of the suprathermal electrons is deduced from the anisotropy of the bremsstrahlung emission utilizing Abel inversion techniques. Results from lower hybrid current drive discharges are discussed.

  2. Background and imaging simulations for the hard X-ray camera of the MIRAX mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M.; Braga, J.; Penacchioni, A.; D'Amico, F.; Sacahui, R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the performance expected both at balloon altitudes and at the probable satellite orbit of a hard X-ray coded-aperture camera being developed for the Monitor e Imageador de RAios X (MIRAX) mission. Based on a thorough mass model of the instrument and detailed specifications of the spectra and angular dependence of the various relevant radiation fields at both the stratospheric and orbital environments, we have used the well-known package GEANT4 to simulate the instrumental background of the camera. We also show simulated images of source fields to be observed and calculated the detailed sensitivity of the instrument in both situations. The results reported here are especially important to researchers in this field considering that we provide important information, not easily found in the literature, on how to prepare input files and calculate crucial instrumental parameters to perform GEANT4 simulations for high-energy astrophysics space experiments.

  3. Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCD camera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of ≤30μV at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of ˜150mW/chip. The input signal range of ±20 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed that the ASIC has the sufficient tolerance against TID up to 200 krad, which absolutely exceeds the expected amount of dose during the period of operating in a low-inclination low-earth orbit. The irradiation of Fe ions with the fluence of 5.2×108 Ion/cm2 resulted in no single event latchup (SEL), although there were some possible single event upsets. The threshold against SEL is higher than 1.68 MeV cm2/mg, which is sufficiently high enough that the SEL event should not be one of major causes of instrument downtime in orbit.

  4. A camera for imaging hard x-rays from suprathermal electrons during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    von Goeler, S.; Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Fishman, H.; Gettelfinger, G.; Ignat, D.; Roney, P.; Stevens, J.; Stodiek, W.; Jones, S.; Paoletti, F.; Petravich, G.; Rimini, F.

    1993-05-01

    During lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), suprathermal electrons are generated that emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung. A pinhole camera has been installed on the PBX-M tokamak that records 128 {times} 128 pixel images of the bremsstrahlung with a 3 ms time resolution. This camera has identified hollow radiation profiles on PBX-M, indicating off-axis current drive. The detector is a 9in. dia. intensifier. A detailed account of the construction of the Hard X-ray Camera, its operation, and its performance is given.

  5. A camera for imaging hard x-rays from suprathermal electrons during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    von Goeler, S.; Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Fishman, H.; Gettelfinger, G.; Ignat, D.; Roney, P.; Stevens, J.; Stodiek, W. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Jones, S.; Paoletti, F. . Plasma Fusion Center); Petravich, G. . Central Research Inst. for Physics); Rimini,

    1993-05-01

    During lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), suprathermal electrons are generated that emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung. A pinhole camera has been installed on the PBX-M tokamak that records 128 [times] 128 pixel images of the bremsstrahlung with a 3 ms time resolution. This camera has identified hollow radiation profiles on PBX-M, indicating off-axis current drive. The detector is a 9in. dia. intensifier. A detailed account of the construction of the Hard X-ray Camera, its operation, and its performance is given.

  6. Development of a dual MCP framing camera for high energy x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N. Hall, G. N.; Carpenter, A. C.; Allen, F. V.; Cruz, J. G.; Felker, B.; Hargrove, D.; Holder, J.; Lumbard, A.; Montesanti, R.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K.; Stone, G.; Thao, M.; Vern, R.; Zacharias, R.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P. M.; and others

    2014-11-15

    Recently developed diagnostic techniques at LLNL require recording backlit images of extremely dense imploded plasmas using hard x-rays, and demand the detector to be sensitive to photons with energies higher than 50 keV [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011); G. N. Hall et al., “AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using ARC on the NIF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)]. To increase the sensitivity in the high energy region, we propose to use a combination of two MCPs. The first MCP is operated in a low gain regime and works as a thick photocathode, and the second MCP works as a high gain electron multiplier. We tested the concept of this dual MCP configuration and succeeded in obtaining a detective quantum efficiency of 4.5% for 59 keV x-rays, 3 times larger than with a single plate of the thickness typically used in NIF framing cameras.

  7. A large area detector for x-ray applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodricks, B.; Huang, Qiang; Hopf, R.; Wang, Kemei

    1993-10-01

    A large area detector for x-ray synchrotron applications has been developed. The front end of this device consist of a scintillator coupled to a fiber-optic taper. The fiber-optic taper is comprised of 4 smaller (70 mm x 70 mm) tapers fused together in a square matrix giving an active area of 140 mm x 140 mm. Each taper has a demagnification of 5.5 resulting in four small ends that are 12 mm diagonally across. The small ends of each taper are coupled to four microchannel-plate-based image intensifiers. The output from each image intensifier is focused onto a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector. The four CCDs are read out in parallel and are independently controlled. The image intensifiers also act as fast (20 ns) electronic shutters. The system is capable of displaying images in real time. Additionally, with independent control on the readout of each row of data from the CCD, the system is capable of performing high speed imaging through novel readout manipulation.

  8. X-ray Spectroscopy with Elliptical Crystals and Face-On Framing Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R; Emig, J; Fournier, K; Hansen, S; May, M; Young, B

    2004-04-16

    X-ray spectrometers using elliptically bent crystals have desirable properties for applications requiring broad spectral coverage, good spectral resolution, and minimized source broadening. Previous work used custom-positioned film or microchannel plate detectors. They find it is also useful and cost-effective to field elliptical crystals in existing snouts on the face-on gated microchannel plate framing cameras commonly used at many facilities. they numerically explored the full design space (spectral range and resolution) of elliptical crystals compatible with the new MSPEC multipurpose spectrometer snout. They have tested at the Omega laser an elliptical RAP crystal with 174 mm focal length, 0.9885 eccentricity, and 4.6 degree inclination, viewing from 1.0 to at least 1.7 keV with E/dE of 300-500. A slit (2x mag) images 3 mm sources with 70 um spatial resolution.

  9. X-ray spectroscopy with elliptical crystals and face-on framing cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeter, R. F.; Emig, J. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Hansen, S. B.; May, M. J.; Young, B. K. F.

    2004-10-01

    X-ray spectrometers using elliptically bent crystals have desirable properties for applications requiring broad spectral coverage, good spectral resolution, and minimized source broadening. Previous work used custom-positioned film or microchannel plate detectors. We find it is also useful and cost-effective to field elliptical crystals in existing snouts on the face-on gated microchannel plate framing cameras commonly used at many facilities. We numerically explored the full design space (spectral range and resolution) of elliptical crystals compatible with the new multipurpose spectrometer snout. We have tested at the Omega laser an elliptical rubidium acid phthalate crystal with 174 mm focal length, 0.9885 eccentricity, and 4.6° inclination, viewing from 1.0 to at least 1.7 keV with spectral resolution E/dE of 300-500. A slit (2×magnification) images 3 mm sources with 70 μm spatial resolution.

  10. Modeling of neutron induced backgrounds in x-ray framing cameras.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, C; Izumi, N; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Conder, A; Eckart, M; Khater, H; Koch, J; Moody, J; Stone, G

    2010-10-01

    Fast neutrons from inertial confinement fusion implosions pose a severe background to conventional multichannel plate (MCP)-based x-ray framing cameras for deuterium-tritium yields >10(13). Nuclear reactions of neutrons in photosensitive elements (charge coupled device or film) cause some of the image noise. In addition, inelastic neutron collisions in the detector and nearby components create a large gamma pulse. The background from the resulting secondary charged particles is twofold: (1) production of light through the Cherenkov effect in optical components and by excitation of the MCP phosphor and (2) direct excitation of the photosensitive elements. We give theoretical estimates of the various contributions to the overall noise and present mitigation strategies for operating in high yield environments. PMID:21034042

  11. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Fang, Yuman; Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang; Wen, Wenlong

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  12. Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

  13. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 104 photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  14. Operation of a Single-Photon-Counting X-Ray Charge-Coupled Device Camera Spectrometer in a Petawatt Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Sangster, T.C.; Key, M.H.; Patel, P.; Zhang, B.B.; Clarke, R.; Karsch, S.; Norreys, P.

    2004-10-12

    The use of a single-photon-counting x-ray CCD (charge-coupled device) camera as an x-ray spectrometer is a well-established technique in ultrashort-pulse laser experiments. In single-photon-counting mode, the pixel value of each readout pixel is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident x-ray photon. For photons below 100 keV, a significant fraction of the events deposits all the energy in a single pixel. A histogram of the pixel readout values gives a good approximation of the x-ray spectrum. This technique requires almost no alignment, but it is very sensitive to signal-to-background issues, especially in a high-energy petawatt environment.

  15. Plasma Equilibrium Modification Measurements with the Pbx-M Soft X-Ray Pinhole Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Edward Thomas

    Measurements of the shapes of the flux surfaces in a tokamak with a non-circular cross section have been made using a tangentially-viewing soft x-ray pinhole camera. These measurements allowed the derivation of the value of the axial safety factor, q({it 0/ }), and the shape of the plasma current profile. This method of obtaining q({it 0/}) has been used to study the effect of three different equilibrium modification methods on a tokamak plasma. The theoretical basis for the use of shape measurements to constrain the equilibrium, and the importance of measuring the plasma current profile, is also reviewed. The camera consists of a foil filter in front of a pinhole which images the plasma onto a phosphor screen. The images are detected with a nonstandard video camera and are related to the plasma equilibrium using a forward modeling technique. A series of model equilibria, incorporating external magnetic measurements, and differing only in the value of q({it 0/}), are created with a numerical equilibrium analysis code. The relationships between the x-ray emissivity and the poloidal flux is derived by Abel-inverting the image data on the midplane, and comparing them to the calculated midplane flux. Using the derived emissivity vs. flux relations and the derived equilibria, a series of model images are created. The data are fitted to the models in a least -squares fashion to yield a best-fit value of q( {it 0/}). Experiments were performed using three different equilibrium modification techniques: neutral beam current drive, plasma current ramp, and deuterium pellet injection. In the neutral beam current drive experiment, tangential counter -injection was found to modify the equilibrium significantly, broadening the current profile and raising the value of q({it 0/}) above unity. An analysis of the current diffusion suggested that there is a component which is significantly anomalous. A plasma current ramp of 2.5 MA/s was also shown to broaden the current profile

  16. Nonlinear response of the photocathode of an x-ray streak camera to UV light

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, G.A.; Oro, D.M.; Studebaker, J.K.; Wood, W.M.; Schappert, G.T.; Watts, S.; Fulton, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    We have found that a potassium-iodide photocathode of an x-ray streak camera responds to UV light at {lambda}=308 nm. The photocathode surface work function, 6.5 eV, is larger than the 4 eV energy of the UV photon, hence the source of the response is interesting. We will present results on the response of a transmission type potassium-iodide photocathode to the UV light from a {lambda}308 nm, subpicosecond XeCl laser and from a {lambda}=326 nm HeCd laser. We will test for the nonlinearity of the yield to measure of the number of photons that are needed to be absorbed before a signal is recorded. We will present data on the effect of the UV irradiance on the yield, as well as on the temporal width of the recorded signal. We will give an explanation of the observation and its effect on the dynamic-range response of the streak-camera. We will show that the response is linear with the incident irradiance, up to an incident irradiance of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2} and we will explain the observation.

  17. A triple axis double crystal multiple reflection camera for ultra small angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambard, Jacques; Lesieur, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas

    1992-06-01

    To extend the domain of small angle X-ray scattering requires multiple reflection crystals to collimate the beam. A double crystal, triple axis X-ray camera using multiple reflection channel cut crystals is described. Procedures for measuring the desmeared scattering cross-section on absolute scale are described as well as the measurement from several typical samples : fibrils of collagen, 0.3 μm diameter silica spheres, 0.16 μm diameter interacting latex spheres, porous lignite coal, liquid crystals in a surfactant-water system, colloidal crystal of 0.32 μm diameter silica spheres. L'extension du domaine de diffusion des rayons-X vers les petits angles demande l'emploi de cristaux à réflexions multiples pour collimater le faisceau. Nous décrivons une caméra à rayons-X à trois axes où les réflexions multiples sont réalisées dans deux cristaux à gorge. Nous donnons ensuite les procédures de déconvolution pour obtenir la section efficace de diffusion en échelle absolue, ainsi que les résultats des mesures effectuées avec plusieurs échantillons typiques : fibres de collagène, sphères de silice de 0,3 μm de diamètre, sphères de latex de 0,16 μm de diamètre en interaction, charbon lignite poreux, cristaux liquides formés dans un système eau-tensioactif, solution colloïdale de sphères de silice de 0,32 μm de diamètre.

  18. Large area x-ray collimator-the zone plate approach.

    PubMed

    Menz, Benedikt; Braig, Christoph; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Predehl, Peter

    2015-09-10

    One question of particular interest in the measurement of x-ray imaging optics for space telescopes concerns the characteristics of the point spread function (PSF) in orbit and the focal length for an infinite source distance. In order to measure such a PSF, a parallel x-ray beam with a diameter of several centimeters to meters is required. For this purpose a large area transmission x-ray zone plate (ZP) for collimating x-ray beams has been designed, built, and tested. Furthermore we present a setup to determine large-scale aberrations of the collimated beam. From x-ray measurements we obtain an upper limit for the angular resolution of ±0.2 arc sec and a first-order diffraction efficiency of ≈13%. These results show that it is possible to use a ZP as a collimator for the PANTER x-ray test facility. PMID:26368954

  19. Long life electrodes for large-area x-ray generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothe, Dietmar E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention is directed to rugged, reliable, and long-life electrodes for use in large-area, high-current-density electron gun and x-ray generators which are employed as contamination-free preionizers for high-energy pulsed gas lasers. The electron source at the cathode is a corona plasma formed at the interface between a conductor, or semiconductor, and a high-permittivity dielectric. Detailed descriptions are provided of a reliable cold plasma cathode, as well as an efficient liquid-cooled electron beam target (anode) and x-ray generator which concentrates the x-ray flux in the direction of an x-ray window.

  20. Origins of the instrumental background of the x-ray CCD camera in space studied with Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Kitsunezuka, Masaki; Ozaki, Masanobu; Dotani, Tadayasu; Anada, Takayasu

    2006-06-01

    We report on the origin of the instrumental background of the X-ray CCD camera in space obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation with GEANT4. In the space environment, CCD detects many non-X-ray events, which are produced by the interactions of high-energy particles with the materials surrounding CCD. Most of these events are rejected through the analysis of the charge split pattern, but some are remained to be background. Such instrumental background need to be reduced to achieve higher sensitivity especially above several keV. We simulated the interactions of the cosmic-rays with the CCD housing, and extracted the background events which escaped from the screening process by the charge split pattern. We could reproduce the observed spectral shape of the instrumental background of Suzaku XIS on orbit with the Monte Carlo simulation. This means that the simulation succeeded to duplicate the background production process in space. From the simulation, we found that the major components of the background in the front-side illuminated CCD are the recoil electrons produced by the Compton-scattering of the hard X-ray photons in the CCD. On the other hand, for the backside illuminated CCD, contribution from the low energy electrons becomes dominant, which are produced by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons or hard X-rays with the housing. These results may be important to design the X-ray CCD camera for the future missions, such as NeXT.

  1. Performance of the Aspect Camera Assembly for the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility: Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, Dan

    1998-01-01

    The Aspect Camera Assembly (ACA) is a "state-of-the-art" star tracker that provides real-time attitude information to the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I), and provides imaging data for "post-facto" ground processing. The ACA consists of a telescope with a CCD focal plane, associated focal plane read-out electronics, and an on-board processor that processes the focal plane data to produce star image location reports. On-board star image locations are resolved to 0.8 arcsec, and post-facto algorithms yield 0.2 arcsec star location accuracies (at end of life). The protoflight ACA has been built, along with a high accuracy vacuum test facility. Image position determination has been verified to < 0.2 arcsec accuracies. This paper is a follow-on paper to one presented by the author at the AeroSense '95 conference. This paper presents the "as built" configuration, the tested performance, and the test facility's design and demonstrated accuracy. The ACA has been delivered in anticipation of a August, 1998 shuttle launch.

  2. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Atkins, Carolyn; Burrows, David N.; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Graham, Michael E.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Saha, Timo T.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Vaynman, Semyon; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wang, Xiaoli; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The future of x-ray astronomy depends upon development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (>1 sq m) and finer angular resolution(<1).Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of spaceborne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging. Achieving this goal will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (>100 sq m) of lightweight (1 kg/sq m areal density) high quality mirrors-possibly entailing active (in-space adjustable) alignment and figure correction. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward large area sub-arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Key words: X-ray telescopes, x-ray optics, active optics, electroactive devices, silicon mirrors, differential deposition, ion implantation.

  3. New evaluation concept of the Athena WFI camera system by emulation of X-ray DEPFET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, S.; Bähr, A.; Brand, T.; Dauser, T.; Meidinger, N.; Plattner, M.; Stechele, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is an X-ray camera for the future observatory Athena as the next ESA L-class mission. The signal processing chain of the WFI reaches from the sensing of incoming photons to the telemetry transmission to the spacecraft. Up to now the signal processing chain is verified with measurements of real X-ray sources, thus only limited test scenarios are possible. This paper presents a new concept for evaluating the X-ray camera system. Therefore a new end-to-end evaluation is proposed, which makes use of a programmable real-time emulator of the WFI DEPFET detector system including front-end electronics. With a complete variation of all available input parameters significant characteristics of the camera system can be studied and evaluated. This end-to-end evaluation method is a powerful tool to support the development of the WFI camera setup not only in the early stage, but also to improve characteristics and complex processing algorithms of the WFI when it will be in orbit.

  4. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Cheng-Jun Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M.; Zhang, Bangmin; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-04-15

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

  5. Error analysis of the x-ray projection geometry of camera-augmented mobile C-arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Navab, Nassir

    2012-02-01

    The Camera-Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) augments X-ray by optical camera images and is used as an advanced visualization and guidance tool in trauma and orthopedic surgery. However, in its current form the calibration is suboptimal. We investigated and compared calibration and distortion correction between: (i) the existing CamC calibration framework (ii) Zhang's calibration for video images, and (iii) the traditional C-arm fluoroscopy calibration technique. Accuracy of the distortion correction for each of the three methods is compared by analyzing the error based on a synthetic model and the linearity and cross-ratio properties. Also, the accuracy of calibrated X-ray projection geometry is evaluated by performing C-arm pose estimation using a planar pattern with known geometry. The RMS errors based on a synthetic model and pose estimation shows that the traditional C-arm method (μ=0.39 pixels) outperforms both Zhang (μ=0.68 pixels) and original CamC (μ=1.07 pixels) methods. The relative pose estimation comparison shows that the translation error of the traditional method (μ=0.25mm) outperforms Zhang (μ=0.41mm) and CamC (μ=1.13mm) method. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the traditional X-ray calibration procedure outperforms the existing CamC solution and Zhang's method for the calibration of C-arm X-ray projection geometry.

  6. Operation of a single-photon-counting x-ray charge-coupled device camera spectrometer in a petawatt environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Sangster, T.C.; Key, M.H.; Patel, P.; Zhang, B.B.; Clarke, R.; Karsch, S.; Norreys, P.

    2004-10-01

    The use of a single-photon-counting x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as an x-ray spectrometer is a well-established technique in ultrashort-pulse laser experiments. In single-photon-counting mode, the pixel value of each readout pixel is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident x-ray photon. For photons below 100 keV, a significant fraction of the events deposits all the energy in a single pixel. A histogram of the pixel readout values gives a good approximation of the x-ray spectrum. This technique requires almost no alignment, but it is very sensitive to signal-to-background issues, especially in a high-energy petawatt environment. Shielding the direct line of sight to the target was not sufficient to obtain a high-quality spectrum, for the experiments reported here the CCD camera had to be shielded from all sides with up to 10 cm of lead.

  7. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 μm from the current 24 μm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 μm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  8. Design of a control system for ultrafast x-ray camera working in a single photon counting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladz, Miroslaw; Rauza, Jacek; Kasinski, Krzysztof; Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Prototype of Ultra-Fast X-Ray Camera Controller working in a single photon counting mode and based on ASIC has been presented in this paper. An ASIC architecture has been discussed with special attention to digital part. We present the Custom Soft Processor as an ASIC control sequences generator. The Processor allows for dynamic program downloading and generating control sequences with up to 80MHz clock rate (preliminary results). Assembler with a very simple syntax has been defined to speed up Processor programs development. Discriminators threshold dispersion correction has been performed to confirm proper Camera Controller operation.

  9. Development of the focal plane PNCCD camera system for the X-ray space telescope eROSITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Ebermayer, Stefanie; Elbs, Johannes; Hälker, Olaf; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Kimmel, Nils; Schächner, Gabriele; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Strüder, Lothar; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2010-12-01

    A so-called PNCCD, a special type of CCD, was developed twenty years ago as focal plane detector for the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency ESA. Based on this detector concept and taking into account the experience of almost ten years of operation in space, a new X-ray CCD type was designed by the ‘MPI semiconductor laboratory’ for an upcoming X-ray space telescope, called eROSITA (extended Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). This space telescope will be equipped with seven X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven CCD cameras, placed in their foci. The instrumentation permits the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 up to 10 keV by spectroscopic measurements with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384×384 pixels. Main scientific goals are an all-sky survey and investigation of the mysterious ‘Dark Energy’. The eROSITA space telescope, which is developed under the responsibility of the ‘Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics’, is a scientific payload on the new Russian satellite ‘Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma’ (SRG). The mission is already approved by the responsible Russian and German space agencies. After launch in 2012 the destination of the satellite is Lagrange point L2. The planned observational program takes about seven years. We describe the design of the eROSITA camera system and present important test results achieved recently with the eROSITA prototype PNCCD detector. This includes a comparison of the eROSITA detector with the XMM-Newton detector.

  10. Hardware solutions for the 65k pixel X-ray camera module of 75 μm pixel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Koziol, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present three hardware solutions designed for a detector module built with a 2 cm × 2 cm hybrid pixel detector built from a single 320 or 450 μ m thick silicon sensor designed and fabricated by Hamamatsu and two UFXC32k readout integrated circuits (128 × 256 pixels with 75μ m pitch, designed in CMOS 130 nm at AGH-UST). The chips work in a single photon counting mode and provide ultra-fast X-ray imaging. The presented hardware modules are designed according to requirements of various tests and applications: ṡDevice A: a fast and flexible system for tests with various radiation sources. ṡDevice B: a standalone, all-in-one imaging device providing three standard interfaces (USB 2.0, Ethernet, Camera Link) and up to 640 MB/s bandwidth. ṡDevice C: a prototype large-area imaging system. The paper shows the readout system structure for each case with highlighted circuit board designs with details on power distribution and cooling on both FR4 and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) based circuits.

  11. Fabrication of 200 nanometer period centimeter area hard x-ray absorption gratings by multilayer deposition

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, S K; Liu, C; Morgan, N Y; Xiao, X; Gomella, A A; Mazilu, D; Bennett, E E; Assoufid, L; de Carlo, F; Wen, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and fabrication trials of x-ray absorption gratings of 200 nm period and up to 100:1 depth-to-period ratios for full-field hard x-ray imaging applications. Hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging relies on gratings of ultra-small periods and sufficient depth to achieve high sensitivity. Current grating designs utilize lithographic processes to produce periodic vertical structures, where grating periods below 2.0 μm are difficult due to the extreme aspect ratios of the structures. In our design, multiple bilayers of x-ray transparent and opaque materials are deposited on a staircase substrate, and mostly on the floor surfaces of the steps only. When illuminated by an x-ray beam horizontally, the multilayer stack on each step functions as a micro-grating whose grating period is the thickness of a bilayer. The array of micro-gratings over the length of the staircase works as a single grating over a large area when continuity conditions are met. Since the layers can be nanometers thick and many microns wide, this design allows sub-micron grating periods and sufficient grating depth to modulate hard x-rays. We present the details of the fabrication process and diffraction profiles and contact radiography images showing successful intensity modulation of a 25 keV x-ray beam. PMID:23066175

  12. Fabrication of 200 nanometer period centimeter area hard x-ray absorption gratings by multilayer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lynch, S K; Liu, C; Morgan, N Y; Xiao, X; Gomella, A A; Mazilu, D; Bennett, E E; Assoufid, L; de Carlo, F; Wen, H

    2012-10-01

    We describe the design and fabrication trials of x-ray absorption gratings of 200 nm period and up to 100:1 depth-to-period ratios for full-field hard x-ray imaging applications. Hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging relies on gratings of ultra-small periods and sufficient depth to achieve high sensitivity. Current grating designs utilize lithographic processes to produce periodic vertical structures, where grating periods below 2.0 μm are difficult due to the extreme aspect ratios of the structures. In our design, multiple bilayers of x-ray transparent and opaque materials are deposited on a staircase substrate, and mostly on the floor surfaces of the steps only. When illuminated by an x-ray beam horizontally, the multilayer stack on each step functions as a micro-grating whose grating period is the thickness of a bilayer. The array of micro-gratings over the length of the staircase works as a single grating over a large area when continuity conditions are met. Since the layers can be nanometers thick and many microns wide, this design allows sub-micron grating periods and sufficient grating depth to modulate hard x-rays. We present the details of the fabrication process and diffraction profiles and contact radiography images showing successful intensity modulation of a 25 keV x-ray beam. PMID:23066175

  13. Measurements of electron temperature profiles on Alcator C-Mod using a novel energy-resolving x-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, J.; Delgado, L.; Pablant, N.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Rice, J.

    2015-11-01

    The most common electron temperature diagnostics, Thomson Scattering (TS) and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE), both require large diagnostic footprints and expensive optics. Another electron temperature diagnostic is the Pulse-Height-Analysis (PHA) system, which derives the electron temperature from the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. However, the main disadvantage of the PHA method is poor temporal resolution of the Si(Li) diode detectors. This paper presents a novel x-ray pinhole camera, which uses a pixilated Pilatus detector that allows single photon counting at a rate 2MHz per pixel and the setting of energy thresholds. The detector configuration is optimized by Shannon-sampling theory, such that spatial profiles of the x-ray continuum intensity can be obtained simultaneously for different energies, in the range from 4 to 16 keV. The exponential-like dependence of the x-ray intensity with photon energies is compared with a model describing the Be filter, attenuation in air, and detector efficiency, as well as different sets of energy thresholds. Electron temperature measurements are compared with TS and ECE measurements. This work was supported by the US DOE Contract No.DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the DoE Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  14. Inferring the time resolved core electron temperature from x-ray emission measured by a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahab; Patel, Pravesh; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Macphee, Andrew G.; Ma, Tammy; Cerjan, Charlie; Bradley, David K.

    2015-11-01

    The electron temperature (Te) of the hot spot within the core of imploded inertial confinement fusion capsules is an effective indicator of implosion performance. A temporally resolved measurement of Te helps elucidate the mechanisms for hot spot heating and cooling such as alpha-heating and mix. Additionally, comparison with simulations will aid in tuning models to effectively predict implosion performance. The Streaked Polar Instrumentation for Diagnosing Energetic Radiation (SPIDER) is an x-ray streak camera designed to record the x-ray burn history during the stagnation phase. SPIDER accurately reports bang time and burn duration of implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The addition of several filters of specific materials and thicknesses spread across the spatial axis of the streak camera imager allows for a least square fit of the signal through these filters to a bremsstrahlung hot spot model. The fitted parameters of the model are the Te, opacity, and X-ray yield which is valuable for ablator mix estimates. The details of this calculation and results from several shots on NIF are presented.

  15. A large-area lithium-fluoride Bragg spectrometer for stellar X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, H. S., Jr.; Woodgate, B. E.; Nidey, R. A.; Angel, J. R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A large-area Bragg spectrometer used to search for the Fe XXV X-ray emission lines of Sco X-1 is described. The device has 3400 sq cm of LiF on nine crystal panels aligned perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rocket. X rays satisfying the Bragg condition reflect into an array of nine companion proportional counters. A pointing system incorporating a free gyroscope with 2 degrees of freedom assures that target X rays are reflected at the required angle and produces repeated spectral scans of the X-ray continuum, which are later superimposed to correct temporal effects. The instrument is capable of detecting a narrow line flux from Sco X-1 of about .01 photons/sq cm/sec.

  16. Characterization of an x-ray framing camera utilizing a charge coupled device or film as recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Logory, L.M.; Farley, D.R.; Conder, A.D.; Belli, E.A.; Bell, P.M.; Miller, P.L.

    1998-12-01

    A compact charge coupled device (CCD) camera system has been designed and characterized for use in the six inch manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages currently used in SIM-based x-ray imaging diagnostics. The unit{close_quote}s electronic package has been constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity which reduces the overall camera size and improves its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova target chamber. Measurements of the x-ray imager{close_quote}s contrast transfer function (CTF) were made under a variety of operating conditions on a static x-ray Manson source using both the CCD and Kodak T-Max 3200 film as recording media. The CTF data were converted to an equivalent modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF plots show that the microchannel plate has a uniform response within our measurement accuracy along its strips. In a direction normal to the strip, however, the MTF is reduced due to the slant angle of the pores in the MCP. The measurements show that the CCD camera has a lower MTF response than T-MAX film for all spatial frequencies and configurations measured. However, data obtained from the film exhibited reciprocity failure and border effects that are not observed in the CCD data. Measurements indicate that the signal-to-noise ratio for the CCD data is four to six times larger than that obtained with film and higher photon flux levels were recorded. The CCD-based diagnostic offers immediate access to the data, improved dynamic range, and reduced turnaround time, while eliminating the need for film development, digitization, equipment, and personnel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Novel large-area MIS-type x-ray image sensor for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameshima, Toshio; Kaifu, Noriyuki; Takami, Eiichi; Morishita, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a brand new, large-area X-ray image sensor for Digital Radiography System (DRS). The sensor utilizes a thin film transistor (TFT)/metal insulator semiconductor (MIS)-type photoelectric converter array made from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The sensor has 2688 X 2688 pixels at a pitch of 160 micrometer. The active area is 17 inch X 17 inch. The sensor utilizes scintillator coupled to the array. The light generated by X-rays is detected by the MIS-type photoelectric converters, and the resultant signals are scanned out by switching the TFTs. The a-Si TFT/MIS-type photoelectric converter array is characterized by high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and simple fabrication process. We will describe the principle and the performance of the sensor. In addition, we will present some X-ray images of a human subject obtained with this sensor. Dynamic range of the sensor covers most of the exposure range for radiography. SNR is limited almost only by the X-ray photon noise. MTF is sufficient for digital chest radiography. X-ray images have good contrast. The experimental results and obtained images show that the brand new sensor has great advantages for replacing X-ray film. The simple fabrication process of the sensor promises high productivity and low cost of DRS.

  18. Digital x-ray cameras for real-time stereotactic breast needle biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Yu, Tong

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes experiments performed to determine image quality of three x-ray imaging systems designed for stereotactic breast needle biopsy: A system developed in-house, a LoRad DSM and a Fischer MammoVision. All systems have been successfully used to perform stereotactic breast needle biopsies and preoperative needle localizations. They all successfully decrease the time for stereotactic needle biopsy procedures. The systems are being characterized with respect to image quality for a variety of mammographic x-ray screens. The sensitivity can be as high as 96 ADU/mR and as low as 28 ADU/mR, depending on the phosphor screen and the gain used. The response is linear with respect to x-ray exposure. The highest spatial resolution found was on the order of 10 lp/mm, which is the Nyquist frequency for systems with 1024 pixels at a linear field of 5 cm. The noise at zero spatial frequency was found to be mainly determined by x-ray photon noise.

  19. Photon-counting imaging camera for high-resolution X-ray and γ-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. J.; Holland, A.

    2011-01-01

    Standard X-ray imaging techniques using CCDs require the integration of thousands of X-ray photons into a single image frame. Through the addition of a scintillating layer to the CCD it is possible to greatly increase the X-ray detection efficiency at high energies. Using standard imaging techniques with the inclusion of the scintillating layer does, however, leave serious limitations on the spatial resolution achievable due to the spreading of the light generated in the scintillator. The Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) shares much of the common architecture of the standard CCD but for the inclusion of a supplementary readout register. This additional high-voltage register allows the signal electrons to be `multiplied' before reaching the readout node of the CCD, increasing the signal before any significant noise is introduced. The increase in the signal-to-noise ratio allows very low signals to be extracted above the noise floor, leading to the common use of EM-CCDs in night-vision and security applications. Through the coupling of a scintillator to an EM-CCD it is possible to resolve individual X-ray photon interactions in the scintillator above the noise floor. Without this extra gain these low signals would be lost beneath the noise floor. Using various centroiding techniques it is possible to locate the interaction position of the incident X-ray photon in the scintillator to the sub-pixel level, with measurements here at 59.5 keV giving an initial FWHM of the line spread function of 31μm. This high-resolution, hard X-ray imager has many potential applications in medical and biological imaging, where energy discrimination at a high resolution is desired. Further applications include synchrotron-based research, an area in which high-resolution imaging is essential.

  20. Temporal X-ray astronomy with a pinhole camera. [cygnus and scorpius constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary results from the Ariel-5 all-sky X-ray monitor are presented, along with sufficient experiment details to define the experiment sensitivity. Periodic modulation of the X-ray emission was investigated from three sources with which specific periods were associated, with the results that the 4.8 hour variation from Cyg X-3 was confirmed, a long-term average 5.6 day variation from Cyg X-1 was discovered, and no detectable 0.787 day modulation of Sco X-1 was observed. Consistency of the long-term Sco X-1 emission with a shot-noise model is discussed, wherein the source behavior is shown to be interpretable as approximately 100 flares per day, each with a duration of several hours. A sudden increase in the Cyg X-1 intensity by almost a factor of three on 22 April 1975 is reported, after 5 months of relative source constancy. The light curve of a bright nova-like transient source in Triangulum is presented, and compared with previously observed transient sources. Preliminary evidence for the existence of X-ray bursts with duration less than 1 hour is offered.

  1. MARS: a mouse atlas registration system based on a planar x-ray projector and an optical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Taschereau, Richard; Gu, Zheng; Vu, Nam T.; Prout, David L.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a mouse atlas registration system (MARS), composed of a stationary top-view x-ray projector and a side-view optical camera, coupled to a mouse atlas registration algorithm. This system uses the x-ray and optical images to guide a fully automatic co-registration of a mouse atlas with each subject, in order to provide anatomical reference for small animal molecular imaging systems such as positron emission tomography (PET). To facilitate the registration, a statistical atlas that accounts for inter-subject anatomical variations was constructed based on 83 organ-labeled mouse micro-computed tomography (CT) images. The statistical shape model and conditional Gaussian model techniques were used to register the atlas with the x-ray image and optical photo. The accuracy of the atlas registration was evaluated by comparing the registered atlas with the organ-labeled micro-CT images of the test subjects. The results showed excellent registration accuracy of the whole-body region, and good accuracy for the brain, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys. In its implementation, the MARS was integrated with a preclinical PET scanner to deliver combined PET/MARS imaging, and to facilitate atlas-assisted analysis of the preclinical PET images.

  2. Large area focusing collector for the observation of cosmic X rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Decaprio, A.; Chase, R.; Harris, B.

    1973-01-01

    A large area focusing X-ray collector constructed for a sounding rocket is described. The instrument consists of nested reflecting plates that are curved slightly in one dimension to form a set of parabolas with a common focus. An array of plates such as the one in the sounding rocket focuses a parallel beam of X-rays to a line. The reflecting surfaces are commercial float glass with an evaporated metallic coating such as gold or nickel. With a gold coating, the effective area of the rocket collector is about 250 sq cm for 0.3 keV X rays and about 150 sq cm at 1.2 keV. Its angular resolution is a few arc minutes and field of view is about plus or minus .75 deg (full width at half maximum). The collector performed successfully during a sounding rocket flight.

  3. Pulsed high-energy radiographic machine emitting x-rays (PHERMEX) flash radiographic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Scott A.; Kauppila, Todd J.; Morrison, Louis; Vecere, Carl

    1997-05-01

    Advanced in solid state detectors and dense scintillators make radiographic cameras competitive with film in applications where the SNR is dominated by quantum statistics. In addition, these cameras offer the advantage of sub-microsecond time-gating required by present and future radiographic facilities (e.g. PHERMEX, and DARHT). We compare theoretical considerations in camera systems incorporating lens, and fiber coupling to MCPs, and CCDs. We also present Monte-Carlo blur calculations for various candidate scintillators and discuss the relative merits of the PHERMEX camera design.

  4. Performance of large area x-ray proportional counters in a balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Agrawal, P. C.; Dedhia, D. K.; Manchanda, R. K.; Shah, P. B.; Chitnis, V. R.; Gujar, V. M.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M.; Kurhade, V. B.

    2016-09-01

    ASTROSAT is India's first satellite fully devoted to astronomical observations covering a wide spectral band from optical to hard X-rays by a complement of 4 co-aligned instruments and a Scanning Sky X-ray Monitor. One of the instruments is Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter with 3 identical detectors. In order to assess the performance of this instrument, a balloon experiment with two prototype Large Area X-ray Proportional Counters (LAXPC) was carried out on 2008 April 14. The design of these LAXPCs was similar to those on the ASTROSAT except that their field of view (FOV) was 3 ∘ × 3 ∘ versus FOV of 1 ∘ × 1 ∘ for the LAXPCs on the ASTROSAT. The LAXPCs are aimed at the timing and spectral studies of X-ray sources in 3-80 keV region. In the balloon experiment, the LAXPC, associated electronics and support systems were mounted on an oriented platform which could be pre-programmed to track any source in the sky. A brief description of the LAXPC design, laboratory tests, calibration and the detector characteristics is presented here. The details of the experiment and background counting rates of the 2 LAXPCs at the float altitude of about 41 km are presented in different energy bands. The bright black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) was observed in the experiment for ˜ 3 hours. Details of Cyg X-1 observations, count rates measured from it in different energy intervals and the intensity variations of Cyg X-1 detected during the observations are presented and briefly discussed.

  5. A multiframe soft x-ray camera with fast video capture for the LSX field reversed configuration (FRC) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, E.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Soft x-ray pinhole imaging has proven to be an exceptionally useful diagnostic for qualitative observation of impurity radiation from field reversed configuration plasmas. We used a four frame device, similar in design to those discussed in an earlier paper (E. A. Crawford, D. P. Taggart, and A. D. Bailey III, Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 61}, 2795 (1990)) as a routine diagnostic during the last six months of the Large s Experiment (LSX) program. Our camera is an improvement over earlier implementations in several significant aspects. It was designed and used from the onset of the LSX experiments with a video frame capture system so that an instant visual record of the shot was available to the machine operator as well as facilitating quantitative interpretation of intensity information recorded in the images. The camera was installed in the end region of the LSX on axis approximately 5.5 m from the plasma midplane. Experience with bolometers on LSX showed serious problems with particle dumps'' at the axial location at various times during the plasma discharge. Therefore, the initial implementation of the camera included an effective magnetic sweeper assembly. Overall performance of the camera, video capture system, and sweeper is discussed.

  6. Characterization of a 2D soft x-ray tomography camera with discrimination in energy bandsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, A.; Pacella, D.; Mazon, D.; Murtas, F.; Malard, P.; Gabellieri, L.; Tilia, B.; Piergotti, V.; Corradi, G.

    2010-10-01

    A gas detector with a 2D pixel readout is proposed for a future soft x-ray (SXR) tomography with discrimination in energy bands separately per pixel. The detector has three gas electron multiplier foils for the electron amplification and it offers the advantage, compared with the single stage, to be less sensitive to neutrons and gammas. The energy resolution and the detection efficiency of the detector have been accurately studied in the laboratory with continuous SXR spectra produced by an electronic tube and line emissions produced by fluorescence (K, Fe, and Mo) in the range of 3-17 keV. The front-end electronics, working in photon counting mode with a selectable threshold for pulse discrimination, is optimized for high rates. The distribution of the pulse amplitude has been indirectly derived by means of scans of the threshold. Scans in detector gain have also been performed to assess the capability of selecting different energy ranges.

  7. Characterization of a 2D soft x-ray tomography camera with discrimination in energy bands

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.; Pacella, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Tilia, B.; Piergotti, V.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2010-10-15

    A gas detector with a 2D pixel readout is proposed for a future soft x-ray (SXR) tomography with discrimination in energy bands separately per pixel. The detector has three gas electron multiplier foils for the electron amplification and it offers the advantage, compared with the single stage, to be less sensitive to neutrons and gammas. The energy resolution and the detection efficiency of the detector have been accurately studied in the laboratory with continuous SXR spectra produced by an electronic tube and line emissions produced by fluorescence (K, Fe, and Mo) in the range of 3-17 keV. The front-end electronics, working in photon counting mode with a selectable threshold for pulse discrimination, is optimized for high rates. The distribution of the pulse amplitude has been indirectly derived by means of scans of the threshold. Scans in detector gain have also been performed to assess the capability of selecting different energy ranges.

  8. The Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey (CLASXS) of the Lockman Hole-Northwest: The X-ray Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Steffen, A. T.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2004-01-01

    We present the X-ray catalog and basic results from our Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey (CLASXS) of the Lockman Hole-Northwest field. Our 9 ACIS-I fields cover a contiguous solid angle of approx. 0.4 sq deg and reach fluxes of 5 x 10(exp -16) ergs/sq cm/s (0.4-2 keV) and 3 x 10(exp -15) ergs/sq cm/s (2-8 keV). Our survey bridges the gap between ultradeep pencil-beam surveys, such as the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs), and shallower, large area surveys, allowing a better probe of the X-ray sources that contribute most of the 2-10 keV cosmic X-ray background (CXB). We find a total of 525 X-ray point sources and 4 extended sources. At approx. 10(exp -14)ergs/sq cm/s (2-8 keV), our number counts are significantly higher than those of several non-contiguous, large area surveys. Such a large difference is an indication of clustering in the X-ray sources. On the other hand, the integrated flux from the CLASXS field, combined with ASCA and Chandra ultradeep surveys, is consistent with results from other large area surveys, within the variance of the CXB. We see spectral evolution in the hardening of the sources at fluxes below 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm/s, which agrees with previous observations from Chandra and XMM-Newton. About 1/3 of the sources in the CLASXS field have multiple observations, allowing variability tests. Above 4 x 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm/s (0.4-8 keV), approx. 61% of the sources are variable. We also investigated the spectral variability of the variable sources. While most show spectral softening with increasing flux, or no significant spectral change, there are a few sources that show a different trend. Four extended sources in CLASXS is consistent with the previously measured LogN-LogS of galaxy clusters. Using X-ray spectra and optical colors, we argue that 3 of the 4 extended sources are galaxy clusters or galaxy groups. We report the discovery of a gravitational lensing arc associated with one of these sources. Using red sequence and brightest

  9. A camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Alameda, J; Woods, B; Frank, M; Bogan, M J; Barty, A; Boutet, S; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Hajdu, J; Shapiro, D

    2007-09-24

    We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser. The camera consists of a laterally-graded multilayer mirror which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter both for wavelength and angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from non-sample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates on to a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beamstop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the FLASH FEL (i.e. between 6 nm and 60 nm) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32 nm, 16 nm, 13.5 nm, and 4.5 nm. At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH free-electron laser with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.

  10. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Bales, M.; Arp, U.; Dong, B.; Farrell, R.

    2012-05-15

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  11. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Atkins, Carolyn; Burrows, David N.; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Graham, Michael E.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Saha, Timo T.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The future of x-ray astronomy depends upon development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (approx. = 3 square meters) and fine angular resolution (approx. = 1 inch). Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. Achieving this goal will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (approx. = 600 square meters) of lightweight (approx. = 1 kilogram/square meter areal density) high-quality mirrors at an acceptable cost (approx. = 1 million dollars/square meter of mirror surface area). This paper reviews relevant technological and programmatic issues, as well as possible approaches for addressing these issues-including active (in-space adjustable) alignment and figure correction.

  12. Large high impedance silicon μ-calorimeters for x-rays camera: status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvageot, J. L.; Pigot, C.; de la Broïse, X.; Le Coguie, A.; Lugiez, F.; Martignac, J.; Groza, G. I.; Charvolin, T.; Bounab, A.; Gastaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present our developments on micro-calorimeter arrays, based on High Impedance Silicon sensors (MIS or resistive TES) micro-calorimeters and GaAS-GaAlAs HEMTs / SiGe cryo-electronics, started 5 years ago. We show the pixel design, the main steps to build a 32x32 array. We are presently developing two kinds of high impedance sensors: Metal-Insulator-Sensors and High Resistivity Transition Edge Sensors. We described our associated FrontEnd electronics and detailed system level analysis of the foreseen camera. We discuss why we will be able to handle a camera with a large number of pixels (thanks to excellent thermal insulation and no electronic power consuming at the 50mK stage). We discuss the main technological building blocks (Absorber, Sensor) and their present status.

  13. A novel compact high speed x-ray streak camera (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2008-10-15

    Conventional in-line high speed streak cameras have fundamental issues when their performance is extended below a picosecond. The transit time spread caused by both the spread in the photoelectron (PE) ''birth'' energy and space charge effects causes significant electron pulse broadening along the axis of the streak camera and limits the time resolution. Also it is difficult to generate a sufficiently large sweep speed. This paper describes a new instrument in which the extraction electrostatic field at the photocathode increases with time, converting time to PE energy. A uniform magnetic field is used to measure the PE energy, and thus time, and also focuses in one dimension. Design calculations are presented for the factors limiting the time resolution. With our design, subpicosecond resolution with high dynamic range is expected.

  14. DIIS: A cross-platform program for the reduction of X-ray diffraction data from a cylindrical area detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrus, J. A.; Ross, K. C.; McDonald, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    A new program capable of rapidly and accurately reducing a two-dimensional X-ray diffraction pattern obtained from a Debye-Scherrer or Gandolfi camera to a quantitative digital diffractogram is described. By implementing geometric optimization routines based on the symmetry and sharpness of diffraction lines, the optimal configuration of the camera, X-ray path, and sample can be determined, thus providing the best possible set of integration parameters. Results for NIST standard reference materials 640c (Si) and 676 (Al 2O 3) are included to illustrate program functionality.

  15. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  16. Development of lightweight blazed transmission gratings and large-area soft x-ray spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alex R.; Guan, Dong; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2013-09-01

    Large area, high resolving power spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band can only be achieved with a state-of-the-art diffraction grating spectrometer, comprised of large collecting-area focusing optics with a narrow point spread function, large-area high-resolving power diffraction gratings, and small pixel, order sorting x-ray detectors. Recently developed critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings combine the advantages of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed figure and alignment tolerances) and blazed reflection gratings (high broad band diffraction efficiency, utilization of higher diffraction orders). Several new mission concepts containing CAT grating based spectrometers (AEGIS, AXSIO, SMART-X) promise to deliver unprecedented order-of-magnitude improvements in soft x-ray spectroscopy figures of merit related to the detection and characterization of emission and absorption lines, thereby addressing high-priority questions identified in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey "New Worlds New Horizons". We review the current status of CAT grating fabrication, present recent fabrication results, and describe our plans and technology development roadmap for the coming year and beyond.

  17. Solar flare X-ray polarimeter utilizing a large area thin beryllium scattering disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E.; Hamilton, T.; Novick, R.; Chanan, G.; Emslie, A.; Weisskopf, M.

    1989-01-01

    A model of a solar flare X-ray polarimeter utilizing a large-area thin beryllium scattering disk was developed using Monte Carlo techniques for several classes of solar flares. The solar-flare polarimeter consists of a 30-cm-diam Be disk of about 1/3 of a scattering length thickness, which is surrounded by a cylindrical detector composed of six segmented panels of NaI scintillators, each coupled to 15 photomultiplier tubes. The instrument is sensitive to X-rays from 10 to 100 keV. For a class-M-2 solar flare observed for 10 sec from a balloon at an altitude of 150,000 ft, the minimum detectable polarization at the 99 percent statistical confidence level was found to be 1-6 percent over the energy range 20-100 keV.

  18. Fast signal transfer in a large-area X-ray CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. S.; Kang, D. U.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H.; Cho, G.; Jae, M.

    2014-08-01

    For 2-d X-ray imaging, such as mammography and non-destructive test, a sensor should have a large-area because the sensor for typical X-ray beams cannot use optical lens system. To make a large-area 2-d X-ray image sensor using crystal Si, a technique of tiling unit CMOS image sensors into 2 × 2 or 2 × 3 array can be used. In a unit CMOS image sensor made of most common 8-inch Si wafers, the signal line can be up to ~ 180 mm long. Then its parasitic capacitance is up to ~ 25 pF and its resistance is up to ~ 51 kΩ (0.18 μm, 1P3M process). This long signal line may enlarge the row time up to ~ 50 μsec in case of the signal from the top row pixels to the readout amplifiers located at the bottom of the sensor chip. The output signal pulse is typically characterized by three components in sequence; a charging time (a rising part), a reading time and a discharging time (a falling part). Among these, the discharging time is the longest, and it limits the speed or the frame rate of the X-ray imager. We proposed a forced discharging method which uses a bypass transistor in parallel with the current source of the column signal line. A chip for testing the idea was fabricated by a 0.18 μm process. A active pixel sensor with three transistors and a 3-π RC model of the long line were simulated together. The test results showed that the turning on-and-off of the proposed bypass transistor only during the discharging time could dramatically reduce the discharging time from ~ 50 μsec to ~ 2 μsec, which is the physically minimum time determined by the long metal line capacitance.

  19. A large-area microstrip-gas-counter for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Minamitani, T.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a large-area coded-mask telescope for hard-X-ray astronomy. The heart of the instrument is an imaging microstrip-gas-counter of active area 30 cm × 30 cm and filled with 2 × 105 Pa of xenon + 2% isobutylene. Fabricated on a single sheet of borosilicate glass, 1 mm thick, the microstrip features fine anodes (10 μm) and interleaved cathodes from which the position sensing is derived. Rear pickup electrodes provide the second coordinate. Full details of the instrument and its performance are presented. A first flight, from a high-altitude balloon, is scheduled for the Spring of 1977.

  20. DynAMITe: a prototype large area CMOS APS for breast cancer diagnosis using x-ray diffraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, A.; Anaxagoras, T.; Esposito, M.; Allinson, N.; Speller, R.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are used to identify specific materials. Several laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies were made for breast cancer diagnosis. Ideally a large area, low noise, linear and wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required to perform x-ray diffraction measurements. Recently, digital detectors based on Complementary Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology have been used in x-ray diffraction studies. Two APS detectors, namely Vanilla and Large Area Sensor (LAS), were developed by the Multidimensional Integrated Intelligent Imaging (MI-3) consortium to cover a range of scientific applications including x-ray diffraction. The MI-3 Plus consortium developed a novel large area APS, named as Dynamically Adjustable Medical Imaging Technology (DynAMITe), to combine the key characteristics of Vanilla and LAS with a number of extra features. The active area (12.8 × 13.1 cm2) of DynaMITe offers the ability of angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using DynaMITe for breast cancer diagnosis by identifying six breast-equivalent plastics. Further work will be done to optimize the system in order to perform ADXRD for identification of suspicious areas of breast tissue following a conventional mammogram taken with the same sensor.

  1. Development of broadband X-ray interference lithography large area exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chaofan; Wu, Yanqing; Zhu, Fangyuan; Yang, Shumin; Liu, Haigang; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Liansheng; Tai, Renzhong

    2016-04-01

    The single-exposure patterned area is about several 102 × 102 μm2 which is mainly decided by the mask area in multi-beam X-ray interference lithography (XIL). The exposure area is difficult to stitch to a larger one because the patterned area is surrounded by 0th diffraction exposure areas. To block the 0th diffraction beams precisely and effectively, a new large area exposure technology is developed in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility by applying an order-sorting aperture with a new in situ monitoring scheme in the XIL system. The patterned area could be stitched readily up to several square centimeters and even bigger by this technology.

  2. Fabrication of large-area and low mass critical-angle x-ray transmission gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alex R.; Guan, Dong; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2014-07-01

    Soft x-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources with high resolving power R = E/ΔE and large collecting area addresses important science listed in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey New Worlds New Horizons, such as the growth of the large scale structure of the universe and its interaction with active galactic nuclei, the kinematics of galactic outflows, as well as coronal emission from stars and other topics. Numerous studies have shown that a transmission grating spectrometer based on lightweight critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings can deliver R = 3000-5000 and large collecting area with high efficiency and minimal resource requirements, providing spectroscopic figures of merit at least an order of magnitude better than grating spectrometers on Chandra and XMM-Newton, as well as future calorimeter-based missions. The recently developed CAT gratings combine the advantages of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed figure and alignment tolerances) and blazed reflection gratings (high broad band diffraction efficiency, utilization of higher diffraction orders). Their working principle based on blazing through reflection off the smooth, ultra-high aspect ratio grating bar sidewalls has previously been demonstrated on small samples with x rays. For larger gratings (area greater than 1 inch square) we developed a fabrication process for grating membranes with a hierarchy of integrated low-obscuration supports. The fabrication involves a combination of advanced lithography and highly anisotropic dry and wet etching techniques. We report on the latest fabrication results of free-standing, large-area CAT gratings with polished sidewalls and preliminary x-ray tests.

  3. Development of an X-ray Telescope with a Large Effective Area for the Iron K Line Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Tachibana, Sasagu; Yoshikawa, Shun; Tamura, Keisuke; Mori, Hideyuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Kojun

    2015-08-01

    X-ray micro-calorimeters such as the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board ASTRO-H will enable precise spectroscopy of iron K lines even for spatially extended objects. To exploit the full power of the high-energy resolution, X-ray telescopes with a large effective area around 6 keV are essentially important. Conventional Wolter-I X-ray telescopes aimed at X-rays below 10 keV have used the principle of total reflection to collect the X-rays. Enlarging the diameter of this type of telescopes is not effective to obtain the large effective area, since the incident angle of X-rays for the outer part of the telescope exceeds the critical angle, and the X-ray reflectivity of the outer part is significantly low. For example, the critical angle of Ir for an X-ray of 6 keV is 0.748 deg. Thus if we assume a focal length of 6 m for a Wolter-I optics using mirrors covered with Ir as a reflector, the mirrors the radial position of which are larger than 34 cm cannot reflect X-rays above 6 keV effectively. If multi-layer mirrors are applied to the outer part of the telescope, however, the X-ray reflectivity can be enhanced significantly by the principle of Bragg reflection. Our objective is to develop a Wolter-I X-ray telescope with an aperture of 110 cm and a focal length of 6 m, and make all mirrors in the telescope can reflect X-rays around 6 keV effectively by utilizing the multi-layer mirrors. The size of the telescope is determined by a boundary condition that can be launched by the epsilon rocket of ISAS/JAXA. The multi-layer is designed to enhance the reflectivity at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV, or 6.9 keV. Our simulation suggests that the effective area averaged in the 5.7-7.7 keV band could be 2000 cm2, whichis comparable to the effective area of Athena launched in 2028 by ESA. Furthermore, we showed that the Ir/C multi-layers produced by our DC magnetron sputtering machine has a surface roughness of less than 4 angstrom. This value is smaller than the average surface roughness

  4. Study on growth of large area mercuric iodide polycrystalline film and its x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Guo, Yanfei; Xi, Zengzhe; Gu, Zhi; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Wentao; Ma, Xuming; Li, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Tetragonal mercuric iodide, as a group of wide band gap semiconductors, has been widely investigation during most of the last half-century, applied on room-temperature X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. Up to the present, Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is still thought to be one of the most outstanding vitality semiconductor materials because of its wide band gap, for which the device was required to be high resistivity, high atomic number, adequate mechanical strength, long carrier lifetimes and high mobility-lifetime produces. Now, HgI2 polycrystalline films are being developed as a new detector technology for digital x-ray imaging. In this research, HgI2 polycrystalline films with different surface areas of 1 and 36 cm2 were grown by vapor sublimation method within a self-design growth furnace. XRD, SEM and J-V analysis were used to characterize the properties of these as-grown films. The results of XRD show that the ratio of (001) / (hkl) on all as-grown films is amount to be 90% for the area of 1 cm2 films. Grain size of 1 cm2 films was measured to be 120-150 μm. Their electrical resistivity were also determined to be about 1011 Ω·cm operated at the bias voltage of ~100 V by I-V characteristic measurement. Utilizing the polycrystalline film with the area of 36 cm2 deposited on TFT, we then prepared the direct image detector after capsulation for non-corrosive steel screw imaging. The results indicated that profile of screw was distinctly exhibited in digital x-ray imaging systems.

  5. Area detector corrections for high quality synchrotron X-ray structure factor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner L. B.; Parise J.; Benmore, C.

    2011-10-01

    Correction procedures for obtaining accurate X-ray structure factors from large area detectors are considered, including subpanel effects, over excited pixels and careful intensity corrections. Problems associated with data normalization, the use of a pixel response correction from a glass standard and minimization of systematic errors are also discussed. Data from glassy GeSe{sub 2} and liquid water measured with a Perkin Elmer amorphous-Silicon detector are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these correction procedures. This requires reduction of systematic errors in the measured intensity to around the 0.1% level.

  6. Circular grating interferometer for mapping transverse coherence area of X-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xianbo Marathe, Shashidhara; Wojcik, Michael J.; Kujala, Naresh G.; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2014-07-28

    A circular grating interferometer was used to map the transverse coherence area of an X-ray beam. Due to the radial symmetry of the circular grating, coherence lengths along all transverse directions were obtained simultaneously by measuring the visibility decay of interferograms recorded at different distances behind a single circular π/2 phase grating. The technique is model-free and provides direct measurement of the complex coherence factor of the beam. The use of a circular grating also enables the unique capability of measuring the source shape profile. Sensitivity of this technique was demonstrated by detecting the small source tilt of a few degrees.

  7. Research relative to high energy astrophysics. [large area modular array of reflectors, X-ray spectroscopy, and thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1984-01-01

    Various parameters which affect the design of the proposed large area modular array of reflectors (LAMAR) are considered, including thermal control, high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, pointing control, and mirror performance. The LAMAR instrument is to be a shuttle-launched X-ray observatory to carry out cosmic X-ray investigations. The capabilities of LAMAR are enumerated. Angular resolution performance of the mirror module prototype was measured to be 30 sec of ARC for 50% of the power. The LAMAR thermal pre-collimator design concepts and test configurations are discussed in detail.

  8. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO2 exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10-6 for 445 nm illumination.

  9. The Wide-Area X-ray Survey in the Legacy Stripe 82 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, S.; Urry, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Glikman, E.; Richards, G.; B"ohringer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a wide-area X-ray survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field to uncover how luminous, obscured AGN evolve over cosmic time and the role they play in galaxy evolution. Stripe 82 is a legacy field with a high level of spectroscopic completeness and rich multi-wavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to far-infrared, including Spitzer and Herschel imaging. Our Stripe 82X survey currently reaches 31 deg^{2}, with ˜6200 X-ray point sources detected at ≥5σ level. I will review the characteristics of this survey, on-going programs to target obscured AGN candidates, and how we can use the lessons learned from the synergistic multi-wavelength coverage to develop strategic plans for future surveys and missions. Finally, I will comment on how extending the Stripe 82X survey area to 100 deg^{2} will provide unprecedented insight into the high-L (Lx > 10^{45} erg/s), high-z (z > 2) AGN population.

  10. X-ray streak camera cathode development and timing accuracy of the 4{omega} ultraviolet fiducial system at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Opachich, Y. P.; Palmer, N.; Homoelle, D.; Hatch, B.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Kalantar, D.; Browning, D.; Landen, O.; Zuegel, J.

    2012-10-15

    The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a {+-}2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4{omega} (263 nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, titanium, gold, and silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest relative quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data were analyzed to determine the centroiding statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of {+-}1.6 ps and {+-}0.7 ps, respectively.

  11. X-ray Streak Camera Cathode Development and Timing Accuracy of the 4w UV Fiducial System at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Opachich, Y P; Palmer, N; Homoelle, D; Hatch, B W; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Kalantar, D; Browning, D; Landen, O

    2012-05-02

    The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a {+-}2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4-{omega} (263nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, Titanium, Gold and Silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data was analyzed to determine the centroiding a statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of {+-}1.6 ps and {+-}0.7 ps respectively.

  12. High-resolution application of YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce imaging detectors with a CCD X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touš, Jan; Horváth, Martin; Pína, Ladislav; Blažek, Karel; Sopko, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    A high-resolution CCD X-ray camera based on YAG:Ce or LuAG:Ce thin scintillators is presented. High-resolution in low-energy X-ray radiation is proved with several objects. The spatial resolution achieved in the images is about 1 μm. The high-resolution imaging system is a combination of a high-sensitivity digital CCD camera and an optical system with a thin scintillator-imaging screen. The screen can consist of YAG:Ce or LuAG:Ce inorganic scintillator [J.A. Mares, Radiat. Meas. 38 (2004) 353]. These materials have the advantages of mechanical and chemical stability and non-hygroscopicity. The high-resolution imaging system can be used with different types of radiation (X-ray, electrons, UV, and VUV [M. Nikl, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 (2006) R37]). The objects used for the imaging tests are grids and small animals with features of several microns in size. The resolution capabilities were tested using different types of CCD cameras and scintillation imaging screens.

  13. X-ray streak camera cathode development and timing accuracy of the 4ω ultraviolet fiducial system at the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opachich, Y. P.; Palmer, N.; Homoelle, D.; Hatch, B.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Kalantar, D.; Browning, D.; Zuegel, J.; Landen, O.

    2012-10-01

    The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a ±2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4ω (263 nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, titanium, gold, and silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest relative quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data were analyzed to determine the centroiding statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of ±1.6 ps and ±0.7 ps, respectively.

  14. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Jessica L; Jimison, Leslie H; Mannsfeld, Stefan; Volkman, Steven; Yin, Shong; Subramanian, Vivek; Salleo, Alberto; Alivisatos, A Paul; Toney, Michael F

    2010-02-19

    As thin films become increasingly popular (for solar cells, LEDs, microelectronics, batteries), quantitative morphological information is needed to predict and optimize the film's electronic, optical and mechanical properties. This quantification can be obtained quickly and easily with X-ray diffraction using an area detector and synchrotron radiation in two simple geometries. In this paper, we describe a methodology for constructing complete pole figures for thin films with fiber texture (isotropic in-plane orientation). We demonstrate this technique on semicrystalline polymer films, self-assembled nanoparticle semiconductor films, and randomly-packed metallic nanoparticle films. This method can be immediately implemented to help understand the relationship between film processing and microstructure, enabling the development of better and less expensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Focused ion beam patterned Fe thin films A study by selective area Stokes polarimetry and soft x-Ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, P. J.; Shen, T. H.; Grundy, P. J.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.; Morton, S. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

    2010-11-14

    We demonstrate the potential to modify the magnetic behavior and structural properties of ferromagnetic thin films using focused ion beam 'direct-write' lithography. Patterns inspired by the split-ring resonators often used as components in meta-materials were defined upon 15 nm Fe films using a 30 keV Ga{sup +} focused ion beam at a dose of 2 x 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. Structural, chemical and magnetic changes to the Fe were studied using transmission soft X-ray microscopy at the ALS, Berkeley CA. X-ray absorption spectra showed a 23% reduction in the thickness of the film in the Ga irradiated areas, but no chemical change to the Fe was evident. X-ray images of the magnetic reversal process show domain wall pinning around the implanted areas, resulting in an overall increase in the coercivity of the film. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant grain growth in the implanted regions.

  16. Evaluation of an infrared camera and X-ray system using implanted fiducials in patients with lung tumors for gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby, Twyla R. . E-mail: twyla.willoughby@orhs.org; Forbes, Alan R.; Buchholz, Daniel; Langen, Katja M.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To report on the initial clinical use of a commercially available system to deliver gated treatment using implanted fiducials, in-room kV X-rays, and an infrared camera tracking system. Methods and Materials: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating from BrainLab is a localization system using infrared cameras and X-rays. Gating signals are the patient's breathing pattern obtained from infrared reflectors on the patient. kV X-rays of an implanted fiducial are synchronized to the breathing pattern. After localization and shift of the patient to isocenter, the breathing pattern is used to gate Radiation. Feasibility tests included localization accuracy, radiation output constancy, and dose distributions with gating. Clinical experience is reported on treatment of patients with small lung lesions. Results: Localization accuracy of a moving target with gating was 1.7 mm. Dose constancy measurements showed insignificant change in output with gating. Improvements of dose distributions on moving targets improved with gating. Eleven patients with lung lesions were implanted with 20 mm x 0.7 mm gold coil (Visicoil). The implanted fiducial was used to localize and treat the patients with gating. Treatment planning and repeat computed tomographic scans showed that the change in center of gross target volume (GTV) to implanted marker averaged 2.47 mm due in part to asymmetric tumor shrinkage. Conclusion: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating has been used to treat lung lesions. Initial system evaluation verified its accuracy and usability. Implanted fiducials are visible in X-rays and did not migrate.

  17. A European X-ray astrophysics mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culhane, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Five instruments (Bragg Spectrometer, Large Area Proportional and Scintillation Counter Detectors, Wide Field X-ray Cameras and a Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor) are discussed and estimates of their performance are given. Their scientific aims are summarized and sample observing programmes are discussed.

  18. A large area Thomson-scattering stellar X-ray polarimeter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, R.; Wolff, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An instrument for measuring the polarization of stellar X-ray emission has been designed, constructed, and tested. The polarization dependence of incoherent Thomson scattering in lithium metal is utilized. Means for suppression of cosmic ray background effects have been provided. The apparatus has been flown in rockets to obtain data in the polarization of X-ray sources in Sco X-1 and Tau X-1.

  19. Option study of an orthogonal X-ray radiography axis for pRad at LANSCE area C, Los Alamos.

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Bryan Velten; Johnson, David L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Jones, Peter

    2010-10-01

    We report on an option study of two potential x-ray systems for orthogonal radiography at Area C in the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The systems assessed are expected to be near equivalent systems to the presently existing Cygnus capability at the Nevada Test Site. Nominal dose and radiographic resolution of 4 rad (measured at one meter) and 1 mm spot are desired. Both a system study and qualitative design are presented as well as estimated cost and schedule. Each x-ray system analyzed is designed to drive a rod-pinch electron beam diode capable of producing the nominal dose and spot.

  20. Design considerations for wide-area distribution of digital x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Berman, Lewis E.; Thoma, George R.

    1993-09-01

    The increasing backbone speeds of Wide Area Networks, along with the growing numbers of users of these networks, have created an opportunity for the development of remotely accessible and highly data-intensive digital libraries. The National Library of Medicine is building a prototype system for the storage of several thousand digital x-ray images, while providing remote access to these images across the Internet. This paper discusses the design factors analyzed for this system, and presents performance statistics collected. The design factors considered include: network protocol selection, endpoint tuning of protocol, image compression, and application data handling. Research toward application data handling includes plans to stage groups of images from an optical archive to memory for the efficient transmission of large numbers of images. To maximize image data transmission speed, experimental protocols are being studied as alternatives to TCP/IP. TCP overhead processing is being researched, and approaches to tuning TCP performance for transmission of large image files are being analyzed. To minimize the storage capacity required and to decrease transmission time, lossy compression techniques are being considered. Research is proceeding toward the selection of a compression technique and optimum compression ratio consistent with the image quality required to produce standardized readings.

  1. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoidn, Oliver R.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2015-08-01

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2-6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ˜20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ˜190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform's useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry.

  2. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers.

    PubMed

    Hoidn, Oliver R; Seidler, Gerald T

    2015-08-01

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2-6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ∼20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ∼190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform's useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry. PMID:26329247

  3. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoidn, Oliver R.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2015-08-15

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2–6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ∼20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ∼190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform’s useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry.

  4. Design and initial operation of a two-color soft x-ray camera system on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Herfindal, J. L. Dawson, J. D.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Loch, S. D.; Maurer, D. A.

    2014-11-15

    A multi-camera soft x-ray diagnostic has been developed to measure the equilibrium electron temperature profile and temperature fluctuations due to magnetohydrodynamic activity on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment. The diagnostic consists of three separate cameras each employing two 20-channel diode arrays that view the same plasma region through different beryllium filter thicknesses of 1.8 μm and 3.0 μm allowing electron temperature measurements between 50 eV and 200 eV. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid is a five-field period current-carrying stellarator, in which the presence of plasma current strongly modifies the rotational transform and degree of asymmetry of the equilibrium. Details of the soft x-ray emission, effects of plasma asymmetry, and impurity line radiation on the design and measurement of the two-color diagnostic are discussed. Preliminary estimates of the temperature perturbation due to sawtooth oscillations observed in these hybrid discharges are given.

  5. CCD camera systems and support electronics for a White Light Coronagraph and X-ray XUV solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.; Kubierschky, K.; Staples, M. H.; Carpenter, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two instruments, a White Light Coronagraph and an X-ray XUV telescope built into the same housing, share several electronic functions. Each instrument uses a CCD as an imaging detector, but due to different spectral requirements, each uses a different type. Hardware reduction, required by the stringent weight and volume allocations of the interplanetary mission, is made possible by the use of a microprocessor. Most instrument functions are software controlled with the end use circuits treated as peripherals to the microprocessor. The instruments are being developed for the International Solar Polar Mission.

  6. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to look for: Fractures or broken bone Cancer that has spread to other areas of the ... 2014:chap 8. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Cancer Metastasis Osteomyelitis X-ray Update Date 5/9/ ...

  7. X-Ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews instrumental developments and technique improvements in X-ray spectrometry, grouped into major topic areas of excitation, dispersion and detection, instrumentation and techniques, and quantitative analyses. Cites 162 references. (CS)

  8. A Novel Technique for Accurate Intensity Calibration of Area X-ray Detectors at Almost Arbitrary Energy.

    PubMed

    Moy, J P; Hammersley, A P; Svensson, S O; Thompson, A; Brown, K; Claustre, L; Gonzalez, A; McSweeney, S

    1996-01-01

    A novel intensity uniformity calibration method for area X-ray detectors is described. In diffraction experiments, amorphous lithium glass plates, containing doping elements chosen for their K edges just below the energy of the main beam, replace the crystallographic samples for the calibration measurement. The fluorescent emission excited by the X-ray beam is almost isotropic. It has exactly the same geometry as the diffracted radiation, and can be obtained at the same wavelength by proper selection of the element and excitation energy. A sample 2theta scan allows the emission distribution as a function of angle to be characterized with an accuracy of a fraction of a percent. This allows a flat-field correction of similar accuracy. The quality of crystallographic data collected with an X-ray image intensifier/CCD detector was significantly improved by flat-field correction using an Sr-doped lithium tetraborate glass. This technique can be applied to X-ray energies from 5 to 50 KeV; the calibration sample is small, stable and easily handled. PMID:16702651

  9. Measurement of X-ray for the dose area product and spectrum by the added filtration in Rando phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Jiwon; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The most important point in the medical use of radiation is to minimize the patient entrance dose while maintaining the diagnostic information. Low-energy photons (long-wave X-ray) are unnecessary among diagnostic X-ray because they are mostly absorbed and increase the patient's entrance dose. The most effective method to eliminate the low-energy photon is use of a filtering plate. Using a filter appropriate for the image will maintain diagnostic value. Obtaining an effective image allows comparison of the resulting images in a logical objective way. This experiment was performed to determine the quality of image dosimeter when there is no filter, and when 2 mm Al, 0.1 mm Cu + 1 mm Al, 0.2 mm Cu + 1 mm Al filters are used. Using TORECK PD-8100 dose area products meter placed on top of an abdominal phantom, we measured the dose when the filter changes in this condition 85 kVp, 40 mAs, anode angle 13, source image distance 100 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm. We used the SRS-78 program for accurate comparison because we could not evaluate the difference in the image optically. The spectrum changed due to the emission of X-rays as the filter changed. We observed that the use of a filter eliminated the low-energy photons and revealed continuous X-ray and special X-ray. Therefore, the experiment highlighted the advantages of filters and confirmed that there are no changes in the quality of image through signal to noise ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, root mean square error comparison. We found that the use of filter did not lead to distortions in the image or drop in diagnostic value while minimizing the radiation dose. This means that it can help manage long-term patient dose. We conclude that we need to recommend the use of the filter as it reduces the area of dose.

  10. First demonstration of 10 keV-width energy-discrimination K-edge radiography using a cadmium-telluride X-ray camera with a tungsten-target tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Manabu; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Energy-discrimination X-ray camera is useful to perform monochromatic radiography using polychromatic X-rays. This X-ray camera was developed to carry out K-edge radiography using cerium and gadolinium-based contrast media. In this camera, objects are irradiated by a cone beam from a tungsten-target X-ray generator, and penetrating X-ray photons are detected by a cadmium-telluride detector with amplifiers. Both optimal photon-energy level and energy width are selected using a multichannel analyzer, and the photon number is counted by a counter card. Radiography was performed by the detector scanning using an x- y stage driven by a two-stage controller, and radiograms were shown on a personal computer monitor. In radiography, tube voltage and current were 90 kV and 5.8 μA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity was 0.61 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the X-ray source. The K-edge energies of cerium and gadolinium are 40.3 and 50.3 keV, respectively, and 10 keV-width enhanced K-edge radiography was performed using X-ray photons with energies just beyond K-edge energies of cerium and gadolinium. Thus, cerium K-edge radiography was carried out using X-ray photons with an energy range from 40.3 to 50. 3 keV, and gadolinium K-edge radiography was accomplished utilizing photon energies ranging from 50.3 to 60.3 keV.

  11. Sealed position sensitive hard X-ray detector having large drift region for all sky camera with high angular resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Perlman, D.; Parsignault, D.; Burns, R.

    1979-01-01

    A sealed position sensitive proportional counter filled with two atmospheres of 95% xenon and 5% methane, and containing a drift region of 24 atm cm, has operated in a stable manner for many months. The detector contains G-10 frames to support the anode and cathode wires. The detector was sealed successfully by a combination of vacuum baking the G-10 frames at 150 C for two weeks followed by assembly into the detector in an environment of dry nitrogen, and the use of passive internal getters. The counter is intended for use with a circumferential cylindrical collimator. Together they provide a very broad field of view detection system with the ability to locate cosmic hard X-ray and soft gamma ray sources to an angular precision of a minute of arc. A set of instruments based on this principle have been proposed for satellites to detect and precisely locate cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  12. High resolution large area modular array of reflectors /LAMAR/ Wolter type I X-ray telescope for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Gilbreth, C. W.; Springer, L. A.; Vieira, J. R.; Culhane, J. L.; Mason, I. W.; Siegmund, O.; Patrick, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab Wolter type I X-ray telescope, which is intended for both astronomical observations and the functional verification of the future Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors (LAMAR) concept, comprises five mirrors and is designed to have a blur circle radius of 20 arcsec, with effective areas of (1) 400 sq cm at 0.25 keV, (2) 200 sq cm in the 0.5-2.0 keV range, and (3) 50 sq cm between 2 and 5 keV. A rotary interchange mechanism allows either of two imaging proportional counters to be placed at the telescope focus. The telescope's primary objective is the observational study of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources, extending the work of the Einstein Observatory to fainter sources and higher energies. Secondarily, the costs and performance to be expected from the use of this telescope type in the LAMAR mission will be assessed.

  13. Development of X-Ray Spectrometer with a Large-Area GSPC: Application for Small-sized Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Tanaka, S.; Fujimura, A.; Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Masuda, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-03-01

    X-ray spectrometer with a large-area Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) is being developed for the future planetary explorations such as the asteroid sample-return mission (MUSES-C) and the lunar polar-orbiter mission both proposed in Japan. As proven in the successful Apollo missions, global mapping of major elemental composition is feasible through XRF spectrometry from orbiters. We manufactured testing models of large-area GSPCs and carried out laboratory experiments to examine their performances with success. On the basis of the experimental results, we propose here a basic design of new-type X-ray spectrometer, which could be applicable to asteroid, lunar, and other small-sized planetary missions. _

  14. X-ray crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  15. Large-area avalanche photodiodes for the detection of soft x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, E.M.; Gramsch, E. |; Szawlowski, M.

    1995-08-01

    The charge-collection efficiency of beveled-edge-type silicon avalanche photodiodes has been determined for soft x rays in the 50--300-eV range. An efficiency of greater than 80% is measured for energies below the Si {ital L} absorption edge. The measured efficiency is well described by a model that accounts for absorption in an oxide overlayer and recombination at the front surface of the diode. The avalanche photodiodes are shown to be significantly more sensitive compared with other detectors for pulsed sources such as a laser-produced plasma source. These results are also very encouraging for soft-x-ray/extreme-UV applications involving synchrotron radiation.{ital PACS} {ital numbers}: 29.40.Wk, 07.85.+n, 85.60.Dw.

  16. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Aortic rupture, chest x-ray Lung cancer, frontal chest x-ray Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Coal ... cancer - chest x-ray Lung nodule, right middle lobe - chest x-ray Lung mass, right upper lung - ...

  17. Area-selected Ion Milling for Reflection Wavefront Error Correction of Soft X-ray Multilayer Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuru, Toshihide; Sakai, Yu; Hatano, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2010-06-23

    For accurate reflection wavefront error correction of imaging soft X-ray multilayer mirrors, a period-by-period ion milling system was developed. A stable and homogenized radial distribution of ion beam was realized for an ion milling over a whole area of 100 mm-wide multilayer. To demonstrate the wavefront error correction principle, a dielectric multilayer mirror for visible light was locally milled by our system. Wavefront as measured by a phase shifting interferometer showed the reflection phase of local milling multilayer advanced. Area-selected ion millings with mask templates made of Mo and Si, and by photoresist contact masks were carried out. Although striped patterns generated by the difference of spectroscopic reflectance between Mo and Si were observed at peripherals of milling area when templates were used, a clear and sharp edge pattern was obtained with contact mask. Soft X-ray reflectance of a Mo/Si multilayer milled with photoresist contact mask showed good feasibility of precise wavefront error correction of multilayers. These results proved our phase correction method is promising and practical for the 0.1 nm-period correction of soft X-ray multilayer mirror.

  18. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Patel, Tushita

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  19. A large surface X-ray camera based on XPAD3/CdTe single chip hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassol, F.; Blanc, N.; Bompard, F.; Boudet, N.; Boursier, Y.; Buton, C.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawiec, A.; Debarbieux, F.; Delpierre, P.; Dupont, M.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Hustache, S.; Morel, C.; Perez-Ponce, H.; Portal, L.; Vigeolas, E.

    2015-11-01

    The XPAD3 chip bump-bonded to a Si sensor has been widely used in preclinical micro-computed tomography and in synchrotron experiments. Although the XPAD3 chip is linear up to 60 keV, the performance of the XPAD3/Si hybrid detector is limited to energies below 30 keV, for which detection efficiencies remain above 20%. To overcome this limitation on detection efficiency in order to access imaging at higher energies, we decided to develop a camera based on XPAD3 single chips bump-bonded to high-Z CdTe sensors. We will first present the construction of this new camera, from the first tests of the single chip hybrids to the actual mechanical assembly. Then, we will show first images and stability tests performed on the D2AM beam line at ESRF synchrotron facility with the fully assembled camera.

  20. Potential applications of a dual-sweep streak camera system for characterizing particle and photon beams of VUV, XUV, and x-ray FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The success of time-resolved imaging techniques in the Characterization of particle beams and photon beams of the recent generation of L-band linac-driven or storage ring FELs in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet wavelength regions can be extended to the VUV, XUV, and x-ray FELs. Tests and initial data have been obtained with the Hamamatsu C5680 dual-sweep streak camera system which includes a demountable photocathode (thin Au) assembly and a flange that allows windowless operation with the transport vacuum system. This system can be employed at wavelengths shorter than 100 nm and down to 1 {Angstrom}. First tests on such a system at 248-nm wavelengths have been performed oil the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) drive laser source. A quartz window was used at the tube entrance aperture. A preliminary test using a Be window mounted on a different front flange of the streak tube to look at an x-ray bremsstrahlung source at the AWA was limited by photon statistics. This system`s limiting resolution of {sigma}{approximately}1.1 ps observed at 248 nm would increase with higher incoming photon energies to the photocathode. This effect is related to the fundamental spread in energies of the photoelectrons released from the photocathodes. Possible uses of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source and emerging short wavelength FELs to test the system will be presented.

  1. Effective Area of the AXAF High Resolution Camera (HRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaude, Daniel; Pease, Deron; Donnelly, Hank; Juda, Mike; Jones, Christine; Murray, Steve; Zombeck, Martin; Kraft, Ralph; Kenter, Almus; Meehan, Gary; Meehan, Gary; Swartz, Doug; Elsner, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The AXAF High-Resolution Camera (HRC) was calibrated at NASA MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) during 1997 March and April. We have undertaken an analysis of the HRC effective area using all data presently available from the XRCF. We discuss our spectral fitting of the beam-normalization detectors (BNDs), our method of removing higher order contamination lines present in the spectra, and corrections for beam non-uniformities. We apply a model of photon absorption depth in order to fit a smooth curve to the quantum efficiency of the detector. This is then combined with the most recent model of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) to determine the ensemble effective area versus energy for the HRC. We also address future goals and concerns.

  2. PIXIE III: a very large area photon-counting CMOS pixel ASIC for sharp X-ray spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Delogu, P.; de Ruvo, P. L.; Vincenzi, A.

    2015-01-01

    PIXIE III is the third generation of very large area (32 × 25 mm2) pixel ASICs developed by Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l. to be used in combination with suitable X-ray sensor materials (Silicon, CdTe, GaAs) in hybrid assemblies using flip-chip bonding. A Pixirad unit module based on PIXIE III shows several advances compared to what has been available up to now. It has a very broad energy range (from 2 to 100 keV before full pulse saturation), high speed (100 ns peaking time), high frame rate (larger than 500 fps), dead-time-free operation, good energy resolution (around 2 keV at 20 keV), high photo-peak fraction and sharp spectral separation between the color images. In this paper the results obtained with PIXIE III both in a test bench set-up as well in X-ray imaging applications are discussed.

  3. Image and Diagnosis Quality of X-Ray Image Transmission via Cell Phone Camera: A Project Study Evaluating Quality and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Andreas; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Weber, Oliver; Gräff, Ingo; Burger, Christof; Montag, Mareen; Koerfer, Felix; Kabir, Koroush

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. Materials and Methods A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. Results Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265–590 kB, SD ±59), average transmission time was 3.29 min ±8 (CI 95%: 1.7–4.9). Applying a score from 1–10 (very poor - excellent), mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2±4% (mean value ± SD) of cases (median 82; 80–89%), there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. Discussion While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone. PMID:23082108

  4. Crystallization temperature determination of Itokawa particles by plagioclase thermometry with X-ray diffraction data obtained by a high-resolution synchrotron Gandolfi camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Nakato, Aiko; Ishida, Hatsumi; Yada, Toru; Shirai, Kei; Fujimura, Akio; Ishibashi, Yukihiro; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Ueno, Munetaka; Mukai, Toshifumi

    2014-02-01

    The crystallization temperatures of Itokawa surface particles recovered by the space probe Hayabusa were estimated by a plagioclase geothermometer using sodic plagioclase triclinicity. The Δ131-index required for the thermometer, which is the difference in X-ray diffraction peak positions between the 131 and 13¯1 reflections of plagioclase, was obtained by a high-resolution synchrotron Gandolfi camera developed for the third generation synchrotron radiation beamline, BL15XU at SPring-8. Crystallization temperatures were successfully determined from the Δ131-indices for four particles. The observed plagioclase crystallization temperatures were in a range from 655 to 660 °C. The temperatures indicate crystallization temperatures of plagioclases in the process of prograde metamorphism before the peak metamorphic stage.

  5. Development of a compact fast CCD camera and resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation for time-resolved pump-probe experiments.

    PubMed

    Doering, D; Chuang, Y-D; Andresen, N; Chow, K; Contarato, D; Cummings, C; Domning, E; Joseph, J; Pepper, J S; Smith, B; Zizka, G; Ford, C; Lee, W S; Weaver, M; Patthey, L; Weizeorick, J; Hussain, Z; Denes, P

    2011-07-01

    The designs of a compact, fast CCD (cFCCD) camera, together with a resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation, are presented. The cFCCD camera consists of a highly parallel, custom, thick, high-resistivity CCD, readout by a custom 16-channel application specific integrated circuit to reach the maximum readout rate of 200 frames per second. The camera is mounted on a virtual-axis flip stage inside the RSXS chamber. When this flip stage is coupled to a differentially pumped rotary seal, the detector assembly can rotate about 100°/360° in the vertical/horizontal scattering planes. With a six-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample goniometer, this endstation has the capability to detect the superlattice reflections from the electronic orderings showing up in the lower hemisphere. The complete system has been tested at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and has been used in multiple experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. PMID:21806178

  6. A Versatile Hemispherical Great Area X-ray Detector for Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Rodolfo; Belmar, Felipe

    2009-01-29

    This work presents an X-ray detector with fullerene C60 semi spherical geometry constituted by a set of small cylindrical proportional counter units with needles anodes, which are located in the surface of an hemispherical plastic support. The sample to be analyzed is placed on the center of the hemisphere base. The radiation may enter by one of its flanks or through the hemisphere top. The hemispherical zone that exists between the holder sample base and the proportional counters can be vacuumed, aired or filled with counter gas.

  7. Fabrication of a focusing soft X-ray collector payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Decaprio, A. R.; Manko, H.; Ting, J. W. S.

    1976-01-01

    A large area X-ray focusing collector with arc minute resolution and a position sensitive detector capable of operating in the soft X-ray region was developed for use on sounding rockets in studying stellar X-ray sources. The focusing payload consists of the following components, which are described: (1) a crossed paraboloid mirror assembly; (2) an aspect camera and star tracker; (3) a focal plane assembly containing an imaging proportional counter and its preamplifiers, high voltage power supplies and gas system; (4) a fiducial system; and (5) housekeeping, data handling, instrumentation and telemetry electronics. The design, tests, and operation are described.

  8. A new particle-induced X-ray emission set-up for laterally resolved analysis over wide areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, D.; Buchriegler, J.; Renno, A. D.; Merchel, S.; Munnik, F.; Ziegenrücker, R.; Scharf, O.; Nowak, S. H.; von Borany, J.

    2016-06-01

    The recently installed and unique PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) set-up at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) is mainly dedicated to applications for a detailed overview of elemental composition over large sample areas within a short time even at trace level. The so-called High-Speed-PIXE (HS-PIXE), a combination of a pnCCD-based pixel-detector with polycapillary X-ray optics, offers simultaneous imaging of sample areas up to 12 × 12 mm2 with a lateral resolution better than 100 μm. Each of the 264 × 264 individual pixels detects X-ray photons in an energy range from 2 keV to 20 keV with an energy resolution of 152 eV (@Mn-Kα). A high precision sample manipulator offers the inspection of areas up to 250 × 250 mm2. During first experiments the determined resolution is (76 ± 23) μm using a sample of well-known sharp-edged chromium patterns. Trace element analysis has been performed using a geological sample, a tin ore, with an average Ta-concentration below 0.1 at.%. Fine-zoned structures became visible in the Ta-Lα intensity map within only 45 min. The High-Speed-PIXE closes a gap in the analytical process flow chain especially for geoanalytical characterisations. It is a unique and fast detection system to identify areas of interest in comparably short time at large-area scale for further analysis.

  9. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the

  10. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without

  11. The relative and absolute timing accuracy of the EPIC-pn camera on XMM-Newton, from X-ray pulsations of the Crab and other pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Carrillo, A.; Kirsch, M. G. F.; Caballero, I.; Freyberg, M. J.; Ibarra, A.; Kendziorra, E.; Lammers, U.; Mukerjee, K.; Schönherr, G.; Stuhlinger, M.; Saxton, R. D.; Staubert, R.; Suchy, S.; Wellbrock, A.; Webb, N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2012-09-01

    Aims: Reliable timing calibration is essential for the accurate comparison of XMM-Newton light curves with those from other observatories, to ultimately use them to derive precise physical quantities. The XMM-Newton timing calibration is based on pulsar analysis. However, because pulsars show both timing noise and glitches, it is essential to monitor these calibration sources regularly. To this end, the XMM-Newton observatory performs observations twice a year of the Crab pulsar to monitor the absolute timing accuracy of the EPIC-pn camera in the fast timing and burst modes. We present the results of this monitoring campaign, comparing XMM-Newton data from the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21) with radio measurements. In addition, we use five pulsars (PSR J0537-69, PSR B0540-69, PSR B0833-45, PSR B1509-58, and PSR B1055-52) with periods ranging from 16 ms to 197 ms to verify the relative timing accuracy. Methods: We analysed 38 XMM-Newton observations (0.2-12.0 keV) of the Crab taken over the first ten years of the mission and 13 observations from the five complementary pulsars. All data were processed with SAS, the XMM-Newton Scientific Analysis Software, version 9.0. Epoch-folding techniques coupled with χ2 tests were used to derive relative timing accuracies. The absolute timing accuracy was determined using the Crab data and comparing the time shift between the main X-ray and radio peaks in the phase-folded light curves. Results: The relative timing accuracy of XMM-Newton is found to be better than 10-8. The strongest X-ray pulse peak precedes the corresponding radio peak by 306 ± 9 μs, which agrees with other high-energy observatories such as Chandra, INTEGRAL and RXTE. The derived absolute timing accuracy from our analysis is ± 48 μs.

  12. Results on a prototype of a large-area X-ray imaging device using CMOS hybrid detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, J.; Caria, M.; Laverroux, F.; Surre, B.; Maublant, J.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the first results on a prototype of a large-area X-ray imaging device made out of hybrid CMOS pixel detectors. The challenges of manufacturing and implementing imaging devices on an area larger than the single component size, with a seamless sensitive area, are addressed via a preliminary evaluation of the images. A sensitive area of approximately 6×3 cm 2 was built with eight single ASIC chips performing photon counting and bump-bonded to two high-resistivity p-n silicon sensors working in a reverse bias mode. Each chip consists of 256×256 identical square pixels of 55 μm side. The image delivered is a 1024×512-pixel matrix. Dedicated read-out electronics, software and mechanical supports have been developed. We report and discuss the challenges of the system in terms of the resulting quality of static images obtained with a 70 kV X-ray tube.

  13. Research with Large Area Imaging X-Ray Telescope Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1999-01-01

    We are engaged in a program to develop focussing hard X-ray telescopes in a double conical or Wolter 1 geometry that function up to 100 keV by employing small graze angles and multilayer coatings. Directly polished substrates are not an option because they are too thick to be nested efficiently. The only alternative is to fabricate the very thin substrates by replication. Our objective is the production of integral cylindrical substrates because they should result in better angular resolution than segmented foil geometries. In addition, integral cylinders would be more resistant to possible stress from deep multilayer coatings than segmented ones. Both electroforming of nickel (method of SkX, JET-X, and XMM) and epoxy replication are under consideration. Both processes can utilize the same types of mandrels and separation agents- While electroforming can produce substrates that are thin, the high density of the nickel may result in high weight optics for some missions. For convenience, experimentation with replication and coating is being carried out initially on flats. Our replication studies include trials with gold and carbon separation agents. This paper reports on our efforts with epoxy replicated optics.

  14. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, M. A. Fournier, K. B.; Smith, R.; Lazicki, A.; Rygg, R.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J.; Park, H.-S.; Huntington, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O. L.; Collins, G. W.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.

    2014-11-15

    1D spectral imaging was used to characterize the K-shell emission of Z ≈ 30–35 and Z ≈ 40–42 laser-irradiated foils at the National Ignition Facility. Foils were driven with up to 60 kJ of 3ω light, reaching laser irradiances on target between 0.5 and 20 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Laser-to-X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) into the He{sub α} line (plus satellite emission) of 1.0%–1.5% and 0.15%–0.2% was measured for Z ≈ 30–32 and Z ≈ 40–42, respectively. Measured CE into He{sub α} (plus satellite emission) of Br (Z = 35) compound foils (either KBr or RbBr) ranged between 0.16% and 0.29%. Measured spectra are compared with 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium atomic kinetic and radiation transport simulations, providing a fast and accurate predictive capability.

  15. X-ray nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasov, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    A compact laboratory x-ray "nano-CT" scanner has been created for 3D non-invasive imaging with 150-200 nanometers 3D spatial resolution, using advanced x-ray technologies and specific physical phenomena for signal detection. This spatial resolution in volume terms is 3 orders better than can be achieved in synchrotron tomography, 5 orders better then in existing laboratory micro-CT instruments and 10-12 orders better in comparison to clinical CT. The instrument employs an x-ray source with a 300-400nm x-ray spot size and uses small-angle scattering to attain a detail detectability of 150-200nm. An object manipulator allows positioning and rotation with an accuracy of 150nm. The x-ray detector is based on an intensified CCD with single-photon sensitivity. A typical acquisition cycle for 3D reconstruction of the full object volume takes from 10 to 60 minutes, with the collection of several hundred angular views. Subsequent volumetric reconstruction produces results as a set of cross sections with isotropic voxel size down to 140 x 140 x 140nm, or as a 3D-model, which can be virtually manipulated and measured. This unique spatial resolution in non-invasive investigations gives previously unattainable 3D images in several application areas, such as composite materials, paper and wood microstructure, biomedical applications and others.

  16. X-ray microtomography determination of air-water interfacial area-water saturation relationships in sandy porous media.

    PubMed

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Harrold, Katherine H; Lieb-Lappen, Ross M

    2008-04-15

    In this work, total smooth air-water interfacial areas were measured for a series of nine natural and model sandy porous media as a function of water saturation using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Interfacial areas decreased linearly with water satuation, while the estimated maximum interfacial area compared favorably to the media geometric surface areas. Importantly, relative interfacial area (i.e., normalized by geometric surface area) versus water saturation plots for all media collapsed into a single linear cluster (r2 = 0.93), suggesting that geometric surface area is an important, and perhaps sufficient, descriptor of sandy media that governs total smooth interfacial area-water saturation relationships. Measured relationships were used to develop an empirical model for estimating interfacial area-water saturation relationships for sandy porous media. Model-based interfacial area estimates for independent media were generally slightly higher than interfacial areas measured using aqueous-phase interfacial tracer methods, which may indicate that microtomography captures regions of the air-water interface that are not accessible to aqueous-phase interfacial tracers. The empirical model presented here requires only average particle diameter and porosity as input parameters and can be used to readily estimate air-water interfacial area-water saturation relationships for sandy porous media. PMID:18497149

  17. Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Thomas M; Lapierre, Alain; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r(80%) = (212 ± 19)μm in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm(2) is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments. PMID:25085129

  18. Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Thomas M. Lapierre, Alain Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg

    2014-07-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r{sub 80%}=(212±19)μm in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm{sup 2} is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments.

  19. Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas M.; Lapierre, Alain; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r_{80%}=(212± 19)μm in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm2 is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments.

  20. Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhichao; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Bo Cheng, Chuanwei; Gu, Mu; Chen, Hong; Xue, Chaofan; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Liansheng; Wu, Yanqing; Tai, Renzhong

    2015-06-15

    Soft-X-ray interference lithography is utilized in combination with atomic layer deposition to prepare photonic crystal structures on the surface of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillator in order to extract the light otherwise trapped in the internal of scintillator due to total internal reflection. An enhancement with wavelength- and emergence angle-integration by 95.1% has been achieved. This method is advantageous to fabricate photonic crystal structures with large-area and high-index-contrast which enable a high-efficient coupling of evanescent field and the photonic crystal structures. Generally, the method demonstrated in this work is also suitable for many other light emitting devices where a large-area is required in the practical applications.

  1. Installation and commissioning of a large area coating system for neutron and X-ray optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Haque, Sk. Maidul; Misal, J.; Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K.; Sampathkumar, R.; Ajaykumar, Bhattacharya, Debarati; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2014-04-01

    A 9 meter long DC/RF sputtering cylindrical coating system which is designed and built indigenously for coating of neutron supermirrors and grazing incidence hard X-ray mirrors on large area substrates has been installed and commissioned recently. The performance of the system has been tested by depositing Ti films on glass substrate of 1500mm X 150mm size. By depositing Ti films on several small area c-Si substrates placed over the length and breadth of the substrate holder, and by subsequent characterization by GIXR measurement, it has been observed that films with bulk-like density and very low surface roughness can be obtained in the above system. The thickness uniformity achieved in the deposited films is within ±3.5% over the 1500mm length and within ±4.8% over the 150mm width.

  2. Installation and commissioning of a large area coating system for neutron and X-ray optical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, A. Haque, Sk. Maidul Misal, J. Sampathkumar, R.; Ajaykumar,; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2014-04-24

    A 9 meter long DC/RF sputtering cylindrical coating system which is designed and built indigenously for coating of neutron supermirrors and grazing incidence hard X-ray mirrors on large area substrates has been installed and commissioned recently. The performance of the system has been tested by depositing Ti films on glass substrate of 1500mm X 150mm size. By depositing Ti films on several small area c-Si substrates placed over the length and breadth of the substrate holder, and by subsequent characterization by GIXR measurement, it has been observed that films with bulk-like density and very low surface roughness can be obtained in the above system. The thickness uniformity achieved in the deposited films is within ±3.5% over the 1500mm length and within ±4.8% over the 150mm width.

  3. XSST/TRC rocket observations of July 13, 1982 flare. [X-ray Spectrometer, Spectrograph and Telescope/Transition Region Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Bonnet, Roger M.; Dame, Luc; Bruner, Marilyn; Acton, Loren W.

    1986-01-01

    The present analysis of UV filtergrams of the July 13, 1982 solar flare obtained by the XSST/TRC rocket experiments has used calibrated intensities of the flare components to directly estimate the Lyman-alpha line flux, C IV line flux, and excess 160-nm continuum temperature brighness over the underlying plage. The values obtained are small by comparison with other observed or calculated equivalent quantities from the Machado (1980) model of flare F1. The corresponding power required to heat up to the temperature minimum over the 1200 sq Mm area is found to be 3.6 x 10 to the 25th erg/sec for this small X-ray C6 flare, 7 min after the ground-based observed flare maximum.

  4. WE-E-18A-01: Large Area Avalanche Amorphous Selenium Sensors for Low Dose X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J; Goldan, A; Zhao, W; Tousignant, O; Leveille, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A large area indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being developed to achieve x-ray quantum noise limited low dose imaging. It uses a thin optical sensing layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se), known as High-Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP), to detect optical photons generated from a high resolution x-ray scintillator. We will report initial results in the fabrication of a solid-state HARP structure suitable for a large area FPI. Our objective is to establish the blocking layer structures and defect suppression mechanisms that provide stable and uniform avalanche gain. Methods: Samples were fabricated as follows: (1) ITO signal electrode. (2) Electron blocking layer. (3) A 15 micron layer of intrinsic a-Se. (4) Transparent hole blocking layer. (5) Multiple semitransparent bias electrodes to investigate avalanche gain uniformity over a large area. The sample was exposed to 50ps optical excitation pulses through the bias electrode. Transient time of flight (TOF) and integrated charge was measured. A charge transport simulation was developed to investigate the effects of varying blocking layer charge carrier mobility on defect suppression, avalanche gain and temporal performance. Results: Avalanche gain of ∼200 was achieved experimentally with our multi-layer HARP samples. Simulations using the experimental sensor structure produced the same magnitude of gain as a function of electric field. The simulation predicted that the high dark current at a point defect can be reduced by two orders of magnitude by blocking layer optimization which can prevent irreversible damage while normal operation remained unaffected. Conclusion: We presented the first solid state HARP structure directly scalable to a large area FPI. We have shown reproducible and uniform avalanche gain of 200. By reducing mobility of the blocking layers we can suppress defects and maintain stable avalanche. Future work will optimize the blocking layers to prevent lag

  5. Area X-ray or UV camera system for high-intensity beams

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Sasa; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Hau-Riege, Stefan , Marchesini, Stefano

    2010-03-02

    A system in one embodiment includes a source for directing a beam of radiation at a sample; a multilayer mirror having a face oriented at an angle of less than 90 degrees from an axis of the beam from the source, the mirror reflecting at least a portion of the radiation after the beam encounters a sample; and a pixellated detector for detecting radiation reflected by the mirror. A method in a further embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample; not reflecting at least a majority of the radiation that is not diffracted by the sample; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation. A method in yet another embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample using a multilayer mirror; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation.

  6. High throughput fabrication of large-area plasmonic color filters by soft-X-ray interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Libin; Hu, Xiaolin; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Liansheng; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Shumin; Tai, Renzhong; Fecht, Hans-Jorg; Zhang, Dong-Xian; Wang, Li-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Zhong

    2016-08-22

    Plasmonic color filters in mass production have been restricted from current fabrication technology, which impede their applications. Soft-X-ray interference lithography (XIL) has recently generated considerable interest as a newly developed technique for the production of periodic nano-structures with resolution theoretically below 4 nm. Here we ameliorate XIL by adding an order sorting aperture and designing the light path properly to achieve perfect-stitching nano-patterns and fast fabrication of large-area color filters. The fill factor of nanostructures prepared on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the transmission minimum of plasmonic color filters. By changing the fill factor, the color can be controlled flexibly, improving the utilization efficiency of the mask in XIL simultaneously. The calculated data agree well with the experimental results. Finally, an underlying mechanism has been uncovered after systematically analyzing the localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs) coupling in electric field distribution. PMID:27557190

  7. First light from a very large area pixel array for high-throughput x-ray polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Massai, M. M.; Sgrò, C.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.; Krummenacher, F.; de Oliveira, R.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a large active area (15x15mm2), high channel density (470 pixels/mm2), self-triggering CMOS analog chip that we have developed as pixelized charge collecting electrode of a Micropattern Gas Detector. This device, which represents a big step forward both in terms of size and performance, is the last version of three generations of custom ASICs of increasing complexity. The CMOS pixel array has the top metal layer patterned in a matrix of 105600 hexagonal pixels at 50μm pitch. Each pixel is directly connected to the underneath full electronics chain which has been realized in the remaining five metal and single poly-silicon layers of a standard 0.18μm CMOS VLSI technology. The chip has customizable self-triggering capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way it is possible to reduce significantly the readout time and the data volume by limiting the signal output only to those pixels belonging to the region of interest. The very small pixel area and the use of a deep sub-micron CMOS technology has brought the noise down to 50 electrons ENC. Results from in depth tests of this device when coupled to a fine pitch (50μm on a triangular pattern) Gas Electron Multiplier are presented. The matching of readout and gas amplification pitch allows getting optimal results. The application of this detector for Astronomical X-Ray Polarimetry is discussed. The experimental detector response to polarized and unpolarized X-ray radiation when working with two gas mixtures and two different photon energies is shown. Results from a full MonteCarlo simulation for several galactic and extragalactic astronomical sources are also reported.

  8. Combining X-Ray Imaging And Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Gary G.

    1988-02-01

    The use of x-rays as a light source for medical diagnosis has been around since the early 20th century. The use of x-rays as a tool in nondestructive testing (for industrial use) has been around almost as long. Photographic film has been the medium that converts the x-ray energy that it encounters into areas of light and dark depending on the amount of energy absorbed. Referring to industrial use of x-rays only, many systems have been manufactured that replaced the photographic film with a combination of x-rays, fluorescent screen, and a television camera. This type of system was mainly used as a nondestructive testing tool to inspect various products (such as tires) for internal flaws and always used an operator to make the decisions. In general, the images produced by such systems were poor in nature due to lack of contrast and noise. The improvements in digital image processing and complex algorithms have made it possible to combine machine vision and x-rays to address a whole new spectrum of applications that require automatic analysis for flaw inspection. The objective of this presentation will be to familiarize the audience with some of the techniques used to solve automatic real-time x-ray problems. References will be made to real applications in the aerospace, pharmaceutical, food, and automotive industries.

  9. Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography and Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test Measurements of Napl-Water Interfacial Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.; Janousek, H.; Murao, A.; Schnaar, G.

    2007-12-01

    Interfacial areas between an immiscible organic liquid (NAPL) and water were measured for two natural porous media using two methods, aqueous-phase interfacial partitioning tracer tests and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. The interfacial areas measured with the tracer tests were similar to previously reported values obtained with the method. The values were, however, significantly larger than those obtained from microtomography. Analysis of microtomography data collected before and after introduction of the interfacial tracer solution indicated that the surfactant tracer had minimal impact on fluid-phase configuration and interfacial areas under conditions associated with typical laboratory application. The disparity between the tracer-test and microtomography values is attributed primarily to the inability of the microtomography method to resolve interfacial area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity. This hypothesis is consistent with results recently reported for a comparison of microtomographic analysis and interfacial tracer tests conducted for an air-water system. The tracer-test method provides a measure of effective, total (capillary and film) interfacial area, whereas microtomography can be used to determine separately both capillary-associated and film-associated interfacial areas. Both methods appear to provide useful information for given applications. A key to their effective use is recognizing the specific nature of the information provided by each, as well as associated limitations.

  10. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOEpatents

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  11. X-ray Pulsation Searches with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an X-ray telescope with capabilities optimized for the study of the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through high-precision timing of rotation- and accretion-powered pulsars in the 0.2-12 keV band. It has large collecting area (twice that of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn camera), CCD-quality spectral resolution, and high-precision photon time tagging referenced to UTC through an onboard GPS receiver. NICER will begin its 18-month prime mission as an attached payload on the International Space Station around the end of 2016. I will describe the science planning for the pulsation search science working group, which is charged with searching for pulsations and studying flux modulation properties of pulsars and other neutron stars. A primary goal of our observations is to detect pulsations from new millisecond pulsars that will contribute to NICER’s studies of the neutron star equation of state through pulse profile modeling. Beyond that, our working group will search for pulsations in a range of source categories, including LMXBs, new X-ray transients that might be accreting millisecond pulsars, X-ray counterparts to unassociated Fermi LAT sources, gamma-ray binaries, isolated neutron stars, and ultra-luminous X-ray sources. I will survey our science plans and give an overview of our planned observations during NICER’s prime mission.

  12. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  13. X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

  14. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  15. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  16. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  17. Measuring Non-Wetting/Wetting Interfacial Area: Comparing Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography and Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narter, M. E.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that non-wetting/wetting interfacial areas measured with synchrotron X-ray microtomography are significantly smaller than those measured using the interfacial tracer test method for natural porous media. Research was conducted to evaluate the source of the disparity between these methods. It has been hypothesized that the disparity is due primarily to resolution constraints associated with microtomography, wherein the interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness is not measured. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted with glass beads that were shown to have no measureable surface roughness. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) was used as the model non-wetting fluid and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate was used as the interfacial tracer. Tracer tests yielded an average interfacial area of 2.8 +/- 5 1/cm while microtomography results produced an interfacial area of 3.4 +/- 2 1/cm. The values are similar for the two methods, indicating that the disparity observed for natural media is likely due to resolution limitations of microtomography.

  18. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  19. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  20. Large area silicon drift detectors for x-rays -- New results

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Patt, B.E.; Tull, C.R.; Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Bradley, J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1999-06-01

    Large area silicon drift detectors, consisting of 8 mm and 12 mm diameter hexagons, were fabricated on 0.35 mm thick high resistivity n-type silicon. An external FET and a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier were used for testing the prototype detectors. The detector performance was measured in the range {minus}75 to 25 C using Peltier cooling, and from 0.125 to 6 {micro}s amplifier shaping time. Measured energy resolutions were 159 eV FWHM and 263 eV FWHM for the 0.5 cm{sup 2} and 1 cm{sup 2} detectors, respectively (at 5.9 keV, {minus}75 C, 6 {micro}s shaping time). The uniformity of the detector response over the entire active area (measured using 560 nm light) was <0.5%.

  1. Large area silicon drift detectors for x-rays -- New results

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Patt, B.E.; Tull, C.R.; Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Bradley, J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1998-12-31

    Large area silicon drift detectors, consisting of 8 mm and 12 mm diameter hexagons, were fabricated on 0.35 mm thick high resistivity n-type silicon. An external FET and a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier were used for testing the prototype detectors. The detector performance was measured in the range 75 to 25 C using Peltier cooling, and from 0.125 to 6 {micro}s amplifier shaping time. Measured energy resolutions were 159 eV FWHM and 263 eV FWHM for the 0.5 cm{sup 2} and 1 cm{sup 2} detectors, respectively (at 5.9 keV, {minus}75 C, 6 {micro}s shaping time). The uniformity of the detector response over the entire active area (measured using 560 nm light) was < 0.5%.

  2. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  3. ACCOUNTING FOR CALIBRATION UNCERTAINTIES IN X-RAY ANALYSIS: EFFECTIVE AREAS IN SPECTRAL FITTING

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ratzlaff, Pete; Siemiginowska, Aneta E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: rpete@head.cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-04-20

    While considerable advance has been made to account for statistical uncertainties in astronomical analyses, systematic instrumental uncertainties have been generally ignored. This can be crucial to a proper interpretation of analysis results because instrumental calibration uncertainty is a form of systematic uncertainty. Ignoring it can underestimate error bars and introduce bias into the fitted values of model parameters. Accounting for such uncertainties currently requires extensive case-specific simulations if using existing analysis packages. Here, we present general statistical methods that incorporate calibration uncertainties into spectral analysis of high-energy data. We first present a method based on multiple imputation that can be applied with any fitting method, but is necessarily approximate. We then describe a more exact Bayesian approach that works in conjunction with a Markov chain Monte Carlo based fitting. We explore methods for improving computational efficiency, and in particular detail a method of summarizing calibration uncertainties with a principal component analysis of samples of plausible calibration files. This method is implemented using recently codified Chandra effective area uncertainties for low-resolution spectral analysis and is verified using both simulated and actual Chandra data. Our procedure for incorporating effective area uncertainty is easily generalized to other types of calibration uncertainties.

  4. Thin fused silica optics for a few arcsec angular resolution and large collecting area x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, O.; Civitani, M. M.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Campana, S.; Conconi, P.; Ghigo, M.; Mattaini, E.; Moretti, A.; Parodi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The implementation of a X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (< 1 arcsec Half Energy Width, HEW), but with a much larger throughput is a very attractive perspective, even if challenging. For such a mission the scientific opportunities, in particular for the study of the early Universe, would remain at the state of the art for the next decades. At the beginning of the new millennium the XEUS mission has been proposed, with an effective area of several m2 and an angular resolution better than 2 arcsec HEW. Unfortunately, after the initial study, this mission was not implemented, mainly due to the costs and the low level of technology readiness. Currently the most advanced proposal for such a kind of mission is the SMART-X project, led by CfA and involving several other US Institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area < 2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy in order to achieve the 1 arc sec HEW requirement. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. We will present the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than

  5. Thin fused silica optics for a high angular resolution and large collecting area X Ray telescope after Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M; Basso, Stefano; Campana, Sergio; Conconi, Paolo; Ghigo, Mauro; Mattaini, Enrico; Moretti, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of an X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (<1 arcsec Half Energy Width, HEW), but with a much larger throughput is very attractive, even if challenging. For such a mission the scientific opportunities, in particular for the study of the early Universe, would remain at the state of the art for the next decades. Initially the ESA-led XEUS mission was proposed, with an effective area of several m2 and an angular resolution better than 2 arcsec HEW. Unfortunately, this mission was not implemented, mainly due to the costs and the low level of technology readiness. Currently the most advanced proposal for such a mission is the SMART-X project, led by CfA together with other US institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area >2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. This paper deals with the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than 10 times larger than Chandra and an angular resolution of 1 arcsec HEW on axis and of a few arcsec off-axis across a large

  6. Large-Area Chemically Modified Graphene Films: Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization by Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.; Whittaker, L; Jaye, C; Baroudi, K; Fischer, D; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    A facile, rapid, and scalable electrophoretic deposition approach is developed for the fabrication of large-area chemically derived graphene films on conductive substrates based on the electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide components. Two distinctive approaches for fabricating conformal graphene films are developed. In the first approach, graphene oxide sheets are electrophoretically deposited from an aqueous solution after the oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide and the subsequent exfoliation of graphite oxide to graphene oxide. Next, the graphene oxide films are reduced via dip-coating in an aqueous solution of hydrazine. In the second approach, graphene oxide is reduced to graphene nanosheets in a strongly alkaline solution and the reduced graphene sheets are directly electrophoretically deposited onto conductive substrates. The film thickness can be modified by the deposition time and the obtained films span several square millimeters in area. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to study the surface chemistry, electronic band structure, and degree of alignment of the electrophoretically deposited films. Polarized NEXAFS measurements verify the presence of epoxide surface functionalities on the graphene basal planes and indicate significant recovery of extended p-bonded networks upon defunctionalization by hydrazine treatment. These measurements further indicate significantly improved alignment of the graphene sheet components of the films parallel to the substrate surface when defunctionalization is performed prior to electrophoretic deposition.

  7. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  8. Electron beam parallel X-ray generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, P.

    1967-01-01

    Broad X ray source produces a highly collimated beam of low energy X rays - a beam with 2 to 5 arc minutes of divergence at energies between 1 and 6 keV in less than 5 feet. The X ray beam is generated by electron bombardment of a target from a large area electron gun.

  9. Structural Dynamics of GaN Microcrystals in Evolutionary Selection Selective Area Growth probed by X-ray Microdiffraction

    PubMed Central

    Kachkanov, V.; Leung, B.; Song, J.; Zhang, Y.; Tsai, M.-C.; Yuan, G.; Han, J.; O'Donnell, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    A method to grow high quality, single crystalline semiconductor material irrespective of the substrate would allow a cost-effective improvement to functionality and performance of optoelectronic devices. Recently, a novel type of substrate-insensitive growth process called Evolutionary Selection Selective Area Growth (ES-SAG) has been proposed. Here we report the use of X-ray microdiffraction to study the structural properties of GaN microcrystals grown by ES-SAG. Utilizing high resolution in both direct and reciprocal spaces, we have unraveled structural dynamics of GaN microcrystals in growth structures of different dimensions. It has been found that the geometric proportions of the growth constrictions play an important role: 2.6 μm and 4.5 μm wide growth tunnels favor the evolutionary selection mechanism, contrary to the case of 8.6 μm growth tunnels. It was also found that GaN microcrystal ensembles are dominated by slight tensile strain irrespective of growth tunnel shape. PMID:24722064

  10. Assessment of effective radiation dose of an extremity CBCT, MSCT and conventional X ray for knee area using MOSFET dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Wolff, Jan; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the organ and effective doses in the knee area resulting from different commercially available multislice computed tomography devices (MSCT), one cone beam computed tomography device (CBCT) and one conventional X-ray radiography device using MOSFET dosemeters and an anthropomorphic RANDO knee phantom. Measurements of the MSCT devices resulted in effective doses ranging between 27 and 48 µSv. The CBCT measurements resulted in an effective dose of 12.6 µSv. The effective doses attained using the conventional radiography device were 1.8 µSv for lateral and 1.2 µSv for anterior-posterior projections. The effective dose resulting from conventional radiography was considerably lower than those recorded for the CBCT and MSCT devices. The MSCT effective dose results were two to four times higher than those measured on the CBCT device. This study demonstrates that CBCT can be regarded as a potential low-dose 3D imaging technique for knee examinations. PMID:23825221

  11. Bent crystal X-ray topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A television X-ray topographic camera system was constructed. The system differs from the previous system in that it incorporates the X-ray TV imaging system and has a semi-automatic wafer loading system. Also the X-ray diffraction is in a vertical plane. This feature makes wafer loading easier and makes the system compatible with any commercial X-ray generating system. Topographs and results obtained from a study of the diffraction contrast variation with impurity concentration for both boron implanted and boron diffused silicon are included.

  12. X-ray satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the second quarter 1985 development of the X-ray satellite project is presented. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to plan and that the projected launch date of September 9, 1987 is on schedule. An overview of the work completed and underway on the systems, subsystems, payload, assembly, ground equipment and interfaces is presented. Problem areas shown include cost increases in the area of focal instrumentation, the star sensor light scattering requirements, and postponements in the data transmission subsystems.

  13. Microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Kun; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) was emerged as a new hybrid imaging modality, in which the x-rays are used to excite phosphors emitting optical photons to be measured for imaging. In this paper, we reported a microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography (microXLCT) with a spatial resolution up to hundreds of micrometers for deep targets. We use a superfine x-ray pencil beam to scan the phosphor targets. The superfine x-ray pencil beam is generated by a small collimator mounted in front of a powerful x-ray tube (93212, Oxford Instrument). A CT detector is used to image the x-ray beam. We have generated an x-ray beam with a diameter of 192 micrometers with a collimator of 100 micrometers in diameter. The emitted optical photons on the top surface of phantom are reflected by a mirror and acquired by an electron multiplier charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera (C9100-13, Hamamatsu Photonics). The microXLCT imaging system is built inside an x-ray shielding and light tight cabinet. The EMCCD camera is placed in a lead box. All the imaging components are controlled by a VC++ program. The optical photon propagation is modeled with the diffusion equation solved by the finite element method. We have applied different regularization methods including L2 and L1 in the microXLCT reconstruction algorithms. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments are used to validate the microXLCT imaging system.

  14. Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

    2011-09-01

    This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

  15. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  16. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  17. X Ray Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balchin, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some aspects in X-ray topography, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)

  18. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... degenerative) Bone tumor Broken bone (fracture) Dislocated bone Osteomyelitis (infection) Other conditions for which the test may ... Bone tumor Bone x-ray Broken bone Clubfoot Osteomyelitis X-ray Update Date 10/22/2014 Updated ...

  19. Characterization of imaging performance of a large-area CMOS active-pixel detector for low-energy X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwy Lim, Chang; Yun, Seungman; Chul Han, Jong; Kim, Ho Kyung; Farrier, Michael G.; Graeve Achterkirchen, Thorsten; McDonald, Mike; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2011-10-01

    We report the imaging characteristics of the recently developed large-area complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel detector for low-energy digital X-ray imaging applications. The detector consists of a scintillator to convert X-ray into light and a photodiode pixel array made by the CMOS fabrication process to convert light into charge signals. Between two layers, we introduce a fiber-optic faceplate (FOP) to avoid direct absorption of X-ray photons in the photodiode array. A single pixel is composed of a photodiode and three transistors, and the pixel pitch is 96 μm. The imaging characteristics of the detector have been investigated in terms of modulation-transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). From the measured results, the MTF at the Nyquist frequency is about 20% and the DQE around zero-spatial frequency is about 40%. Simple cascaded linear-systems analysis has showed that the FOP prevents direct absorption of X-ray photons within the CMOS photodiode array, leading to a lower NPS and consequently improved DQE especially at high spatial frequencies.

  20. X-Ray Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  1. X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  2. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  3. Sinus x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH Schaefer- ...

  4. X-ray satellite (Rosat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the current status of the ROSAT X-Ray satellite project is given. Areas discussed include an overview of problem areas, systems and mechanical subsystems, the electrical subsystem, power supply, data processing and transmission, the wide field camera, ground support equipment and the production scheduling. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to schedule, including the hardware production and costs. However, it is stated that estimated additional costs will exceed the plan. The previous schedule for production of the flight model will no longer be met. A modified milestone plan has been worked out with Dornier Systems. The current working schedule calls for a launch data of December 21, 1987; however, this does not take into account a 4-week buffer prior to transporting the flight model to the launch site. As of the date of this report, milestone M5 has been met. Previous problems with the gold vapor deposition on the flight model mirror due to contamination have been eliminated.

  5. Nanometer x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.

    1999-10-01

    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  6. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of research activities carried out in the area of cosmic X-ray physics is presented. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer DXS which has been flown twice as a rocket payload is described. The observation times proved to be too small for meaningful X-ray data to be obtained. Data collection and reduction activities from the Ultra-Soft X-ray background (UXT) instrument are described. UXT consists of three mechanically-collimated X-ray gas proportional counters with window/filter combinations which allow measurements in three energy bands, Be (80-110 eV), B (90-187 eV), and O (e84-532 eV). The Be band measurements provide an important constraint on local absorption of X-rays from the hot component of the local interstellar medium. Work has also continued on the development of a calorimetric detector for high-resolution spectroscopy in the 0.1 keV - 8keV energy range.

  7. Medical x-ray sensitive apparatus based on CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedenko, Valeri G.; Phajnberg, E.; Krasnjuk, Andrew A.; Stenin, Vladimir J.; Larionov, S.; Salnikova, O.; Shilin, Victor A.; Screalev, Alexander S.

    1997-08-01

    Charge-coupled devices have possibility to sense X-rays. The X-ray sensitivity of CCDs is higher than the same for X-ray films. We have designed the experimental miniaturized X-ray CCD camera for dental practice and diagnosis. The CCD analog output signals converse to a digital form, the digital signals are processing by a computer and visible images are forming at the display. The problems of creation and design of X-ray sensitive large format CCD cameras for hard and cancer diagnosis are described.

  8. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOEpatents

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  9. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOEpatents

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  10. Development of a large-area CMOS-based detector for real-time x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Sung Kyn; Park, Sung Kyu; Hwang, Sung Ha; Im, Dong Ak; Kosonen, Jari; Kim, Tae Woo; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2010-04-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APSs) with high electrical and optical performances are now being attractive for digital radiography (DR) and dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In this study, we report our prototype CMOS-based detectors capable of real-time imaging. The field-of-view of the detector is 12 × 14.4 cm. The detector employs a CsI:Tl scintillator as an x-ray-to-light converter. The electrical performance of the CMOS APS, such as readout noise and full-well capacity, was evaluated. The x-ray imaging characteristics of the detector were evaluated in terms of characteristic curve, pre-sampling modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, detective quantum efficiency, and image lag. The overall performance of the detector is demonstrated with phantom images obtained for DR and CBCT applications. The detailed development description and measurement results are addressed. With the results, we suggest that the prototype CMOS-based detector has the potential for CBCT and real-time x-ray imaging applications.

  11. On R-W1 as A Diagnostic to Discover Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in Wide-area X-Ray Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Civano, Francesca; Brusa, Marcella; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Gallagher, Sarah; Urry, C. Meg; Cales, Sabrina; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Greene, Jenny E.; Komossa, S.; Merloni, Andrea; Mroczkowski, Tony; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-02-01

    Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of WISE and the 35% and 50% sky coverage from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of mR (optical) - {m}3.4μ {{m}} (mid-infrared), hereafter R-W1, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the ˜16.5 deg2 Stripe 82 X-ray survey data as a test bed to compare R-W1 with R - K, an oft-used obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection criterion, and examine where different classes of objects lie in this parameter space. Most stars follow a well-defined path in R - K versus R-W1 space. We demonstrate that optically normal galaxies hosting X-ray AGNs at redshifts 0.5\\lt z\\lt 1 can be recovered with an R-W1\\gt 4 color cut, while they typically are not selected as AGNs based on their W1-W2 colors. Additionally, different observed X-ray luminosity bins favor different regions in R-W1 parameter space: moderate-luminosity AGNs (1043 erg {{{s}}}-1\\lt {L}0.5-10{keV}\\lt {10}44 erg s-1) tend to have red colors, while the highest-luminosity AGNs ({L}0.5-10{keV}\\gt {10}45 erg s-1) have bluer colors; higher spectroscopic completeness of the Stripe 82X sample is needed to determine whether this is a selection effect or an intrinsic property. Finally, we parameterize X-ray obscuration of Stripe 82X AGNs by calculating their hardness ratios (HRs) and find no clear trends between HR and optical reddening. Our results will help inform best-effort practices in following up obscured AGN candidates in current and future wide-area, shallow X-ray surveys, including the all-sky eROSITA mission.

  12. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation-based feasibility study of a dose-area product meter built into a collimator for diagnostic X-ray.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunji; Park, MinSeok; Kim, Jungsu; Seo, Deoknam; Choi, Inseok; Jeong, Hoiwoun; Kim, Jungmin

    2014-12-01

    According to the International Electro-technical Commission, manufacturers of X-ray equipment should indicate the number of radiation doses to which a patient can be exposed. Dose-area product (DAP) meters are readily available devices that provide dose indices. Collimators are the most commonly employed radiation beam restrictors in X-ray equipment. DAP meters are attached to the lower surface of a collimator. A DAP meter consists of a chamber and electronics. This separation makes it difficult for operators to maintain the accuracy of a DAP meter. Developing a comprehensive system that has a DAP meter in place of a mirror in the collimator would be effective for measuring, recording the dose and maintaining the quality of the DAP meter. This study was conducted through experimental measurements and a simulation. A DAP meter built into a collimator was found to be feasible when its reading was multiplied by a correction factor. PMID:24353031

  14. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is a two- ... Exams Dental Cone Beam CT X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety About this Site ...

  15. High resolution solar X-ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.

  16. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  18. Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large-area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high-aspect-ratio SU-8 micromold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ye; Avila-Munoz, Alfredo; Tao, Sheng; Gu, Zhihua; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2002-09-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is known for its large area imaging applications because of its high photoconductivity and high absorption coefficient in the visible light range. This material can be also applied to X-ray imaging when coupled with a uniform scintillation (e.g. Gd2O2S phosphor) film integrated on top of a 2-D detection array. A thick phosphor layer is the prerequisite for high X-ray conversion efficiency. In reality, however, there may be significant crosstalk between adjacent pixels thus undermining spatial resolution. This paper introduces a high aspect ratio microstructure with the new photoresist SU-8 epoxy, which limits the phosphor to regions above the photodiodes. The differences between the above scheme and that of a continuous phosphor layer are compared in terms of the absorption efficiency, the conversion efficiency, and the modulation transfer function (MTF). The measurements are carried out in a medical testing environment with X-ray source voltages of 40-120kVp. The results show a great improvement in the spatial resolution.

  19. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    PubMed

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad. PMID:27577765

  20. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  1. Controlling x-rays with light.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Allison, T. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Kanter, E. P.; Krassig, B.; Varma, H. R.; Rude, B.; Santra, R.; Belkacem, A.; Young, L.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; LBNL; Univ. of California at Berkley; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largely unexplored area of ultrafast X-ray science is the use of light to control how X-rays interact with matter. To extend control concepts established for long-wavelength probes to the X-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here, an intense optical control pulse is observed to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for X-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of X-ray transparency relevant to ultrafast X-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond X-ray pulse. The ability to control X-ray-matter interactions with light will create new opportunities for present and next-generation X-ray light sources.

  2. A robust large area x-ray imaging system based on 100 μ m thick Gas Electron Multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, F. D.; Mir, J. A.; Carvalho, X.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Natal da Luz, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed an imaging detector based on a non-standard GEM, made from a 100 μ m thick kapton foil (2-fold thicker than standard GEM's). The 100 micron thick GEM is produced using the same wet etching technique as the standard GEM and is less prone to the damage caused by discharges, creating a robust detector that can safely operate at high gain. In this work we present the results obtained with a cascaded gaseous electron multiplier composed by two 100 micron thick GEM and a 10× 10 cm2 bi-dimensional readout electrode with resistive charge division. We have recorded energy resolution of 21% and charge gains above 104 when the detector was irradiated with 5.9 keV X-rays emitted by a 55Fe radioactive source. We also present 10× 10 cm2 images acquired with the detector when irradiated with X-rays. The minimum position resolution recorded was 1.7 mm.

  3. One-dimensional space resolving flat-field holographic grating soft x-ray framing camera spectrograph for laser plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Gang; Hu Zhimin; Li Hang; Zhao Yang; Shang Wanli; Zhu Tuo; Wei Minxi; Yang Guohong; Zhang Jiyan; Yang Jiamin

    2011-04-15

    A 1D space resolving x-ray spectrum diagnostic system has been developed to study the radiation opacity of hot plasma on SG-II laser facility. The diagnostic system consists of a 2400 lines/mm flat-field holographic grating and a gated microchannel plate coupled with an optical CCD and covers the wavelength range of 5-50 A. The holographic grating was compared with a ruled one by measuring the emission spectra from a laser-produced molybdenum plasma. The results indicate that the holographic grating possesses better sensitivity than the ruled grating having nearly similar spectral resolution. The spectrograph has been used in radiative opacity measurement of Fe plasma. Simultaneous measurements of the backlight source and the transmission spectrum in appointed time range in one shot have been accomplished successfully with the holographic grating spectrometer. The 2p-3d transition absorption of Fe plasma near 15.5A in has been observed clearly.

  4. One-dimensional space resolving flat-field holographic grating soft x-ray framing camera spectrograph for laser plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gang; Hu, Zhimin; Li, Hang; Zhao, Yang; Shang, Wanli; Zhu, Tuo; Wei, Minxi; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Yang, Jiamin

    2011-04-01

    A 1D space resolving x-ray spectrum diagnostic system has been developed to study the radiation opacity of hot plasma on SG-II laser facility. The diagnostic system consists of a 2400 lines/mm flat-field holographic grating and a gated microchannel plate coupled with an optical CCD and covers the wavelength range of 5-50 Å. The holographic grating was compared with a ruled one by measuring the emission spectra from a laser-produced molybdenum plasma. The results indicate that the holographic grating possesses better sensitivity than the ruled grating having nearly similar spectral resolution. The spectrograph has been used in radiative opacity measurement of Fe plasma. Simultaneous measurements of the backlight source and the transmission spectrum in appointed time range in one shot have been accomplished successfully with the holographic grating spectrometer. The 2p-3d transition absorption of Fe plasma near 15.5 Å in has been observed clearly. PMID:21528997

  5. One-dimensional space resolving flat-field holographic grating soft x-ray framing camera spectrograph for laser plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gang; Hu, Zhimin; Li, Hang; Zhao, Yang; Shang, Wanli; Zhu, Tuo; Wei, Minxi; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Yang, Jiamin

    2011-04-01

    A 1D space resolving x-ray spectrum diagnostic system has been developed to study the radiation opacity of hot plasma on SG-II laser facility. The diagnostic system consists of a 2400 lines/mm flat-field holographic grating and a gated microchannel plate coupled with an optical CCD and covers the wavelength range of 5-50 Å. The holographic grating was compared with a ruled one by measuring the emission spectra from a laser-produced molybdenum plasma. The results indicate that the holographic grating possesses better sensitivity than the ruled grating having nearly similar spectral resolution. The spectrograph has been used in radiative opacity measurement of Fe plasma. Simultaneous measurements of the backlight source and the transmission spectrum in appointed time range in one shot have been accomplished successfully with the holographic grating spectrometer. The 2p-3d transition absorption of Fe plasma near 15.5Å in has been observed clearly.

  6. Biogeochemical reductive release of soil embedded arsenate around a crater area (Guandu) in northern Taiwan using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Ying; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Jang, Ling-Yun; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates biogeochemical reductive release of arsenate from beudantite into solution in a crater area in northern Taiwan, using a combination of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Total arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil were more than 200 mg/kg. Over four months of laboratory experiments, less than 0.8% As was released into solution after reduction experiments. The 71% to 83% As was chemically reduced into arsenite (As(III)) and partially weathering into the soluble phase. The kinetic dissolution and re-precipitation of As, Fe, Pb and sulfate in this area of paddy soils merits further study. PMID:23923437

  7. Aperiodic X-ray flux variability of EX Hya and the area of the base of the accretion column at the white dwarf surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semena, A. N.; Revnivtsev, M. G.

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine the characteristic cooling time of the accretion flowmatter near the surface of the magnetic white dwarf in the binary system EX Hya. Most of the X-ray photons in such binary systems are produced in an optically thin hot plasma with a temperature above 10 keV heated when the matter passes through the shock near the white dwarf surface. The total X-ray luminosity is determined by the matter accumulated below the shock in its cooling time. Thus, the X-ray luminosity variability related to the variations in the accretion rate onto the white dwarf surface must be suppressed at frequencies higher than the inverse cooling time. If the optically thin plasma radiation dominates in the rate of energy losses by the heated matter, which is true for white dwarfs with moderately strong magnetic fields, less than 1-10 MG, then the matter cooling time can give an estimate of the matter density in the accretion column. Given the accretion rate and the matter density in the accretion column at the white dwarf surface, the area of the accretion channel can be estimated. We have analyzed all of the currently available observational data for one of the brightest intermediate polars in the X-ray sky, EX Hya, from the RXTE and XMM-Newton observatories. The power spectra of its aperiodic variability have given an upper limit on the cooling time of the hot plasma: <1.5-2 s. For the observed accretion rate, ×1015 g s-1, this corresponds to a matter density below the shock surface ≳1016 cm-3 and an area of the base of the accretion channel no more than <4.6 × 1015 cm2. Using the information about the maximum geometrical size of the accretion channel obtained by analyzing X-ray eclipses in the binary system EX Hya, we have derived an upper limit on the thickness of the flow over the surface of the magnetosphere near the white dwarf surface, ≲3 × 106 cm, and the plasma penetration depth at the magnetospheric boundary, Δ r/r ≲ 6 × 10-3.

  8. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  9. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  10. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  11. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  12. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  13. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  14. Measured Air-Water and Napl-Water Interfacial Areas for Sandy Porous Media: Comparing X-Ray Microtomography and Partitioning Tracer Test Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M.; Schnaar, G.; Murao, A.; Sheng, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water-NAPL and water-air interfacial areas were measured for sandy, natural porous media using two methods, partitioning tracer tests and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. The tracer-test method provides a measure of effective total (capillary and film) interfacial area, whereas microtomography can be used to determine both capillary-associated and total areas. The areas measured with the tracer-test method were similar to previously reported values. The areas measured with the microtomography method were similar to values obtained from a previously reported computational-based analysis. The areas obtained with the tracer- test method were significantly larger than those obtained from microtomography. The disparity between the tracer-test and microtomography values is attributed to the inability of the microtomography method to resolve interfacial area associated with microscopic surface heterogeneity.

  15. X-ray monochromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray monochromator is described, wherin a housing supports a plurality of mirrors forming a plurality of opposed mirror faces in parallel with each other and having thereon multilayer coatings, with each of said pairs of mirror faces being provided with identical coatings which are different from the coatings on the other pairs of mirror faces such that each pair of mirror faces has a peak x-ray reflection at a different wavelength regime. The housing is moveable to bring into a polychromatic x-ray beam that pair of mirror faces having the best x-ray reflection for the desired wavelength, with the mirrors being pivotable to move the mirror faces to that angle of incidence at which the peak reflectivity of the desired wavelength x-rays occurs.

  16. The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T.; Edgar, R. J.; Juda, M.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Mccammon, D.; Snowden, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Skinner, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment, or 'DXS', is designed to measure the spectrum of the low-energy diffuse X-ray background with about 10 eV energy resolution and 15-deg spatial resolution. During a 5-day Space Shuttle mission, DXS is to measure the spectrum of ten 15 x 15 deg regions lying along a single 150-deg-long great circle arc on the sky. DXS carries two large-area X-ray Bragg spectrometers for the 44-84 A wavelength range; these permit measurement of the wavelength spectrum of the cosmic low-energy diffuse X-ray background with good spectral resolution.

  17. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  18. Large area quantitative X-ray mapping of (U,Pu)O 2 nuclear fuel pellets using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémier, S.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walker, C. T.

    2003-04-01

    The work presented is an example of how large area compositional mapping (≥1 mm 2) can be used to provide quantitative information on element distribution and specimen homogeneity. High-resolution was accomplished by producing a collage of X-ray maps acquired using classical conditions; magnification ×400, spatial resolution 256×256 pixels. The individual images, each measuring roughly 250×250 μm, were converted to quantitative maps using the HIMAX® software package and the XMAS® matrix correction from SAMx. The quantitative gray-level large area X-ray picture was pieced together using the 'Multiple Image Alignment' function of the ANALYSIS® image processing software. This software was also used to convert the gray-level pictures to false color images. The specimens investigated were transverse sections of MOX fuel pellets. Results are presented for the distribution of Pu by area fraction and cumulative area fraction, the size distribution of regions of high Pu concentration and average separation of these regions.

  19. X-Ray Computed Tomography Monitors Damage in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center recently codeveloped a state-of-the-art x-ray CT facility (designated SMS SMARTSCAN model 100-112 CITA by Scientific Measurement Systems, Inc., Austin, Texas). This multipurpose, modularized, digital x-ray facility includes an imaging system for digital radiography, CT, and computed laminography. The system consists of a 160-kV microfocus x-ray source, a solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) area detector, a five-axis object-positioning subassembly, and a Sun SPARCstation-based computer system that controls data acquisition and image processing. The x-ray source provides a beam spot size down to 3 microns. The area detector system consists of a 50- by 50- by 3-mm-thick terbium-doped glass fiber-optic scintillation screen, a right-angle mirror, and a scientific-grade, digital CCD camera with a resolution of 1000 by 1018 pixels and 10-bit digitization at ambient cooling. The digital output is recorded with a high-speed, 16-bit frame grabber that allows data to be binned. The detector can be configured to provide a small field-of-view, approximately 45 by 45 mm in cross section, or a larger field-of-view, approximately 60 by 60 mm in cross section. Whenever the highest spatial resolution is desired, the small field-of-view is used, and for larger samples with some reduction in spatial resolution, the larger field-of-view is used.

  20. Development of a portable X-ray and gamma-ray detector instrument and imaging camera for use in radioactive and hazardous materials management

    SciTech Connect

    Scyoc, J.M. van; James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop instruments for use in the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Devices for identifying and imaging such wastes are critical to developing environmental remediation strategies. Field portable units are required to enable the on-site analysis of solids, liquids, and gas effluents. Red mercuric iodide ({alpha}-HgI{sub 2}) is a semiconductor material that can be operated as a high-energy-resolution radiation detector at ambient temperatures. This property provides the needed performance of conventional germanium- and silicon-based devices, while eliminating the need for the cryogenic cooling of such instruments. The first year of this project focused on improving the materials properties of the mercuric iodide to enable the new sensor technology; in particular the charge carrier traps limiting device performance were determined and eliminated. The second year involved the development of a field portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer for compositional analyses. The third and final year of the project focused on the development of imaging sensors to provide the capability for mapping the composition of waste masses. This project resulted in instruments useful not only for managing hazardous and radioactive wastes, but also in a variety of industrial and national security applications.

  1. X-ray Bursts and Oscillations: Prospects with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mahmoodifar, Simin

    2016-04-01

    X-ray bursts (Type I) are produced by thermonuclear flashes in the accreted surface layers of some neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs). High frequency oscillations are observed during some of these bursts. These "burst oscillations" result from rotational modulation of an inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the neutron star surface induced by ignition and subsequent spreading of the thermonuclear flash. They provide a means to measure the spin rates of accreting neutron stars and since the burst emission arises from the neutron star surface, a unique probe of neutron star structure. To date, virtually all observations of such oscillations have been made with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We have developed a burst model employing the Schwarzschild + Doppler approximation for surface emission coupled with realistic flame spreading geometries and burst cooling to compute light curves and oscillation amplitudes for both the rising and cooling phases of X-ray bursts. We use this model to explore the capabilities for the Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) to detect and study burst oscillations, particularly in the energy band below 3 keV. NICER is an International Space Station attached payload (X-ray telescope) with capabilities optimized for fast timing of neutron stars in the 0.2-10 keV band. It has large collecting area (twice that of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn camera), CCD-quality spectral resolution, and high-precision time tagging referenced to UTC through an onboard GPS receiver. NICER will begin its 18-month prime mission around the end of 2016. We will present results of simulated X-ray bursts with NICER that explore its burst oscillation detection capabilities and prospects for inferring neutron star properties from phase-resolved spectra.

  2. Quantitative radiography enabled by slot collimation and a novel scatter correction technique on a large-area flat panel x-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Meghan L.; Boden, Adam E.; Sabol, John M.

    2009-02-01

    In addition to causing loss of contrast and blurring in an image, scatter also makes quantitative measurements of xray attenuation impossible. Many devices, methods, and models have been developed to eliminate, estimate, and correct for the effects of scatter. Although these techniques can reduce the impact of scatter in a large-area image, no methods have proven to be practical and sufficient to enable quantitative analysis of image data in a routine clinical setting. This paper describes a method of scatter correction which uses moderate x-ray collimation in combination with a correction algorithm operating on data obtained from large-area flat panel detector images. The method involves acquiring slot collimated images of the object, and utilizing information from outside of the collimated region, in addition to a priori data, to estimate the scatter within the collimated region. This method requires no increase dose to the patient while providing high image quality and accurate estimates of the primary x-ray data. This scatter correction technique was validated through beam stop experiments and comparison of theoretically calculated and measured contrast of thin aluminum and polymethylmethacrelate objects. Measurements taken with various background material thicknesses, both with and without a grid, showed that the slot-scatter corrected contrast and the theoretical contrast were not significantly different given a 99% confidence interval. However, the uncorrected contrast was found to be significantly different from the corrected and theoretical contrasts. These findings indicate that this method of scatter correction can eliminate the effect of scatter on contrast and potentially enable quantitative x-ray imaging.

  3. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  4. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... The test is done in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  5. The Astro-H X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; International Astro-H Team

    2011-09-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (JAXA/ISAS) is developing a major new high-energy astrophysics observatory. Astro-H will provide broadband, high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging over the 0.3-600 keV band using four co-aligned instruments operated simultaneously. The mission will have major US participation supported by NASA as well as contributions from Europe and Canada. For high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, the soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) will feature an x-ray calorimeter spectrometer and x-ray mirror. The instrument will cover the energy range 0.3-12 keV and is expected to have an energy resolution better than 5 eV (FWHM) with a collecting area of over 200 cm2 at 6 keV. The cooling system will have both cryogenic and mechanical coolers for up to five years of operation. The SXS is a joint collaboration between NASA/GSFC, ISAS/JAXA and SRON. As part of this investigation, a fully supported US guest observer program is planned. Other instruments on Astro-H include a soft x-ray imager (SXI) consisting of a large area CCD camera with 35 arcmin field-of-view and a hard x-ray imager (HXI) that uses focusing x-ray optics combined with both double-sided silicon strip detectors and CdTe array. The 12-m focal length optical system will provide an effective area of ˜ 300 cm2 at 30 keV, and high sensitivity from 10-80 keV using multilayer x-ray mirrors with 2-4 arcmin imaging. The soft gamma detector (SGD) is a non-focusing instrument based on a new, narrow-field-of-view Compton telescope with an energy range of 10-600 keV and sensitivity at 300 keV that is more than 10 times higher than Suzaku. Astro-H is planned for launch in 2014 aboard a JAXA HII-A rocket.

  6. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  7. X-ray transmission microscope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Rosenberger, Franz E.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the third 6 month period, from February 28, 1995 to August 31, 1995, under this contract. The main efforts during this period were the construction of the X-ray furnace, evaluation and selection of the CCD technology for the X-ray camera, solidification experiments with Al alloys and Al-zirconia composites in the prototype furnace, evaluation of specimens for the particle pushing flight experiment - PEPSI, measurements of emitted spectra from X-ray source, testing of the high resolution X-ray test targets, and the establishment of criteria for and selection of peripheral equipment. In addition to these tasks, two presentations were prepared in this period; one for the AIAA Microgravity Symposium and another for the Gordon Conference on Gravitational Effects in Pyisico-Chemical Systems.

  8. First measurement of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescope performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Hahne, Devin J.

    2012-09-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astrophysics satellite under the development led by Japan and US. It will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments, that are being developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter instrument and the other for an X-ray CCD camera, both covering the X-ray energy band below 15 keV. The SXT Engineering Model (EM) quadrant was successfully completed and has shown big improvements in the X-ray performance from Suzaku owing to number of changes made. The EM was tested at the Goddard 100-m X-ray beamline (diverging beam) and the ISAS/JAXA beamline (pencil beam scan). The angular resolution was found to be 1.1 arcmin at Goddard, while 1.27 arcmin at ISAS, and the effective area was 157 and 122 cm2 at 1 and 6 keV, respectively. The discrepancy in the angular resolution can be explained by the difference of the measurement method, i.e. the diverging beam vs. the pencil beam scan. The development of the first Flight Model (FM) is underway. The first three quadrants are completed so far and show about 1 arcmin (HPD) angular resolution. We expect that the first FM SXT will have about 1 arcmin resolution, which will be completed in September, 2012.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray microtransections: a non invasive approach for epileptic seizures arising from eloquent cortical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyatos, B.; Nemoz, C.; Chabrol, T.; Potez, M.; Bräuer, E.; Renaud, L.; Pernet-Gallay, K.; Estève, F.; David, O.; Kahane, P.; Laissue, J. A.; Depaulis, A.; Serduc, R.

    2016-06-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray (SRX) microbeams deposit high radiation doses to submillimetric targets whilst minimizing irradiation of neighboring healthy tissue. We developed a new radiosurgical method which demonstrably transects cortical brain tissue without affecting adjacent regions. We made such image-guided SRX microtransections in the left somatosensory cortex in a rat model of generalized epilepsy using high radiation doses (820 Gy) in thin (200 μm) parallel slices of tissue. This procedure, targeting the brain volume from which seizures arose, altered the abnormal neuronal activities for at least 9 weeks, as evidenced by a decrease of seizure power and coherence between tissue slices in comparison to the contralateral cortex. The brain tissue located between transections stayed histologically normal, while the irradiated micro-slices remained devoid of myelin and neurons two months after irradiation. This pre-clinical proof of concept highlights the translational potential of non-invasive SRX transections for treating epilepsies that are not eligible for resective surgery.

  10. Synchrotron X-ray microtransections: a non invasive approach for epileptic seizures arising from eloquent cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Pouyatos, B.; Nemoz, C.; Chabrol, T.; Potez, M.; Bräuer, E.; Renaud, L.; Pernet-Gallay, K.; Estève, F.; David, O.; Kahane, P.; Laissue, J. A.; Depaulis, A.; Serduc, R.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray (SRX) microbeams deposit high radiation doses to submillimetric targets whilst minimizing irradiation of neighboring healthy tissue. We developed a new radiosurgical method which demonstrably transects cortical brain tissue without affecting adjacent regions. We made such image-guided SRX microtransections in the left somatosensory cortex in a rat model of generalized epilepsy using high radiation doses (820 Gy) in thin (200 μm) parallel slices of tissue. This procedure, targeting the brain volume from which seizures arose, altered the abnormal neuronal activities for at least 9 weeks, as evidenced by a decrease of seizure power and coherence between tissue slices in comparison to the contralateral cortex. The brain tissue located between transections stayed histologically normal, while the irradiated micro-slices remained devoid of myelin and neurons two months after irradiation. This pre-clinical proof of concept highlights the translational potential of non-invasive SRX transections for treating epilepsies that are not eligible for resective surgery. PMID:27264273

  11. Synchrotron X-ray microtransections: a non invasive approach for epileptic seizures arising from eloquent cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Pouyatos, B; Nemoz, C; Chabrol, T; Potez, M; Bräuer, E; Renaud, L; Pernet-Gallay, K; Estève, F; David, O; Kahane, P; Laissue, J A; Depaulis, A; Serduc, R

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray (SRX) microbeams deposit high radiation doses to submillimetric targets whilst minimizing irradiation of neighboring healthy tissue. We developed a new radiosurgical method which demonstrably transects cortical brain tissue without affecting adjacent regions. We made such image-guided SRX microtransections in the left somatosensory cortex in a rat model of generalized epilepsy using high radiation doses (820 Gy) in thin (200 μm) parallel slices of tissue. This procedure, targeting the brain volume from which seizures arose, altered the abnormal neuronal activities for at least 9 weeks, as evidenced by a decrease of seizure power and coherence between tissue slices in comparison to the contralateral cortex. The brain tissue located between transections stayed histologically normal, while the irradiated micro-slices remained devoid of myelin and neurons two months after irradiation. This pre-clinical proof of concept highlights the translational potential of non-invasive SRX transections for treating epilepsies that are not eligible for resective surgery. PMID:27264273

  12. Medical X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ... and Exporting Electronic Products Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ...

  13. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... or impacted teeth The presence and extent of dental caries (cavities) Bone damage (such as from periodontitis ) Abscessed ... Dental x-rays can reveal dental cavities (tooth decay) before they ... take yearly bitewings for the early development of cavities.

  14. X-Ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  15. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  16. Bone x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  17. X-rays and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. PMID:26288956

  18. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

  19. Instrument Development for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current x-ray observatories such as Chandra and XMM-Newton have delivered spectacular results at soft-x-ray energies thanks to their grazing incidence mirrors. To continue these advances necessitates the development of mirrors with even larger collecting areas, yet within manageable weights and budgets, and focal detectors with improved energy resolution. At higher energies where x-ray critical-grazing angles become very small, x-ray optics have typically not been employed and thus this region remains relatively unexplored at high sensitivity levels and fine angular resolutions. This situation is changing with the development of hard-x-ray optics carried aloft by high-altitude balloons, which promise to bring about dramatic advances. This presentation will review developments in all these areas.

  20. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  1. Lifting the veil on the X-ray universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    ESA's X-ray Multi Mirror mission - XMM - is the second Cornerstone in ESA's Long Term Scientific Programme (*). This new X-ray space telescope promises even more discoveries. With the large collecting area of its mirrors and the high sensitivity of its cameras, XMM is expected to increase radically our understanding of high-energy sources - clues to a mysterious past, and keys to understanding the future of the Universe. 174 wafer-thin X-ray mirrors X-rays coming from celestial objects are highly energetic and elusive. They can best be measured and studied after focusing a sufficient number upon sensitive detectors. To achieve this, XMM's Mirror Modules have been given a gargantuan appetite for X-rays. The space observatory combines three barrel-shaped telescope modules. In each are nested 58 wafer-thin concentric mirror shells highly polished and subtly shaped. Passing through at an extremely shallow angle, the so-called "grazing incidence", the X-rays will be beamed to the science instruments situated on the focal plane at the other extremity of the satellite. The three mirror modules have a total mirror surface of over 120m2 - practically the size of a tennis court.. The collecting power of XMM's three telescopes is the greatest ever seen on an X-ray space mission, many times more than the most recently launched X-ray satellite. The design and assembly of the mirror modules, their testing for operation in space and their precise calibration constitute one of the greatest achievements of the XMM programme. The flimsy mirror shells, with their gold reflective surface on a nickel backing, were made by replication like carbon copies from master moulds. They were shaped to an accuracy of a thousandth of a millimetre, and then polished to a smoothness a thousand times better than that. Packaged one within another like Russian dolls, each mirror was focused and centred with respect to its neighbour to an accuracy of 25 microns - a quarter of the width of a human hair

  2. The Development and Application of a Method to Quantify the Quality of Cryoprotectant Conditions Using Standard Area Detector X-Ray Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFerrin, Michael; Snell, Edward; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An X-ray based method for determining cryoprotectant concentrations necessary to protect solutions from crystalline ice formation was developed. X-ray images from a CCD area detector were integrated as powder patterns and quantified by determining the standard deviation of the slope of the normalized intensity curve in the resolution range where ice rings are known to occur. The method was tested determining the concentrations of glycerol, PEG400, ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol necessary to form an amorphous glass at 1OOK with each of the 98 crystallization solutions of Crystal Screens I and II (Hampton Research, Laguna Hills, California, USA). For conditions that required glycerol concentrations of 35% or above cryoprotectant conditions using 2,3-butanediol were determined. The method proved to be remarkably accurate. The results build on the work of [Garman and Mitchell] and extend the number, of suitable starting conditions to alternative cryoprotectants. In particular, 1,2-propanediol has emerged as a particularly good additive for glass formation upon flash cooling.

  3. "X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions" and "Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This grant funded work on the analysis of data obtained with the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The goal of the work was to search for hard x-ray transients in star forming regions using the all-sky hard x-ray monitoring capability of BATSE. Our initial work lead to the discovery of a hard x-ray transient, GRO J1849-03. Follow-up observations of this source made with the Wide Field Camera on BeppoSAX showed that the source should be identified with the previously known x-ray pulsar GS 1843-02 which itself is identified with the x-ray source X1845-024 originally discovered with the SAS-3 satellite. Our identification of the source and measurement of the outburst recurrence time, lead to the identification of the source as a Be/X-ray binary with a spin period of 94.8 s and an orbital period of 241 days. The funding was used primarily for partial salary and travel support for John Tomsick, then a graduate student at Columbia University. John Tomsick, now Dr. Tomsick, received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in July 1999, based partially on results obtained under this investigation. He is now a postdoctoral research scientist at the University of California, San Diego.

  4. X-ray nanotomography in a SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, Bart; Liu, Xuan; Sasov, Alexander

    2010-09-01

    We have developed an x-ray computer tomography (CT) add-on to perform X-ray micro- and nanotomography in any scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electron beam inside the SEM is focused on a metal target to generate x-rays. Part of the X-rays pass through the object that is installed on a rotation stage. Shadow X-ray images are collected by a CCD camera with direct photon detection mounted on the external wall of the SEM specimen chamber. An extensive description on the working principles of this micro/nano-CT add-on together with some examples of CT-scans will be given in this paper. The resolution that can be obtained with this set-up and the influence of the shape of the electron beam are discussed. Furthermore, possible improvements on this SEM-CT set-up will be discussed: replacing the backilluminated CCD with a fully depleted CCD with improved quantum efficiency (QE) for higher energies, reduces the exposure time by 6 when using metal targets with x-ray characteristic lines around 10 keV.

  5. Images of single X-ray photons from X-ray phosphor screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Photographs show the efficiency and resolution characteristics of single X-ray photons converted to optical photons in a variety of commercial X-ray phosphor screens. The recording system uses a cooled, two-stage image intensifier system with fiber optics coupling to the phosphor screen. High efficiencies in the energy range 20-100 keV with position resolution of the order 200 microns are readily achievable, although the sensitive area is presently limited. Potential applications include X-ray astronomy, high-speed X-ray diffractometry, and extremely low dose radiography.

  6. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  7. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... be placed over the lower part of your spine. You will be asked to hold your breath ... x-ray. The most common reason for lumbosacral spine x-ray is to look for the cause ...

  8. Microgap x-ray detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  9. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  10. Goldhelox: a project to view the x-ray sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Melody

    1991-10-01

    The `Goldhelox' project (`GOLD' for the color of the sun and `HELOX' for heliocentric observations in x rays) includes a student run research team, involving more than 30 volunteer students and five advising professors, to design and build a project to obtain observations of the sun in x rays by using the Space Shuttle as a platform while situated in a NASA Get-Away Special (GAS) canister. The GAS program allows universities, companies, and others to send small self-contained experiments into space in canisters that are placed in the Shuttle's cargo bay. The main scientific objective is to construct a high-resolution soft x-ray telescope to take rapid succession, full disk pictures of the sun, hopefully during Solar Max. These images will help in the understanding of such solar features as the corona, flares, and chromosphere. The project is organized into four major groups. The Flight Readiness Team is in charge of testing, quality control, all safety aspects, and NASA documentation. The optics system is being designed and built by the Optics Team, and this includes the telescope that has curved- substrate, multilayer mirrors, an x-ray filter, a microchannel plate (MCP) detector, a phosphor screen, a fiberoptic plate, and a customized camera that uses ordinary film. The motors for driving the telescope in two axes, worm drives, sealed container for the electronics and batteries, and the overall structure are part of the Mechanical Team. The Electrical Team's responsibilities include the photodiode sun sensor, a small heater for environmental control, lead-acid gel batteries, the main data collecting computer, telescope controller, supporting electronics, and electrical feedthroughs. This project should increase knowledge in the area of x-ray optics and spaced-based physics.

  11. Payload study activities on the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Rando, N.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Puig, L.; Saavedra, G.; Bavdaz, M.; Gondoin, P.

    2010-07-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2020. IXO is an international cooperative project, pursued by ESA, JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 40 keV using a very large effective collecting area mirror and state-of-the art instruments, IXO would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The IXO mission concept is based on a single aperture telescope with an external diameter of about 3.5 m and a focal length of 20 m. The focal plane consists of a fixed and a moveable instrument platform (FIP and MIP respectively). The model payload consists of a suite of five instruments which can each be located at the telescope's focus by the MIP, these are: 1. a wide field imager (WFI) based on a silicon DEPFET array; 2. a Hard-X-ray Imager (HXI), which will be integrated together with the WFI; 3. an X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS); 4. an X-ray Polarimeter camera (X-POL) based on a gas cell with integrated anode array; 5. a High-Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) based on a silicon drift detector array. In addition, the FIP will carry a grating spectrometer (XGS) mounted in a fixed position and which will allow simultaneous observations with the on-axis instrument. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary results achieved during the assessment activities presently ongoing at ESA. Whereas we will provide a brief overview on the overall spacecraft design, we will focus on the payload description, characteristics, the technology used and the accommodation on the instrument platform.

  12. Development of the large-area silicon PIN diode with 2 millimeter-thick depletion layer for hard x-ray detector (HXD) on board ASTRO-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Kubo, S.; Murakami, Toshio; Ota, Naomi; Ozawa, Hideki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kubota, Aya; Makishima, Kazuo; Tamura, Takayuki; Tashiro, Makoto

    1997-07-01

    ASTRO-E is the next Japanese x-ray satellite to be launched in the year 2000. It carries three high-energy astrophysical experiments, including the hard x-ray detector (HXD) which is unique in covering the wide energy band from 10 keV to 700 keV with an extremely low background. The HXD is a compound-eye detector, employing 16 GSO/BGO well-type phoswich scintillation counters together with 64 silicon PIN detectors. The scintillation counters cover an energy range of 40 - 700 keV, while the PIN diodes fill the intermediate energy range from 10 keV to 70 keV with an energy resolution about 3 keV. In this paper, we report on the developments of the large area, thick silicon PIN diodes. In order to achieve a high quantum efficiency up to 70 keV with a high energy resolution, we utilize a double stack of silicon PIN diodes, each 20 by 20 mm(superscript 2) in size and 2 mm thick. Signals from the two diodes are summed into a single output. Four of these stacks (or eight diodes) are placed inside the deep BGO active-shield well of a phoswich counter, to achieve an extremely low background environment. Thus, the HXD utilizes 64 stacked silicon PIN detectors, achieving a total geometrical collecting area of 256 cm(superscript 2). We have developed the 2 mm thick silicon PIN diodes which have low leakage current, a low capacitance, and a high breakdown voltage to meet the requirements of our goal. Through various trials in fabricating PIN diodes with different structures, we have found optimal design parameters, such as mask design of the surface p(superscript +) layer and the implantation process.

  13. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  14. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  15. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  16. X-ray beam finder

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  17. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the Goddard group to the history of X-ray astronomy are numerous and varied. One role that the group has continued to play involves the pursuit of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources. The latest development is the selection of the X-ray microcalorimeter for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) study payload. This technology is likely to revolutionize the study of cosmic X-ray spectra.

  18. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253 --- II. Extended emission from hot gas in the nuclear area, disk, and halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, W.; Vogler, A.; Klein, U.; Zinnecker, H.

    2000-08-01

    Spatial and spectral analysis of deep ROSAT HRI and PSPC observations of the near edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 253 reveal diffuse soft X-ray emission, which contributes 80% to its total X-ray luminosity (LX = 5 1039 erg s-1, corrected for foreground absorption). The nuclear area, disk, and halo contribution to the luminosity is about equal. The starburst nucleus itself is highly absorbed and not visible in the ROSAT band. The emission from the nuclear area stems from a heavily absorbed source with an extent of 250 pc (FWHM) about 100 pc above the nucleus along the SE minor axis ("nuclear source", X34), and the "X-ray plume". The nuclear source is best described as having a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of T = 1.2 keV (NH = 3 1021 cm-2) and LXexgal = 3 1038 erg s-1 (corrected for Galactic foreground absorption). The spectrum of the hollow-cone shaped plume (opening angle of 32̂ and extent of ~ 700 pc along the SE minor axis) is best modeled by a composite of a thermal bremsstrahlung (NH = 3 1020 cm-2, T = 1.2 keV, LXexgal = 4.6 1038 erg s-1) and a thin thermal plasma (Galactic foreground absorption, T = 0.33 keV, LXexgal = 4 1038 erg s-1). The diffuse nuclear emission components trace interactions between the galactic super-wind emitted by the starburst nucleus, and the dense interstellar medium of the disk. Diffuse emission from the disk is heavily absorbed and follows the spiral structure. It can be described by a thin thermal plasma spectrum (T = 0.7 keV, intrinsic luminosity LXintr = 1.2 1039 erg s-1), and most likely reflects a mixture of sources (X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, and emission from H II regions) and the hot interstellar medium. The surface brightness profile reveals a bright inner and a fainter outer component along the major axis with extents of ∓3.4 kpc and ∓7.5 kpc. We analysed the total halo emission separated into two geometrical areas; the "corona" (scale height ~ 1 kpc) and the "outer halo". The coronal

  19. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  20. X-ray inspection of composite materials for aircraft structures using detectors of Medipix type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandejsek, I.; Jakubek, J.; Jakubek, M.; Prucha, P.; Krejci, F.; Soukup, P.; Turecek, D.; Vavrik, D.; Zemlicka, J.

    2014-05-01

    This work presents an overview of promising X-ray imaging techniques employed for non-destructive defectoscopy inspections of composite materials intended for the Aircraft industry. The major emphasis is placed on non-tomographic imaging techniques which do not require demanding spatial and time measurement conditions. Imaging methods for defects visualisation, delamination detection and porosity measurement of various composite materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymers and honeycomb sendwiches are proposed. We make use of the new large area WidePix X-ray imaging camera assembled from up to 100 edgeless Medipix type detectors which is highly suitable for this type of measurements.

  1. X-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most experts feel that the benefits of appropriate x-ray imaging greatly outweigh any risks. Young children and babies ... be pregnant. Alternative Names ... CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014: ...

  2. The Future of X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The most important next step is the development of X-ray optics comparable to (or better than) Chandra in angular resolution that far exceed Chandra s effective area. Use the long delay to establish an adequately funded, competitive technology program along the lines I have recommended. Don't be diverted from this objective, except for Explorer-class missions. Progress in X-ray optics, with emphasis on the angular resolution, is central to the paradigm-shifting discoveries and the contributions of X-ray astronomy to multiwavelength astrophysics over the past 51 years.

  3. Interferometric X-Ray Imaging of Breast Cancer Specimens at 51 keV X-Ray Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet; Aiyoshi, Yuji; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Ei

    2004-08-01

    The feasibility of the interferometric X-ray imaging technique is examined for revealing the features of breast cancer specimens. The interferometric X-ray imaging system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon crystal, a monolithic X-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell, and an X-ray CCD camera. Ten 10-mm-thick formalin-fixed breast cancer specimens were imaged at 51 keV, and these images were compared with absorption-contrast X-ray images obtained at 18 keV monochromatic synchrotron X-ray. The interferometric X-ray images clearly depicted the essential features of the breast cancer such as microcalcification down to a size of 0.036 mm, spiculation, and detailed inner soft tissue structures closely matched with histopathological morphology, while the absorption-contrast X-ray images obtained using nearly the same X-ray dose only resolved microcalcification down to a size of 0.108 mm and spiculation. The interferometric X-ray imaging technique can be considered to be an innovative technique for the early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer using an extremely low X-ray dose.

  4. VEGA: A low-power front-end ASIC for large area multi-linear X-ray silicon drift detectors: Design and experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Macera, Daniele; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Malcovati, Piero; Grassi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the first experimental characterization of VEGA, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed to read out large area monolithic linear Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD's). VEGA consists of an analog and a digital/mixed-signal section to accomplish all the functionalities and specifications required for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy in the energy range between 500 eV and 50 keV. The analog section includes a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper with 3-bit digitally selectable shaping times from 1.6 μs to 6.6 μs and a peak stretcher/sample-and-hold stage. The digital/mixed-signal section includes an amplitude discriminator with coarse and fine threshold level setting, a peak discriminator and a logic circuit to fulfill pile-up rejection, signal sampling, trigger generation, channel reset and the preamplifier and discriminators disabling functionalities. A Serial Peripherical Interface (SPI) is integrated in VEGA for loading and storing all configuration parameters in an internal register within few microseconds. The VEGA ASIC has been designed and manufactured in 0.35 μm CMOS mixed-signal technology in single and 32 channel versions with dimensions of 200 μm×500 μm per channel. A minimum intrinsic Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of 12 electrons r.m.s. at 3.6 μs peaking time and room temperature is measured and the linearity error is between -0.9% and +0.6% in the whole input energy range. The total power consumption is 481 μW and 420 μW per channel for the single and 32 channels version, respectively. A comparison with other ASICs for X-ray SDD's shows that VEGA has a suitable low noise and offers high functionality as ADC-ready signal processing but at a power consumption that is a factor of four lower than other similar existing ASICs.

  5. Industrial X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, Lewis Research Center jointly sponsored a conference with the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory focused on high speed imaging. This conference, and early funding by Lewis Research Center, helped to spur work by Silicon Mountain Design, Inc. to break the performance barriers of imaging speed, resolution, and sensitivity through innovative technology. Later, under a Small Business Innovation Research contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the company designed a real-time image enhancing camera that yields superb, high quality images in 1/30th of a second while limiting distortion. The result is a rapidly available, enhanced image showing significantly greater detail compared to image processing executed on digital computers. Current applications include radiographic and pathology-based medicine, industrial imaging, x-ray inspection devices, and automated semiconductor inspection equipment.

  6. Do speed cameras reduce speeding in urban areas?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniele Falci de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This observational study aimed to estimate the prevalence of speeding on urban roadways and to analyze associated factors. The sample consisted of 8,565 vehicles circulating in areas with and without fixed speed cameras in operation. We found that 40% of vehicles 200 meters after the fixed cameras and 33.6% of vehicles observed on roadways without speed cameras were moving over the speed limit (p < 0.001). Motorcycles showed the highest recorded speed (126km/h). Most drivers were men (87.6%), 3.3% of all drivers were using their cell phones, and 74.6% of drivers (not counting motorcyclists) were wearing their seatbelts. On roadway stretches without fixed speed cameras, more women drivers were talking on their cell phones and wearing seatbelts when compared to men (p < 0.05 for both comparisons), independently of speed limits. The results suggest that compliance with speed limits requires more than structural interventions. PMID:26648375

  7. X-Ray Detector Simulations - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Tina, Adrienne

    2015-08-20

    The free-electron laser at LCLS produces X-Rays that are used in several facilities. This light source is so bright and quick that we are capable of producing movies of objects like proteins. But making these movies would not be possible without a device that can detect the X-Rays and produce images. We need X-Ray cameras. The challenges LCLS faces include the X-Rays’ high repetition rate of 120 Hz, short pulses that can reach 200 femto-seconds, and extreme peak brightness. We need detectors that are compatible with this light source, but before they can be used in the facilities, they must first be characterized. My project was to do just that, by making a computer simulation program. My presentation discusses the individual detectors I simulated, the details of my program, and how my project will help determine which detector is most useful for a specific experiment.

  8. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    X-rays from a 25-hJ plasma focus apparatus were observed with pinhole cameras. The cameras consist of 0.4 mm diameter pinholes in 2 cm thick lead housing enclosing an X-ray intensifying screen at the image plane. Pictures recorded through thin aluminum foils or plastic sheets for X-ray energies sub gamma smaller than 15 keV show distributed X-ray emissions from the focussed plasma and from the anode surface. However, when thick absorbers are used, radial filamentary structure in the X-ray emission from the anode surface is revealed. Occasionally larger structures are observed in addition to the filaments. Possible mechanisms for the filamentary structure are discussed.

  9. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics studies using an x-ray streakcamera

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelt, A.F.; Comin, A.; Feng, J.; Nasiatka, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Scholl, A.; Young, A.

    2005-07-13

    The spin dynamics of ferromagnetic thin films following an excitation by ultrashort 100-fs near-infrared laser pulses has recently received much attention. Here, a new approach is described using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to investigated emagnetization and magnetization switching processes. In contrast to magneto-optical measurements, x-ray dichroism has the advantage of determining separately the spin and orbital components of the magnetic moment. The relatively low time resolution of the synchrotron x-ray probe pulses (80 ps FWHM) is overcome by employing an ultrafast x-ray streak camera with a time resolution of <1 ps. A description of the experimental setup including the x-ray/IR laser pulse synchronization and the streak camera is given.

  10. Use of a solar panel as a directionally sensitive large-area radiation monitor for direct and scattered x-rays and gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majid, S

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a 25.4 X 91 cm solar cell panel used as an x-ray and gamma-ray radiation monitor are presented. Applications for monitoring the primary x-ray beam are described at different values of operating currents and voltages as well as for directional dependence of scattered radiation. Other applications in gamma-ray radiography are also given. The detector showed linear response to both x-ray and gamma-ray exposures. The equipment is rigid, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and requires no power supply or any complex electronic equipment. PMID:2828276

  11. X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  12. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  13. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  14. Comparison of Interfacial Partitioning Tracer Test and X-ray Microtomography Measurements of Immiscible Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas within the Identical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. C.; McDonald, K.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial area between immiscible fluids in porous media has been demonstrated to be a critical entity for improved understanding, characterization, and simulation of multiphase flow and mass transport in the subsurface. Two general methods are available for measuring interfacial areas for 3-D porous-media systems, high-resolution microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT). Each method has their associated advantages and disadvantages. A few prior research efforts have conducted comparative analyses of the two methods, which have generally indicated disparities in measured values for natural geomedia. For these studies, however, interfacial areas were measured for separate samples with each method due to method restrictions. Thus, to date, there has been no comparative analysis conducted wherein the two measurement methods were applied to the exact same sample. To address this issue, trichloroethene-water interfacial areas were measured for a system comprising a well-sorted, natural sand (median grain diameter of 0.323 mm) using both X-ray microtomography and IPTTs. The microtomographic imaging was conducted on the same packed columns used to conduct the IPTTs. Columns were imaged before and after the IPTTs to evaluate potential impacts of the tracer tests on fluid configuration. The interfacial areas measured using IPTT were 4-6 times larger than the microtomography results, which is consistent with previous work. This disparity was attributed to the inability of the microtomography method to characterize interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness. The results indicate that both methods provide useful measures of interfacial area as long as their limitations are recognized.

  15. Spectra of cosmic x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.S.; Mccray, R.

    1982-02-01

    X-ray measurements provide the most direct probes of astrophysical environments with temperatures exceeding one million K. Progress in experimental research utilizing dispersive techniques (e.g., Bragg and grating spectroscopy) is considerably slower than that in areas utilizing photometric techniques, because of the relative inefficiency of the former for the weak X-ray signals from celestial sources. As a result, the term spectroscopy as applied to X-ray astronomy has traditionally satisfied a much less restrictive definition (in terms of resolving power) than it has in other wavebands. Until quite recently, resolving powers of order unity were perfectly respectable, and still provide (in most cases) the most useful spectroscopic data. In the broadest sense, X-ray photometric measurements are spectroscopic, insofar as they represent samples of the overall electromagnetic continua of celestial objects.

  16. The X-ray emission of subflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valnichek, B. I.; Likin, O. B.; Morozova, E. I.; Pisarenko, N. F.; Farnik, F.

    1983-08-01

    Optical observations of subflares in the active region Mc Math 14553 in the period 8-15 December, 1976 are compared with the X-ray emission bursts measured during the same period by the X-ray photometer on board the Prognoz-5 automatic observatory. X-ray emissions with energies 2-7 and 6-10 keV are used in the analysis presented here. It is found that energy release in the X-ray emissions is directly proportional to the area of the H-alpha flare events over a wide range of flare intensities, i.e., from subflares to high-power flares of the class 3B.

  17. X-ray imaging: Status and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, R.W.; Martz, H.E.; Hernandez, J.M.; Haskins, J.J.; Day, R.A.; Brase, J.M.; Cross, B.; Wherry, D.

    1987-08-01

    There is a veritable renaissance occurring in x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging by radiography has been a highly developed technology in medicine and industry for many years. However, high resolution imaging has not generally been practical because sources have been relatively dim and diffuse, optical elements have been nonexistent for most applications, and detectors have been slow and of low resolution. Materials analysis needs have therefore gone unmet. Rapid progress is now taking place because we are able to exploit developments in microelectronics and related material fabrication techniques, and because of the availability of intense x-ray sources. This report describes the methods and uses of x-ray imaging along with a discussion of technology advances in these areas.

  18. Spectra of cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Mccray, R.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray measurements provide the most direct probes of astrophysical environments with temperatures exceeding one million K. Progress in experimental research utilizing dispersive techniques (e.g., Bragg and grating spectroscopy) is considerably slower than that in areas utilizing photometric techniques, because of the relative inefficiency of the former for the weak X-ray signals from celestial sources. As a result, the term "spectroscopy" as applied to X-ray astronomy has traditionally satisfied a much less restrictive definition (in terms of resolving power) than it has in other wavebands. Until quite recently, resolving powers of order unity were perfectly respectable, and still provide (in most cases) the most useful spectroscopic data. In the broadest sense, X-ray photometric measurements are spectroscopic, insofar as they represent samples of the overall electromagnetic continua of celestial objects.

  19. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  20. Optics Developments for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray optics has revolutionized x-ray astronomy. The degree of background suppression that these afford, have led to a tremendous increase in sensitivity. The current Chandra observatory has the same collecting area (approx. 10(exp 3)sq cm) as the non-imaging UHURU observatory, the first x-ray observatory which launched in 1970, but has 5 orders of magnitude more sensitivity due to its focusing optics. In addition, its 0.5 arcsec angular resolution has revealed a wealth of structure in many cosmic x-ray sources. The Chandra observatory achieved its resolution by using relatively thick pieces of Zerodur glass, which were meticulously figured and polished to form the four-shell nested array. The resulting optical assembly weighed around 1600 kg, and cost approximately $0.5B. The challenge for future x-ray astronomy missions is to greatly increase the collecting area (by one or more orders of magnitude) while maintaining high angular resolution, and all within realistic mass and budget constraints. A review of the current status of US optics for x-ray astronomy will be provided along with the challenges for future developments.

  1. LabVIEW control software for scanning micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Pawel; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Furman, Leszek; Kolasinski, Krzysztof; Lankosz, Marek; Mrenca, Alina; Samek, Lucyna; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2012-05-15

    Confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence microscope was constructed. The system was assembled from commercially available components - a low power X-ray tube source, polycapillary X-ray optics and silicon drift detector - controlled by an in-house developed LabVIEW software. A video camera coupled to optical microscope was utilized to display the area excited by X-ray beam. The camera image calibration and scan area definition software were also based entirely on LabVIEW code. Presently, the main area of application of the newly constructed spectrometer is 2-dimensional mapping of element distribution in environmental, biological and geological samples with micrometer spatial resolution. The hardware and the developed software can already handle volumetric 3-D confocal scans. In this work, a front panel graphical user interface as well as communication protocols between hardware components were described. Two applications of the spectrometer, to homogeneity testing of titanium layers and to imaging of various types of grains in air particulate matter collected on membrane filters, were presented. PMID:22483897

  2. The Very Local Universe in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, A.

    2011-01-01

    There are many open questions in X-ray observations of the Galactic neighborhood and nearby galaxies, such as the properties of the hot ISM and accreting sources, the X-ray/star-formation rate correlation and how the X-ray luminosity function of starburst galaxies. We discuss how these would be addressed by very wide-area (> 100 sq. deg.) X-ray surveys and upcoming X-ray missions. In particular planned NuStar observations of the Galaxy and nearby galaxies will be highlighted.

  3. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Odell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Mori, Hideyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Sugita, Satoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari; Sato, Toshiki; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Iwase, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests

  4. Stitched large format CMOS image sensors for dental x-ray digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinqiao (Chiao); Fowler, Boyd; Do, Hung; Jaffe, Mark; Rassel, Richard; Leidy, Bob

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a family of large format CIS's designed for dental x-ray applications. The CIS areas vary from small 31.5mm x 20.1mm, to medium 34.1mm x 26.3mm, to large 37.1mm x 26.3mm. Pixel size is 19.5um x 19.5um. The sensor family was fabricated in a 0.18um CIS process. Stitching is used in the CIS fabrication for the medium and large size sensors. We present the CIS and detector system design that includes pixel circuitry, readout circuitry, x-ray trigger mechanism, scintillator, and the camera electronics. We also present characterization results including the detector performances under both visible light and x-ray radiation.

  5. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  6. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  7. First Terrestrial Soft X-ray Auroral Observation by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ostegaard, Nikolai; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Chang, Shen-Wu; Majeed, Tariq; Metzger, Albert E.

    2004-01-01

    Northern auroral regions of Earth were imaged using the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-1) aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) at 10 epochs (each approx.20 min duration) between mid-December 2003 and mid-April 2004. These observations aimed at searching for Earth s soft (<2 keV) x-ray aurora in a comparative study with Jupiter s x-ray aurora, where a pulsating x-ray "hot-spot" has been previously observed by Chandra. The first Chandra soft x-ray observations of Earth s aurora show that it is highly variable (intense arcs, multiple arcs, diffuse patches, at times absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed near the expected cusp location. A fortuitous overflight of DMSP satellite F13 provided SSJ/4 energetic particle measurements above a bright arc seen by Chandra on 24 January 2004, 20:01-20:22 UT. A model of the emissions expected strongly suggests that the observed soft x-ray signal is produced by electron bremsstrahlung.

  8. First Terrestrial Soft X-Ray Auroral Observation by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Gladstone, G. Randall; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oestgaard, Nikolai; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Chang, Shen-Wu; Majeed, Tariq; Metzger, Albert E.

    2007-01-01

    Northern auroral regions of Earth were imaged with energetic photons in the 0.1-10keV range using the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-I) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory at 10 epochs (each approx.20 min duration) between mid- December 2003 and mid-April 2004. These observations aimed at searching for Earth's soft (< 2 keV) X-ray aurora in a comparative study with Jupiter's X-ray aurora, where a pulsating X-ray "hot-spot" has been previously observed by Chandra. The first Chandra soft X-ray observations of Earth's aurora show that it is highly variable 0ntense arcs, multiple arcs, diffuse patches, at times absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed near the expected cusp location. A fortuitous overflight of DMSP satellite F13 provided SSJ/4 energetic particle measurements above a bright arc seen by Chandra on 24 January 2004, 20:01-20:22 UT. A model of the emissions expected strongly suggests that the observed soft X-ray signal is bremsstrahlung and characteristic K-shell line emissions of nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere produced by electrons.

  9. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  10. CONTINUING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 100 FEMTOSECOND X-RAY DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Zenghu Chang

    2005-06-20

    The detector is an x-ray streak camera running in accumulation mode for time resolved x-ray studies at the existing third generation synchrotron facilities and will also be used for the development and applications of the fourth generation x-ray sources. We have made significant progress on both the detector development and its applications at Synchrotron facilities.

  11. CONTINUING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 100 FEMTOSECOND X-RAY DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Zenghu Chang

    2005-06-14

    The detector is an x-ray streak camera running in accumulation mode for time resolved x-ray studies at the existing third generation synchrotron facilities and will also be used for the development and applications of the fourth generation x-ray sources. We have made significant progress on both the detector development and its applications at Synchrotron facilities.

  12. Active pixel and photon counting imagers based on poly-Si TFTs: rewriting the rule book on large area flat panel x-ray devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua

    2009-02-01

    The near-ubiquity of large area, active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in medical x-ray imaging applications is a testament to the usefulness and adaptability of the relatively simple concept of array pixels based on a single amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT coupled to a pixel storage capacitor. Interestingly, the fundamental advantages of a-Si:H thin film electronics (including compatibility with very large area processing, high radiation damage resistance, and continued development driven by interest in mainstream consumer products) are shared by the rapidly advancing technology of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) TFTs. Moreover, the far higher mobilities of poly-Si TFTs, compared to those of a- Si:H, facilitate the creation of faster and more complex circuits than are possible with a-Si:H TFTs, leading to the possibility of new classes of large area, flat panel imagers. Given recent progress in the development of initial poly-Si imager prototypes, the creation of increasingly sophisticated active pixel arrays offering pixel-level amplification, variable gain, very high frame rates, and excellent signal-to-noise performance under all fluoroscopic and radiographic conditions (including very low exposures and high spatial frequencies), appears within reach. In addition, it is conceivable that the properties of poly-Si TFTs could allow the development of large area imagers providing single xray photon counting capabilities. In this article, the factors driving the possible realization of clinically practical active pixel and photon counting imagers based on poly-Si TFTs are described and simple calculational estimates related to photon counting imagers are presented. Finally, the prospect for future development of such imagers is discussed.

  13. Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.; Selph, M; Shope, S.; Wehlburg, J.

    1998-10-01

    approxirmtely 36 cm wide by 51 cm long by 13 cm deep. The case was placed on an aluminum sheet under the x-ray source. Because of the laborato~ setup, the attache case was rastered in the y-coordinate direction, while the x-ray source mstered in the x-coordinate direction. However, for field use, the x-ray source would of course raster in both the x- and y-coordinate directions, while the object under interrogation would remain stationary and undisturbed. A mobile system for use by law enforcement agencies or bomb disposal squads needs to be portable and somewhat durable. A 300 kV x-ray source should be sufficient for the task requirements and can be mounted on a mobile system. A robotic carriage could be used to transport the x-ray source and the CCD camera to the proximity of the suspect package. The controlling and data analyzing elements of the system' could then be maintained at a &tie distance from the possible explosive. F@re 8 shows a diagram of a conceptual design of a possible system for this type of use. The use of backscattered x-rays for interrogation of packages that may contain explosive devices has been shown to be feasible inthelaboratory. Usinga 150kVx-ray source anddetectors consisting of plastic scintillating material, all bomb components including the wiring were detectable. However, at this time the process requires more time than is desirable for the situations in which it will most likely be needed. Further development of the technology using CCD cameras, rather than the plastic stint illator detectors, shows promise of leading to a much faster system, as well as one with better resolution. Mounting the x- ray source and the CCD camera on a robotic vehicle while keeping the controlling and analyzing components and the opemting personnel a safe distance away from the suspect package will allow such a package to be examined at low risk to human life.

  14. Correlation of Al/Si X-ray fluorescence data with other remote sensing data from the Taurus-Littrow area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; Hallam, M. E.; Weidner, J. R.; Clark, P. E.; Adler, I.; Podwysocki, M. H.; Philpotts, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Al/Si intensity ratios from the Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment have been analyzed in conjunction with such other remote-sensing data as visible albedo measurements, color-difference photographs, and relative spectral reflectivity curves for the purpose of defining geochemical units in the Taurus-Littrow area. A geochemical boundary between the dark-mantle unit and the western edge of the Taurus Mountains is indicated by all the remote-sensing techniques considered. The major component of the ejecta from Catena Littrow, located within the dark-mantle unit, is highland-type material. The areal extent of the ejecta determined from the Al/Si data is at least 30 km along the Apollo 15 ground track. The constraint imposed upon depth to high-alumina material at Catena Littrow is 520 m. If the high-alumina material excavated at Catena Littrow is an extension of the Taurus Mountain 'roots', then the maximum slope of the buried highland surface from Catena Littrow to the Taurus Mountains border is less than 2.0 deg

  15. SMM x ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  16. Soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs.

  17. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  18. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  19. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  20. Concept study x-ray testing for NICER's x-ray concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Erin; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Okajima, Takashi; Jalota, Lalit; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter; Enoto, Teruaki; Gulati, Bhalvinder; Kenyon, Steven; Hahne, Devin; Fickau, David; Spartana, Nicholas; Lentine, Steve; Burdhimo, Ceili; Barrios, Billy; Wu, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    We performed a series of measurements using X-rays to assess the current performance of the Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) X-ray concentrators during the mission's concept study stage. NICER will use 56 grazing-incidence X-ray concentrators in the optical system with each module focusing the incoming photons to co-aligned silicon drift detectors with 2 mm apertures. Successful X-ray timing and navigation studies require optimal signal to noise, thus by optimizing high throughput concentrators with a large collecting area we can minimize the PSF and reduce the detector aperture size, reducing background. The performance measurements were conducted in a 600 meter X-ray beamline which collimated photons from a soft X-ray source to an X-ray CCD which was used as the detector. Several engineering test units were used to perform these studies by measuring the effective area, on and off-axis resolution, and to assess the effects of a vibration test on the module's optical performance. We have shown that the concentrators have made significant progress towards exceeding NICER's final goals.

  1. X-ray shout echoing through space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 3991 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in hours. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 2153 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays (Please choose "hi-res" version for animation) XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. This echo forms when the powerful radiation of a gamma-ray burst, coming from far away, crosses a slab of dust in our Galaxy and is scattered by it, like the beam of a lighthouse in clouds. Using the expanding rings to precisely pin-point the location of this dust, astronomers can identify places where new stars and planets are likely to form. On 3 December 2003 ESA's observatory, Integral, detected a burst of gamma rays, lasting about 30 seconds, from the direction of a distant galaxy. Within minutes of the detection, thanks to a sophisticated alert network, many

  2. Evaluating intensified camera systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Baker

    2000-06-30

    This paper describes image evaluation techniques used to standardize camera system characterizations. The authors group is involved with building and fielding several types of camera systems. Camera types include gated intensified cameras, multi-frame cameras, and streak cameras. Applications range from X-ray radiography to visible and infrared imaging. Key areas of performance include sensitivity, noise, and resolution. This team has developed an analysis tool, in the form of image processing software, to aid an experimenter in measuring a set of performance metrics for their camera system. These performance parameters are used to identify a camera system's capabilities and limitations while establishing a means for camera system comparisons. The analysis tool is used to evaluate digital images normally recorded with CCD cameras. Electro-optical components provide fast shuttering and/or optical gain to camera systems. Camera systems incorporate a variety of electro-optical components such as microchannel plate (MCP) or proximity focused diode (PFD) image intensifiers; electro-static image tubes; or electron-bombarded (EB) CCDs. It is often valuable to evaluate the performance of an intensified camera in order to determine if a particular system meets experimental requirements.

  3. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Astrosat-CZTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Rao, A. R.; Bhattacharya, D.; Bhalerao, V. B.; Vagshette, N.; Pawar, P.; Sreekumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray polarimetry is largely an unexplored area of an otherwise mature field of X-ray astronomy. Except for a few early attempts during the 1970s, no dedicated X-ray polarimeter has been flown during the past four decades. On the other hand, the scientific value of X-ray polarization measurement has been well known for a long time, and there has been significant technical progress in developing sensitive X-ray polarimeters in recent years. But there are no approved dedicated X-ray polarimetric experiments to be flown in the near future, so it is important to explore the polarimetric capabilities of other existing or planned instruments and examine whether they can provide significant astrophysical polarization measurements. In this paper, we present experimental results to show that the CZTI instrument onboard the forthcoming Indian astronomy mission, Astrosat, will be able to provide sensitive measurements of X-ray polarization in the energy range of 100-300 keV. CZTI will be able to constrain any intrinsic polarization greater than ~40% for bright X-ray sources (>500 mCrab) within a short exposure of ~100 ks with a 3-sigma confidence level. We show that this seemingly "modest" sensitivity can play a very significant role in addressing long pending questions, such as the contribution of relativistic jets to hard X-rays in black hole binaries and X-ray emission mechanism and geometry in X-ray pulsars.

  4. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, D.T.; Kauffman, R.L.; Stradling, G.L.

    1980-10-15

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices.

  5. X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Ikehara, Ken

    2011-02-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

  6. THE CHANDRA CARINA COMPLEX PROJECT: DECIPHERING THE ENIGMA OF CARINA'S DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Gagne, Marc; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Montmerle, Thierry; Naze, Yael; Oey, M. S.; Park, Sangwook; Petre, Robert; Pittard, Julian M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a 1.42 deg{sup 2} mosaic of diffuse X-ray emission in the Great Nebula in Carina from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer camera. After removing >14,000 X-ray point sources from the field, we smooth the remaining unresolved emission, tessellate it into segments of similar apparent surface brightness, and perform X-ray spectral fitting on those tessellates to infer the intrinsic properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. By modeling faint resolved point sources, we estimate the contribution to the extended X-ray emission from unresolved point sources and show that the vast majority of Carina's unresolved X-ray emission is truly diffuse. Line-like correlated residuals in the X-ray spectral fits suggest that substantial X-ray emission is generated by charge exchange at the interfaces between Carina's hot, rarefied plasma and its many cold neutral pillars, ridges, and clumps.

  7. iWF-MAXI: Soft X-ray Transient Monitor on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Kimura, Masashi; Ebisawa, Ken; Yatsu, Yoichi; Arimoto, Makoto; Mihara, Tatehiro; Serino, Motoko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Takanori; Negoro, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tsuboi, Yohko; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2015-08-01

    iWF-MAXI is an X-ray transient monitor mission proposed for the ISS/JEM, starting in 2018-2019.It has four main scientific goals:(1) To find and localize the X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave events, which are expected to be detected by the next generation gravitational wave detectors such as Advance LIGO and KAGRA in late 2010's.(2) To detect short soft X-ray transients such as stellar flares, nova ignitions, and supernova shock breakouts, and promptly notify the world.(3) To trigger on short high-energy transients such as gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events, and promptly disseminate their locations to the community.(4) To detect the onset of activities from black hole binaries, neutron star binaries, and active galactic nuclei (AGN), and issue alerts to the astronomical community of the world.Its main scientific instrument is the Soft X-ray Large Solid Angle Camera (SLC). It is sensitive in the energy range of 0.7--10 keV with a localization accuracy of 0.1 degres. It will detect short transient events like GRBs with durations from a fraction of a second to minutes that occur in its large large field of view (>10% of the entire sky) .With the orbital revolution of the ISS, iWF-MAXI scans much larger sky area in 90 minutes, and looks for slower events such as outbursts of X-ray binaries.

  8. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-08-17

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample.

  9. Water window imaging x ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution x ray microscope for imaging microscopic structures within biological specimens has an optical system including a highly polished primary and secondary mirror coated with identical multilayer coatings, the mirrors acting at normal incidence. The coatings have a high reflectivity in the narrow wave bandpass between 23.3 and 43.7 angstroms and have low reflectivity outside of this range. The primary mirror has a spherical concave surface and the secondary mirror has a spherical convex surface. The radii of the mirrors are concentric about a common center of curvature on the optical axis of the microscope extending from the object focal plane to the image focal plane. The primary mirror has an annular configuration with a central aperture and the secondary mirror is positioned between the primary mirror and the center of curvature for reflecting radiation through the aperture to a detector. An x ray filter is mounted at the stage end of the microscope, and film sensitive to x rays in the desired band width is mounted in a camera at the image plane of the optical system. The microscope is mounted within a vacuum chamber for minimizing the absorption of x rays in air from a source through the microscope.

  10. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

  11. Phase-contrast x-ray tomography using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, Ulrich; Beckmann, Felix; Bartscher, Markus; Biermann, Theodor; Busch, Frank; Guennewig, Olaf

    1997-10-01

    The principle and experimental l realization of x-ray phase- contrast in compute assisted microtomography ((mu) CT) at the micrometer resolution level is described. The camera used is a modification of a setup previously developed by us for attenuation-contrast (mu) CT using synchrotron x-rays. Phase detection is accomplished by employing the x-ray interferometer. By using x-ray phase contrast it is possible to image structural details in low-z biological tissues much better than with absorption contrast. The advantage of phase over attenuation contrast is not limited to light element or to low x-ray energies. Examples of applying phase contrast (mu) CT to the structural investigation of rat trigeminal nerve are given.

  12. Hard X-ray emission from X-ray bursters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.; Liang, E.

    1996-11-01

    Hard X-ray emission from compact objects has been considered a spectral signature of black hole candidates. However, SIGMA and BATSE recently detected transient emission in the energy range 30-200keV from several X-ray bursters (XRBs) believed to contain weakly magnetized neutron stars. At least seven XRBs (including Aquila X-1 and 4U 1608-52) are currently known to produce erratic hard X-ray outbursts with typical durations of several weeks. These results lead us to reconsider theoretical models of high-energy emission from compact objects, and in particular thermal Comptonization models vs. non-thermal models of particle energization and X-ray emission from weakly magnetized neutron stars. We summarize here recent results for magnetic field reconnection models of non-thermal particle acceleration and high-energy emission of accretion disks. For intermediate soft X-ray luminosities below the Eddington limit, non-thermal hard X-ray emission is predicted to have a (broken) power-law spectrum with intensity anticorrelated with the soft X-ray luminosity. Recent GINGA/BATSE data for the XRB 4U 1608-52 are in agreement with the mechanism of emission proposed here: transient hard X-ray emission consistent with a broken power-law spectrum was detected for a sub-Eddington soft X-ray luminosity.

  13. X-ray Surveyor Discussion Session Results from the X-ray Vision Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allured, Ryan; Arenberg, Jonathan; Bogdan, Akos; Canning, Rebecca; Churazov, Eugene; Civano, Francesca; Clarke, Tracy; Corrales, Lia; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Elvis, Martin; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Falcone, Abe; Garcia, Javier; Gaskin, Jessica; Goldman, Itzhak; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Klinger, Noel; Laming, Martin; McNamara, Brian; Markevitch, Maxim; Marshall, Herman; Mosquera, Ana; Mroczkowski, Anthony; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Nielsen, Joey; Nowak, Michael; Ozel, Feryal; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Porquet, Delphine; Randall, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel; Swartz, Douglas A.; Temim, Tea; Van Weeren, Reinout; Weisskopf, Martin; Zhuravleva, Irina; ZuHone, John A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a brainstorming session held during the X-ray Vision Workshop (Oct 6-8, 2015, Washington DC). The workshop was convened to discuss the scientific potential of the X-ray Surveyor mission. The X-ray Surveyor concept, which was defined by the Astrophysics Roadmap, is to effect a 100-fold gain in survey and spectroscopic capability over the Chandra X-ray Observatory, while at least matching Chandra’s sub-arcsecond imaging capability. This paper is intended to inform interested scientists of the growing discussion in our community and to solicit their input in the area of new science that a next generation high-resolution X-ray Observatory may provide for astrophysics. This paper is not an official document and is certainly not the definitive science case for an X-ray Surveyor mission. It is, instead, an early input to this discussion, which we hope will lead to a full reference white paper on the X-Ray Surveyor concept.

  14. Bronchial cancer - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a chest x-ray of a person with bronchial cancer. This is a front view. The lungs are the two dark ... white areas visible in the middle of the chest. The light areas that appear as subtle branches ...

  15. Technology requirements for a square meter, arcsecond resolution telescope for x-rays: the SMART-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-09-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  16. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  17. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Huang, J W; Zeng, X L; Li, Y; E, J C; Huang, J Y; Sun, T; Fezzaa, K; Wang, Z; Luo, S N

    2016-05-01

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera's capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantify lattice deformation and fracture; fracture is dominated by splitting cracks followed by wing cracks, and diffraction peaks are broadened likely due to mosaic spread. Our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for studying high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes. PMID:27250438

  18. Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Luo, Shengnian; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Kapustinsky, Jon S.

    2012-05-02

    Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

  19. Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N.

    2012-10-15

    Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

  20. High-resolution x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William N.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin S.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Jerius, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Murray, Stephen S.; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Saha, Timo; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Wolk, Scott; Zhang, William W.

    2010-08-01

    High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne telescopes. During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, the sensitivity of focusing x-ray telescopes-through finer angular resolution and increased effective area-has improved by a factor of a 100 million. This technological advance has enabled numerous exciting discoveries and increasingly detailed study of the high-energy universe-including accreting (stellarmass and super-massive) black holes, accreting and isolated neutron stars, pulsar-wind nebulae, shocked plasma in supernova remnants, and hot thermal plasma in clusters of galaxies. As the largest structures in the universe, galaxy clusters constitute a unique laboratory for measuring the gravitational effects of dark matter and of dark energy. Here, we review the history of high-resolution x-ray telescopes and highlight some of the scientific results enabled by these telescopes. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility-the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility-Generation X. The scientific objectives of such a mission will require very large areas (about 10000 m2) of highly-nested lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsecond) angular resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  1. X-ray Eclipse in DW Ursae Majoris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Hoard, D. W.; Knigge, C.; Homer, L.; Szkody, P.; Still, M.; Long, K. S.; Dhillon, V. S.; Wachter, S.

    2010-03-01

    We present the first pointed X-ray observation of DW Ursae Majoris (DW UMa), along with a simultaneous optical observation, obtained with the XMM-Newton EPIC and Optical Monitor (OM) cameras. We extracted the X-ray spectrum and the folded light curves of DW UMa in the energy band 0.2-12 keV. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with a two-temperature model giving a predicted flux fX≈3×10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1. This X-ray flux corresponds to a lower limit for the mass transfer rate of \\dot{M} 10-11 M⊙ yr-1. The OM light curve is generally similar in appearance to published optical and UV light curves of DW UMa. The X-ray folded light curves were constructed from the summed, background-subtracted count rates of the three EPIC cameras (MOS1, MOS2, and pn), and cover 2 orbital periods of DW UMa. The X-ray folded light curves show some similar features to the OM light curve, including a possible shallow X-ray eclipse. The confirmed existence of an X-ray eclipse in a SW Sex star like DW UMa could help constrain the various models for these systems, and address lingering questions about the SW Sex stars; for example, does a magnetic white dwarf reside in this kind of close binary systems? Confirmation of the X-ray eclipse is crucial to differentiate these models. Further X-ray observations are therefore necessary to solve the SW Sex stars problem.

  2. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  3. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  4. X-ray Images of Rocket-Triggered Lightning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. R.; Schaal, M.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    We report the first, high-time resolution images of the x-ray emissions from lightning, made at the UF/Florida Tech International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT). The images were taken at a rate of 10 million frames per second using a new pinhole-type camera, located 44-m from rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning. The camera, which consists of 30 NaI/photomultiplier tube detectors, was pointed 50 m above the ground over the rocket-launcher used to trigger lightning. The field of view of the camera was ±38° in both the vertical and horizontal directions with an angular resolution of about 14°. During the summer of 2010, several triggered lightning flashes were observed by the x-ray camera. For these flashes, the lightning channels were clearly visible in the x-ray emissions. Furthermore, as the lightning dart leaders propagated downward to ground, as measured by high speed optical cameras, the x-ray sources were also observed to descend at the same speed, demonstrating that the lightning dart leader was the source of the x-ray emission. Overall, these results provide new insight into the production of energetic radiation and the propagation and attachment of lightning, all of which remain poorly understood.

  5. ADM. Aerial view of administration area. Camera facing westerly. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Aerial view of administration area. Camera facing westerly. From left to right in foregound: Substation (TAN-605), Warehouse (TAN-628), Gate House (TAN-601), Administration Building (TAN-602). Left to right middle ground: Service Building (TAN-603), Warehouse (later known as Maintenance Shop or Craft Shop, TAN-604), Water Well Pump Houses, Fuel Tanks and Fuel Pump Houses, and Water Storage Tanks. Change House (TAN-606) on near side of berm. Large building beyond berm is A&M. Building, TAN-607. Railroad tracks beyond lead from (unseen) turntable to the IET. Date: June 6, 1955. INEEL negative no. 13201 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  7. Spirit Switches on Its X-ray Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit probing its first target rock, Adirondack. At the time this picture was snapped, the rover had begun analyzing the rock with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer located on its robotic arm. This instrument uses alpha particles and X-rays to determine the elemental composition of martian rocks and soil. The image was taken by the rover's hazard-identification camera.

  8. Evaluation of a `CMOS' Imager for a Shadow Mask Hard X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed a hard x-ray coder that provides high angular resolution imaging capability using a coarse position-sensitive image plane detector. The coder consists of two Fresnel zone plates (FZP). Two such FZP's generate Moiré fringe patterns whose frequency and orientation define the arrival direction of a beam with respect to the telescope axis. The image plane detector needs to resolve the Moiré fringe pattern. Pixellated detectors can be used as an image plane detector. The recently available `CMOS' imager could provide a very low power large area image plane detector for hard x-rays. We have looked into a unit made by Rad-Icon Imaging Corp. The Shad-o-Box 1024 x-ray camera is a high resolution 1024x1024 pixel detector of 50x50 mm area. It is a very low power, stand-alone camera. We present some preliminary results of our evaluation of such a camera.

  9. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution.

  10. X-ray topography study of complex silicon microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The correlation between the yield of silicon microcircuits wafers versus defects observed in X-ray topographs produced by a high speed curved wafer X-ray topographic camera was investigated. Most of the topographs were made after final wafer probe. Results indicated that most high volume silicon wafer processing does not need X-ray topography as a routine process control. It is further indicated that in changing any existing process or developing a new process the technique can be of significant benefit.

  11. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  12. The flexible x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.; Perry, T.S.; Bell, P.M.; Hares, J.D.; Miller, P.L.; Peyser, T.A.; Wallace, R.; Louis, H.; Smith, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    A new gated x-ray framing camera has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use at the Nova laser facility. This diagnostic, the flexible x-ray imager, has been designed as a modular unit that can be rapidly reconfigured to change the spectral response, magnification, sensitivity, and spatial and temporal resolutions of the instrument. The electrical gate pulse width may be varied from 200 ps to 2 ns depending upon whether the experimental emphasis is on temporal resolution or sensitivity. The long integration times are particularly useful in experiments where motional blurring occurs over even longer time scales. A detailed description of the instrument and its varied uses is presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Visualization of x-ray backscatter data

    SciTech Connect

    Greenawald, E.C.; Ham, Y.S.; Poranski, C.F. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Of the several processes which occur when x-rays interact with matter, Compton scattering is dominant in the range of energies commonly used in industrial radiography. The Compton interaction between an x-ray photon and a free or outer shell electron causes the electron to recoil and the photon to be propagated in a new direction with a reduced energy. Regardless of the incident beam energy, some photons are always scattered in the backwards direction. The potential for determining material properties by the detection of x-ray backscatter has been recognized for years. Although work in this area has been eclipsed by the rapid development of computerized tomography (CT), a variety of industrial backscatter imaging techniques and applications have been demonstrated. Backscatter inspection is unique among x-ray methods in its applicability with access to only one side of the object. The authors are currently developing the application of x-ray backscatter tomography (XBT) to the inspection of steel-reinforced rubber sonar domes on US Navy vessels. In this paper, the authors discuss the visualization methods they use to interpret the XBT data. They present images which illustrate the capability of XBT as applied to sonar domes and a variety of other materials and objects. They also demonstrate and discuss the use of several data visualization software products.

  14. X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An initial concept study for the X-ray Surveyor mission was carried-out by the Advanced Concept Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), with a strawman payload and related requirements that were provided by an Informal Mission Concept Team, comprised of MSFC and Smithsonian Astrophysics Observatory (SAO) scientists plus a diverse cross-section of the X-ray community. The study included a detailed assessment of the requirements, a preliminary design, a mission analysis, and a preliminary cost estimate. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development—including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades, such as Con-X, AXSIO and IXO, and in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  15. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vhiklinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the high energy universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing most, if not all, areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission now named the X-ray Surveyor. This concept study starts with a baseline payload consisting of a high resolution X-ray telescope and an instrument set which may include an X-ray calorimeter, a wide-field imager and a dispersive grating spectrometer and readout. The telescope would consist of highly nested thin shells, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development, including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and modern polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. In many areas, the mission requirements would be no more stringent than those of Chandra, and the study takes advantage of similar studies for other large area missions carried out over the past two decades. Initial assessments indicate that such an X-ray mission is scientifically compelling, technically feasible, and worthy of a high prioritization by the next American National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  16. Optimizing Focusing X-Ray Optics for Planetary Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melso, Nicole; Romaine, Suzanne; Hong, Jaesub; Cotroneo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    X-Ray observations are a valuable tool for studying the composition, formation and evolution of the numerous X-Ray emitting objects in our Solar System. Although there are plenty of useful applications for in situ X-Ray focusing instrumentation, X-Ray focusing optics have never been feasible for use onboard planetary missions due to their mass and cost. Recent advancements in small-scale X-Ray instrumentation have made focusing X-Ray technology more practical and affordable for use onboard in situ spacecraft. Specifically, the technology of a metal-ceramic hybrid material combined with Electroformed Nickel Replication (ENR) holds great promise for realizing lightweight X-ray optics. We are working to optimize these lightweight focusing X-Ray optics for use in planetary science applications. We have explored multiple configurations and geometries that maximize the telescope's effective area and field of view while meeting practical mass and volume requirements. Each configuration was modeled via analytic calculations and Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations and compared to alternative Micro-pore Optics designs. The improved performance of our approach using hybrid materials has many exciting implications for the future of planetary science, X-Ray instrumentation, and the exploration of X-Ray sources in our Solar System.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  17. The UHURU X-ray instrument.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Austin, G.; Mickiewicz, S.; Goddard, R.

    1972-01-01

    On Dec. 12, 1970, the UHURU X-ray observatory was launched into equatorial orbit with the prime mission of conducting an all-sky survey of astronomical X-ray sources with intensities of 0.00005 Sco-X1 or greater. The X-ray detection system contains 12 gas-filled proportional counters, 6 behind each collimator. The aspect system is discussed together with the structure, the pulse height analyzer, the command system, the calibration system, and the power distribution system. Pulse shape discrimination circuits used on UHURU use the same technique that was used on the system originally developed for large area proportional counters described by Gorenstein and Mickiewicz (1968).

  18. X-ray beam pointer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive, readily assembled pointer aims X-ray machine for welded assembly radiographs. Plumb bob used for vertical alinement and yardstick used to visualize X-ray paths were inconvenient and inaccurate. Pointer cuts alinement time by one-half and eliminates necessity of retakes. For 3,000 weld radiographs, pointer will save 300 worker-hours and significant materials costs.

  19. Plug Would Collimate X Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.; Adams, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Device creates narrow, well-defined beam for radiographic measurements of thickness. Cylindrical plug collimates and aligns X rays with respect to through holes in parts. Helps in determination of wall thickness by radiography. Lead absorbs X rays that do not pass axially through central hole. Lead/vinyl seals prevent off-axis rays from passing along periphery of plug.

  20. X-ray based extensometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

  1. Integration of an amorphous silicon passive pixel sensor array with a lateral amorphous selenium detector for large area indirect conversion x-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Yazdandoost, Mohammad Y.; Keshavarzi, Rasoul; Shin, Kyung-Wook; Hristovski, Christos; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Chen, Feng; Majid, Shaikh Hasibul; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-03-01

    Previously, we reported on a single-pixel detector based on a lateral a-Se metal-semiconductor-metal structure, intended for indirect conversion X-ray imaging. This work is the continuous effort leading to the first prototype of an indirect conversion X-ray imaging sensor array utilizing lateral amorphous selenium. To replace a structurally-sophisticated vertical multilayer amorphous silicon photodiode, a lateral a-Se MSM photodetector is employed which can be easily integrated with an amorphous silicon thin film transistor passive pixel sensor array. In this work, both 2×2 macro-pixel and 32×32 micro-pixel arrays were fabricated and tested along with discussion of the results.

  2. Soft x-ray imager (SXI) onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Dotani, Tadayasu; Hiraga, Junko S.; Anabuki, Naohisa; Bamba, Aya; Hatsukade, Isamu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Mori, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2010-07-01

    We are designing an X-ray CCD camera (SXI) for ASTRO-H, including many new items. We have developed the CCD, CCD-NeXT4, that is a P-channel type CCD. It has a thick depletion layer of 200μm with an imaging area of 30mm square. Since it is back-illuminated, it has a good low energy response and is robust against the impact of micro-meteorites. We will employ 4 chips to cover the area of 60mm square. A mechanical rather than peltier cooler will be employed so that we can cool the CCD to -120°C. We will also introduce an analog ASIC that is placed very close to the CCD. It performs well, having a similar noise level to that assembled by using individual parts used on SUZAKU. We also employ a modulated X-ray source (MXS), that improves the accuracy of the calibration. The SXI will have one of the largest SΩ among various satellites.

  3. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  4. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  5. Nepheline: Structure of Three Samples from the Bancroft Area, Ontario, Obtained using Synchrotron High-Resolution Powder X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Hassan, Ishmael

    2010-05-25

    The crystal structure of three samples of nepheline (ideally, K{sub 2}Na{sub 6}[Al{sub 8}Si{sub 8}O{sub 32}]) from the Bancroft area of Ontario (1a, b: Egan Chute, 2: Nephton, and 3: Davis Hill), each with different types of superstructure reflections, has been studied using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinement. The samples have different origins. The structure was refined in space group P6{sub 3}. The R{sub F}{sup 2} index, number of unique observed reflections, pseudohexagonal subcell parameters, and site-occupancy factor (sof) for the K site are as follows: Sample 1b: R{sub F}{sup 2} = 0.0433, N{sub obs} = 1399, a = 9.99567(1), c = 8.37777(1) {angstrom}, V = 724.907(2) {angstrom}{sub 3}, and K (sof) = 0.716(1). Sample 2: R{sub F}{sup 2} = 0.0669, N{sub obs} = 1589, a = 10.00215(1), c = 8.38742(1) {angstrom}, V = 726.684(1) {angstrom}{sub 3}, and K (sof) = 0.920(1). Sample 3: R{sub F}{sup 2} = 0.0804, N{sub obs} = 1615, a = 9.99567(1), c = 8.37873(1) {angstrom}, V = 724.991(1) {angstrom}{sub 3}, and K (sof) = 0.778(2). Sample 2 has the largest sof for K and the largest volume. The satellite reflections in the three nepheline samples were observed in the HRPXRD traces and give rise to different incommensurate superstructures. The Al and Si atoms in the T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} sites are ordered differently in the three samples, which may indicate the presence of a domain structure based on Al-Si order. The positions for the Al and Si atoms were interchanged in two samples because of the resulting distances. The slight excess of Si over Al atoms, characteristically encountered in well-analyzed samples of nepheline, is reflected in the distances.

  6. X ray timing observations and gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

    1989-01-01

    Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

  7. Magnetically-coupled microcalorimeter arrays for x-ray astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, Simon

    The "X-ray Surveyor" has been listed by NASA as one of the four major large mission concepts to be studied in the next Astrophysics Decadal Review in its preliminary list of large concepts. One of the key instruments on such a mission would be a very large format X-ray microcalorimeter array, with an array size of greater than 100 thousand pixels. Magnetically-coupled microcalorimeters (MCC) are one of the technologies with the greatest potential to meet the requirements of this mission, and this proposal is one to carry out research specifically to reach the goals of this vision. The "X-ray Surveyor" is a concept for a future mission that will make X-ray observations that are instrumental to understanding the quickly emerging population of galaxies and supermassive black holes at z ~10. The observations will trace the formation of galaxies and their assembly into large-scale structures starting from the earliest possible epochs. This mission would be observing baryons and large-scale physical processes outside of the very densest regions in the local Universe. This can be achieved with an X-ray observatory with similar angular resolution as Chandra but with significantly improved optic area and detector sensitivity. Chandra-scale angular resolution (1" or better) is essential in building more powerful, higher throughput observatories to avoid source confusion and remain photon-limited rather than background-limited. A prime consideration for the microcalorimeter camera on this type of mission is maintaining ~ 1 arcsec spatial resolution over the largest possible field of view, even if this means a slight trade-off against the spectral resolution. A uniform array of 1" pixels covering at least 5'x5' field of view is desired. To reduce the number of sensors read out, in geometries where extremely fine pitch (~50 microns) is desired, the most promising technologies are those in which a thermal sensor such an MCC can read out a sub-array of 20-25 individual 1'

  8. Search for X-Ray Emission in the Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The XMM observation were obtained on 2001 January 07-08 for 51767 s. The Optical Monitor (OM) was used with the V filter for 4 exposures of 5000 s each in imaging mode. We used the data given by the OM to confirm the presence of the source in the field of view. The European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) MOS 1 and MOS2 were used 48724 s each in prime full window mode with 2.5 s time resolution. The EPIC PN was used 46618 s in prime full window mode with 73.4 ms time resolution. The X-ray source closest to the expected position of our target is offset by delta R.A=2.5 arcsec and delta Dec=-28.37 arcsec. This offset is high in comparison with the 0.4 arcsec observed with the optical data. So at this point we already knew that the target was not detected. To confirm that conclusion, we performed the identification of all X-ray sources in the field of view by comparing source to source our image with the one obtained by Rutledge et al. with Chandra. This allowed us to identify all the X-ray sources in our field of view in an area of 20 arcsec times 10 arcsec centered on the expected coordinates of LP944-20. We were then able to conclude that the target was not detected during this observation. This result allowed us to determine a new and better 3 sigma upper limit of X-Ray emission for this object. We have also derived duty cycles for X-ray flares as a function of X-ray luminosity by comparing the XMM data with Chandra and ROSAT data. One student has been supported with the grant during four months (Herve Bouy). A Sun workstation was purchased for him.

  9. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  10. X-Ray Spectral Evolution of the Crab Pulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Pravdo, S. H.; Angelini, L.

    1997-01-01

    The Crab Pulsar was observed with the X-ray detectors on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) on May 2, 1996. The large area, high time resolution, extended energy range, and moderate energy resolution of the RXTE instruments provided an unprecedented measurement of the Crab pulsar spectrum as it evolved in phase across the 33 msec pulse.

  11. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  12. Luminescence properties after X-ray irradiation for dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Duk-Geun; Kim, Myung-Jin

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the luminescence characteristics after exposure to X-ray radiation, we developed an independent, small X-ray irradiation system comprising a Varian VF-50J mini X-ray generator, a Pb collimator, a delay shutter, and an Al absorber. With this system, the apparent dose rate increased linearly to 0.8 Gy/s against the emission current for a 50 kV anode potential when the shutter was delayed for an initial 4 s and the Al absorber was 300 µm thick. In addition, an approximately 20 mm diameter sample area was irradiated homogeneously with X rays. Based on three-dimensional (3D) thermoluminescence (TL) spectra, the small X-ray irradiator was considered comparable to the conventional 90Sr/90Y beta source even though the TL intensity from beta irradiation was higher than that from X-ray irradiation. The single aliquot regenerative (SAR) growth curve for the small X-ray irradiator was identical to that for the beta source. Therefore, we concluded that the characteristics of the small X-ray irradiator and the conventional 90Sr/90Y beta source were similar and that X ray irradiation had the potential for being suitable for use in luminescence dosimetry.

  13. Scanning CCD Detector for X-ray Powder Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, T.; Baldwin, J.; Von Dreele, R.; Suchomel, M.; Toby, B. H.

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication and use of a custom CCD detector for x-ray powder diffraction measurements. The detector is mounted on a diffractometer arm, where line-by-line readout of the CCD is coupled to continuous motion of the arm. As the arm moves, the data from the CCD detector are accumulated and can be viewed as if it were a "film strip" with partial powder diffraction rings. Because of the unique design of the camera, both high-resolution and rapid measurements can be performed. Powder diffraction patterns are collected with speeds of a few minutes, or less, with many of the advantages of large area position-sensitive detectors, for example amorphous silicon flat panels, such as high sensitivity, direct evidence of grainy samples and freedom from low-angle asymmetry, but with resolution better than linear position-sensitive detectors and nearly as good as the ultimate in resolution, analyser-crystal detection [2,3].

  14. The Astro-H Mission and High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Mitsuda, K.; Awaki, H.; Fujimoto, R.; den Herder, J. W.; Ishida, M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kunieda, H.; Maeda, Y.; McCammon, D.; Ohashi, T.; Okajima, T.; Porter, F.; Serlemitsos, P.; Soong, Y.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takahashi, T.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tawara, Y.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Astro-H Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (JAXA/ISAS) is developing a major new high-energy astrophysics observatory. Astro-H will provide broadband, high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging over the 0.3-600 keV band using four co-aligned instruments operated simultaneously. The mission will have major US participation supported by NASA as well as contributions from Europe and Canada. For high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, the soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) will feature an x-ray calorimeter spectrometer and x-ray mirror. The instrument will cover the energy range 0.3-12 keV and is expected to have an energy resolution better than 5 eV (FWHM) with a collecting area of over 200 cm2 at 6 keV. The cooling system will have both cryogenic and mechanical coolers for up to five years of operation. The SXS is a joint collaboration between NASA/GSFC, ISAS/JAXA and SRON, and the NASA participation was selected as an Explorers Mission of Opportunity in June 2008. As part of this investigation, a fully supported US guest observer program was also proposed and is under review by NASA. Other instruments on Astro-H include a soft x-ray imager (SXI) consisting of a large area CCD camera with 35 arcmin field-of-view and a hard x-ray imager (HXI) that uses focusing x-ray optics combined with both double-sided silicon strip detectors and CdTe array. The 12-m focal length optical system will provide an effective area of 300 cm2 at 30 keV, and high sensitivity from 10-80 keV using multilayer x-ray mirrors with 2-4 arcmin imaging. The soft gamma detector (SGD) is a non-focusing instrument based on a new, narrow-field-of-view Compton telescope with an energy range of 10-600 keV and sensitivity at 300 keV that is more than 10 times higher than Suzaku. Astro-H is planned for launch in 2014 aboard a JAXA HII-A rocket.

  15. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

  16. X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.

    1986-01-01

    There are about 100 bright X-ray sources in the Galaxy that are accretion-driven systems composed of a neutron star and a low mass companion that fills its critical Roche lobe. Many of these systems generate recurring X-ray bursts that are the result of thermonuclear flashes in the neutron star's surface layers, and are accompanied by a somewhat delayed optical burst due to X-ray heating of accretion disk. The Rapid Burster discovered in 1976 exhibits an interval between bursts that is strongly correlated with the energy in the preceding burst. There is no optical identification for this object.

  17. Three-dimensional model of x-ray induced microchannel plate output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2006-10-01

    Microchannel plates are an important component in a type of imaging diagnostic known as an x-ray framing camera, used in x-ray radiography of high-energy-density physics experiments. A microchannel plate is responsible for detecting x rays and then converting them into amplified bursts of electrons, which are then imaged onto a phosphor-coated fiber optic screen. We present the preliminary development of a three-dimensional model of a single microchannel plate channel in attempt to simulate the pulse height distribution of the microchannel plate electron output. Using a novel technique, initial simulations are compared with experimental data from an ungated x-ray framing camera.

  18. Three-dimensional model of x-ray induced microchannel plate output

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2006-10-15

    Microchannel plates are an important component in a type of imaging diagnostic known as an x-ray framing camera, used in x-ray radiography of high-energy-density physics experiments. A microchannel plate is responsible for detecting x rays and then converting them into amplified bursts of electrons, which are then imaged onto a phosphor-coated fiber optic screen. We present the preliminary development of a three-dimensional model of a single microchannel plate channel in attempt to simulate the pulse height distribution of the microchannel plate electron output. Using a novel technique, initial simulations are compared with experimental data from an ungated x-ray framing camera.

  19. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    spectrally resolved without saturation. We present details of our camera design and device performance with particular emphasis on those aspects of interest to single photon counting x-ray astronomy. These features include read noise, x-ray spectral response and quantum efficiency. Funding for this work has been provided in large part by NASA Grant NNX09AE86G and a grant from the Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation.

  20. Advanced X-Ray Timing Array (AXTAR) Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thompson, Kevin S.

    2011-01-01

    The animation depicts NASA's concept for a next-generation Advanced X-ray Timing Mission. The models and their textures doe not necessarily represent the final iteration. Delivery specifications include launch with Taurus II or Falcon 9, mass of 2650 kg, with a circular low earth orbit at approximately 600 km. The inclination depends on the launch vehicle and spacecraft mass. AXTAR's prime instrument will probe the physics of neutron stars and black holes through X-ray timing and spectral measurements. The primary instrument will be the Large Area Timing Array (LATA). The Sky Monitor Clusters configuration consists of 27 Sky Monitor cameras th at are grouped in five clusters. This configuration will achieve approximately 85 percent all sky coverage. Spacecraft components include a science bus to house the LATA of supermodules; a spacecraft bus to house components such as propulsion tanks, avionics, and reaction wheels; solar arrays configured from space-qualified GaAs 3-junction cells; star trackers for attitude knowledge; a propulsion system of four pods, each containing one 100 lbf and two 5 lbf engines; a launch vehicle adaptor; and a radiation shield.

  1. Soft x-ray imager onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masayuki; Natsukari, Chikara; Tomida, Hiroshi; Hiraga, Junko S.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Yamauchi, Makoto; Hatsukade, Isamu; Bamba, Aya

    2013-09-01

    The Soft X-ray Imager, SXI, is an X-ray CCD camera onboard the ASTRO-H satellite to be launched in 2015. ASTRO-H will carry two types of soft X-ray detector. The X-ray calorimeter, SXS, has an excellent energy resolution with a narrow field of view while the SXI has a medium energy resolution with a large field of view, 38' square. We employ 4 CCDs of P-channel type with a depletion layer of 200 μm. Having passed the CDR, we assemble the FM so that we can join the final assembly. We present here the SXI status and its expected performance in orbit.

  2. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Van Speybroeck, Leon P.; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2000-07-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the x-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched early in the morning of 1999, July 23 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Shuttle launch was only the first step in placing the observatory in orbit. After release from the cargo bay, the Inertial Upper Stage performed two firings, and separated from the observatory as planned. Finally, after five firings of Chandra's own Integral Propulsion System--the last of which took place 15 days after launch--the observatory was placed in its highly elliptical orbit of approximately 140,000 km apogee and approximately 10,000 km perigee. After activation, the first x-rays focused by the telescope were observed on 1999, August 12. Beginning with these initial observations one could see that the telescope had survived the launch environment and was operating as expected. The month following the opening of the sun-shade door was spent adjusting the focus for each set of instrument configurations, determining the optical axis, calibrating the star camera, establishing the relative response functions, determining energy scales, and taking a series of `publicity' images. Each observation proved to be far more revealing than was expected. Finally, and despite an initial surprise and setback due to the discovery that the Chandra x-ray telescope was far more efficient for concentrating low-energy protons that had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Together with other space observations, most notably the recently activated XMM-Newton, it is clear that we are entering a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  3. X-ray satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The projected launch date has been delayed approx. 7 weeks from the planned launch date. The Engineering Model (EM) of the automatic measurement and control system (AMCS) is in the critical phase. The contract change no. 1 to the main contract has been signed. A new version of the welding seam location specifications for the wide field camera (WFC) was proposed by the WFC Consortium. The payload integration plan (PIP) has been signed. Production of the EM/QM prototype and ground station equipment has proceeded according to plan with the exception of some delays. Production of the EM equipment has begun. Preparations for the qualification tests of the EM/QM equipment and the integration of EM equipment has begun. The cause of the delay in the launch date include the combined effects of the postponement of the target date for the EM equipment, along with the fact that only a structural model is available.

  4. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  5. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E.

    1984-09-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  6. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top ...

  7. Picosecond x-ray science.

    SciTech Connect

    Landahl, E.; Reis, D.; Wang, J.; Young, L.

    2006-01-01

    The report discusses the exciting times for short pulse X-rays and the current users of the technology in the United States. Tracking nuclear motions with X-rays transcends scientific disciplines and includes Biology, Materials Science, Condensed Matter and Chemistry. 1 picosecond accesses many phenomena previously hidden at 100ps. Synchrotron advantage over laser plasma and LCLS is that it's easily tunable. There is a large and diverse user community of this technology that is growing rapidly. A working group is being formed to implement 'fast track' Phases 1 and 2 which includes tunable, polarized, monochromatic, focused X-rays; variable pulse length (1 to 100ps) and 1 kHz, 10{sup 9} X-rays/s with 1% bandwidth. ERL would be a major advance for ultrafast time-resolved studies.

  8. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  9. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Results A radiologist, a doctor specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images, will look at ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  16. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  17. High-contrast X-ray micro-radiography and micro-CT of ex-vivo soft tissue murine organs utilizing ethanol fixation and large area photon-counting detector

    PubMed Central

    Dudak, Jan; Zemlicka, Jan; Karch, Jakub; Patzelt, Matej; Mrzilkova, Jana; Zach, Petr; Hermanova, Zuzana; Kvacek, Jiri; Krejci, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Using dedicated contrast agents high-quality X-ray imaging of soft tissue structures with isotropic micrometre resolution has become feasible. This technique is frequently titled as virtual histology as it allows production of slices of tissue without destroying the sample. The use of contrast agents is, however, often an irreversible time-consuming procedure and despite the non-destructive principle of X-ray imaging, the sample is usually no longer usable for other research methods. In this work we present the application of recently developed large-area photon counting detector for high resolution X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography of whole ex-vivo ethanol-preserved mouse organs. The photon counting detectors provide dark-current-free quantum-counting operation enabling acquisition of data with virtually unlimited contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thanks to the very high CNR even ethanol-only preserved soft-tissue samples without addition of any contrast agent can be visualized in great detail. As ethanol preservation is one of the standard steps of tissue fixation for histology, the presented method can open a way for widespread use of micro-CT with all its advantages for routine 3D non-destructive soft-tissue visualisation. PMID:27461900

  18. High-contrast X-ray micro-radiography and micro-CT of ex-vivo soft tissue murine organs utilizing ethanol fixation and large area photon-counting detector.

    PubMed

    Dudak, Jan; Zemlicka, Jan; Karch, Jakub; Patzelt, Matej; Mrzilkova, Jana; Zach, Petr; Hermanova, Zuzana; Kvacek, Jiri; Krejci, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Using dedicated contrast agents high-quality X-ray imaging of soft tissue structures with isotropic micrometre resolution has become feasible. This technique is frequently titled as virtual histology as it allows production of slices of tissue without destroying the sample. The use of contrast agents is, however, often an irreversible time-consuming procedure and despite the non-destructive principle of X-ray imaging, the sample is usually no longer usable for other research methods. In this work we present the application of recently developed large-area photon counting detector for high resolution X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography of whole ex-vivo ethanol-preserved mouse organs. The photon counting detectors provide dark-current-free quantum-counting operation enabling acquisition of data with virtually unlimited contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thanks to the very high CNR even ethanol-only preserved soft-tissue samples without addition of any contrast agent can be visualized in great detail. As ethanol preservation is one of the standard steps of tissue fixation for histology, the presented method can open a way for widespread use of micro-CT with all its advantages for routine 3D non-destructive soft-tissue visualisation. PMID:27461900

  19. X-ray microscopy of human malaria

    SciTech Connect

    Magowan, C.; Brown, J.T.; Mohandas, N.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-04-01

    Associations between intracellular organisms and host cells are complex and particularly difficult to examine. X-ray microscopy provides transmission images of subcellular structures in intact cells at resolutions superior to available methodologies. The spatial resolution is 50-60nm with a 1 micron depth of focus, superior to anything achievable with light microscopy. Image contrast is generated by differences in photoelectric absorption by the atoms in different areas (i.e. subcellular structures) throughout the full thickness of the sample. Absorption due to carbon dominates among all the elements in the sample at 2.4 nm x-ray wavelength. Thus images show features or structures, in a way not usually seen by other types of microscopy. The authors used soft x-ray microscopy to investigate structural development of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in normal and genetically abnormal erythrocytes, and in infected erythrocytes treated with compounds that have anti-malarial effects. X-ray microscopy showed newly elaborated structures in the cytosol of unstained, intact erythrocytes, redistribution of mass (carbon) in infected erythrocytes, and aberrant parasite morphology. Better understanding of the process of intracellular parasite maturation and the interactions between the parasite and its host erythrocyte can help define new approaches to the control of this deadly disease.

  20. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the X-ray spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources, ranging from nearby stars to distant quasars, is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of such spectroscopy as a useful and unique tool in the elucidation of the physical parameters of the sources. The spectroscopic analysis of degenerate and nondegenerate stellar systems, galactic clusters and active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants is discussed.

  1. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  2. 3D global estimation and augmented reality visualization of intra-operative X-ray dose.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Nicolas Loy; Padoy, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of image-guided minimally-invasive surgical procedures is confronting clinicians and surgical staff with new radiation exposure risks from X-ray imaging devices. The accurate estimation of intra-operative radiation exposure can increase staff awareness of radiation exposure risks and enable the implementation of well-adapted safety measures. The current surgical practice of wearing a single dosimeter at chest level to measure radiation exposure does not provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of radiation absorption throughout the body. In this paper, we propose an approach that combines data from wireless dosimeters with the simulation of radiation propagation in order to provide a global radiation risk map in the area near the X-ray device. We use a multi-camera RGBD system to obtain a 3D point cloud reconstruction of the room. The positions of the table, C-arm and clinician are then used 1) to simulate the propagation of radiation in a real-world setup and 2) to overlay the resulting 3D risk-map onto the scene in an augmented reality manner. By using real-time wireless dosimeters in our system, we can both calibrate the simulation and validate its accuracy at specific locations in real-time. We demonstrate our system in an operating room equipped with a robotised X-ray imaging device and validate the radiation simulation on several X-ray acquisition setups. PMID:25333145

  3. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  4. Why Do I Need X-Rays?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... Why Do I Need X-Rays? Article Chapters Why Do I Need X-Rays? ... of tooth decay. Updated: January 2012 Related Articles: X-Rays The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Sets the ...

  5. Universal x-ray unit

    SciTech Connect

    Charrier, P.

    1988-04-26

    An X-ray apparatus capable of X-ray beaming in a multiplicity of directions around and through the body of a horizontally lying stationary patient is described comprising: a horizontal patient's table; a ring in circumscribing position around the table; a X-ray equipment fixedly mounted on the ring for X-ray beaming through the table and through the body of a patient when lying thereon, the X-ray equipment comprising a source of X-rays; support means for holding the ring in the circumscribing position and first drive means on the support means and on the ring for rotating the ring about a first axis perpendicular to the general plane of the ring through the ring center; a suspension member having downwardly extending side legs, second drive means for oscillating the ring support means and the ring together in unison about the second axis; a frame having a top structure above the table, the ring and the suspension member; and a carrier assembly mounted on the top structure and at the center of the suspension member.

  6. A novel technique for single-shot energy-resolved 2D x-ray imaging of plasmas relevant for the inertial confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Labate, L; Köster, P; Levato, T; Gizzi, L A

    2012-10-01

    A novel x-ray diagnostic of laser-fusion plasmas is described, allowing 2D monochromatic images of hot, dense plasmas to be obtained in any x-ray photon energy range, over a large domain, on a single-shot basis. The device (named energy-encoded pinhole camera) is based upon the use of an array of many pinholes coupled to a large area CCD camera operating in the single-photon mode. The available x-ray spectral domain is only limited by the quantum efficiency of scientific-grade x-ray CCD cameras, thus extending from a few keV up to a few tens of keV. Spectral 2D images of the emitting plasma can be obtained at any x-ray photon energy provided that a sufficient number of photons had been collected at the desired energy. Results from recent inertial confinement fusion related experiments will be reported in order to detail the new diagnostic. PMID:23126763

  7. CALIBRATION OF X-RAY IMAGING DEVICES FOR ACCURATE INTENSITY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M J; Charest, M R; Ross, P W; Lee, J J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Teruya, A T

    2012-02-16

    National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.

  8. First Terrestrial Soft X-ray Aurora Observations by Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Chang, Shen-Wu; Metzger, Albert E.; Majeed, Tariq

    2004-01-01

    Northern polar "auroral" regions of Earth was observed by High-Resolution Camera in imaging mode (T32C-I) aboard Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) during mid December 2003 - mid April 2004. Ten CXO observations, each approximately 20 min duration, were made in a non-conventional method (due to CXO technical issues), such that Chandra was aimed at a fixed point in sky and the Earth's polar cusp was allowed to drift through the HRC-I field-of-view. The observations were performed when CXO was near apogee and timed during northern winter mostly near midnight (6 hr), except two observations which occurred around 1200 UT, so that northern polar region is entirely in dark and solar fluoresced x-ray contamination can be avoided. These observations were aimed at searching the Earth's soft x-ray aurora and to do a comparative study with Jupiter's x-ray aurora, where a pulsating x-ray hot-spot near the northern magnetic pole has been observed by Chandra that implies a particle source region near Jupiter's magnetopause, and entry of heavy solar wind ions due to high-latitude reconnection as a viable explanation for the soft x-ray emissions. The first Chandra soft (0.1-2 keV) x-ray observations of Earth's aurora show that it is highly variable (intense arc, multiple arcs, diffuse, at times almost absent). In at least one of the observations an isolated blob of emission is observed where we expect cusp to be: giving indication of solar wind charge-exchange signature in x-rays. We are comparing the Chandra x-ray observations with observations at other wavelengths and particle data from Earth-orbiting satellites and solar wind measurements from near-Earth ACE and SOH0 spacecraft. Preliminary results from these unique CXO-Earth observations will be presented and discussed.

  9. The International X-ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    White, Nicholas E.; Parmar, Arvind; Kunieda, Hideyo; Nandra, Kirpal; Ohashi, Takaya; Bookbinder, Jay

    2010-07-15

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a joint ESA-JAXA-NASA effort to address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics: What happens close to a black hole? How did supermassive black holes grow? How does large scale structure form? What is the connection between these processes? To address these questions IXO will employ optics with 3 sq m collecting area and 5 arc sec angular resolution--20 times more collecting area at 1 keV than any previous X-ray observatory. Focal plane instruments will deliver a 100-fold increase in effective area for high-resolution spectroscopy, deep spectral imaging over a wide field of view, unprecedented polarimetric sensitivity, microsecond spectroscopic timing, and high count rate capability. The mission is being planned for launch in 2021 to an L2 orbit, with a five-year lifetime and consumables for 10 years.

  10. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  11. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  12. Design and development of grazing incidence x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Mei, Zhiwu; Ma, Tao; Deng, Loulou; Shi, Yongqiang; Li, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The navigation accuracy is can be enhanced through design of X-ray mirrors to focus X-rays to a small detector. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. The simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the grazing incidence X-ray mirror was designed further based on our previous work, with focus on the reflectivity, effective area, angular resolution and baffles. To evaluate the performance of the manufactured mirror, the surface roughness and reflectivity were tested. The test results show that the grazing incidence mirror meets the design specifications. On the basis of this, the reflectivity of the mirror in the working bandwidth was extrapolated to evaluate the focusing ability of the mirror when it works together with the detector. The purpose of our current work to design and develop a prototype mirror was realized. It can lay a foundation and provide guidance for the development of multilayer nested X-ray mirror with larger effective area.

  13. Development of high resolution imaging detectors for x ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes our past activities and discusses the work performed over the period of 1 April 1990 through 1 April 1991 on x-ray optics, soft x-ray (0.1 - 10 KeV) imaging detectors, and hard x-ray (10 - 300 KeV) imaging detectors. If microchannel plates (MCPs) can be used to focus x-rays with a high efficiency and good angular resolution, they will revolutionize the field of x-ray optics. An x-ray image of a point source through an array of square MCP pores compared favorably with our ray tracing model for the MCP. Initial analysis of this image demonstrates the feasibility of MCPs for soft x-rays. Our work continues with optimizing the performance of our soft x-ray MCP imaging detectors. This work involves readout technology that should provide improved MCP readout devices (thin film crossed grid, curved, and resistive sheets), defect removal in MCPs, and photocathode optimization. In the area of hard x-ray detector development we have developed two different techniques for producing a CsI photocathode thickness of 10 to 100 microns, such that it is thick enough to absorb the high energy x-rays and still allow the photoelectrons to escape to the top MCP of a modified soft x-ray imaging detector. The methods involve vacuum depositing a thick film of CsI on a strong back, and producing a converter device that takes the place of the photocathode.

  14. Design of Grazing-incidence X-Ray Telescopes. 1.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, M C

    1973-07-01

    The theoretical and practical constraints on designs of grazing-incidence x-ray telescopes are discussed. It is shown that there is a maximum useful diameter for an x-ray telescope. It is further shown that when practical constraints are considered, the maximum reflecting area is not necessarily achieved by utilizing the largest available area within this diameter. Equations are derived that allow rapid calculation of the effective area of an x-ray telescope before one proceeds to detailed studies utilizing Monte Carlo techniques. PMID:20125544

  15. Design of grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    1973-01-01

    The theoretical and practical constraints on designs of grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes are discussed. It is shown that there is a maximum useful diameter for an X-ray telescope. It is further shown that when practical constraints are considered, the maximum reflecting area is not necessarily achieved by utilizing the largest available area within this diameter. Equations are derived that allow rapid calculation of the effective area of an X-ray telescope before one proceeds to detailed studies utilizing Monte Carlo techniques.

  16. Nonthermal X-ray Microflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Rauscher, E.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) provides unique sensitivity in the 3-15 keV energy range, with an effective area ˜100 times larger than similar past instruments. Along with its high spectral resolution (1 keV) RHESSI is uniquely suited to study small events. Microflares have been observed by Benz & Grigis (2002) and Krucker et al. (2002) to have anomalously steep spectra ( spectral index between -5 and -8) extending down to ˜ 7 keV. Thermal emission is found to dominate below ˜ 7 keV. In many other respects, microflares show properties similar to larger flares. We present single event studies of different types of x-ray microflares. RHESSI observations during quiet times (04-May 10-14; GOES level low B class) reveal a set 5 microflares (>=A Class). These microflares show power law spectra (spectral index of ˜4-8) with little or no thermal emission in the 3- ˜7 keV energy range above the nonthermal part of the spectrum. Other microflares in the same GOES class range, however, have been found which show extremely hard spectra with emission up to 50 keV (power law index ˜2). At lower energies, emission is dominated by a hot thermal component (20 MK). This work was supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1730 - Photofluorographic x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Photofluorographic x-ray system. 892.1730 Section 892.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... unit and a camera intended to be used to produce, then photograph, a fluoroscopic image of the...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1730 - Photofluorographic x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Photofluorographic x-ray system. 892.1730 Section 892.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... unit and a camera intended to be used to produce, then photograph, a fluoroscopic image of the...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1730 - Photofluorographic x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Photofluorographic x-ray system. 892.1730 Section 892.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... unit and a camera intended to be used to produce, then photograph, a fluoroscopic image of the...

  20. The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) for the ASTRO-H Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takaaki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Dotani, Tadayasu; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nagino, Ryo; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Natsukari, Chikara; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueda, Shutaro; Kimura, Masashi; Hiraga, Junko S.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Yamauchi, Makoto; Hatsukade, Isamu; Nishioka, Yusuke; Bamba, Aya; Doty, John P.

    2015-09-01

    The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) is an X-ray CCD camera onboard the ASTRO-H X-ray observatory. The CCD chip used is a P-channel back-illuminated type, and has a 200-µm thick depletion layer, with which the SXI covers the energy range between 0.4 keV and 12 keV. Its imaging area has a size of 31 mm x 31 mm. We arrange four of the CCD chips in a 2 by 2 grid so that we can cover a large field-of-view of 38' x 38'. We cool the CCDs to -120 °C with a single-stage Stirling cooler. As was done for the CCD camera of the Suzaku satellite, XIS, artificial charges are injected to selected rows in order to recover charge transfer inefficiency due to radiation damage caused by in-orbit cosmic rays. We completed fabrication of flight models of the SXI and installed them into the satellite. We verified the performance of the SXI in a series of satellite tests. On-ground calibrations were also carried out and detailed studies are ongoing.

  1. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  2. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  3. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, R. J. V.; Jones, M. T.; Ljungberg, M.; Nguyen, D. T.; Roll, J. B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the x-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of x-ray data were acquired, analyzed, and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping, and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture will be presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity, and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive are also described.

  4. VETA X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  5. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  6. Mineralogy, provenance, and diagenesis of a potassic basaltic sandstone on Mars: CheMin X-ray diffraction of the Windjana sample (Kimberley area, Gale Crater)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Bish, David L.; Vaniman, David T.; Chipera, Steve J.; Blake, David F.; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Bristow, Thomas F.; Morrison, Shaunna M.; Baker, Michael B.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Downs, Robert T.; Filiberto, Justin; Glazner, Allen F.; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy M.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger C.; McAdam, Amy C.; Achilles, Cherie N.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Farmer, Jack D.; Fendrich, Kim V.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Morookian, John Michael; Newcombe, Megan E.; Rice, Melissa S.; Spray, John G.; Stolper, Edward M.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Yen, Albert S.

    2016-01-01

    The Windjana drill sample, a sandstone of the Dillinger member (Kimberley formation, Gale Crater, Mars), was analyzed by CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the MSL Curiosity rover. From Rietveld refinements of its XRD pattern, Windjana contains the following: sanidine (21% weight, ~Or95); augite (20%); magnetite (12%); pigeonite; olivine; plagioclase; amorphous and smectitic material (~25%); and percent levels of others including ilmenite, fluorapatite, and bassanite. From mass balance on the Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) chemical analysis, the amorphous material is Fe rich with nearly no other cations—like ferrihydrite. The Windjana sample shows little alteration and was likely cemented by its magnetite and ferrihydrite. From ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) chemical analyses, Windjana is representative of the Dillinger and Mount Remarkable members of the Kimberley formation. LIBS data suggest that the Kimberley sediments include at least three chemical components. The most K-rich targets have 5.6% K2O, ~1.8 times that of Windjana, implying a sediment component with >40% sanidine, e.g., a trachyte. A second component is rich in mafic minerals, with little feldspar (like a shergottite). A third component is richer in plagioclase and in Na2O, and is likely to be basaltic. The K-rich sediment component is consistent with APXS and ChemCam observations of K-rich rocks elsewhere in Gale Crater. The source of this sediment component was likely volcanic. The presence of sediment from many igneous sources, in concert with Curiosity's identifications of other igneous materials (e.g., mugearite), implies that the northern rim of Gale Crater exposes a diverse igneous complex, at least as diverse as that found in similar-age terranes on Earth.

  7. Quantitative analysis of an enlarged area Solid State X-ray Image Intensifier (SSXII) detector based on Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) technology

    PubMed Central

    Swetadri, Vasan S.N.; Sharma, P.; Singh, V.; Jain, A.; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A.H.; Cartwright, A.N.; Bednarek, D.R; Rudin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Present day treatment for neurovascular pathological conditions involves the use of devices with very small features such as stents, coils, and balloons; hence, these interventional procedures demand high resolution x-ray imaging under fluoroscopic conditions to provide the capability to guide the deployment of these fine endovascular devices. To address this issue, a high resolution x-ray detector based on EMCCD technology is being developed. The EMCCD field-of-view is enlarged using a fiber-optic taper so that the detector features an effective pixel size of 37 µm giving it a Nyquist frequency of 13.5 lp/mm, which is significantly higher than that of the state of the art Flat Panel Detectors (FPD). Quantitative analysis of the detector, including gain calibration, instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE) and modulation transfer function (MTF) determination, are presented in this work. The gain of the detector is a function of the detector temperature; with the detector cooled to 5° C, the highest relative gain that could be achieved was calculated to be 116 times. At this gain setting, the lowest INEE was measured to be 0.6 µR/frame. The MTF, measured using the edge method, was over 2% up to 7 cycles/ mm. To evaluate the performance of the detector under clinical conditions, an aneurysm model was placed over an anthropomorphic head phantom and a coil was guided into the aneurysm under fluoroscopic guidance using the detector. Image sequences from the procedure are presented demonstrating the high resolution of this SSXII. PMID:24353386

  8. X-ray astronomy. [Crab Nebula, Cygnus Loop and the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, R.

    1975-01-01

    Various experiments in X-ray astronomy are described. The occurrence of lunar occultations of the Crab Nebula were utilized to determine the spatial distribution of X-ray emitting regions in the nebula. Study of the Cygnus Loop included a search for a central X-ray point source for the area and measurement of the energy spectrum of the flux from the supernova remnant. The X-ray morphology of the Perseus cluster of galaxies was studied. X-ray spectra of different points in the cluster were also obtained. In addition, the construction of a high resolution gas fluorescence proportional counter for application to X-ray astronomy is discussed.

  9. Development of X-Ray Optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.; Bolognese, J.; Byron, G.; Caldwell, D.; Chan, K.; Content, D. A.; Gubarev, M.; Davis, W.; Freeman, M.; Hadjimichael, T. J.; He, C.; Hong, M.; Kolos, L.; Jones, W. D.; Lehan, . P.; Lozipone, L.; Mazzarella, J.; McClelland, R.; Nguyen, D. T.; Olsen, L.; Petre, R.; Podgorski, W.; Robinson, D.; Russell, R.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory requires mirror assemblies with unprecedented characteristics that cannot be provided by existing optical technologies. In the past several years, the project has supported a vigorous mirror technology development program. This program includes the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets, the support and mounting of these thin mirror segments for accurate metrology, the mounting and attachment of these mirror segments for the purpose of X-ray tests, and development of methods for aligning and integrating these mirror segments into mirror assemblies. This paper describes our efforts and developments in these areas.

  10. X-ray refractive large aperture rolled prism lenses as condensers for x-ray tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, H.; Simon, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Eisenhower, R.; Mettendorf, K. U.

    2011-10-01

    At the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), refractive X-ray optics are developed. These optics are proposed to be used as condenser optics in X-Ray spectroscopy and microscopy applications with an X-ray tube as a source. To produce the lenses, a thin structured foil with equidistant fins in triangular form is casted from a structured silicon wafer. The foil is then wound around a glass fibre core. Due to this fabrication method, it is possible to produce large-aperture lenses with low absorption in comparison to other types of refractive X-Ray optics, like X-ray lenses with continuous parabolic shape or prism lenses. The first are limited due to their absorption while the latter are limited due to their mechanical stability of the prism columns. The optimisation of the so called X-Ray rolled prism lenses (RXPL) is underway at the institute and involves several parameters. One important property of the lenses is the correct form of the wound foil layers. This determines the number of necessary refractive elements at a given radius, which in turn determines the refracted slope and focal position of the transmitted beam. The spatial extent of the x-ray source is also being accounted for in the lens design. Another important point is the diameter of the winding core, which should be as small as possible due to the fact that the winding core reduces the active area of the lens. The rolling process itself is also revised to produce lenses with the above-mentioned small diameter winding cores and bend foil layers while sustaining a tight- fitting foil bundle. The lenses are studied at different energies and types of X-Ray tubes, as well as synchrotron sources, to gain additional information of the internal structure of the lens after the winding process. In this paper the current status of the lens development and results at X-Ray tube sources for use in diffractometers is presented.

  11. Bent-crystal Laue spectrograph for measuring x-ray spectra (15

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, B. H.; Wong, S.; Riordan, J. C.; Hudson, L. T.; O'Brien, C. M.; Seltzer, S. M.; Seiler, S.; Pressley, L.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2006-10-15

    A bent-crystal Laue {l_brace}or Cauchois [J. Phys. Radium 3, 320 (1932)] geometry{r_brace} spectrograph is a good compromise between sensitivity and spectral resolution for measuring x-ray spectra (15area x-ray sources because source-size spectral broadening is mitigated. We have designed, built, and tested such a spectrograph for measuring the spectra from electron-beam x-ray sources with diameters as large as 30 cm. The same spectrograph geometry has also been used to diagnose (with higher spectral resolution) smaller sources, such as x-ray tubes for mammography and laser-driven inertial fusion targets. We review our spectrograph design and describe the performance of different components. We have compared the reflectivity and spectral resolution of LiF, and Ge diffracting crystals. We have also measured the differences in sensitivity and spectral resolution using different x-ray to light converters (plastic scintillator, CsI, and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S) fiber optically coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device camera. We have also coupled scintillating fibers to photomultiplier tubes to obtain temporal records for discrete energy channels.

  12. Bent-crystal Laue spectrograph for measuring x-ray spectra (15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failor, B. H.; Wong, S.; Riordan, J. C.; Hudson, L. T.; O'Brien, C. M.; Seltzer, S. M.; Seiler, S.; Pressley, L.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2006-10-01

    A bent-crystal Laue {or Cauchois [J. Phys. Radium 3, 320 (1932)] geometry} spectrograph is a good compromise between sensitivity and spectral resolution for measuring x-ray spectra (15area x-ray sources because source-size spectral broadening is mitigated. We have designed, built, and tested such a spectrograph for measuring the spectra from electron-beam x-ray sources with diameters as large as 30cm. The same spectrograph geometry has also been used to diagnose (with higher spectral resolution) smaller sources, such as x-ray tubes for mammography and laser-driven inertial fusion targets. We review our spectrograph design and describe the performance of different components. We have compared the reflectivity and spectral resolution of LiF, and Ge diffracting crystals. We have also measured the differences in sensitivity and spectral resolution using different x-ray to light converters (plastic scintillator, CsI, and Gd2O2S) fiber optically coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device camera. We have also coupled scintillating fibers to photomultiplier tubes to obtain temporal records for discrete energy channels.

  13. Accretion and Outflows in X-ray Binaries: What's Really Going on During X-ray Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Rachel K. D.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    X-ray binaries, consisting of a star and a stellar-mass black hole, are wonderful laboratories for studying accretion and outflows. They evolve on timescales quite accessible to us, unlike their supermassive cousins, and allow the possibility of gaining a deeper understanding of these two common astrophysical processes. Different wavelength regimes reveal different aspects of the systems: radio emission is largely generated by outflows and jets, X-ray emission by inner accretion flows, and optical/infrared (OIR) emission by the outer disk and companion star. The search for relationships between these different wavelengths is thus an area of active research, aiming to reveal deeper connections between accretion and outflows.Initial evidence for a strong, tight correlation between radio and X-ray emission has weakened as further observations and newly-discovered sources have been obtained. This has led to discussions of multiple tracks or clusters, or the possibility that no overall relation exists for the currently-known population of X-ray binaries. Our ability to distinguish among these options is hampered by a relative lack of observations at lower luminosities, and especially of truly X-ray quiescent (non-outbursting) systems. Although X-ray binaries spend the bulk of their existence in quiescence, few quiescent sources have been observed and multiple observations of individual sources are largely nonexistent. Here we discuss new observations of the lowest-luminosity quiescent X-ray binary, A0620-00, and the place this object occupies in investigations of the radio/X-ray plane. For the first time, we also incorporate simultaneous OIR data with the radio and X-ray data.In December 2013 we took simultaneous observations of A0620-00 in the X-ray (Chandra), the radio (EVLA), and the OIR (SMARTS 1.3m). These X-ray and radio data allowed us to investigate similarities among quiescent X-ray binaries, and changes over time for this individual object, in the radio/X-ray

  14. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  15. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains. PMID:26967404

  16. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  17. Research in X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This research grant supported an active sounding rocket program at Penn State University over a period of over 10 years. During this period, the grant supported at least 8 graduate students in Astronomy & Astrophysics for at least a portion of their research. During the same period, our group was involved in seven sounding rocket flights, launched from White Sands, New Mexico, and from Woomera, Australia. Most of these rocket flights, and most of the work supported by this grant, involved the use of X-ray CCD cameras. The first X-ray CCD camera ever flown in space was our sounding rocket observation of SN1987A (flight 36.030 in 1987). Subsequent flights utilized improved CCD detectors, culminating in the'state-of-the-art EEV detector developed for our CUBIC mission, which was flown on 36.093 last May. Data from the last three flights, which observed the diffuse X-ray background with CCDS, include detection of the OVII He(alpha) line in the high latitude diffuse background and detection of the Mg XI He(alpha) line in the North Polar Spur. These results have been reported at meetings of the American Astronomical Society and the SPIE. The analysis of flights 36.092 and 36.106 is part of Jeff Mendenhall's PhD thesis and will be published in the Astrophysical Journal next year. The 36.093 data are currently being analyzed by PhD student Laura Cawley. From 1990 to 1996 this grant supported our development and launch of the CUBIC instrument on the SAC-B satellite, which was designed to measure the spectrum of the soft X-ray diffuse background with moderate energy resolution and high S/N ratio. Unfortunately, this mission terminated shortly after launch due to a failure of the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. This work resulted in publication of 4 papers in the SPIE Proceedings and four others in refereed journals, in addition to several other conference proceedings and contributed papers. In addition to the CCD flights described above, this grant has supported preliminary

  18. Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.A.; Larsson, J.; Chang, Z.

    1997-09-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring time-dependent x-ray diffraction. X-ray pulses from an Advanced Light Source bend magnet are diffracted by a sagittally-focusing Si(111) crystal and then by a sample crystal, presently InSb(111). Laser pulses with 100 fs duration and a repetition rate of 1 KHz irradiate the sample inducing a phase transition. Two types of detectors are being employed: an x-ray streak camera and an avalanche photodiode. The streak camera is driven by a photoconductive switch and has a 2 ps temporal resolution determined by trigger jitter. The avalanche photodiode has high quantum efficiency and sufficient time resolution to detect single x-ray pulses in ALS two bunch or camshaft operation. A beamline is under construction dedicated for time resolved and micro-diffraction experiments. In the new beamline a toroidal mirror collects 3 mrad horizontally and makes a 1:1 image of the bend magnet source in the x-ray hutch. A laser induced phase transition has been observed in InSb occurring within 70 ps.

  19. X-Ray tomography with micrometer spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Carsten; Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Koch, Andreas; Snigireva, Irina; Kohn, Victor

    1997-10-01

    3D computed tomographic images with micrometer resolution were made in phase-contrast mode with high energy x-rays at a third generation synchrotron source. The phase-contrast technique enables one to obtain information not only about the amplitude of the wave field behind the object and thus about the absorption, but also about the refractive index distribution inside the sample. Increasing the x-ray energy from the soft x-ray region up to 10-60 keV simplifies the experimental setup and opens the possibility to study organic samples at room-temperature and under normal pressure conditions. The projection data is recorded with a fast, high-resolution x-ray camera consisting of a 5 micrometers thin YAG scintillator crystal, a visible light microscope optics and a slow scan 1k X 1k CCD camera. The spatial resolution of phase-contrast microtomography is currently limited by the resolution of the x-ray detector to about 1-2 micrometers . First applications in biology and geophysics are shown.

  20. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-28

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ∼320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly “soft,” i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.