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Sample records for argentine peanut skins

  1. Flavor and Antioxidant Capacity of Peanut Paste and Peanut Butter Supplemented with Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins (PS) are a good source of phenolic compounds. This study evaluated antioxidant properties and flavor of peanut paste and peanut butter enhanced with peanut skins. PS were added to peanut paste and peanut butter in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 % (w/w). PS, ...

  2. Evaluation of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The skins from peanuts are a low-value material from peanut processing and literature suggests it is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have any significant uses other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high anti...

  3. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  4. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  5. Chemistry and Biochemstry of Peanut Skins. Implications of Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut shelling plants in the US produce thousands of tons of peanut skins each year. Currently, this material is considered a waste product with limited end uses and no real monetary value. Peanut skins were obtained from a regional peanut processor and subjected to a several types of solvent ext...

  6. Assessment and Characterization of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are a low-value material from peanut processing and are a good source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have a significant use other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high antioxidant activity, while little is known s...

  7. Roast effects on the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of peanut flours, blanched peanut seed and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (H&L-ORAC) of peanut flours, blanched peanut seed, and peanut skins were characterized across a range of roast intensities. H-ORAC ranged from 5910-7990, 3040-3700 and 152,290-209,710 'moles Trolox/100g for the flours, seed, and skins, ...

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Peanut Skin Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are regarded as a low economic value by-product of the peanut industry; however, they contain high levels of bioactive compounds including catechins and procyanidins, which are known for their health-promoting properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of peanut skin extracts (PSE) ...

  9. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

  10. Near-infrared analysis of peanut seed skins for catechins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of peanut processing and contain a significant amount of antioxidant compounds. Currently there are not many uses for the skins and they have low market value. Modern consumers are interested in healthy foods and will purchase products fortified with antioxidants. A rap...

  11. Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Munekata, P E S; Calomeni, A V; Rodrigues, C E C; Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Alencar, S M; Trindade, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of peanut skin extract and its effect on the color and lipid oxidation of cooked chicken patties over 15 d of refrigerated storage. The extract was obtained using 80% ethanol and evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, reducing power based on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) reagent, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The patties were made with ground thigh fillets, chicken skin, and 2% salt. They were homogenized and divided into the following two groups: a control treatment without antioxidants and a peanut skin treatment with 70 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg per patty. Analyses of the fatty acid profiles, instrumental colors (L*, a*, and b*) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were performed on d 1, 8, and 15 of storage at 1±1ºC. The peanut skin extract resulted in a phenolic content of 32.6±0.7 mg GAE/g dry skin, an antioxidant activity (FRAP) of 26.5±0.8 6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry skin, and an efficient concentration (EC50) of 46.5 μg/mL. The total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 73%, and 39% of this fatty acid content was monounsaturated. The peanut skin extract slowed the decrease in the a* values (P<0.05) but reduced the L* and b* values compared to the control samples during storage (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation was minimized by the peanut skin extract (P<0.05), which resulted in a maximum value of 0.97 malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg compared to values that were close 19 mg MDA/kg patties in the control sample at the end of storage period. Thus, it can be concluded that although peanut skin extract causes little color change, it can be applied as a natural antioxidant to cooked chicken patties because it efficiently inhibits lipid oxidation in this product during refrigerated storage. PMID:25681473

  12. Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Hurley, Steven; Hanner, Tracy; Baxter, Sarah A Schwatrz; Johnston, Thomas A; Su, Mingming; Holmes, Bryce M; Yu, Jianmei; Williams, Leonard L

    2014-04-01

    Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols including procyanidins and is shown to have hypolipidemic properties. This study investigated the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols using a rat model. First, the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols in rat plasma was evaluated. Our results showed procyanidin A2 levels in plasma peaked within 30 min of ingestion. The results of a second study show that peanut skin extract supplemented in addition to oil gavage resulted in significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and VLDL within 5h. In the third study, rats were given a Western type diet for 5 weeks with peanut skin extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The main effects observed were lowering of total blood lipid and reduction of the plasma fatty acids profile. Our results suggest that procyanidin A may impart a key role of hypolipidemic effect seen in peanut skin polyphenols. PMID:24262521

  13. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

  14. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

  15. Potential of Spray Dried Peanut Skin Extract as a Food Ingredient with Antioxidant Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are known to be rich in phenolic compounds; however, they currently possess little economic value to the food industry. Blanched peanut skins were milled into a fine powder, extracted with 70% ethanol, and separated into soluble extract (SE) and insoluble fraction (IF) by filtration. ...

  16. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analysis and IgE Binding Properties of Peanut Seed and Testa (Skin)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the protein composition and potential allergenicity of peanut testae or skins, proteome analysis was conducted using nanoLC-MS/MS sequencing. Initial amino acid analysis suggested differences in protein compositions between the blanched seed (skins removed) and skin. Phenolic compou...

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis and IgE binding properties of peanut seed and testa (skin).

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Gökce, Emine; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Muddiman, David C; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2013-04-24

    To investigate the protein composition and potential allergenicity of peanut testae or skins, proteome analysis was conducted using nanoLC-MS/MS sequencing. Initial amino acid analysis suggested differences in protein compositions between the blanched seed (skins removed) and skin. Phenolic compounds hindered analysis of proteins in skins when the conventional extraction method was used; therefore, phenol extraction of proteins was necessary. A total of 123 proteins were identified in blanched seed and skins, and 83 of the proteins were common between the two structures. The skins contained all of the known peanut allergens in addition to 38 proteins not identified in the seed. Multiple defense proteins with antifungal activity were identified in the skins. Western blotting using sera from peanut-allergic patients revealed that proteins extracted from both the blanched seed and skin bound significant levels of IgE. However, when phenolic compounds were present in the skin protein extract, no IgE binding was observed. These findings indicate that peanut skins contain potentially allergenic proteins; however, the presence of phenolic compounds may attenuate this effect. PMID:23534881

  19. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

  20. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  1. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  2. Peanut skins-fortified peanut butters: effect of processing on the phenolics content, fibre content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Kerr, William L; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-02-15

    Incorporation of ground peanut skins (PS) into peanut butter at 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0% (w/w) resulted in a marked concentration-dependent increase in both the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Using dry-blanched PS to illustrate, the TPC increased by 86%, 357%, 533%, and 714%, respectively, compared to the peanut butter control devoid of PS; the total proanthocyanidins content (TPACs) rose by 633%, 1933%, 3500%, and 5033%, respectively. NP-HPLC detection confirmed that the increase in the phenolics content was attributed to the endogenous proanthocyanidins of the PS, which were characterised as dimers to nonamers by NP-HPLC/ESI-MS. FRAP values increased correspondingly by 62%, 387%, 747%, and 829%, while H-ORAC(FL) values grew by 53%, 247%, 382%, and 415%, respectively. The dietary fibre content of dry-blanched PS was ~55%, with 89-93% being insoluble fibre. Data revealed that PS addition enhances the antioxidant capacity of the peanut butter, permits a "good source of fibre" claim, and offers diversification in the market's product line. PMID:24128560

  3. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectally, peanut oil is used in ointments and medicinal oils for treating constipation. Pharmaceutical companies use peanut ... applied to the skin, or used rectally in medicinal amounts. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: ...

  4. Skin exposure promotes a Th2 - dependent sensitization to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy without known prior oral exposure, which suggests that alternative routes of exposure contribute to food allergy. We hypothesized that peanut activates innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by topical...

  5. Differences between heat-treated raw and commercial peanut extracts by skin testing and immunoblotting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is generally consumed in a heat-treated form, yet the commonly available extracts for diagnostic purposes are derived from raw peanuts. Raw and heat-treated samples were prepared and compared with commercially available peanut extracts regarding SPT reactivity and serum IgE reactivity. Protei...

  6. Vestiges of an Ordovician west-vergent thin-skinned Ocloyic thrust belt in the Argentine Precordillera, southern Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-08-01

    Collision of the down-going, Laurentia-derived Argentine Precordillera terrane with the Gondwanan margin drove the Ordovician Ocloyic orogeny, including subduction volcanism, metamorphism, and top-to-west shearing east of the Precordillera. In the Precordillera, above passive-margin carbonates (Lower Ordovician San Juan Limestone and older carbonates), a Middle to Upper Ordovician westward-prograding synorogenic clastic wedge of black shale (Gualcamayo Shale) and coarser clastic sediment (Las Vacas Conglomerate and Trapiche Formation) fills a peripheral foreland basin. New research has identified vestiges of a west-directed thin-skinned Ocloyic foreland thrust belt that has been fragmented by east-directed Andean thrusting. The El Corral thrust sheet, with hanging-wall detachment in the San Juan Limestone, extends over a west-directed footwall frontal ramp and extensive flat to low-angle footwall cutoff in the Gualcamayo and Las Vacas formations. Las Vacas conglomerates in the footwall include olistoliths (10-m scale) exclusively of San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale; the beds in some olistoliths are folded. The advancing El Corral thrust sheet successively supplied and overrode the stratigraphically restricted olistoliths. In the El Corral footwall, tight west-vergent folds and faults within an anticlinorium in the San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale suggest a deeper (unexposed) thrust fault, the Los Celestitos fault. West of the anticlinorium, easterly dip (restored to remove Andean deformation) beneath an angular unconformity between Las Vacas and Trapiche beds is consistent geometrically with the trailing limb of a west-vergent fault-propagation anticline in the hanging wall of the subsurface Los Celestitos fault. The same angular unconformity truncates the El Corral fault and hanging-wall strata. In the Trapiche Formation, contrasting sedimentary facies from sandy turbidites westward to limestone-clast megabeds and olistoliths suggest another frontal

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation. PMID:26304352

  8. Removal of Heavy Metal Contamination from Peanut Skin Extracts by Waste Biomass Adsorbents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, 3.6 million pounds of peanuts are harvested in the United States. Consequent processing, however, generates large amounts of waste biomass as only the seed portion of the fruit is consumed. The under-utilization of waste biomass is a lost economic opportunity to the industry. In particula...

  9. Processing effects on peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the majority of patients, roasted peanuts resulted in a higher skin prick test (SPT). Purified Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 from roasted peanut binds higher IgE levels than from raw peanuts. To determine if there are any structural changes; and if these changes contribute to increased IgE bind...

  10. Mitochondria-rich cells in amphibian skin epithelium: Relationship of immuno- and peanut lectin labeling pattern and transport functions.

    PubMed

    Katz, Uri; Gabbay, Shosh

    2010-07-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells are an integral component of the epidermis of amphibian skin and play a functional role. Whereas the principal cell compartment of the epithelium is specialized almost exclusively for active uptake of sodium, the mitochondria-rich cells perform other diverse ion-transport functions, including transport of Cl(-), H(+), HCO(3)(-) and organic molecules. These transporting functions differ in different species. Antibodies, such as those directed against band 3, H(+)-ATPase, and also peanut lectin (PNA), bind specifically to the mitochondria-rich cells, but do so differently in various species. Examination of these immunolocalizations and lectin labeling in the skin of over 10 amphibian species, including both Anurans and Urodeles, illustrate species-specific differences. The binding pattern and the transport capabilities of the skin in the various species do not show a universal correlation, they appear to be species specific and do not permit construction of a general scheme common to all the species studied. The mitochondria-rich cells of heterocellular epithelia and their roles in ion transport remain a subject that requires further studies to elucidate their particular functions within the framework of the whole epithelium. PMID:19324399

  11. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years) were tested by open food challenge (OFC) with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens) and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia) to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off), 20% (Immulite) and 38% (ImmunoCAP) had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies. PMID:22409998

  12. Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Weaver, C. F.; Robertson, D. G.; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut. PMID:19290315

  13. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  14. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ... reactions in people who are allergic to peanuts, soybeans, and other members of the Fabaceae plant family.

  15. Peanut allergen in house dust of eating area and bed--a risk factor for peanut sensitization?

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, V; Ahrens, B; Wehrmann, A-K; Kalb, B; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that high environmental exposure to peanut allergens may be a potent risk factor for cutaneous sensitization. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether peanut proteins are detectable in house dust of different household areas. Peanut levels of dust samples were measured with ELISA. Overall, peanut was detectable in 19 of 21 households in the eating area and/or in bed. The frequency of peanut consumption correlated with peanut levels. Forty-eight hours after intentional peanut consumption, peanut levels were highly increased. Nevertheless, further research is required to prove whether peanut allergen in house dust can cause sensitization via skin. PMID:24351066

  16. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from dry-blanched peanut skins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kerr, William L; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Swanson, Ruthann B; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-08-22

    A large variety of phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and their esters), stilbenes (trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol), flavan-3-ols (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and their polymers {the proanthocyanidins, PACs}), other flavonoids (e.g., isoflavones, flavanols, and flavones, etc.) and biflavonoids (e.g., morelloflavone), were identified in dry-blanched peanut skins (PS) by this study. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was applied to separate and identify the phenolic constituents. Reversed-phase HPLC was employed to separate free phenolic compounds as well as PAC monomers, dimers, and trimers. PACs with a degree of polymerization (DP) of >4 were chromatographed via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Tentative identification of the separated phenolics was based solely on molecular ions and MS(n) fragmentation patterns acquired by ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode. The connection sequence of PAC oligomers (DP <5) could be deduced mainly through characteristic quinone methide (QM) cleavage ions. When the DP reached 6, only a proportion of the flavan-3-ols could be ascertained in the PACs because of the extremely complicated fragmentation patterns involved. The identification of free phenolic acids, stilbenes, and flavonoids was achieved by authentic commercial standards and also by published literature data. Quantification was performed based on peak areas of the UV (free phenolic compounds) or fluorescence (PACs) signals from the HPLC chromatograms and calibration curves of commercial standards. Overall, PS contain significantly more PACs compared to free phenolic compounds. PMID:25016324

  17. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  18. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  19. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  20. A new species of Dendromonocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the skin of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes: Rajidae) from the Argentine Sea.

    PubMed

    Irigoitia, Manuel M; Chisholm, Leslie A; Timi, Juan T

    2016-05-01

    Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. is described from the dorsal surface of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes) caught on the Argentine shelf. Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. can be distinguished from the other 17 species in the genus by the morphology of the distal portion of the male copulatory organ and by the unique morphology of the sclerotised proximal portion of the vagina. This is the first species of Dendromonocotyle to be described from a host in the Rajiformes and also the first record of this genus in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27095665

  1. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Liu, Andrew H.; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J.; Stephens, Alick C.; Irwin McLean, W.H.; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Methods Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ≥5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. Results There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P < .01). The effect of EPE on peanut SPT sensitization was augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P < .01) and augmented even further in children with a history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P < .01); the effect of EPE on PA was also augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Conclusion Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. PMID:25457149

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  3. Peanut immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy. Recent developments involve the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment. Various routes of administration are being investigated, including subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous routes. Other forms of treatment, such as the use of vaccines and anti-IgE molecules, are also under investigation. So far, results from immunotherapy studies have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitisation to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the issue of long-term tolerance has not been fully addressed yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. An assessment of cost/benefit ratio is also required prior to implementing this form of treatment. The use of immunotherapy for peanut allergy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use and should not be attempted outside specialist allergy units. PMID:25276342

  4. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  5. Passive transient transfer of peanut allergy by liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dewachter, P; Vézinet, C; Nicaise-Roland, P; Chollet-Martin, S; Eyraud, D; Creusvaux, H; Vaillant, J C; Mouton-Faivre, C

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of transient symptomatic transferred IgE-mediated peanut allergy after elective blood-group compatible liver transplantation. We show that the allergy was transient and therefore passive, authorizing further uneventful peanut consumption. Skin tests with commercial peanut extract and native peanut were performed in the recipient. Circulating specific IgE against peanut and recombinant peanut allergens (rArah1, rArah2, rArah3) was measured in stored serum samples collected from the recipient between 6 months before and 8 months after liver transplantation. Specific IgE levels in the donor were measured at the time of multiorgan donation. In the recipient, diagnosis of IgE-mediated peanut anaphylaxis was based on the clinical history and detection of specific IgE against peanut and recombinant major peanut allergens (rArah1, rArah2 and rArah3). Skin tests were negative and specific IgE undetectable 6 months after the clinical reaction. Oral peanut challenge was negative excluding persistent peanut allergy. This case confirms that IgE-mediated peanut allergy can be transferred by liver transplantation and shows that it may be transient and therefore passively acquired. PMID:21668638

  6. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  7. Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Toit, George Du; Roberts, Graham; Sayre, Peter H.; Bahnson, Henry T.; Radulovic, Suzana; Santos, Alexandra F.; Brough, Helen A.; Phippard, Deborah; Basting, Monica; Feeney, Mary; Turcanu, Victor; Sever, Michelle L.; Lorenzo, Margarita Gomez; Plaut, Marshall; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in Western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. We evaluated strategies of peanut consumption and avoidance to determine which strategy is most effective in preventing the development of peanut allergy in infants at high risk for the allergy. Methods We randomly assigned 640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. Participants, who were at least 4 months but younger than 11 months of age at randomization, were assigned to separate study cohorts on the basis of preexisting sensitivity to peanut extract, which was determined with the use of a skin-prick test — one consisting of participants with no measurable wheal after testing and the other consisting of those with a wheal measuring 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The primary outcome, which was assessed independently in each cohort, was the proportion of participants with peanut allergy at 60 months of age. Results Among the 530 infants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had negative results on the skin-prick test, the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (P<0.001). Among the 98 participants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had positive test results, the prevalence of peanut allergy was 35.3% in the avoidance group and 10.6% in the consumption group (P = 0.004). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of serious adverse events. Increases in levels of peanut-specific IgG4 antibody occurred predominantly in the consumption group; a greater percentage of participants in the avoidance group had elevated titers of peanut-specific IgE antibody. A larger wheal on the skin-prick test and a lower ratio of peanut-specific IgG4:IgE were associated with peanut allergy. Conclusions The early introduction of

  8. Sustained unresponsiveness to peanut in subjects who have completed peanut oral immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Kulis, Michael; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Berglund, Jelena P.; Burk, Caitlin; Hiegel, Anne; Carlisle, Suzanna; Christie, Lynn; Perry, Tamara T.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Sheikh, Saira; Virkud, Yamini; Smith, P. Brian; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Durham, Stephen R.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Background Although peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been conclusively shown to cause desensitization, it is currently unknown whether clinical protection persists after stopping therapy. Objective Our primary objective was to determine whether peanut OIT can induce sustained unresponsiveness following withdrawal of OIT. Methods We conducted a pilot clinical trial of peanut OIT at two U.S. centers. Subjects aged 1–16 were recruited and treated for up to five years with peanut OIT. The protocol was modified over time to permit dose increases to a maximum of 4000 mg peanut protein/day. Blood was collected at multiple time points. Clinical endpoints were measured with 5000 mg double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges once specific criteria were met. Results Of the 39 subjects originally enrolled, 24 completed the protocol and had evaluable outcomes. 12/24 (50%) successfully passed a challenge one month after stopping OIT and achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Peanut was added to the diet. At baseline and the time of challenge, such subjects had smaller skin tests as well as lower IgE levels specific for peanut, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2, and lower ratios of peanut-specific:total IgE, compared to subjects not passing. There were no differences in peanut IgG4 levels or functional activity at end-of-study. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of sustained unresponsiveness after peanut OIT, occurring in half of subjects treated up to five years. OIT favorably modified the peanut-specific immune response in all subjects completing the protocol. Smaller skin tests and lower allergen-specific IgE levels were predictive of successful outcome. PMID:24361082

  9. Peanut allergens: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided. PMID:23638932

  10. Identification of inferior quality peanuts without shelling during peanut grading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts produced in United States are considered as high quality peanuts. To continue this quality, grading of farmers stock peanuts should be improved further. When the peanuts are picked from the farmers they are unshelled peanuts. There are some peanuts that contain kernels with damages, immature...

  11. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  12. PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

  13. Peanut Allergens and Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolu...

  14. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  15. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review. PMID:25102573

  16. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  17. Heat and pressure treatments effects on peanut allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Maleki, Soheila J; Rodríguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Jiménez, María Aránzazu; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Crespo, Jesús F

    2012-05-01

    Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in IgE binding capacity of peanut proteins produced by thermal-processing methods, including autoclaving. Immunoreactivity to raw and thermally processed peanut extracts was evaluated by IgE immunoblot and skin prick test in patients with clinical allergy to peanut. Roasted peanut and autoclaved roasted peanut were selected for IgE ELISA experiments with individual sera, immunoblot experiments with antibodies against peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3), digestion experiments, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed IgE immunoreactivity of roasted peanut proteins decreased significantly at extreme conditions of autoclaving. Circular dichroism experiments showed unfolding of proteins in autoclave treated samples, which makes them more susceptible to digestion. Autoclaving at 2.56atm, for 30min, produces a significant decrease of IgE-binding capacity of peanut allergens. PMID:26434302

  18. Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Du, Fangling

    2012-10-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil and protein producing crops in the world. Yet the amounts of peanut processing by-products containing proteins, fiber and polyphenolics are staggering. With the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for landfilling, wastes/by-product utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several peanut by-products are produced from crush peanut processes and harvested peanut, including peanut meal, peanut skin, peanut hull and peanut vine. Some of peanut by-products/waste materials could possibility be used in food processing industry, The by-products of peanut contain many functional compounds, such as protein, fiber and polyphenolics, which can be incorporated into processed foods to serve as functional ingredients. This paper briefly describes various peanut by-products produced, as well as current best recovering and recycling use options for these peanut byproducts. Materials, productions, properties, potential applications in food manufacture of emerging materials, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. PMID:24082262

  19. Basophil activation test discriminates between allergy and tolerance in peanut-sensitized children

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; Douiri, Abdel; Bécares, Natalia; Wu, Shih-Ying; Stephens, Alick; Radulovic, Suzana; Chan, Susan M.H.; Fox, Adam T.; Du Toit, George; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of the peanut-sensitized children do not have clinical peanut allergy. In equivocal cases, oral food challenges (OFCs) are required. However, OFCs are laborious and not without risk; thus, a test that could accurately diagnose peanut allergy and reduce the need for OFCs is desirable. Objective To assess the performance of basophil activation test (BAT) as a diagnostic marker for peanut allergy. Methods Peanut-allergic (n = 43), peanut-sensitized but tolerant (n = 36) and non–peanut-sensitized nonallergic (n = 25) children underwent skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut and its components. BAT was performed using flow cytometry, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated in relation to allergy versus tolerance to peanut and validated in an independent population (n = 65). Results BAT in peanut-allergic children showed a peanut dose-dependent upregulation of CD63 and CD203c while there was no significant response to peanut in peanut-sensitized but tolerant (P < .001) and non–peanut-sensitized nonallergic children (P < .001). BAT optimal diagnostic cutoffs showed 97% accuracy, 95% positive predictive value, and 98% negative predictive value. BAT allowed reducing the number of required OFCs by two-thirds. BAT proved particularly useful in cases in which specialists could not accurately diagnose peanut allergy with SPT and sIgE to peanut and to Arah2. Using a 2-step diagnostic approach in which BAT was performed only after equivocal SPT or Arah2-sIgE, BAT had a major effect (97% reduction) on the number of OFCs required. Conclusions BAT proved to be superior to other diagnostic tests in discriminating between peanut allergy and tolerance, particularly in difficult cases, and reduced the need for OFCs. PMID:25065721

  20. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  1. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  2. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  3. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  4. International peanut yield gains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is grown in more than 100 countries, with China, India, the U.S., Nigeria, and Indonesia being the largest producers. Peanut production systems range from very primitive with only hand labor and few inputs of fertilizer or chemical controls for weeds or diseases to other systems that are h...

  5. REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

  6. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  7. Trap-mulching Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Sorenson, Clyde E; Waldvogel, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), management is constrained, in large part, by polydomy where nestmates are distributed extensively across urban landscapes, particularly within mulch. Management with trap-mulching is a novel approach derived from trap-cropping where ants are repelled from a broad domain of nest sites to smaller defined areas, which are subsequently treated with insecticide. This concept was field-tested with mulch surrounding ornamental trees replaced with a narrow band of pine (Pinus spp.) needle mulch (trap) within a much larger patch of repellent aromatic cedar (Juniperus spp.) mulch. After ants reestablished around the trees, the pine needle mulch band was treated with 0.06% fipronil (Termidor). Poor results were obtained when the trap extended from the tree trunk to the edge of the mulched area. When the trap was applied as a circular band around the tree trunk reductions in the number of foraging ants were recorded through 14 d compared with an untreated mulch control, but not for longer periods. Reductions in the number of ant nests within mulch were no different between the trap mulch and any of the other treatments. We conclude that trap-mulching offers limited benefits, and that successful management of Argentine ants will require implementation of complementary or perhaps alternative strategies. PMID:17066809

  8. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    PubMed

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy. PMID:26996112

  9. Clinical Efficacy and Immune Regulation With Peanut Oral Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stacie M.; Pons, Laurent; Roberts, Joseph L.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kulis, Mike; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Steele, Pamela; Henry, Karen A.; Adair, Margaret; Francis, James M.; Durham, Stephen; Vickery, Brian P.; Zhong, Xiaoping; Burks, A. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been thought to induce clinical desensitization to allergenic foods, but trials coupling the clinical response and immunologic effects of peanut OIT have not been reported. Objective The study objective was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunologic changes associated with OIT. Methods Peanut-allergic children underwent an OIT protocol including initial day escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases, and then oral food challenge. Clinical response and immunologic changes were evaluated. Results Of 29 subjects who completed the protocol, 27 ingested 3.9 g peanut protein during food challenge. Most symptoms noted during OIT resolved spontaneously or with antihistamines. By 6 months, titrated skin prick tests and activation of basophils significantly declined. Peanut-specific IgE decreased by 12–18 months, while IgG4 increased significantly. Serum factors inhibited IgE–peanut complex formation in an IgE-facilitated allergen binding assay. Secretion of IL-10, IL-5, IFN-γ, and TNF-α from PBMCs increased over 6–12 months. Peanut-specific FoxP3 T cells increased until 12 months and then decreased thereafter. Additionally, T cell microarrays showed downregulation of genes in apoptotic pathways. Conclusion OIT induces clinical desensitization to peanut, with significant longer term humoral and cellular changes. Microarray data suggest a novel role for apoptosis in OIT. PMID:19577283

  10. Potential changes in the allergenicity of three forms of peanut after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Cuadrado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Julia; Hart, Juana; Burbano, Carmen; Crespo, Jesus F; Novak, Natalija

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of thermal processing on the IgE binding properties of three forms of peanut, its effects in the content of individual allergens and IgE cross-linking capacity in effector cells of allergy. Three forms of peanut were selected and subjected to thermal processing. Immunoreactivity was evaluated by means of immunoblot or ELISA inhibition assay. Specific antibodies were used to identify changes in the content of the main allergens in peanut samples. The ability of treated peanut to cross-link IgE was evaluated in a basophil activation assay and Skin Prick Testing (SPT). The results showed that thermal/pressure treatments at specific conditions had the capacity to decrease IgE binding properties of protein extracts from peanut. This effect went along with an altered capacity to activate basophils sensitized with IgE from patients with peanut allergy and the wheal size in SPT. PMID:25863604

  11. [Theory of Argentine cultural "isoidia"].

    PubMed

    Pagés Larraya, F

    1982-03-01

    For the epidemiological study of mental pathology in the Argentine Republic the country has been systematically divided into 25 Cultural Areas, to which it is necessary to add the "megalopolis" of Buenos Aires City and conurbation. Each one of these Cultural Areas is analysed according to the anthropological method, which enables us to comprise an innumerable series of epidemiological variants. We investigate, for example, in every one of them the situation of the mentally sick within the community and the cultural attitude of the latter towards mental illness. For statistical purposes of Psychiatrical Epidemiology an experimental study of the prevalence of this type of disease is carried out in each of the above mentioned areas. As a complement to this investigation an analysis of the Institutional Prevalence of Mental Pathology has been performed, i.e., of the patients attended at the State Establishments, be they national, provincial or municipal. PMID:7136824

  12. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  13. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  14. Uniform peanut performance test 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  15. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 3 Georgia lines,...

  16. Uniform peanut performance test 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  17. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  18. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 7 Georgia lines,...

  19. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 4 Georgia lines,...

  20. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  1. Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Orqueda, María Eugenia; Rivas, Marisa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Alberto, María Rosa; Torres, Sebastian; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge; Thomas-Valdes, Samanta; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María Inés

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties. PMID:27596394

  2. A randomized controlled study of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT): clinical desensitization and modulation of the allergic response

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kemper, Alex; Steele, Pamela; Hiegel, Anne; Kamilaris, Janet; Carlisle, Suzanne; Yue, Xiaohong; Kulis, Mike; Pons, Laurent; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Background Open-label oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols have been used to treat small numbers of patients with peanut allergy. Peanut OIT has not been evaluated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of OIT for peanut allergy in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods In this multicenter study, peanut-allergic children ages 1-16 years received OIT with peanut flour or placebo. Initial escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases were followed by an oral food challenge at approximately one year. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT) and laboratory studies were performed at regular intervals. Results Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. Three peanut OIT subjects withdrew early in the study due to allergic side effects. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, all remaining peanut OIT subjects (N=16) ingested the maximum cumulative dose of 5000 mg (approximately 20 peanuts), while placebo subjects (N=9) ingested a median cumulative dose of 280 mg (range, 0-1900 mg) [p<0.001]. In contrast to the placebo group, the peanut OIT group showed reductions in SPT size (p<0.001), IL-5 (p=0.01), and IL-13 (p=0.02) and increases in peanut-specific IgG4 (p<0.001). Peanut OIT subjects had initial increases in peanut-specific IgE (p<0.01) but did not show significant change from baseline by the time of OFC. The ratio of FoxP3 hi: FoxP3 intermediate CD4+CD25+ T cells increased at the time of OFC (p=0.04) in peanut OIT subjects. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate that peanut OIT induces desensitization and concurrent immune modulation. The present study continues and is evaluating the hypothesis that peanut OIT causes long-term immune tolerance. PMID:21377034

  3. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... peanut product that is nutritionally inferior to peanut butter shall be labeled as an imitation of peanut butter under § 101.3(e)(2) of this chapter; a spreadable peanut product shall be considered nutritionally equivalent to peanut butter if it meets all of the following conditions: (1) Protein. (i) The protein...

  4. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  5. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  6. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  7. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  8. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  9. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  10. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  11. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  12. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  13. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  14. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  15. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  16. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  17. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  18. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  19. Peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to limited hectares and production in comparison to field corn, soybean, and wheat, commercial research and development efforts by major manufacturers for potential new peanut herbicides are minimal. Field trials were conducted in Ty Ty and Plains Georgia in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the tolera...

  20. Registration of "Sugg" Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

  1. Release of Lariat Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lariat is a high-oleic runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Red River Runner. Lariat (experimental designation ARSOK-R35) is the result of a cross between cultivar Red River Ru...

  2. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  3. [Potential emigration of young Italian-Argentines].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C

    1992-12-01

    The author examines trends in out-migration among young, highly skilled Argentines, with a focus on those of Italian descent. Data are from interviews conducted among young adults in Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, and Rosario. Major factors influencing migration include perceived labor force and economic opportunities. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12344794

  4. Radiation Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-06-28

    A recent technology exchange between Argentina Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEA) and the US Department of Energy involved vitrification studies of ion exchange resins. Details of the spent ion exchange resins currently stored at two Argentine nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse, have been presented in earlier reports. The present study examines irradiation of simulant samples of ion exchange resins.

  5. Sclerotinia blight resistance in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut acreage in Oklahoma has declined in recent years; however, peanuts remain an important economic crop for certain growers. Yield limiting factors such as diseases, adverse weather conditions, weeds, and insects can decrease yield. Managing irrigation, chemical applications, and tillage pract...

  6. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. In 1995, plant material transfer agreements were also accepted among all cooperators in the UPPT. The year 2012 completed...

  7. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  8. Characterization of Folate in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The folate levels in a group of raw and roasted samples selected from the 2007 and the 2008 Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) and from a set of raw samples from the Core of the Core of the Peanut Germplasm collection grown in 2006 and 2008 were determined. The samples were digested in protea...

  9. Molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan M H; Dumitru, Catalina; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-11-01

    Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers. PMID:23249205

  10. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  11. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  12. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  13. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  14. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  15. Benefits of Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Persist After One-Year Peanut Avoidance

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Friday, March 4, 2016 Benefits of peanut allergy prevention strategy persist after one- ... LEAP study ate this peanut snack. NIAID The benefits of regularly consuming peanut-containing foods early in ...

  16. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  17. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edwin H.; Bird, J. Andrew; Kulis, Michael; Laubach, Susan; Pons, Laurent; Shreffler, Wayne; Steele, Pamela; Kamilaris, Janet; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy. Objective To investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness and immunologic changes with sublingual immunotherapy in peanut-allergic children. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Results Eighteen children ages 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median 1710 mg vs. 85 mg, p=0.011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in prick skin test wheal size (p=0.020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10−2 mcg/ml (p=0.009) and 10−3 mcg/ml (p=0.009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE increased over the initial 4 months (p=0.002) then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (p=0.003) while peanut-specific IgG4 increased during the 12 months (p=0.014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (p=0.015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percent of T regulatory cells, or IL-10 and IFN-gamma production. Conclusion Peanut sublingual immunotherapy is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in peanut allergic children with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine if continued peanut sublingual immunotherapy is able to induce long-term immune tolerance. PMID:21281959

  18. Developing therapies for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated, persisting immune disorder that is of major concern worldwide. Currently, no routine immunotherapy is available to treat this often severe and sometimes fatal food allergy. Traditional subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with crude peanut extracts has proven not feasible due to the high risk of severe systemic side effects. The allergen-specific approaches under preclinical and clinical investigation comprise subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy with whole-peanut extracts as well as applications of hypoallergenic peanut allergens or T cell epitope peptides. Allergen-nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, TCM herbal formulations and Toll-like receptor 9-based immunotherapy. The potential of genetically engineered plants with reduced allergen levels is being explored as well as the beneficial influence of lactic acid bacteria and soybean isoflavones on peanut allergen-induced symptoms. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated, several of these strategies hold great promise. It can be estimated that individual strategies or a combination thereof will result in a successful immunotherapy regime for peanut-allergic individuals within the next decade. PMID:25531161

  19. Distinct parameters of the basophil activation test reflect the severity and threshold of allergic reactions to peanut

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; Du Toit, George; Douiri, Abdel; Radulovic, Suzana; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of peanut allergy relies on allergen avoidance and epinephrine autoinjector for rescue treatment in patients at risk of anaphylaxis. Biomarkers of severity and threshold of allergic reactions to peanut could significantly improve the care for patients with peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess the utility of the basophil activation test (BAT) to predict the severity and threshold of reactivity to peanut during oral food challenges (OFCs). Methods The severity of the allergic reaction and the threshold dose during OFCs to peanut were determined. Skin prick tests, measurements of specific IgE to peanut and its components, and BATs to peanut were performed on the day of the challenge. Results Of the 124 children submitted to OFCs to peanut, 52 (median age, 5 years) reacted with clinical symptoms that ranged from mild oral symptoms to anaphylaxis. Severe reactions occurred in 41% of cases, and 57% reacted to 0.1 g or less of peanut protein. The ratio of the percentage of CD63+ basophils after stimulation with peanut and after stimulation with anti-IgE (CD63 peanut/anti-IgE) was independently associated with severity (P = .001), whereas the basophil allergen threshold sensitivity CD-sens (1/EC50 × 100, where EC50 is half maximal effective concentration) value was independently associated with the threshold (P = .020) of allergic reactions to peanut during OFCs. Patients with CD63 peanut/anti-IgE levels of 1.3 or greater had an increased risk of severe reactions (relative risk, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.2). Patients with a CD-sens value of 84 or greater had an increased risk of reacting to 0.1 g or less of peanut protein (relative risk, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8). Conclusions Basophil reactivity is associated with severity and basophil sensitivity is associated with the threshold of allergic reactions to peanut. CD63 peanut/anti-IgE and CD-sens values can be used to estimate the severity and threshold of allergic reactions during OFCs. PMID

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Peanut Allergens in Food Ingredients Used for Oral Food Challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip E; Sayers, Rebekah L; Gethings, Lee A; Balasundaram, Anuradha; Marsh, Justin T; Langridge, James I; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-06-01

    Profiling allergens in complex food ingredients used in oral food challenges and immunotherapy is crucial for regulatory acceptance. Mass spectrometry based analysis employing data-independent acquisition coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DIA-IM-MS) was used to investigate the allergen composition of raw peanuts and roasted peanut flour ingredients used in challenge meals. This comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis using label-free approaches identified and quantified 123 unique protein accessions. Semiquantitative analysis indicated that allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 were the most abundant proteins and present in approximately equal amounts and were extracted in reduced amounts from roasted peanut flours. The clinically significant allergens Ara h 2 and 6 were less abundant, but relative quantification was unaffected by roasting. Ara h 5 was undetectable in any peanut sample, while the Bet v 1 homologue Ara h 8 and the lipid transfer protein allergen, Ara h 9, were detected in low abundance. The oleosin allergens, Ara h 10 and 11, were moderately abundant in the raw peanuts but were 100-fold less abundant in the defatted roasted peanut flour than the major allergens Ara h 1, 3, 2, and 6. Certain isoforms of the major allergens dominated the profile. The relative quantitation of the major peanut allergens showed little variation between different batches of roasted peanut flour. These data will support future development of targeted approaches for absolute quantification of peanut allergens which can be applied to both food ingredients used in clinical studies and extracts used for skin testing and to identify trace levels of allergens in foods. PMID:27064171

  1. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: Long-term follow-up of a randomized multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Burks, A. Wesley; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Fleischer, David M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Vickery, Brian P.; Liu, Andrew H.; Henning, Alice K.; Lindblad, Robert; Dawson, Peter; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported initial results of the first multi-center randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of peanut sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), observing a favorable safety profile associated with modest clinical and immunologic effects in the first year. Objective To provide long-term (3-year) clinical and immunologic outcomes for our peanut SLIT trial. Key endpoints: (1) percentage of responders at 2 years (could consume 5g of peanut powder or a 10-fold increase from baseline), 2) percentage reaching desensitization at 3 years, (3) percentage attaining sustained unresponsiveness after 3 years, (4) immunologic endpoints and (5) assessment of safety parameters. Methods Response to treatment was evaluated in 40 subjects aged 12-40 years by performing a 10g peanut powder oral food challenge (OFC) following 2 and 3 years of daily peanut SLIT therapy. At 3 years, SLIT was discontinued for 8 weeks followed by another 10g OFC, and an open feeding of peanut butter to assess sustained unresponsiveness. Results Approximately 98% of the 18,165 doses were tolerated without adverse reactions beyond the oropharynx, with no severe symptoms or uses of epinephrine. A high rate (>50%) discontinued therapy. By study end, 4/37 (10.8%) of SLIT treated participants were fully desensitized to 10g of peanut powder, and all 4 achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Responders at 2 years showed a significant decrease in peanut-specific basophil activation and skin prick test titration compared to non-responders. Conclusions Peanut SLIT induced a modest level of desensitization, decreased immunologic activity over 3 years in responders, and had an excellent long-term safety profile. However, most patients discontinued therapy by the end of year 3, and only 10.8% of subjects achieved sustained unresponsiveness. PMID:25656999

  2. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  3. Removing Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 from Peanut Extracts Using p-Aminobenzamidine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Ara h 1 is one of 3 major allergens in peanut. Removing Ara h 1 from a peanut extract may produce a hypoallergenic peanut extract for immunotherapy and other purposes. Methods: Peanut extracts were treated overnight with and without 10 mM p-aminobenzamidine (pABA, a protease inhibitor) i...

  4. Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

  5. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  6. Registration of 'Tamrun OL07' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity and quality of peanut are adversely affected by the fungus Sclerotinia minor which causes Sclerotinia blight disease. This paper reports on the release of a Sclerotinia-resistant runner peanut cultivar named 'Tamrun OL07'. This peanut cultivar possesses desirable agronomic traits such...

  7. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  8. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF PEANUT RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the mineralizable nitrogen (N) content of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residue. The objective of this study was to determine the N contribution of pre- and post harvest peanut residue on two soil types. Aboveground peanut residue (cv. Georgia Green) was collected prio...

  9. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  10. 76 FR 31574 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  11. Transcript profiling of developing peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate regulatory processes and mechanisms underlying the development of peanut seeds, 8 x 15k microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of a runner peanut genotype. Developing peanut pods from six development stages corresponding R2 through R8 stages were profiled. Sever...

  12. Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

  13. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  14. Safety of a peanut oral immunotherapy protocol in peanut allergic children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alison M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.; Palmer, Kricia P.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Burks, A. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral immunotherapy offers a promising therapeutic option for peanut allergy. Given that during oral immunotherapy an allergic patient ingests an allergen that could potentially cause a serious reaction, safety of oral immunotherapy is of particular concern. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine safety during the initial escalation day, build-up phase, and home dosing phase in subjects enrolled in a peanut oral immunotherapy study. Methods Skin, upper respiratory, chest and abdominal symptoms were recorded with initial escalation day and build-up phase dosings. Subjects also maintained daily diaries detailing symptoms after each home dosing. A statistical analysis of this data was performed. Results Twenty of 28 patients completed all phases of the study. During the initial escalation day, upper respiratory (79%) and abdominal (68%) symptoms were the most likely symptoms experienced. The risk of mild wheezing during the initial escalation day was 18%. The probability of having any symptoms after a build-up phase dose was 46%, with a risk of 29% for upper respiratory symptoms and 24% for skin symptoms. The risk of reaction with any home dose was 3.5%. Upper respiratory (1.2%) and skin (1.1%) were the most likely symptoms after home doses. Treatment was given with 0.7% of home doses. Two subjects received epinephrine after one home dose each. Conclusions Subjects were more likely to have significant allergic symptoms during the initial escalation day when they were in a closely monitored setting than during other phases of the study. Allergic reactions with home doses were rare. PMID:19477496

  15. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European

  16. Where and how Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) spreads in Corsica?

    PubMed

    Blight, Olivier; Orgeas, Jérôme; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Provost, Erick

    2009-08-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Dolichoderinae), is one of the most widespread invasive ant species in the world. When established in optimal habitat, this species usually excludes most other local ants and can heavily impact other arthropods as well. Although Argentine ants have been present in southern Europe for more than 100 years, they were first noted in Corsica, a French Mediterranean island, in 1957 in only one urban station. In this study, we aimed to map precisely their geographical distribution in Corsica and to quantify their presence by using an infestation index. We recorded changes in the distribution of Argentine ants in Corsica over the past decade. Argentine ants appeared to be well established within their introduced range and spreading along the Corsican coasts principally through Human-mediated jump-dispersal but not homogenously. PMID:19632658

  17. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  19. Distribution of peanut protein in the home environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to halt the rise in peanut allergy, we must determine how children become sensitized to peanut. High household peanut consumption used as an indirect marker of environmental peanut exposure is associated with the development of peanut allergy. We want to validate a method to quantify enviro...

  20. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  1. CONTROL OF AFLATOXINS IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, methods to control aflatoxins in peanuts have focused on postharvest measures to reduce existing contamination. Recently, a biopesticide was developed and shown in plot studies to prevent much of the preharvest contamination that normally occurs under late-season drought conditions. Th...

  2. PEANUT AND OTHER FOOD ALLERGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past decade, there has been an increase in allergic reactions to peanut and other food proteins, often resulting in fatal reactions. The development of improved methods for both diagnosis and treatment of all allergies requires a better understanding of the allergenic proteins and the immune...

  3. Carbohydrate supply limits invasion of natural communities by Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2009-08-01

    The ability of species to invade new habitats is often limited by various biotic and physical factors or interactions between the two. Invasive ants, frequently associated with human activities, flourish in disturbed urban and agricultural environments. However, their ability to invade and establish in natural habitats is more variable. This is particularly so for the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). While biotic resistance and low soil moisture limits their invasion of natural habitats in some instances, the effect of food availability has been poorly explored. We conducted field experiments to determine if resource availability limits the spread and persistence of Argentine ants in remnant natural forest in North Carolina. Replicated transects paired with and without sucrose solution feeding stations were run from invaded urban edges into forest remnants and compared over time using baits and direct counts at feeding stations. Repeated under different timing regimes in 2006 and 2007, access to sucrose increased local Argentine ant abundances (1.6-2.5 fold) and facilitated their progression into the forest up to 73 +/- 21% of 50-m transects. Resource removal caused an expected decrease in Argentine ant densities in 2006, in conjunction with their retreat to the urban/forest boundary. However, in 2007, Argentine ant numbers unexpectedly continued to increase in the absence of sugar stations, possibly through access to alternative resources or conditions not available the previous year such as honeydew-excreting Hemiptera. Our results showed that supplementing carbohydrate supply facilitates invasion of natural habitat by Argentine ants. This is particularly evident where Argentine ants continued to thrive following sugar station removal. PMID:19452171

  4. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  5. Hydrophilic Lipophilic Antioxidant Activities of Commercially Available Peanut Flours and Peanut Seed Roasted to Differing Intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flours are commercially available, high protein ingredients prepared from partially defatted roasted peanut seed. Peanut flours have differing roast intensities and residual fat contents, which allows for these ingredients to be utilized in a variety of food formulations. Antioxidant proper...

  6. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  7. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

  8. The Peanut Plant and Light: Spermidines from Peanut Flowers and Studies of their Photoisomerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  9. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  10. Meloidogyne javanica on Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cetintas, R.; Lima, R. D.; Mendes, M. L.; Brito, J. A.; Dickson, D. W.

    2003-01-01

    A mixed population of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and M. javanica race 3 is reported on peanut from a field in Levy County, Florida. Confirmation of M. javanica on peanut is based on esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns resolved on polyacrylamide slab gels following electrophoresis, and perineal patterns. Up to 29% of 290 individual females collected from peanut roots in the field in autumn 2002 showed a typical esterase J3 phenotype for M. javanica. This is the third report of M. javanica infecting peanut in the United States. PMID:19262776

  11. Detrimental effects of highly efficient interference competition: invasive Argentine ants outcompete native ants at toxic baits.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that disrupts the balance of natural ecosystems by displacing indigenous ant species throughout its introduced range. Previous studies that examined the mechanisms by which Argentine ants attain ecological dominance showed that superior interference and exploitation competition are key to the successful displacement of native ant species. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that effective interference competition by Argentine ants may also be detrimental to the survival of Argentine ant colonies where Argentine ants and native ants compete at toxic baits used to slow the spread of Argentine ants. To study this hypothesis, we examined the competitive interactions between Argentine ants and native odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile, in the presence and absence of toxic baits. Results showed that Argentine ants aggressively outcompete T. sessile from toxic baits through efficient interference competition and monopolize bait resources. This has severe negative consequences for the survival of Argentine ants as colonies succumb to the toxic effects of the bait. In turn, T. sessile avoid areas occupied by Argentine ants, give up baits, and consequently suffer minimal mortality. Our results provide experimental evidence that highly efficient interference competition may have negative consequences for Argentine ants in areas where toxic baits are used and may provide a basis for designing innovative management programs for Argentine ants. Such programs would have the double benefit of selectively eliminating the invasive species while simultaneously protecting native ants from the toxic effects of baits. PMID:18559180

  12. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  13. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  14. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  15. Process Induced Changes in Resveratrol in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is thought to have a variety of beneficial health effects. Fresh peanuts have been found to contain levels up to several ppm. Processing of peanuts for human consumption involves heat from roasting. Mechanical pressure and solvents are used to extract oil to prod...

  16. Peanut disease evaluation research in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our peanut improvement efforts are focused on enhancing yield, quality, and disease resistance. Therefore, the major emphasis of this research project is to develop high oleic peanut cultivars possessing disease resistance, and high yield and grade. All the plot research reported here was performed...

  17. SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

  18. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  19. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  20. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  1. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  2. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  3. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  4. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  5. REGISTRATION OF 'TAMRUN OL 02' PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, is a major disease of peanut in Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia. The disease causes reduction in yield and quality of peanut, as well as increasing production costs. Therefore, our main interest and research goal is to enhan...

  6. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  7. [The Argentine Health System: organization and financial features].

    PubMed

    Arce, Hugo E

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine health system is defined by the following features: a) federal country organization; b) coexistence of public and private services with either outpatients or inpatients; c) fragmented entities of social security, most of these originated outside of the state organization. Components of the system are described and weighed; making decisions strength between national and provincial health authorities is analyzed and the Argentine system is compared with that of other countries. Statistical data on distribution of health expenditures and coverage of health services are presented as well as financial flow among diverse funding sources, insurers, providers and users of each sector. PMID:23089118

  8. Allergenic Properties of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Peanut Flour Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is a high protein, low oil, powdered material prepared from roasted 21 peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the 22 active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a 23 processing strategy ...

  9. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  10. Performance of Equipment for In-field Peanut Shelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs included in growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for the edible market. These processes are cost-prohibitive when producing peanuts for biodiesel. Shelling peanuts during harvest would significantly reduc...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  1. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  2. Repeat oral food challenges in peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Rebecca Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background In peanut and tree nut allergic children a history of anaphylaxis is associated with subsequent severe reactions. Objective We aimed to prospectively rechallenge peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions to assess their allergy over time. Methods In this cohort study peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions during a controlled oral challenge were invited to have a follow-up oral challenge to the same food at least 1 year later. Results Twenty-six children participated in the study. The mean time interval between the first and second challenge for all participants was 35.5 months. Peanut or tree nut allergy resolved in 38.5% of participants. Those with persistent peanut or tree nut allergy showed a decrease in their reaction threshold and/or increased severity in 81% of cases. There were no demographic features or skin test results that were predictive of changes in severity over time. Conclusion Peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions who remained allergic demonstrated a high rate of more severe reactions and/or reduced thresholds upon rechallenge over a year later, however, the rate of resolution of allergy in this group may be higher than previously reported. PMID:26240794

  3. Maternal Consumption of Peanut during Pregnancy is Associated with Peanut Sensitization in Atopic Infants

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Stablein, Donald; Lindblad, Robert; Burks, A. Wesley; Liu, Andrew H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Fleischer, David M.; Leung, Donald YM; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is typically severe, life-long and prevalent. Objective To identify factors associated with peanut sensitization. Methods We evaluated 503 infants 3–15 months of age (mean, 9.4 months) with likely milk or egg allergy but no previous diagnosis of peanut allergy. A total of 308 had experienced an immediate allergic reaction to cow’s milk and/or egg and 204 had moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and a positive allergy test to milk and/or egg. A peanut IgE level of ≥ 5 kUA/L was considered likely indicative of peanut allergy. Results A total of 140 (27.8%) infants had PN-IgE levels ≥5 kUA/L. Multivariate analysis including clinical, laboratory and demographic variables showed frequent peanut consumption during pregnancy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7–4.9, p < 0.001), IgE levels to milk (p = 0.001) and egg (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.02) and non-white race (p = 0.02) to be the primary factors associated with peanut IgE ≥5 kUA/L. Frequency of peanut consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding showed a dose-response association with peanut IgE ≥ 5 kUA/L, but only consumption during pregnancy was a significant predictor. Among 71 infants never breastfed, frequent consumption of peanut during pregnancy was strongly associated with peanut IgE ≥ 5 kUA/L (OR-4.99, 95% CI-1.69–14.74, p < 0.004). Conclusions In this cohort of infants with likely milk or egg allergy, maternal ingestion of peanut during pregnancy was strongly associated with a high level of peanut sensitization. PMID:21035177

  4. Comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in thermally processed peanuts and in pure form

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...

  5. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  6. Different Argentine Rural Extensionists' Mindsets and Their Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reflects upon the practice of Argentine rural extensionists working in the extension public system through the process of identifying different rural extensionists' types of mindsets and comparing them with transfer of technology extension approach, dialogical processes of horizontal knowledge exchange, participatory…

  7. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  8. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  9. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  10. The Argentine ant persists through unfavorable winters via a mutualism facilitated by a native tree.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, Robert J; Silverman, Jules

    2011-10-01

    Mutualisms and facilitations can fundamentally change the relationship between an organism's realized and fundamental niche. Invasive species may prove particularly suitable models for investigating this relationship as many are dependent on finding new partners for successful establishment. We conducted field-based experiments testing whether a native tree facilitates the successful survival of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), through unfavorable winter conditions in the southeastern United States. We found Argentine ant nests aggregated around the native loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., during the winter months. The bark of this tree absorbed enough radiant solar energy to reach temperatures suitable for Argentine ant foraging even when ambient temperatures should have curtailed all foraging. Conversely, foraging ceased when the trunk was shaded. The sun-warmed bark of this tree gave the Argentine ant access to a stable honeydew resource. Argentine ants were not found on or near deciduous trees even though bark temperatures were warm enough to permit Argentine ant foraging on cold winter days. Augmenting deciduous trees with sucrose water through the winter months lead to Argentine ant nests remaining at their base and Argentine ants foraging on the tree. The Argentine ant requires both foraging opportunity and a reliable winter food source to survive through unfavorable winter conditions in the southeastern United States. The loblolly pine provided both of these requirements extending the realized niche of Argentine ants beyond its fundamental niche. PMID:22251714

  11. The molecular basis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Maleki, Soheila J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that similar short peptide sequences among unrelated peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  12. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented. PMID:26787930

  13. The Case of the Disappearing "Peanuts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail

    1994-01-01

    Presents a series of investigations focusing on the biodegradable packing materials ("peanuts"), which provide a method for exploring science through experimentation. These activities can help fourth through sixth graders sharpen their critical thinking and science process skills. (PR)

  14. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  15. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  16. Circuits and signal conditioning for a peanut-drying monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-harvest processes at peanut buying points and other peanut grading facilities have a direct impact on the quality of the product. Peanut drying is an essential task for safe peanut storage. The rate at which peanuts are dried can also affect the flavor and milling qualities. Current peanut dryi...

  17. PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

  18. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    PubMed

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides. PMID:21080075

  19. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  20. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  1. Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

  2. Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

  3. Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

    2014-07-01

    Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

  4. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  5. The peanut genome consortium and peanut genome sequence: Creating a better future through global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. The U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) was launched in 2004, and expanded to a gl...

  6. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  7. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  8. The Argentine ant: challenges in managing an invasive unicolonial pest.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Brightwell, Robert John

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, has invaded urban, agricultural, and natural habitats worldwide, causing economic damage and disrupting ecosystem processes. Introduced populations of L. humile and those of many other invasive ants tend to be unicolonial, forming expansive, multiqueened supercolonies that dominate native ant communities and challenge control practices in managed habitats. Argentine ant management typically entails the application of residual insecticide liquids, granules, or baits to only a portion of the colony, resulting in fairly rapid reinfestation. We suggest that prevailing control methodologies are incomplete and not compatible with the behavior, nesting habits, and population structure of this ant, and therefore, more aggressive management strategies are required. Successful eradication efforts against other invasive unicolonial ant species can provide useful insights for local-scale L. humile eradication. PMID:17877449

  9. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions. For instance, treatment of roasted peanut kernels with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 1-3h significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein while reducing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut kernel extracts by 100% and 98%, respectively, based on ELISA readings. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels in peanut protein extracts were inversely correlated with protein solubility in roasted peanut. Blanching of kernels enhanced the effectiveness of enzyme treatment in roasted peanuts but not in raw peanuts. The optimal concentration of enzyme was determined by response surface to be in the range of 0.1-0.2%. No consistent results were obtained for raw peanut kernels since Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 increased in peanut protein extracts under some treatment conditions and decreased in others. PMID:25214091

  10. Argentine Valuation of the EQ-5D Health States

    PubMed Central

    Augustovski, Federico Ariel; Irazola, Vilma Edit; Velazquez, Alberto Pascual; Gibbons, Luz; Craig, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of EQ-5D health state values for the Argentine general population. Methods Consecutive subjects attending six primary care centers in Argentina were selected based on quota sampling and interviewed using the EuroQol Group protocol for measurement and valuation of health studies. Initially respondents were randomly assigned a unique card set; however, to improve efficiency, subjects were later randomly assigned to one of three fixed sets of EQ-5D states. Using the VAS and TTO responses for these states, we estimated a valuation model using ordinary least squares regression clustered by respondent. Predicted values for EQ-5D health states are compared to published values for the United States. Results Six hundred eleven subjects were interviewed by 14 trained interviewers, rendering 6,887 TTO and 6,892 VAS responses. The model had an R2 of 0.897 and 0.928 for TTO and VAS respectively. The mean absolute difference between observed and predicted values was 0.039 for TTO and 0.020 for VAS, each showing a Lin’s concordance coefficient above 0.98. United States and Argentine TTO predicted values were highly correlated (Pearson’s rho=0.963), though the average absolute difference was clinically meaningful (0.06), rejecting the US values for nearly two thirds of the states (62.8%). The Argentine population placed lower values on mild states and higher values on severe states. Conclusion This study provides an Argentine value set that could be used locally or regionally, with meaningful and significant differences with that of the US. Health policy in Latin America must incorporate local values for sovereignty and validity. PMID:19900257

  11. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  12. Soybean-Peanut Rotations for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Robertson, D. G.; Backman, P. A.; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Rotating soybean (Glycine max cv. Kirby) with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for managing Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was studied for 3 years (1985-87) in a field near Headland, Alabama. Each year soybean plots had lower soil numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) at peanut harvest than did plots in peanut monocnlture. Peanut following either 1 or 2 years of soybean resulted in approximately 50% reduction in J2 soil population densities and a 14% (1-year soybean) or 20% (2-year soybean) increase in yields compared with continuous peanut. The soybean-peanut rotation increased peanut yield equal to or higher than the yield obtained with continuous peanut treated with aldicarb at 0.34 g a.i./mL. PMID:19290309

  13. Peanut Allergy Treatment: The Earlier in Childhood, the Better

    MedlinePlus

    ... new research suggests. The treatment is called oral immunotherapy -- also known as exposure therapy. In this approach, peanut-allergic children are given very tiny amounts of peanut allergen as directed by a doctor. Over time, these ...

  14. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

  15. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  16. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernel by processing conditions, such as, pretreatment with heat and proteolysis at different enzyme concentrations and treatment times. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicator...

  17. Molecular Diversity of the peanut rust pathogen and its host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia arachidis Speg is the causal agent of peanut rust, an important foliar disease of peanut in mainly low input peanut (Arachis hypogaea) producing countries with warm, tropical climates. Management of this disease in these countries is best realized through host resistance. Knowledge on the v...

  18. Critical Period of Tropical Spederwort (Commelina benghalenisis) in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical spiderwort (also known as Benghal dayflower) is one of the most troublesome weeds in Georgia peanut. There are several effective tropical spiderwort control options in peanut, but there is no information concerning the critical time of tropical spiderwort interference with peanut. Field s...

  19. NIR reflectance method to determine the Moisture Content in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is an important property that is measured and monitored at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. In this work an NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) reflectance method, that would rapidly determine the average mc of a peanut sample (about ...

  20. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  5. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  7. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  9. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  11. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  13. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  18. 75 FR 38771 - Notice of the Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of the Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... 2002 requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  19. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  1. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  3. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  5. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  6. Effect of Non-Thermal Processing on Peanut Allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is on the rise, and the reason is still unclear. Previously, roasting by thermal method has been shown to increase the allergenic potency of peanuts. In this study, we determined if non-thermal methods, such as, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and pulsed UV lights (PUV) affect peanut all...

  7. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  8. Heat and pressure treatments effects on peanut allergenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in IgE binding capacity of peanut proteins produced by thermal-processing methods, including autoclaving. Immunoreactivity to raw and thermally processed peanut extracts was ev...

  9. Chemical and flavor profiles of genetically modified peanut varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop throughout the world. It is susceptible to many types of fungal pathogens. Genetic engineering offers great potential for developing peanut cultivars resistant to a broad spectrum of pathogens that pose a recurring threat to peanut hea...

  10. Leathery Hull Peanuts – Effect on Shelling Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When shelling peanuts from the 2012 peanut crop, various shellers experienced diminished shelling plant throughput when shelling peanuts harvested from isolated geographical regions. Shellers reported a reduction of 25-30% throughput of the first stage sheller bank with significant increases in spli...

  11. Nutrient uptake of peanut genotypes under different water regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a serious environmental stress limiting growth and productivity in peanut and other crops. Nutrient uptake of peanut is reduced under drought conditions, which reduces yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate nutrient uptake of peanut genotypes in response to drought and ...

  12. A Novel Method for Moisture Determination in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate determination of moisture content of the peanuts is an important factor for preserving the quality and prevention of spoilage in peanuts. Hence, it is very important to devise rapid methods for determining moisture during harvesting, storage, marketing, and processing of peanuts. This paper...

  13. Phenotypic assessments of peanut nested association mapping (NAM) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nested association mapping (NAM) is a valuable innovation and multi-parental mapping population strategy in peanut genetics which increases the power to map quantitative trait loci and assists in extending the gene pool of elite peanut lines. In the peanut research community, two structured mapping ...

  14. ELISA kit for peanut protein determination: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Lexmaulová, Hana; Gabrovská, Dana; Rysová, Jana; Stumr, Frantisek; Netusilová, Katerina; Blazková, Martina; Bulawová, Hana; Brychta, Josef; Subrtová, Zdenka; Pavelka, Jiri; Iametti, Stefania; Del Barco, Jorge Antonio Guisantes; Quesada, Jorge Martinez; Pardo, Esther Sunen; Resa, Idoia Postigo; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Piknová, Lubica; Langerholc, Tomaz; Cencic, Avrelija; Barsová, Sona; Cuhra, Petr; Plicka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative study in 10 laboratories was performed to validate an ELISA method developed for the quantitative determination of peanut protein in foods. The ELISA kit used for this study is based on rabbit polyclonal antibody. This kit does not produce any false-positive results or cross-reactivity with a broad range of peanut-free food matrixes. All participants obtained the peanut ELISA kit with standard operational procedures, a list of samples, the samples, and a protocol for recording test results. The study included 15 food samples. Three food matrix samples of zero peanut content showed peanut protein content lower than the first standard (0.10 mg/kg). Three samples with peanut declared as an ingredient revealed peanut protein content outside the calibration curve (absorbance was above the highest standard) in all laboratories, and three samples had the peanut content reported either above the highest standard or within the calibration curve, depending on the laboratory. Six samples with peanut declared as an ingredient gave the peanut protein content within the calibration curve. Only these six samples, together with a positive control sample (CS2), were used for statistical evaluation. The statistical tests (Cochran, Grubbs, and Mandel) and analysis of variance were used for the evaluation of the collaborative study results. Repeatability and reproducibility limits, as well as an LOQ (LOQcollaborative 0.22 mg peanut proteins/kg) and an LOD (LODcollaborative 0.07 mg peanut proteinslkg) for the kit were calculated. PMID:24282944

  15. Determination of the Nature of Spotting in Blanched Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut spotting is a big problem responsible for significant loss by the peanut industry. The cause of the spotting has been identified in the lab as being due to infection by fungi. Secondary fungal metabolites and peanut stilbene phytoalexins were not involved in the spot formation. The nature...

  16. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2012-10-01

    Tannic acid (TA) forms insoluble complexes with proteins. The aims here were to remove major peanut allergens as insoluble TA complexes and determine if they would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (gut pH). Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorption and consequently an allergic reaction. TA (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml) was added to a peanut butter extract (5 mg/ml; pH 7.2), stirred, and centrifuged. The precipitates were then suspended in buffer at pH 2, centrifuged, re-suspended at pH 8, and centrifuged. Supernatants from each step were analysed by SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and Western blots. The effect of NaCl (1M) on complexes was also determined. Results showed that complexes formed at a TA concentration >0.5 mg/ml did not release major peanut allergens at pH 2 and 8, regardless of 1M NaCl being present or not. IgE binding of the extracts was reduced substantially, especially at a TA concentration of 1-2 mg/ml. Animal or clinical studies are still needed before TA can find an application in the development of low-allergen peanut products/beverages or the removal of peanut allergens due to accidental ingestion. PMID:25005968

  17. PeanutMap: an online genome database for comparative molecular maps of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Jesubatham, Arun M; Burow, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular maps have been developed for many species, and are of particular importance for varietal development and comparative genomics. However, despite the existence of multiple sets of linkage maps, databases of these data are lacking for many species, including peanut. Description PeanutMap provides a web-based interface for viewing specific linkage groups of a map set. PeanutMap can display and compare multiple maps of a set based upon marker or trait correspondences, which is particularly important as cultivated peanut is a disomic tetraploid. The database can also compare linkage groups among multiple map sets, allowing identification of corresponding linkage groups from results of different research projects. Data from the two published peanut genome map sets, and also from three maps sets of phenotypic traits are present in the database. Data from PeanutMap have been incorporated into the Legume Information System website to allow peanut map data to be used for cross-species comparisons. Conclusion The utility of the database is expected to increase as several SSR-based maps are being developed currently, and expanded efforts for comparative mapping of legumes are underway. Optimal use of these data will benefit from the development of tools to facilitate comparative analysis. PMID:16904007

  18. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  19. Deterrency and Toxicity of Essential Oils to Argentine and Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate deterrency and contact toxicity of six essential oils to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In choice tests, both Argentine ants and fire ants crossed barriers treated with multiple rates...

  20. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

  1. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... containing residues of inorganic bromides from the use of methyl bromide are unsuitable as an ingredient in... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  2. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... containing residues of inorganic bromides from the use of methyl bromide are unsuitable as an ingredient in... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  3. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... containing residues of inorganic bromides from the use of methyl bromide are unsuitable as an ingredient in... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  4. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  5. Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE to Peanut and Ara h 2 in Korean Children with Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Kwanghoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Min-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic decision point (DDP) of peanut specific IgE (sIgE) for predicting the outcome of oral food challenge (OFC). We also evaluated the usefulness of sIgE to peanut components (Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9) in diagnosing peanut allergy. Methods Korean children aged over 12 months with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. Diagnosis of peanut allergy was confirmed by an open OFC or through the convincing history of anaphylaxis. Cutoff levels of sIgE to peanut and peanut components were determined by analyzing receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Forty-eight children (22 boys and 26 girls) with a suspected peanut allergy were enrolled. The previously established DDP for peanut-sIgE antibodies (14 kU/L) showed a sensitivity of 22.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value of 60.4% in our study population. The median levels of peanut-sIgE (5.4 kU/L vs 1.1 kU/L, P<0.001) and Ara h 2-sIgE (0.8 kU/L vs 0 kU/L, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the peanut allergy group than in the peanut tolerance group. The peanut-sIgE concentration indicating a PPV of 100% was 10.3 kU/L. The Ara h 2-sIgE level of 4.0 kU/L had a PPV of 100%. Conclusions Our results showed that the cutoff levels for peanut (10.3 kU/L) and Ara h 2 (4.0 kU/L) established in this study is useful for the diagnosis of peanut allergy in Korean children. PMID:26739409

  6. New insights into diagnosis and treatment of peanut food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laurie A; Burks, A Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Peanut and/or tree nut allergy is a major health concern affecting over 1% of Americans. Although food allergy in general is the most common cause of anaphylaxis treated in emergency departments, reactions to nuts account for a disproportionate amount of deaths from food allergy. Peanut allergy is a Type I hypersensitivity (IgE mediated) immune response. Eight peanut allergens have been identified that are termed as Ara h 1 through Ara h 8. The diagnosis of peanut allergy can often be made or eliminated with a focused history and specific diagnostic testing. There is no effective method to cure peanut allergy. Therefore, the management of patients with peanut allergy focuses on 1) preventing inadvertent ingestions of peanut, 2) recognizing early signs of allergic reactions, and 3) properly treating peanut-induced symptoms should they occur. Epinephrine is clearly indicated for patients experiencing respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic compromise. Because inadvertent ingestion of peanut often leads to life threatening reactions and peanut allergy is often long-lived, many investigators are focusing on decreasing clinical reactivity after peanut allergy is established. PMID:19273280

  7. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Protein Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Cui; Zhang, Chu Shu; Yu, Li Na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Shao Fang; Yang, Qing Li

    2012-01-01

    Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2–12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2–5 g/100 ml) than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive. PMID:22693580

  8. Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-28

    Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy Original Article, N Engl J Med 2015;372:803-813. In the legend for Figure 3 (page 810), the final sentence should have begun, "The log10 of the ratio of peanut-specific IgG4:IgE was calculated after the peanut-specific IgG4 levels were converted from micrograms per liter," rather than ". . . from milligrams per liter," and should have ended, "with the use of the formula IgG4 ÷ (IgE × 2.4)," rather than "with the use of the formula (IgG4 × 1000) ÷ (IgE × 2.4)." In the bottom graph in Figure 3B, the values on the y axis were incorrect. The article is correct at NEJM.org. PMID:27464222

  9. The Effects of Roast Intensity on the Texture of Peanut Paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture is central to consumer acceptability of peanut butter and peanut-based food products in general. The majority of peanuts are roasted; however, the effect of this operation on peanut texture was unclear. Accordingly, runner peanut seed (Arachis hypogaea L.) were dry roasted in a forced air co...

  10. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  11. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... quality of the protein contained in the product is at least 68 percent that of casein; or (ii) The protein... biological quality of the protein contained in the product is equal to or greater than that of casein. (2... equivalent to peanut butter if it meets all of the following conditions: (1) Protein. (i) The protein...

  12. Management and Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of peanuts with mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, is a worldwide problem that affects both food safety and agricultural economies. Most countries have adopted regulations that limit the quantity of aflatoxins in food and feed to 20 ppb or less; however, environmental conditions in m...

  13. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  14. Yield advances in peanut - weed control effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in weed management are a contributing factor to advancements in peanut yield. Widespread use of vacuum planters and increased acceptance of narrow row patterns enhance weed control by lessening bareground caused by skips and promoting quick canopy closure. Cultivation was traditionall...

  15. Biology, speciation, and utilization of peanut species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...

  16. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equivalent to peanut butter if it meets all of the following conditions: (1) Protein. (i) The protein content... quality of the protein contained in the product is at least 68 percent that of casein; or (ii) The protein... biological quality of the protein contained in the product is equal to or greater than that of casein....

  17. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equivalent to peanut butter if it meets all of the following conditions: (1) Protein. (i) The protein content... quality of the protein contained in the product is at least 68 percent that of casein; or (ii) The protein... biological quality of the protein contained in the product is equal to or greater than that of casein....

  18. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... equivalent to peanut butter if it meets all of the following conditions: (1) Protein. (i) The protein content... quality of the protein contained in the product is at least 68 percent that of casein; or (ii) The protein... biological quality of the protein contained in the product is equal to or greater than that of casein....

  19. PEANUT SHELL FUEL FOR THE GAMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will develop a household-scale human-powered briquette maker that will convert peanut shells into an efficient cooking fuel. The briquette maker will be designed such that it can be manufactured and used in The Gambia.

  20. The Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

  1. Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Home Features Keeping Up in School? Curb Your Eating Health Capsules Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy Be Sweet to Your Feet Featured Website: It’s a Noisy Planet. Protect Their Hearing. Past Issues Most Viewed September ...

  2. Registration of 'Red River Runner' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Red River Runner' (tested as TX 994313) is a high oleic runner peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar cooperatively developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Texas AgriLife Research and Extension, and Oklahoma Agricultura...

  3. Registration of ‘Titan’ Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Titan’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea), developed and tested as VT 9506083-3 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in May 2010. In Virginia, Titan was tested from 1997 to 2005 at several locations thr...

  4. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  5. Potential nitrogen credits from peanut residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates during decomposition. Following peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, extension currently recommends 22-67 kg N ha-1 credit to subsequent crops, but these recommendations are not supported in the liter...

  6. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  7. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  8. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s−1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  9. An Apparent Anomaly in Peanut Leaf Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Pallas, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Conductance to gaseous transfer is normally considered to be greater from the abaxial than from the adaxial side of a leaf. Measurements of the conductance to water vapor of peanut leaves (Arachis hypogaea L.) under well watered and stress conditions in a controlled environment, however, indicated a 2-fold higher conductance from the adaxial side of the leaf than from the abaxial. Studies of conductance as light level was varied showed an increase in conductance from either surface with increasing light level, but conductance was always greater from the adaxial surface at any given light level. In contrast, measurements of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf conductance showed an approximate 2-fold greater conductance from the abaxial surface than from the adaxial. Approximately the same number of stomata were present on both peanut leaf surfaces and stomatal size was similar. Electron microscopic examination of peanut leaves did not reveal any major structural differences between stomata on the two surfaces that would account for the differences in conductance. Light microscope studies of leaf sections revealed an extensive network of bundle sheaths with achloraplastic bundle sheath extensions; the lower epidermis was lined with a single layer of large achloraplastic parenchyma cells. Measurements of net photosynthesis made on upper and lower leaf surfaces collectively and individually indicated that two-thirds of the peanut leaf's total net photosynthesis can be attributed to diffusion of CO2 through the adaxial leaf surface. Possibly the high photosynthetic efficiency of peanut cultivars as compared with certain other C3 species is associated with the greater conductance of CO2 through their upper leaf surfaces. Images PMID:16661294

  10. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45), nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48). Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03). Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors. PMID:21970733

  11. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  12. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  13. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  14. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jennette Palcic; Johnston, Craig A; El-Mubasher, Abeer A; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Gee, Molly; Foreyt, John P

    2013-07-01

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut consumption and weight, intake of nutrients of concern, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol in Mexican American children, baseline data from 262 sixth-grade students (48% female) in a school-based weight management program were analyzed to compare differences between peanut and non-peanut eaters. It was hypothesized that Mexican American children who consume peanuts will be less overweight and have a better nutrient and lipid profile when compared to those who do not eat peanuts. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire as a baseline dietary assessment before beginning the program. Children were identified as either a peanut consumer (n = 100) or non-peanut consumer (n = 162). Body mass index measurements were taken on all participants. A smaller sample of participants submitted blood for lipid analysis. Analyses revealed that children in the peanut consumer group were less likely to be overweight or obese than children in the non-peanut consumer group (χ(2) = 13.9, P = .001), had significantly higher intakes of several vitamins and micronutrients (i.e., magnesium, vitamin E), and had lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. These results illustrate that consumption of peanuts and/or peanut butter is associated with lower weight status, improved diet, and lipid levels among Mexican American children. Future research is needed to clarify the role of peanut consumption in children's overall health. PMID:23827129

  15. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  16. Activity of Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Fipronil, and Thiamethoxam against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined following topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and th...

  17. Peanut Allergy: New Developments and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kim, Edwin H; Orgel, Kelly; Kulis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-two major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:27039393

  18. TGS pipeline primed for Argentine growth, CEO says

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-03-01

    Nowhere in Latin America has the privatization process been more aggressively pursued than in Argentina where President Carlos Menem has successfully turned over the bulk of state companies to the private sector. In the energy sector, that meant the divestiture in 1992 of Gas del Estado, the state-owned integrated gas transportation and distribution company. It was split in two transportation companies: Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) and Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), and eight distribution companies. TGS is the largest transporter of natural gas in Argentina, delivering more than 60 percent of that nation`s total gas consumption with a capacity of 1.9 Bcf/d. This is the second in a series of Pipeline and Gas Journal special reports that discuss the evolving strategies of the natural gas industry as it continues to restructure amid deregulation. The article focuses on TGS, the Argentine pipeline system in which Enron Corp. is a key participant.

  19. Tectonics of the Argentine and Chilean Andes: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Alvarado, Patricia; Arriagada, César; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    This Special Issue gathers a series of contributions derived from presentations at the 19° Congreso Geológico Argentino held in Córdoba in 2-6 June 2014. Specific subjects cover a wide variety of topics and regions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes, varying from sedimentological analyses and U/Pb dating of detrital zircons in different rocks to determine source areas for different times and regions along the southern Andes; satellite gravity data for monitoring earthquakes at the subduction zone to understand their complex rupture structure; fission track data from the Andes to the foreland region; use of seismic tomographies and conventional seismic reflection data for analyzing crustal structure; to paleomagnetic data and structural and morphological analyses (Fig. 1).

  20. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  1. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  2. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  3. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  4. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  5. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  6. IgG4 inhibits peanut-induced basophil and mast cell activation in peanut-tolerant children sensitized to peanut major allergens

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; James, Louisa K.; Bahnson, Henry T.; Shamji, Mohammed H.; Couto-Francisco, Natália C.; Islam, Sabita; Houghton, Sally; Clark, Andrew T.; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Durham, Stephen R.; Gould, Hannah J.; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children with detectable peanut-specific IgE (P-sIgE) are not allergic to peanut. We addressed 2 non–mutually exclusive hypotheses for the discrepancy between allergy and sensitization: (1) differences in P-sIgE levels between children with peanut allergy (PA) and peanut-sensitized but tolerant (PS) children and (2) the presence of an IgE inhibitor, such as peanut-specific IgG4 (P-sIgG4), in PS patients. Methods Two hundred twenty-eight children (108 patients with PA, 77 PS patients, and 43 nonsensitized nonallergic subjects) were studied. Levels of specific IgE and IgG4 to peanut and its components were determined. IgE-stripped basophils or a mast cell line were used in passive sensitization activation and inhibition assays. Plasma of PS subjects and patients submitted to peanut oral immunotherapy (POIT) were depleted of IgG4 and retested in inhibition assays. Results Basophils and mast cells sensitized with plasma from patients with PA but not PS patients showed dose-dependent activation in response to peanut. Levels of sIgE to peanut and its components could only partially explain differences in clinical reactivity between patients with PA and PS patients. P-sIgG4 levels (P = .023) and P-sIgG4/P-sIgE (P < .001), Ara h 1–sIgG4/Ara h 1–sIgE (P = .050), Ara h 2–sIgG4/Ara h 2–sIgE (P = .004), and Ara h 3–sIgG4/Ara h 3–sIgE (P = .016) ratios were greater in PS children compared with those in children with PA. Peanut-induced activation was inhibited in the presence of plasma from PS children with detectable P-sIgG4 levels and POIT but not from nonsensitized nonallergic children. Depletion of IgG4 from plasma of children with PS (and POIT) sensitized to Ara h 1 to Ara h 3 partially restored peanut-induced mast cell activation (P = .007). Conclusions Differences in sIgE levels and allergen specificity could not justify the clinical phenotype in all children with PA and PS children. Blocking IgG4 antibodies provide an additional

  7. Stem versus leaflet inoculation of peanut with Sclerotinia minor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamspan 90, a Spanish peanut cultivar, exhibits physiological resistance to Sclerotinia minor (S.M), as indicated by the low rate of lesion expansion (RLE) on inoculated stems. The purpose of this study was to determine the RLE on stems and leaflets of two peanut cultivars (Okrun, a susceptible cul...

  8. Impact of Sprinkler Irrigation Amount on Peanut Quality Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut quality parameters were analyzed across four irrigation levels during the 2002 through 2007 crop years. The peanut quality parameters consisted of total sound mature kernels and sound splits (farmer stock grade), shelling outturn by commercial edible size, accept and reject kernels by commer...

  9. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  10. Why preserve and evaluate genetic resources in peanut?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are produced in more than 100 countries with a total global total production in 2010 of 37,953,949 metric tons (FAO statistics, 2010). Because peanut is an important crop, it is imperative that its germplasm be preserved in order to conserve the genetic diversity and provide a resource to i...

  11. Runner Peanut Growth, Maturity, and Flavor Response to Prohexadione Calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One major challenge to producing runner market type peanuts in west Texas is the potential for early frost and poor crop maturity that could result in flavor problems. Prohexadione calcium is a plant growth regulator that inhibits the synthesis of gibberellic acid in peanut resulting in reduced vin...

  12. Marker-assisted selection for biotic stress resistance in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut ranks second to soybean in the world market trade of oilseeds both in area grown and tonnage produced, and is well-suited to contribute significantly to poverty reduction in the developing world. Peanut is a tetrapoid of recent origin, and has shown low levels of molecular marker polymorphis...

  13. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  14. Germplasm evaluation of Rhizoma peanut for growth and forage potential.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a warm-season perennial forage legume, adapted to southern USA. It has similar dry matter (DM) and nutritive value to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Recent studies indicated that rhizoma peanut can be grown further north (zone '8b) than previously suggest...

  15. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut. PMID:26593515

  16. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  17. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF SCLEROTINIA BLIGHT AND VERTICILLIUM WILT IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the objectives of this research are to study the biology of economically important peanut pathogens including Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), and to determine the role of disease resistance in managing soil-borne peanut pathogens, particularly Sclerotinia blight, Verticillium wilt, and Sou...

  19. In-field Peanut Processing for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The costs and environmental impact for using petroleum-based fuels such as diesel, has triggered considerable interest in the development of sustainable, on-farm biodiesel production systems. Field studies have demonstrated that a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can produce 1138 kg/ha of peanut oil at ...

  20. Tannic acid as a means to remove peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenol (commonly found in tea and coffee) that has been used as a treatment for toxic substances and carpet allergens. The objectives were to determine the efficacy of TA’s binding and removal of peanut allergens from peanut butter extracts as insoluble precipitates, and to...

  1. Peanut EST Project: Gene discovery and marker development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools to study plant-m...

  2. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  3. Energy savings from air recirculation in peanut curing

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.F.; Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

    1982-12-01

    A thin-layer peanut drying simulation model was adapted to incorporate air recirculation. Laboratory crop dryers were designed and constructed to conduct experiments to verify the model. Five batches of peanuts were dried using different recirculation strategies. The model successfully predicted the results.

  4. Production of Defensive Stilbenoids by Commercial Peanut Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut, the mechanism of resistance to fungal infection is reportedly due to the synthesis of stilbene phytoalexins, which are antibiotic, low molecular weight metabolites. The phytoalexin-associated response of different peanut genotypes to exogenous invasion in the field has not been investigat...

  5. RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

  6. Multiple disease reistances in a medium-maturity peanut cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several diseases limit peanut (Arachis hypogaea) production in the southeastern U.S. Runner-type peanut cultivars with multiple disease resistances have been developed; however, these cultivars have optimal maturity that is 2 to 3 weeks later than standard runner-type cultivars. Most growers prefer...

  7. Canopy Characteristics and their Ability to Predict Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To ensure maximum economic return, a peanut producer must accurately predict harvest time when the crop has reached optimal maturity without risking losses through mechanical damage due to deteriorating peg attachments. Currently utilized methods for predicting peanut maturity are based on hull col...

  8. Lessons Learned While Breeding Peanut for Improved Drought Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts become contaminated with aflatoxins when subjected to prolong periods of heat and drought stress. We have documented that improved drought tolerance can result in reduced aflatoxin contamination, and we are using drought-tolerance as an indirect selection technique to develop peanut cultiva...

  9. Field performance of three peanut entries in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut entries (Tamrun 96, Tamrun OL02, and TX 994313) were among peanut lines included in four tests in 2006 and 2007. Plots were planted during May and harvested in late September to mid October to attain a growing season of 155 days. Plots were arranged in a complete randomized block design wit...

  10. Biology and epidemiology of peanut soilborne pathogens in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pressure from soil borne diseases limits yields and increases production costs to Oklahoma peanut growers. Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, and southern blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, are the most economically damaging peanut diseases in Oklahoma. The c...

  11. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet...

  12. Environmental Conditions During Transport of Shelled Peanuts in Overseas Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts exported overseas may be in transit from the shelling plant or cold storage to the overseas manufacturer for 30 d or more. In some instances, quality assurance testing at the overseas destination indicates that peanuts no longer meet contractual quality specifications. Considerable effort a...

  13. A genetic engineering strategy to eliminate peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Dodo, Hortense; Konan, Koffi; Viquez, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Despite its seriousness, to date, there is no cure. Genetic engineering strategies can provide a solution. The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) model can be used effectively to knock out the production of allergenic proteins in peanut by specific degradation of the endogenous target messenger RNA (mRNA). Ara h 2, the most potent peanut allergenic protein, was selected as a model to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. Transgenic peanut plants were produced via microprojectile-mediated transformation of peanut embryos using a plasmid construct, which contains a fragment of the coding region of Ara h 2 linked to an enhanced CaMV 35S constitutive promoter. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction and Southern blots, confirmed the presence of the stable integration of the Ara h 2 transgene into the peanut genome. Northern hybridization showed the expression of the Ara h 2 transgene in all vegetative tissues of the mature transgenic peanut plants, indicating the stable expression of the truncated Ara h 2 transgene throughout the development of the plants. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that the truncated Ara h 2 transgene transcripts will be synthesized in the seeds and will trigger the specific degradation of endogenous Ara h 2 mRNA. The next step will be to grow the transgenic peanut plants to full maturity for seed production and to determine the level of allergen Ara h 2. PMID:15659267

  14. Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

  15. Glufosinate application timing and rate affect peanut yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted at thirteen locations across the United States peanut belt during 2010-2012 to evaluate peanut response to postemergence applications of glufosinate over a range of dosages. Glufosinate was applied at 0, 41, 82, 164, 328 and 656 g ai/ha at 30, 60, and 90 days after planting (...

  16. Valencia Peanut Response to Single, Twin and Diamond Planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting arrangements. This study was conducted near Clovis, ...

  17. Microwave moisture sensor for rapid and nondestructive grading of peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture sensor operating at a single frequency for instantaneous and nondestructive determination of moisture content in peanut kernels from microwave dielectric measurements on peanut pods was developed and tested. The sensor operates at a frequency of 5.8 GHz and uses the pr...

  18. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...

  19. Phenotyping and genotyping RIL populations of peanut for marker development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotyping of structured populations, along with molecular genotyping, is needed for marker development in peanut. This research is essential for making the peanut genome sequence useful to breeders because it will make the connection between genes, gene markers, genetic maps, and agronomic traits...

  20. Real-time monitoring of peanut drying parameters in semitrailers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of peanut drying parameters such as temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air, temperature and relative humidity of the air being blown into the peanuts and kernel moisture content is essential in managing the dryer for optimal drying rate. The optimal drying rate is required to...

  1. Microwave Moisture Meter for Rapid and Nondestructive Grading of Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture meter made with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for the grading of peanuts. The meter allows rapid and nondestructive determination of kernel moisture content from measurements on unshelled peanut pods. Th...

  2. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

  3. Transglutaminase Effects of the Rheological Characteristics of Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION: Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a stable food commodity around the world. In the last few decades, peanut flour (PF) has been used as a food ingredient. Previously, microbial transglutaminase(mTGase), an enzyme that catalyzes protein cross-linking via acyl-transfer reactions (1) was ...

  4. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  5. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...

  6. Effect of phenolic compounds on the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...

  7. First Report of Peanut Mottle Virus in Forage Peanut (Arachis glabrata) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

  8. 78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1216 Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Promotion and Economics Division... FR 39214; July 9, 2008). However, the Order does not require that a State produce 10,000 tons...

  9. Phenotypic, biochemical, and genetic characterization of the U.S. peanut core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US peanut core collection is a valuable germplasm resource for the peanut community. The core collection was constructed in 1993 to minimize genetic redundancy, provide a smaller subset for peanut researchers to identify important agronomic traits for genetic improvement of cultivated peanut, a...

  10. Novel Strategy to Create Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Edible Matrices for Oral Immunotherapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. P...

  11. Nondestructive estimation of oil and moisture content using NIR spectroscopy in Valencia and Virginia peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method by which these parameters could be measured rapidly and nondestructively for peanut pods (in-shell peanuts) would be useful for the industry. In this work, an attempt was made to measure oil and moisture content of...

  12. 7 CFR 407.14 - Area risk protection insurance for peanuts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for peanuts 407.14... protection insurance for peanuts The peanut crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions...

  13. Can Peg Strength be used as a Predictor for Pod Maturity and Peanut Yield?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mesocarp hull color is the current standard to estimate digging date and peanut maturity. The objective was to determine if peg strength could be used to predict peanut maturity instead of hull color. Peanut peg strength was collected on three peanut cultivars (Ga-O6G, Ga-O9B, and Tifguard), planted...

  14. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  15. Resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus and root-knot nematode in peanut interspecific breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1] and tomato spotted wilt virus Tospovirus (TSWV) are economically significant pathogens of peanut in the southeastern United States. Peanut cultivars are available that have resistance to either the peanut root-knot nematode...

  16. Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

  17. Assessing the utility of microwave kernel moisture sensing in peanut drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, in the peanut industry, peanut pods (unshelled peanuts) have to be shelled for kernel moisture content determination with the official moisture meter. This makes kernel moisture content determination laborious and limits efficiency during peanut drying. For field testing during the 2013 a...

  18. Genetic variation in the US Peanut Mini-core collection for agronomy, seed chemistry and nutrient quality traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ongoing genome sequencing effort in peanut will result in numerous molecular markers that can be applied to the diverse collection of recently purified mini-core germplasm. This will provide an opportunity to mine valuable genes for peanut cultivar improvement. Association mapping based on linka...

  19. Characterization of two peanut oxalate oxidase genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  20. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  1. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  2. The crustal structure of the southern Argentine margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katharina; Franke, Dieter; Schnabel, Michael; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2012-06-01

    Multichannel reflection seismic profiles, combined with gravimetric and magnetic data provide insight into the crustal structure of the southernmost Argentine margin, at the transition from a rifted to a transform margin and outline the extent of the North Falkland Graben. Based on these data, we establish a regional stratigraphic model for the post-rift sediments, comprising six marker horizons with a new formation in the Barremian/Lower Cretaceous. Our observations support that a N-S trending subsidiary branch of the North Falkland Graben continues along the continental shelf and slope to the Argentine basin. During the rift phase, a wide shelf area was affected by the E-W extension, subsequently forming the North Falkland Graben and the subsidiary branch along which finally breakup occurred. We propose the division of the margin in two segments: a N-S trending rifted margin and an E-W trending transform margin. This is further underpinned by crustal scale gravity modelling. Three different tectono-dynamic processes shaped the study area. (1) The Triassic/Early Jurassic extensional phase resulting in the formation of the North Falkland Graben and additional narrower rift grabens ended synchronously with the breakup of the South Atlantic in the early Valanginian. (2) Extensional phase related to the opening of the South Atlantic. (3) The transform margin was active in the study area from about Hauterivian times and activity lasted until late Cretaceous/early Cenozoic. Both, the rifted margin and the transform margin are magma-poor. Very limited structures may have a volcanic origin but are suggested to be post-rift. The oceanic crust was found to be unusually thin, indicating a deficit in magma supply during formation. These findings in combination with the proposed breakup age in the early Valanginian that considerably predates the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalt provinces in Brazil and Namibia question the influence of the Tristan da

  3. 4-Methyleneglutamine Amidohydrolase from Peanut Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harry C.; Dekker, Eugene E.

    1991-01-01

    4-Methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase has been extracted and purified over 1000-fold from 14-day-old peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves by modification of methods described previously. The purified enzyme shows two bands of activity and three to four bands of protein after electrophoresis on nondenaturing gels. Each of the active bands is readily eluted from gel slices and migrates to its original position on subsequent electrophoresis. Although they are electrophoretically distinct, the two forms of the enzyme are immunologically identical by Ouchterlony double-diffusion techniques and have similar catalytic properties. Activity toward glutamine that has a threefold lower Vmax and a four-fold higher Km value copurifies with MeGln aminohydrolase activity. 4-Methyleneglutamine and 4-methyleneglutamic acid inhibit the hydrolysis of glutamine while glutamine inhibits 4-methyleneglutamine hydrolysis, further indicating the identity of the activity toward both substrates. Amidohydrolase activity is stimulated up to threefold by preincubation with either ionic or non-ionic detergents (0.1%) and also by added proteins (0.5% bovine serum albumin or whole rabbit serum); it is inhibited 50% by 1 millimolar borate or the glutamine analog, albizziin (10 millimolar). Rabbit antiserum to the purified peanut enzyme cross-reacts with one or more proteins in extracts of some plants but not others; in no instance, however, was 4-methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase activity detected in other species. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that 4-methyleneglutamine supplies N, via its hydrolysis by the amidohydrolase, to the growing shoots of peanut plants, whereas glutamine hydrolysis is prevented by the prepon-derance of the preferred substrate. Some results also suggest that this amidohydrolase activity may be regulated by metabolites and/or by association with other cellular components. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667952

  4. Fluorescence sorting instrument for the removal of aflatoxin from large numbers of peanuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, M. J.; Spetz, W. L.; Aultz, T. R.

    1991-08-01

    A device capable of measuring fluorescence intensities from peanut surfaces and physically rejecting peanuts having undesired fluorescence properties is described. The device operates at a feed rate of 22 000 peanut halves per hour. The entire surface of each peanut is examined as 10 to 20 discrete spatial regions. Fluorescence intensities from each spatial region of each peanut are used to make accept/reject decisions in real time and are stored on an optical disk for off-line analysis.

  5. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  6. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  7. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  8. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  9. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Maleki, Soheila J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  10. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients’ IgE repertoires may mean that some patients’ IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  11. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  12. Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

    2011-10-01

    Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

  13. Chemical signals associated with life inhibit necrophoresis in Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rust, Michael K

    2009-05-19

    One of the most conspicuous and stereotyped activities of social insects such as ants and honey bees is necrophoresis, the removal of dead colony members from the nest. Previous researchers suggested that decomposition products such as fatty acids trigger necrophoric behavior by ant workers. However, fatty acids elicit both foraging and necrophoric responses, depending on the current nest activities (e.g., feeding or nest maintenance). Furthermore, workers often carry even freshly killed workers (dead for <1 h) to refuse piles before significant decomposition has a chance to occur. Here, we show that the cuticular chemistry of Argentine ant workers, Linepithema humile, undergoes rapid changes after death. When the workers are alive or freshly killed, relatively large amounts of 2 characteristic ant-produced compounds, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, are present on the ants' cuticle. However, these compounds disappear from the cuticle within about 1 h after death. We demonstrate how this phenomenon supports an alternative mechanism of ant necrophoresis in which the precise recognition and rapid removal of dead nestmates are elicited by the disappearance of these chemical signals associated with life. PMID:19416815

  14. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  15. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), butmore » dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.« less

  16. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    PubMed

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit. PMID:21296716

  17. Monitoring of erythemal irradiance in the Argentine ultraviolet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Nuñez, Liliana; Piacentini, Rubén D.; Blumthaler, Mario

    2002-07-01

    The Ultraviolet (UV) Monitoring Network of the Argentine Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (National Weather Service) consists at present of nine stations from 22° to 64° latitude south equipped with biometers, broadband instruments that measure the erythemal irradiance. After a complete calibration of the instruments and reprocessing of the database a preliminary climatology of erythemal irradiance and erythemal exposure was built by analyzing the data of the first 2-4 years for each station. The influence of the measurement interval on the UV Index is quantified. A tropical high-altitude station in the Andean Altiplano reaches top UV Index values of 20 and daily doses of 10.6 kJ/m2, among the highest UV levels worldwide. Characteristic UV lndex and erythemal exposure in the central, most populated areas of Argentina are similar to those in other Southern Hemisphere stations and are higher than in comparable latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The southern stations in the UV network are often affected by the Antarctic ozone hole. By comparing clear-sky irradiance measurements with aerosol-free radiative transfer calculations using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer surface albedo climatology, typical attenuations from 2 to 15% due to aerosols were determined, reaching maxima of 30% at urban locations. On the other hand, increases of ~3-6% due to higher surface albedo were obtained for snow-free conditions, and increases up to 15% were obtained for snow-covered terrain.

  18. Antibiotic sensitivity of an Argentine strain collection of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, G; Piscitelli, H; Perez-Monti, H; Stobbs, L A

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 88 isolates of Moraxella bovis of Argentine origin was evaluated for 12 antimicrobials by broth microdilution procedures. The isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of < or = 0.06 microg/mL to enrofloxacin; < or = 0.12 microg/mL to ceftiofur; < or = 0.25 microg/mL to ampicillin; < or = 0.5 microg/mL to florfenicol and gentamicin; < or = 1.0 microg/mL to tilmicosin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline; < or = 4.0 microg/mL to tylosin; < or = 8.0 microg/mL to spectinomycin; < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; and > or = 32 microg/mL to lincomycin. Modal MIC values for these antimicrobials were as follows: enrofloxacin, 0.03 microg/mL; ceftiofur, 0.06 pg/mL; ampicillin, 0.25 microg/mL; florfenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, 0.5 microg/mL; tilmicosin, 1.0 microg/mL; tylosin and spectinomycin, 4.0 microg/mL; lincomycin and erythromycin, 16 microg/mL; and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL. These data show that all antimicrobials except lincomycin have MICs suggestive of sensitivity in vitro, though confirmation of clinical efficacy can only be properly assessed based on pharmacologic and/or clinical data to support the MIC values. PMID:19757583

  19. Cross-protection in nonhuman primates against Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher, M C; Coto, C E; Calello, M A; Rondinone, S N; Damonte, E B; Frigerio, M J

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus to Tacaribe virus infection was investigated to perform cross-protection studies between Junin and Tacaribe viruses. Five marmosets inoculated with Tacaribe virus failed to show any signs of disease, any alterations in erythrocyte, leukocyte, reticulocyte, and platelet counts or any changes in hematocrit or hemoglobin values. No Tacaribe virus could be recovered from blood at any time postinfection. Anti-Tacaribe neutralizing antibodies appeared 3 weeks postinfection. The five Tacaribe-infected marmosets and four noninfected controls were challenged with the pathogenic strain of Junin virus on day 60 post-Tacaribe infection. The former group showed no signs of disease, no viremia, and no challenge virus replication, whereas the control group exhibited the typical symptoms of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, high viremia, and viral titers in organs. Soon after challenge, the Tacaribe-protected marmosets synthesized neutralizing antibodies against Junin virus. These results indicate that the marmoset C. jacchus can be considered an experimental model for protection studies with arenaviruses and that the Tacaribe virus could be considered as a potential vaccine against Junin virus. PMID:6276301

  20. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  1. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  2. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  3. Recent advances in immunotherapy and vaccine development for peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is a common problem and can be the cause of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions. It rarely resolves, with the majority of patients carrying the disease onto adulthood. Peanut allergy poses a significant burden on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, which results mainly from the fear of accidental peanut ingestion, but is also due to dietary and social restrictions. Current standard management involves avoidance, patient education and provision of emergency medication, for use in allergic reactions, when they occur. Efforts have been made to develop a vaccine for peanut allergy. Recent developments have also highlighted the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment and may present a disease-modifying therapy for peanut allergy. So far, results, especially from oral immunotherapy studies, have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitization to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the capacity to induce long-term tolerance has not been demonstrated conclusively yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy of this intervention. Peanut immunotherapy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use or outside specialist allergy units. PMID:26288733

  4. Transfer of peanut allergy following lung transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schuller, A; Barnig, C; Matau, C; Geny, S; Gosselin, M; Moal, M C; Champion, G; Atal, L; de Blay, F; Massard, G; Kessler, R

    2011-12-01

    This case study describes a patient who developed peanut allergy following lung transplantation. A 54-year-old woman underwent bilateral lung transplantation on June 2009 owing to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. She had no history of food allergy before transplantation. The donor, however, was a 20-year-old man who was fatally injured during an automobile accident; he was allergic to peanuts. At 3 months after transplantation, the lung recipient presented with acute dyspnea and urticaria 15 minutes after consuming food containing peanut derivatives. Pre- and posttransplantation recipient blood samples analyzed for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for peanut allergens confirmed that the allergy had been passively transfered as a consequence of transplantation. Food allergy following solid organ transplantation is thought to be rare, mostly occurring in children. Two mechanisms may explain the observations described for the patient reported in this study: de novo development of peanut allergies after transplantation, or passive transfer of peanut allergies from a peanut-sensitized organ donor. This case report documenting pre- and posttransplantation IgE status in a lung transplantation case suggested that the allergic status of organ donors should be thoroughly assessed before transplantation, and potential allergy transfer risks must be discussed with the transplant team and the patient. PMID:22172896

  5. Effects of Bahiagrass and Nematicides on Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    A field infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and with a history of peanut yield losses was divided into two equal parts. One-half of the field (bahia site) was planted to bahiagrass in 1986 and maintained through 1987. The other half (peanut site) was planted to soybean in 1986 and peanut in 1987 with hairy vetch planted each fall as a cover crop. In 1988 identical nematicide treatments including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), aldicarb, and ethoprop were applied to the two sites, and the sites were planted with the peanut cultivar Florunner. At mid-season, population levels of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles in the bahia site were relatively low, compared with those in the peanut site. At harvest, however, population levels were high in both sites. No nematicide treatment increased yields over the untreated control in either site (P ≤ 0.05). Bahiagrass alone and the combination of bahiagrass and 1,3-D applied broadcast resulted in 6.6-fold and 9.7-fold increases in yield, respectively, over the untreated control in the peanut site. All treatments in the bahia site resulted in increased vegetative growth and yields, compared with the duplicate treatments in the peanut site. PMID:19287670

  6. Recent advances in immunotherapy and vaccine development for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Peanut allergy is a common problem and can be the cause of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions. It rarely resolves, with the majority of patients carrying the disease onto adulthood. Peanut allergy poses a significant burden on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, which results mainly from the fear of accidental peanut ingestion, but is also due to dietary and social restrictions. Current standard management involves avoidance, patient education and provision of emergency medication, for use in allergic reactions, when they occur. Efforts have been made to develop a vaccine for peanut allergy. Recent developments have also highlighted the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment and may present a disease-modifying therapy for peanut allergy. So far, results, especially from oral immunotherapy studies, have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitization to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the capacity to induce long-term tolerance has not been demonstrated conclusively yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy of this intervention. Peanut immunotherapy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use or outside specialist allergy units. PMID:26288733

  7. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Culbreath, Albert K.; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-01-01

    Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function. PMID:22745594

  8. Peanut allergen (Ara h 1) detection in foods containing chocolate.

    PubMed

    Pomés, A; Vinton, R; Chapman, M D

    2004-04-01

    Inadvertent exposure to peanut in foods poses health risks for peanut-allergic individuals that can be reduced by improving detection systems for allergen contaminants in food products and manufacturing processes. Detection of peanut in chocolate has been especially difficult. We report the optimization of conditions for measuring a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in chocolate with the use of a two-site monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ara h 1 was extracted from peanut in the presence or absence of chocolate with phosphate buffer, salt, and three dried milks (goat, soy, or nonfat) (0 to 25% wt/vol) for 15 min at 60 degrees C or for 2.5 h at room temperature. The best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction in the presence of chocolate were 5% nonfat dry milk for 2.5 h at room temperature. Spiking experiments of chocolate with peanut confirmed improvement of the extraction: Ara h 1 was detected in extractions of 0.16 to 0.33% peanut in chocolate. Interestingly, the best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction were different for peanut alone than with chocolate, regarding time, temperature, and percentage of nonfat dry milk in the extraction buffer. In chocolate with peanut foods, the total Ara h 1 values were 10-fold higher than when products were extracted with phosphate buffer alone and could be up to 400-fold higher for individual foods. The dramatic improvement of Ara h 1 extraction should allow specific allergen monitoring in chocolate-containing food products and assessment of Ara h 1 exposure. PMID:15083733

  9. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  10. Feeding strategy of juvenile (age-0+ year) Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi in the Patagonian nursery ground.

    PubMed

    Temperoni, B; Viñas, M D; Buratti, C C

    2013-11-01

    Age-0+ year juvenile Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi (60-150 mm total length, L(T)) from San Jorge Gulf, north Patagonian shelf region of the Argentine Sea, had an almost exclusively pelagic diet dominated by the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii and the euphausiid Euphausia lucens. This suggested that final settlement and permanent demersal habitat utilization might not, as previously reported, occur at earlier sizes (c. 20 mm L(T)). Their feeding strategy involves specialization at a population level towards both the main pelagic prey, indicating a narrow trophic niche. Novel data are provided which contribute to the growing body of information in relation to the age-0+ year transitional stage in demersal fishes and particularly to M. hubbsi recruitment in the Argentine Sea. PMID:24580669

  11. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  12. Detection of cyanidin in different-colored peanut testae and identification of peanut cyanidin 3-sambubioside.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chu; Kan, Lou-Sing; Chen, Jhih-Ting; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lu, Hung-Chih; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wang, Shih-Hao; Yang, Kin-Hsing; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2009-10-14

    Peanut testae are potent sources of polyphenols. When the water extracts and acid hydrolysates of five different-colored testae were analyzed by HPLC, chromatograms monitored at 280 nm varied remarkably, whereas two major peaks in the chromatograms monitored at 530 nm were detected only in kernels having completely or partially black color. After acid hydrolysis of the extracts, cyanidin was detected in each of the hydrolysates. By respectively subjecting the black testae of raw and roasted (175 degrees C for 20 min) kernels of a black colored cultivar to water extraction and HPLC analysis, a prominent peak was detected in both extracts. The structure of the substance under those peaks was identified by mass and NMR spectrometry as cyanidin 3-sambubioside in peanut testae for the first time. Subjection of cyanidin 3-sambubioside to antioxidation and anti-inflammation assessments revealed that it was a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of nitric oxide production. PMID:19807153

  13. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  14. Combined effect of hemipteran control and liquid bait on Argentine ant populations.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Bambara, S B; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has become a worldwide problem capable of inflicting significant ecological and economic injury on urban, agricultural, and natural environments. The mobility of this pest ant has long been noted, rapidly moving nests to new food resources and then away as resources are depleted. This ant, like many pest ant species, has a special affinity for honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding Hemiptera. We investigated the effect of various hemipteran control strategies on terrapin scale densities and measured their indirect effect on local Argentine ant densities and foraging effort. We then determined whether this indirect treatment strategy improved the performance of an ant bait. We predicted that Argentine ants would move nests away from trees treated for Hemiptera and then move nests back when a liquid bait was offered, followed by a decline in ant numbers due to intake of the toxicant. A horticultural oil spray and soil application of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, had no effect on terrapin scale numbers. However, trunk-injected dicrotophos caused a reduction in scale and a decline in local Argentine ant nest density and canopy foraging effort. We also recorded a reduction in local Argentine ant ground foraging when large amounts of liquid bait were applied, and we found no evidence that combining dicrotophos with liquid ant bait performed better than each treatment alone. We suggest that a strategy of combined hemipteran control plus application of liquid ant bait can reduce local Argentine ant densities, when both components of this system are highly efficacious. PMID:21061981

  15. Peanut protein structure, polyphenol content and immune response to peanut proteins in vivo are modulated by laccase.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, L; Radosavljevic, J; Nordlund, E; Krstic, M; Bohn, T; Smit, J; Buchert, J; Cirkovic Velickovic, T

    2016-05-18

    Food texture can be improved by enzyme-mediated covalent cross-linking of different food components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. Cross-linking changes the biological and immunological properties of proteins and may change the sensitizing potential of food allergens. In this study we applied a microbial polyphenol oxidase, laccase, to cross-link peanut proteins. The size and morphology of the obtained cross-linked proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Structural changes in proteins were analyzed by CD spectroscopy and by using specific antibodies to major peanut allergens. The bioavailability of peanut proteins was analyzed using a Caco-2 epithelial cell model. The in vivo sensitizing potential of laccase-treated peanut proteins was analyzed using a mouse model of food allergy. Finally, peanut polyphenols were analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS, before and after the enzymatic reaction with laccase. Laccase treatment of peanut proteins yielded a covalently cross-linked material, with the modified tertiary structure of peanut proteins, improved bioavailability of Ara h 2 (by 70 fold, p < 0.05) and modulated allergic immune response in vivo. The modulation of the immune response was related to the increased production of IgG2a antibodies 11 fold (p < 0.05) and reduced IL-13 secretion in in vitro cultured splenocytes 7 fold (p < 0.05). Analysis of the peanut polyphenol content and profile by HPLC-MS/MS revealed that laccase treatment depleted the peanut extract of polyphenol compounds leaving mostly isorhamnetin derivatives and procyanidin dimer B-type in detectable amounts. Treatment of complex food extracts rich in polyphenols with laccase results in both protein cross-linking and modification of polyphenol compounds. These extensively cross-linked proteins have unchanged potency to induce allergic sensitization in vivo, but certain immunomodulatory changes were observed. PMID:27138276

  16. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  17. Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  18. Analysis and RT-PCR identification of viral sequences in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags from different peanut tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut plants grown in the field have been naturally infected with different viruses resulting in economic yield loss in the southeastern US, such as tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) in peanuts. The objectives of this study were to investigate peanut sequences of expressed sequence tags (EST) f...

  19. [A century of legislation as regards Italy-Argentine immigration, 1860-1960].

    PubMed

    Olivieri, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the changes in Argentine laws regarding migration, mainly in the hundred years since the Argentine Constitution was passed until the 1950s. The different subsequent laws and the debates they caused are related by the author to the political and ideological trends dominating Argentina in that period as to the characteristics and oscillations of the migratory afflux. Further the paper considers Italian laws and migration policies during the same period. The author concludes that after a liberal migration policy in the 19th century, growing legal restrictions and passionate discussion on the role of immigrants followed in this century, particularly between the 2 World Wars. PMID:12269146

  20. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  1. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  2. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s. PMID:12339919

  3. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  4. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  5. Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir; Mavi, Betuel; Kara, Ayhan

    2012-09-06

    The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of {sup 40}K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for {sup 226}Ra activity peak from {sup 214}Bi at 1760 keV and {sup 232}Th activity, peak from {sup 208}Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

  6. Belonolaimus longicaudatus: An Emerging Pathogen of Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuwa, Kanan; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Drew, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is an economically important ectoparasitic nematode that is highly pathogenic on a wide range of agricultural crops in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Although this species is commonly found in Florida in hardwood forests and as a soilborne pathogen on turfgrasses and numerous agronomic and horticultural crops, it has not been reported infecting peanut. In the summers of 2012 and 2013, sting nematode was found infecting three different peanut cultivars being grown on two separate peanut farms in Levy County, FL. The damage consisted of large irregular patches of stunted, chlorotic plants at both farms. The root systems were severely abbreviated and there were numerous punctate-like isolated lesions observed on pegs and pods of infected plants. Sting nematodes were extracted from soil collected around the roots of diseased peanut over the course of the peanut season at both farm sites. Peanut yield from one of these nematode-infested sites was 64% less than that observed in areas free from sting nematodes. The morphological characters of the nematode populations in these fields were congruous with those of the original and other published descriptions of B. longicaudatus. Moreover, the molecular analyses based on the sequences of D2/D3 expansion fragments of 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA genes from the nematodes further collaborates the identification of the sting nematode isolates as B. longicaudatus. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF963097, KF963098 for ITS, and KF96399, KF963100 for D2-D3). The results of the phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of these isolates from peanut compared with those of other isolates from Florida suggests that the sting nematode from both peanut farms are genetically close to B. longicaudatus populations occurring in the state. Peanut plants inoculated with both nematode isolates showed punctate-like isolated lesions on pods

  7. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  8. Comparative and evolutionary analysis of major peanut allergen gene families.

    PubMed

    Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-09-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

  9. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Major Peanut Allergen Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K.; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O.; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

  10. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2. PMID:23231956

  11. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jin-Shui; Yang, Xiao-Jia; Lin, Dan-Hua; Gao, Yun-Fang; Su, Yin-Jie; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Jing-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV), chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads), and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation). PMID:26904614

  12. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-shui; Yang, Xiao-jia; Lin, Dan-hua; Gao, Yun-fang; Su, Yin-jie; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Yan-jie; Zheng, Jing-jing

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV), chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads), and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation). PMID:26904614

  13. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  14. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  15. The Complexities of Early Peanut Introduction for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M; Atkins, Dan; Chan, Edmond S

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the timing of introducing major food allergens, such as peanut, into the diet of at-risk infants have undergone major changes in the past decade. The most substantial modification has been a shift toward advice that delaying beyond 4 to 6 months does not prevent and might actually increase the risk of food allergy. The Learning Early About Peanut (LEAP) study published last year provided strong evidence that early peanut introduction with regular ingestion has a potentially dramatic benefit. Although there is little current doubt of the effectiveness of early peanut introduction, many unanswered questions remain. Previous guidelines defined infants at risk as those with a first-degree relative with allergic disease, whereas the LEAP study defined high risk as severe eczema or egg allergy. The LEAP study chose to screen infants but did not have a comparison group randomized without screening. In the following case-based discussion, we explore the complexities of LEAP implementation for the practicing allergist. These include nonuniformity in the literature for defining at-risk infants, difficulties in assessing eczema severity objectively, variable adherence to current guidelines, proposed peanut screening methods contrasting with existing food allergy guidelines to not routinely screen before ingestion, unclear interpretation of positive test results if screened, risks of screening extending to foods not studied in the LEAP study, and uncertainties about the optimal dose and duration of peanut once introduced. PMID:26968960

  16. Evaluation of potential biocontrol agent for aflatoxin in Argentinean peanuts.

    PubMed

    Alaniz Zanon, M S; Chiotta, M L; Giaj-Merlera, G; Barros, G; Chulze, S

    2013-04-01

    Biocontrol by competitive exclusion has been developed as the most promising means of controlling aflatoxins in peanuts. A 2-year study was carried out to determine the efficacy of an Aspergillus flavus strain as biocontrol agent to reduce aflatoxin production in peanuts under field conditions in Argentina. The competitive strain used was a nontoxigenic A. flavus (AFCHG2) naturally occurring in peanut from Córdoba, Argentina. The inoculum was produced through solid-state fermentation on long grain rice and applied at rate of 50kg inoculum/ha. The incidence of the released strain within the A. flavus communities in soil and peanuts was determined using the shift in the ratio toxigenic:nontoxigenic and VCG analysis. During the 2009/2010 growing season, treatments produced significant reductions in the incidence of toxigenic isolates of A. flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus in soil and peanuts. However, no preharvest aflatoxin contamination was observed. In the 2010/2011 growing season, plants were exposed to late season drought conditions that were optimal for aflatoxin contamination. Significant reductions in aflatoxin levels averaging 71% were detected in treated plots with different inoculation treatments. The results suggest that using the strategy of competitive exclusion A. flavus AFCHG2 can be applied to reduce aflatoxin contamination in Argentinean peanuts. PMID:23454811

  17. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  18. Effects of honeydew-producing hemipteran denial on local argentine ant distribution and boric acid bait performance.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

    2009-06-01

    The Argentine ant is well known for its affinity for honeydew and is often associated with hemipteran outbreaks in agricultural and urban environments. It has been suggested that Argentine ants may be controlled by restricting access to honeydew, thereby forcing the ants to move or by encouraging increased liquid toxicant intake. We tested this possible control strategy by restricting Argentine ant access to the honeydew-producing terrapin scale within the canopy of red maple trees and monitoring ant numbers with pitfall traps and nest counts in the mulch around the tree base. Argentine ant nest numbers fell dramatically in the mulch around ant-excluded trees; however, there was no reduction in Argentine ant numbers caught in pitfalls around trees with or without canopy access. We added 0.5% boric acid bait stations at the base of the red maples and monitored bait consumption. Pitfall and nest counts were not affected by the addition of boric acid, although bait consumption was lower around ant-excluded trees, suggesting that restricting access to honeydew-producing Hemiptera did not enhance bait performance. We attribute this result to the increased distance Argentine ant workers had to trail from nest to bait station when not tending nearby terrapin scale. We suggest an alternative management strategy concentrating direct insecticidal control of Argentine ants around a few host plants infested with honeydew-producing Hemiptera by controlling Hemiptera in nearby host plants. PMID:19610434

  19. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher D; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D; Graur, Dan; Grubbs, Kirk J; Hagen, Darren E; Helmkampf, Martin; Holley, Jo-Anne; Hu, Hao; Viniegra, Ana Sofia Ibarraran; Johnson, Brian R; Johnson, Reed M; Khila, Abderrahman; Kim, Jay W; Laird, Joseph; Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Moeller, Joseph A; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Marguerite C; Nakamura, Rin; Nigam, Surabhi; Overson, Rick P; Placek, Jennifer E; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Smith, Chris R; Suarez, Andrew V; Suen, Garret; Suhr, Elissa L; Tao, Shu; Torres, Candice W; van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Viljakainen, Lumi; Walden, Kimberly K O; Wild, Alexander L; Yandell, Mark; Yorke, James A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2011-04-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-based funding rather than federal grant support. Manual annotation of >1,000 genes from a variety of different gene families and functional classes reveals unique features of the Argentine ant's biology, as well as similarities to Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Distinctive features of the Argentine ant genome include remarkable expansions of gustatory (116 genes) and odorant receptors (367 genes), an abundance of cytochrome P450 genes (>110), lineage-specific expansions of yellow/major royal jelly proteins and desaturases, and complete CpG DNA methylation and RNAi toolkits. The Argentine ant genome contains fewer immune genes than Drosophila and Tribolium, which may reflect the prominent role played by behavioral and chemical suppression of pathogens. Analysis of the ratio of observed to expected CpG nucleotides for genes in the reproductive development and apoptosis pathways suggests higher levels of methylation than in the genome overall. The resources provided by this genome sequence will offer an abundance of tools for researchers seeking to illuminate the fascinating biology of this emerging model organism. PMID:21282631

  20. Applied Ecology and Control of Imported Fire Ants and Argentine Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), are invasive species that are major pests in urban, natural, and agricultural habitats. The goal of this dissertation was to study aspects the chemical sensitivity, behavior, and ecology of each specie...

  1. Argentine Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Ephydridae): new species and key to identification.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco De Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Hauser, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrellia egeriae sp. nov., a new species of Hydrellia from Campana (34 14' 04 S, 58 52' 32 W) and Hurlingham (3435'14 S, 5838'27 W), Buenos Aires province, Argentina is described. A key to the Argentine Hydrellia species is presented. PMID:26249060

  2. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  3. Library Networks in Less-Developed Countries: Two Argentine Cases and Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Donna Taxco

    As an American Library Association/USIA International Library Fellow in Argentina from March to September 1989, the author worked with the Argentine National Protective Commission for People's Libraries. Included in her assignment was a charge "to assist in the development of a popular libraries network in Patagonia," the southernmost region of…

  4. Reduction of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, in roasted peanuts by ultrasound assisted enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of ultrasound, enzyme concentration and enzyme treatment time on soluble protein and major allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2) of roasted peanut kernels. A 3-factor, five-level orthogonal experimental design was implemented with various ultrasonication times, concentrations of trypsin or α-chymotrypsin and treatment times. The total soluble proteins were determined by the Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and sandwich ELISA. The IgE-binding of peanut extracts was analysed by a competitive inhibition ELISA. Results indicate that ultrasound treatment, followed by protease digestion of peanuts, significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein and decreased the concentrations of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The sequential treatment of peanuts by ultrasonication-trypsin-alpha chymotrypsin, resulted in maximum reductions of Ara h 1/Ara h 2, and lowest IgE-binding. This study provides an approach to significantly reduce allergenic proteins in peanut product. PMID:23790845

  5. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and aflatoxins during simulated storage of in-shell peanuts and peanut kernels.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuguo; Ding, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Limin; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequencing was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome during 90 days storage at five conditions. The fungal diversity in in-shell peanuts was higher with 110 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 41 genera than peanut kernels (91 OTUs and 37 genera). This means that the micro-environment in shell is more suitable for maintaining fungal diversity. At 20-30 d, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were predominant in in-shell peanuts. In peanut kernels, Rhizopus (>30%) and Eurotium (>20%) were predominant at 10-20 d and 30 d, respectively. The relative abundances of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were higher than Aspergillus, because they were xerophilic and grew well on substrates with low water activity (aw). During growth, they released metabolic water, thereby favoring the growth of Aspergillus. Therefore, from 30 to 90 d, the relative abundance of Aspergillus increased while that of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia decreased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed that peanuts stored for 60-90 days and for 10-30 days clustered differently from each other. Due to low aw values (0.34-0.72) and low levels of A. flavus, nine of 51 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:27180614

  6. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and aflatoxins during simulated storage of in-shell peanuts and peanut kernels

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fuguo; Ding, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Limin; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequencing was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome during 90 days storage at five conditions. The fungal diversity in in-shell peanuts was higher with 110 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 41 genera than peanut kernels (91 OTUs and 37 genera). This means that the micro-environment in shell is more suitable for maintaining fungal diversity. At 20–30 d, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were predominant in in-shell peanuts. In peanut kernels, Rhizopus (>30%) and Eurotium (>20%) were predominant at 10–20 d and 30 d, respectively. The relative abundances of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were higher than Aspergillus, because they were xerophilic and grew well on substrates with low water activity (aw). During growth, they released metabolic water, thereby favoring the growth of Aspergillus. Therefore, from 30 to 90 d, the relative abundance of Aspergillus increased while that of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia decreased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed that peanuts stored for 60–90 days and for 10–30 days clustered differently from each other. Due to low aw values (0.34–0.72) and low levels of A. flavus, nine of 51 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:27180614

  7. Role of Maternal Dietary Peanut Exposure in Development of Food Allergy and Oral Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Westfall, Jennifer; De Jesus, Magdia; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Carroll, Jessica A.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of maternal ingestion of peanut during pregnancy and lactation on an offspring’s risk for peanut allergy is under debate. Objective To investigate the influence of maternal dietary peanut exposure and breast milk on an offspring’s allergy risk. Methods Preconceptionally peanut-exposed C3H/HeJ females were either fed or not fed peanut during pregnancy and lactation. The offsprings’ responses to peanut sensitization or oral tolerance induction by feeding antigen prior to immunization were assessed. We also assessed the impact of immune murine milk on tolerance induction pre- or post-weaning. For antigen uptake studies, mice were gavaged with fluorescent peanut in the presence or absence of immune murine milk; Peyer’s patches were harvested for immunostaining. Results Preconceptional peanut exposure resulted in the production of varying levels of maternal antibodies in serum (and breast milk), which were transferred to the offspring. Despite this, maternal peanut exposure either preconceptionally or during pregnancy and lactation, when compared to no maternal exposure, had no impact on peanut allergy. When offspring were fed peanut directly, dose-dependent tolerance induction, unaltered by maternal feeding of peanut, was seen. Although peanut uptake into the gut-associated lymphoid tissues was enhanced by immune milk as compared to naïve milk, tolerance induction was not affected by the co-administration of immune milk either pre- or post-weaning. Conclusion Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation has no impact on the development of peanut allergy in the offspring. Tolerance to peanut can be induced early, even pre-weaning, by giving moderate amounts of peanut directly to the infant, and this is neither enhanced nor impaired by concurrent exposure to immune milk. PMID:26656505

  8. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  9. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  10. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale.

    PubMed

    Menke, Sean B; Holway, David A

    2006-03-01

    1. A prominent and unresolved question in ecology concerns why communities differ in their susceptibility to invasion. While studies often emphasize biotic resistance, it is less widely appreciated how the physical environment affects community vulnerability to invasion. 2. In this study we performed field experiments to test how abiotic variation directly and indirectly influences the extent to which Linepithema humile Mayr (Argentine ants) invade seasonally dry environments in southern California. 3. In controlled and replicated experiments involving drip irrigation, we demonstrate (i) that elevated levels of soil moisture increased both the abundance of Argentine ants and their ability to invade native ant communities and (ii) that cessation of irrigation caused declines in the abundance of Argentine ants and led to their withdrawal from previously occupied areas. 4. Because drip irrigation stimulated plant growth, in an additional experiment we manipulated both soil moisture and plant cover to assess the direct vs. indirect effects of added water on the abundance of L. humile. 5. Local abundance of Argentine ants increased in irrigated plots but was 38% higher in irrigated plots with plants compared to irrigated plots where plant growth was suppressed. The results of this experiment thus argue for a direct role of soil moisture in influencing Argentine ant abundance but suggest that that the indirect effects of added water may also be important. 6. Our study illustrates more generally that fine-scale variation in the physical environment can control whether communities become invaded by non-native species and suggests that an understanding of community susceptibility to invasion will be improved by a better appreciation of interactions between the biotic and abiotic environment. PMID:16637990

  11. Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

  12. Stability and Immunogenicity of Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Complexes During In Vitro Pepsin Digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated d...

  13. Yield response of new runner-type peanut cultivars to fungicide inputs for leaf spot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, cause substantial economic losses in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) through direct reduction of yield and costs associated with fungicidal control. Recently, several new peanut cultivars have been rele...

  14. Stability and Immunogenicity of Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Complexes during In Vitro Pepsin Diges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated d...

  15. Phytotoxicity of Delayed Applications of Dinitroaniline Herbicides in Strip-Tillage Peanut Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dinitroaniline herbicides are typically applied preplant incorporated or preemergence (PRE) immediately after seeding peanut. Situations frequently arise where dinitroaniline herbicides are not applied in a timely manner in strip-tillage peanut production. In these cases, dinitroaniline herbicides...

  16. Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure in edge-on disc galaxies: length, strength, and nested peanuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.; Graham, Alister W.

    2016-06-01

    X-shaped or peanut-shaped (X/P) bulges are observed in more than 40 per cent of (nearly) edge-on disc galaxies, though to date a robust method to quantify them is lacking. Using Fourier harmonics to describe the deviation of galaxy isophotes from ellipses, we demonstrate with a sample of 11 such galaxies (including NGC 128) that the sixth Fourier component (B6) carries physical meaning by tracing this X/P structure. We introduce five quantitative diagnostics based on the radial B6 profile, namely: its `peak' amplitude (Πmax); the (projected major-axis) `length' where this peak occurs (RΠ, max); its vertical `height' above the disc plane (zΠ, max); a measure of the B6 profile's integrated `strength' (SΠ); and the B6 peak `width' (WΠ). We also introduce different `classes' of B6 profile shape. Furthermore, we convincingly detect and measure the properties of multiple (nested) X/P structures in individual galaxies which additionally display the signatures of multiple bars in their surface brightness profiles, thus consolidating further the scenario in which peanuts are associated with bars. We reveal that the peanut parameter space (`length', `strength' and `height') for real galaxies is not randomly populated, but the three metrics are inter-correlated (both in kpc and disc scalelength h). Additionally, the X/P `length' and `strength' appear to correlate with (vrot/σ⋆), lending further support to the notion that peanuts `know' about the galactic disc in which they reside. Such constraints are important for numerical simulations, as they provide a direct link between peanuts and their host disc. Our diagnostics reveal a spectrum of X/P properties and could provide a means of distinguishing between different peanut formation scenarios discussed in the literature. Moreover, nested peanuts, as remnants of bar buckling events, can provide insights into the disc and bar instability history.

  17. Evidence of pathway-specific basophil anergy induced by peanut oral immunotherapy in peanut-allergic children

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Ananth; Jones, Stacie M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Pons, Laurent; Kulis, Mike; Woo, Caitlin S.; Kamalakannan, Mohanapriya; Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Shreffler, Wayne G.

    2013-01-01

    Background In Westernized countries, over 1% of the population is allergic to peanuts or tree nuts, which carries a risk of severe allergic reactions. Several studies support the efficacy of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) for reducing the clinical sensitivity of affected individuals; however, the mechanisms of this effect are still being characterized. One mechanism that may contribute is the suppression of effector cells, such as basophils. Basophil anergy has been characterized in vitro as a pathway-specific hyporesponsiveness; however, this has not been demonstrated to occur in vivo. Objective To evaluate the hypothesis that basophil anergy occurs in vivo due to chronic allergen exposure in the setting of a clinical oral immunotherapy trial. Methods Samples of peripheral blood were obtained from subjects during a placebo-controlled clinical trial of peanut OIT. Basophil reactivity to in vitro stimulation with peanut allergen and controls was assessed by the upregulation of activation markers, CD63 and CD203c, measured by flow cytometry. Results The upregulation of CD63 following stimulation of the IgE receptor, either specifically with peanut allergen or non-specifically with anti-IgE antibody, was strongly suppressed by active OIT. However, OIT did not significantly suppress this response in basophils stimulated by the distinct fMLP receptor pathway. In the subset of subjects with egg sensitization, active peanut OIT also suppressed CD63 upregulation in response to stimulation with egg allergen. Allergen OIT also suppressed the upregulation of CD203c including in response to stimulation with IL-3 alone. Conclusion Peanut OIT induces a hyporesponsive state in basophils that is consistent with pathway-specific anergy previously described in vitro. This suggests the hypothesis that effector cell anergy could contribute to clinical desensitization. PMID:22805467

  18. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  19. Effect of chemical modifications on allergenic potency of peanut proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bencharitiwong, Ramon; van der Kleij, Hanneke P.M.; Koppelman, Stef J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modification of native peanut extracts could reduce adverse effects of peanut immunotherapy. Objective: We sought to compare native and chemically modified crude peanut extract (CPE) and major peanut allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in a mediator-release assay based on the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line transfected with human Fcε receptor. Methods: Native Ara h 2/6 was reduced and alkylated (RA), with or without additional glutaraldehyde treatment (RAGA). CPE was reduced and alkylated. Sera of subjects with peanut allergy (16 males; median age 7 years) were used for overnight RBL-passive sensitization. Cells were stimulated with 0.1 pg/mL to 10 μg/mL of peanut. β-N-acetylhexosaminidase release (NHR) was used as a marker of RBL degranulation, expressed as a percentage of total degranulation caused by Triton X. Results: Median peanut-specific immunoglobulin E was 233 kUA/L. Nineteen subjects were responders, NHR ≥ 10% in the mediator release assay. Responders had reduced NHR by RA and RAGA compared with the native Ara h 2/6. Modification resulted in a later onset of activation by 10- to 100-fold in concentration and a lowering of the maximum release. Modified RA-Ara h 2/6 and RAGA-Ara h 2/6 caused significantly lower maximum mediator release than native Ara h 2/6, at protein concentrations 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL (p < 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively, for RA; and < 0.001, 0.026, and 0.041, respectively, for RAGA). RA-CPE caused significantly lower maximum NHR than native CPE, at protein concentration 1 ng/mL (p < 0.001) and 10 ng/mL (p < 0.002). Responders had high rAra h 2 immunoglobulin E (mean, 61.1 kUA/L; p < 0.001) and higher NHR in mediator release assay to native Ara h 2/6 than CPE, which indicates that Ara h 2/6 were the most relevant peanut allergens in these responders. Conclusions: Chemical modification of purified native Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 reduced mediator release in an in vitro assay ∼100-fold, which indicates decreased

  20. Retrieval of granular bait by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): effect of clumped versus scattered dispersion patterns.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Roulston, T'ai H

    2003-06-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), use mass recruitment foraging, with clumped prey items being retrieved more efficiently than dispersed prey. However, in prior field experiments, granular baits, whether dispensed in containers or broadly scattered, had a similar impact on Argentine ant populations. In laboratory experiments, granular insecticide bait was encountered faster by Argentine ant workers and more granules were initially returned to the colony when the granules were scattered versus clumped. After 2 h, granules from both dispersion patterns were retrieved equally. Our results suggest that Argentine ant colonies adjust their foraging patterns to resources of different quality (prey versus bait). Also, foraging activity patterns for bait in the laboratory are consistent with prior field results demonstrating no efficacy advantages to discrete granular bait placements. PMID:12852629

  1. The Potential of Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Immunotherapy and Ingredient Applications of peanut flour.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is currently being used as the active ingredient in oral immunotherapy applications designed to desensitize peanut allergic patients. This strategy for treating peanut allergy is proving quite promising; however, there is a risk for adverse reactions using this approach. In the curren...

  2. Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Peanut Responding to Drought Stress and Aspergillus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest A. parasiticus infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions; however, drought tolerant peanut lines have less afl...

  3. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and physical properties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  4. Molecular Characterization of the US Peanut Mini Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the second-most important legume crop in the United States. A limitation to increased peanut productivity is that peanut improvement is hampered by relatively low genetic variability in the germplasm commonly used by breeding programs. To facilitate accessibility to...

  5. Relative longevity of adult Nezara viridula in field cages of cotton, peanut, and soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence shows that southern green stink bugs use peanut as a reproductive host and adults colonize and feed in peanut, sometimes extensively. Stink bugs prefer the seeds/fruit of host plants and the fruiting structures in peanut are underground and unavailable. Therefore, it is not clear th...

  6. Enhanced approaches for identifying Amadori products:application to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dry roasting of peanuts is suggested to influence allergenic sensitization due to formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) on peanut proteins. Identifying AGEs is technically challenging. The AGE composition of peanut proteins was probed with nanoLC-ESI-MS and MS/MS analyses. Amadori ...

  7. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  8. Soluble Leaf Carbohydrates as Indicators of Drought-Stress Response in Runner Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly warmer and drier conditions in the southeastern United States pose problems for peanut production, especially where irrigation is not available. Peanut has a natural tolerance to short-term drought; however, development of peanut cultivars with improved tolerance to drought could allev...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  11. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  13. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  15. Localized Production of Phytoalexins by Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels in Response to Fungal Invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts respond to fungal infection by synthesizing phytoalexins, most of which are antibiotic stilbenes. The mechanism and dynamics of phytoalexin formation in the peanut has not been studied. One of the most popular peanut cultivars in the southeastern U.S., Georgia Green, was investigated for its...

  16. Documentation for release of a high oleic runner peanut cultivar (tested as TX 994313)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the peanut acreage diminished in 2008 to 18,000 acres, the peanut crop remains a viable agricultural commodity in western and southwestern Oklahoma with an annual estimated value of $14 million. Production of peanut is adversely affected by soilborne pathogens, especially Sclerotinia minor...

  17. Development and evaluation of peanut germplasm with resistance to Aspergillus flavus from core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the main oil and cash crops in the world, is susceptible to Aspergillus flavus, resulting in loss in quality. Aspergillus flavus infection is a problem for peanut production and industry in China. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new peanut germplasm with ...

  18. EFFECTS OF WEED, DISEASE, AND INSECT CONTROL MEASURES ON SENSORY QUALITY OF PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) products is the main reason that consumers buy them. We previously documented a decline in the intensity of roasted peanut sensory attribute in Florunner and NC 7 peanuts over a 15-year period. Because the same two genotypes were evaluated throughout...

  19. Interaction of flumioxazin with dimethenamid or metolachlor in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in various peanut growing regions of Texas and Georgia to study peanut response to flumioxazin alone or in combination with dimethenamid or metolachlor. In southern Texas during 1997, flumioxazin plus metolachlor resulted in greater than 45% peanut stunt, while flumioxaz...

  20. Association between aflatoxin contamination and N2 fixation in peanut under drought conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traits related to nitrogen fixation may be used as indirect selection criteria for aflatoxin resistance in peanut. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between N2 fixation traits and aflatoxin contamination in peanut under different drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes we...

  1. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  2. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  3. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2008: Shelling and Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breedinglines not formally released o...

  4. Fruity Fermented Off-flavor Distribution in Samples from Large Peanut Lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor develops when immature peanuts are cured at excessive temperatures (>35ºC). The objective of this study was to characterize FF distributions and determine the variability among samples from large peanut lots. Twenty peanut lots identified as having a range of FF of...

  5. Antifungal activity in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) conferred by a nonheme chloroperoxidase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nonheme chloroperoxidase gene (cpo-p) from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, a growth inhibitor of mycotoxin-producing fungi, was introduced into peanut via particle bombardment. The expression of the cpo-p gene is predicted to increase pathogen defense in peanut. Embryogenic peanut tissues were bombarded...

  6. Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  7. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Cercospora arachidicola, Cause of Early Leaf Spot in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, causal agents of early and late leaf spot, respectively, are important fungal pathogens of peanut. Leaf spot disease is a major contributor to the economic losses experienced by peanut farmers and the industry. Though peanut germplasms with so...

  9. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  10. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  11. Use of capillary electrophoresis to determine oleic and linoleic acid content of peanut seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common consumer complaint regarding peanut products is one involving short shelf life and rapid rancidity. Peanut cultivars with elevated oleic acid content (and decreased linoleic content) have been shown to have an increased shelf life and thus have become largely preferred by peanut processors...

  12. Characterization of TSWV - isloates infecting peanut in Oklahoma and Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in U.S. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates that are associated with peanut in the Southwestern states, the aim of this study was...

  13. Capacitance sensors for the nondestructive measurement of moisture content in in-shell peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. An instrument was developed earlier that would measure the capacitance and phase angle of a small sample of peanuts held between two circular parallel-plates at two frequencies 1 a...

  14. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  15. The Effect of Moisture Content on Storage Quality and Sensory Attributes of Oil Roasted Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical characteristics of peanuts may interact with processing conditions to impact quality. This study, examined the effects of preroast moisture content on the chemical and sensory characteristics of oil roasted peanuts. Virginia type peanuts were sequentially dried in-shell to obtain extra la...

  16. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2005: Chemical, sensory and shelf-life properties by variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  17. Development of peanut EST (expressed sequence tag)-based genomic resources and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) has widely recognized the need for peanut genome tools and resources development for mitigating peanut allergens and food safety. Genomics such as Expressed Sequence Tag (EST), microarray technologies, and whole genome sequencing provides robotic tools for profili...

  18. Development of peanut expessed sequence tag-based genomic resources and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) has widely recognized the need for peanut genome tools and resources development for mitigating peanut allergens and food safety. Genomics such as Expressed Sequence Tag (EST), microarray technologies, and whole genome sequencing provides robotic tools for profili...

  19. Immunogenicity of Peanut Proteins Containing Poly(Anhydride) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    De S. Rebouças, Juliana; Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana I.; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced TH1 and TH2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic TH2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both TH1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-TH1 immune response. PMID:24899075

  20. Impact of thermal processing on ELISA detection of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tong-Jen; Maks, Nicole

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effect of heat treatment on the solubility of peanut proteins and compared the performances of two commercial ELISA kits (Veratox Quantitative Peanut Allergen Test and BioKits Peanut Assay Kit) for quantitation of peanut residues as affected by different heat treatments (moist and dry heat) and detection targets (mixture of proteins vs specific protein). Both laboratory-prepared and commercial peanut flour preparations were used for the evaluation. The two ELISA kits tended to underestimate the levels of protein in samples that were subjected to elevated heat, respectively, by more than 60- or 400-fold lower for the autoclaved samples and by as much as 70- or 2000-fold lower for the dark-roast commercial flour samples. The BioKits test, which employs antibodies specific to a heat labile protein (Ara h 1), in general exhibited a greater degree of underestimation. These results suggest that commercial ELISA kits may not be able to accurately determine the amount of proteins present in thermally processed foods due to changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of the target proteins. Users need to be aware of such limitations before applying ELISA kits for evaluation of food allergen control programs. PMID:23473340

  1. Resistance to Ditylenchus africanus present in peanut breeding lines

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald, Alexander H.; de Waele, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Peanut is an important cash crop both for commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa. The effect of Ditylenchus africanus on peanut is mainly qualitative, leading to downgrading of consignments. This nematode is difficult to control because of its high reproductive and damage potential. The objective of this study was to identify peanut genotypes with resistance to D. africanus that would also be sustainable under field conditions. Selected peanut genotypes were evaluated against D. africanus in microplot and field trials. The inbred lines PC254K1 and CG7 were confirmed to be resistant to D. africanus. The resistance expressed by these two genotypes was sustainable under field conditions. The breeding line PC287K5 maintained low nematode numbers in some trials, but its level of resistance was not as strong or as sustainable as that of PC254K1 or CG7. However, PC287K5 could still play an important role in the peanut industry where lower D. africanus populations occur. PMID:22736852

  2. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  3. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  5. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  8. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  10. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  11. Argentine ant invasion associated with loblolly pines in the southeastern United States: minimal impacts but seasonally sustained.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2010-08-01

    Invasive ants are notorious for directly displacing native ant species. Although such impacts are associated with Argentine ant invasions (Linepithema humile) worldwide, impacts within natural habitat are less widely reported, particularly those affecting arboreal ant communities. Argentine ants were detected in North Carolina mixed pine-hardwood forest for the first time but were localized on and around loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), probably because of association with honeydew-producing Hemiptera. We explored the potential impacts of L. humile on arboreal and ground-foraging native ant species by comparing interspersed loblolly pines invaded and uninvaded by Argentine ants. Impacts on native ants were assessed monthly over 1 yr by counting ants in foraging trails on pine trunks and in surrounding plots using a concentric arrangement of pitfall traps at 1, 2, and 3 m from the base of each tree. Of floristics and habitat variables, higher soil moisture in invaded plots was the only difference between plot types, increasing confidence that any ant community differences were caused by Argentine ants. Overall patterns of impact were weak. Composition differed significantly between Argentine ant invaded and uninvaded trunks and pitfalls but was driven only by the presence of Argentine ants rather than any resulting compositional change in native ant species. Native ant abundance and richness were similarly unaffected by L. humile. However, the abundance of individual ant species was more variable. Although numbers of the arboreal Crematogaster ashmeadi (Myrmicinae) declined on and around invaded pines, epigeic Aphaenogaster rudis (Myrmicinae) remained the most abundant species in all plots. Argentine ant densities peaked in late summer and fall, therefore overlapping with most native ants. Unexpected was their continued presence during even the coldest months. We provide evidence that Argentine ants can invade and persist in native North Carolina forests, probably

  12. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  13. Long-term field trial to control the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with synthetic trail pheromone.

    PubMed

    Nishisue, K; Sunamura, E; Tanaka, Y; Sakamoto, H; Suzuki, S; Fukumoto, T; Terayama, M; Tatsuki, S

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term experiments showed that trail following behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), can be disrupted by a high concentration of synthetic trail pheromone component (Z)-9-hexadecenal. In this study, a long-term field trial was conducted in 100-m2 plots of house gardens in an urban area of Japan to see whether the control effect on Argentine ants can be obtained by permeating synthetic trail pheromone from dispensers. The dispensers were placed in the experimental plots during the ant's active season (April-November) for 2 yr with monthly renewal. To estimate Argentine ant population density, foraging activity of Argentine ants in the study plots was monitored by monthly bait surveys. Throughout the study period, Argentine ant foraging activity was suppressed in the presence of the dispensers, presumably via trail forming inhibition. In contrast, the level of foraging activity was not different between treatment and no-treatment plots when the dispensers were temporarily removed, suggesting that treatment with pheromone dispensers did not suppress Argentine ant density in the treatment plots. Population decline may be expected with larger-scale treatment that covers a significant portion of the ant colony or with improvement in the potency of the disruptant. PMID:21061980

  14. Design and Performance of an Impedance Analyzer for Nondestructive Moisture Content Determination of In-Shell Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (MC) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. A method was developed earlier that would estimate the MC of a small sample of in-shell peanuts (peanut pods) held between two circular parallel-plates, from the values of capacita...

  15. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  16. Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.

    PubMed

    el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

    1998-12-01

    Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

  17. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  18. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  19. Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Fangjie; Zou Changling; Sun Fangwen; Xiao Yunfeng

    2011-05-15

    Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5 deg. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

  20. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil