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Sample records for argentine rangelands recovering

  1. GRAZING CAN HELP WESTERN RANGELANDS RECOVER FROM FIRE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the approximately 153 million acres of sagebrush rangeland in the western United States is at risk of invasion by non-native annual grass invasion, such as cheatgrass, following fire. Livestock grazing has also been suggested to have contributed to exotic annual grass spread. However, the ...

  2. Deforestation of "degraded" rangelands: The Argentine Chaco enters the next stage of the Anthropocene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty years ago I completed my Master’s work in the Chaco forests of northern Argentina. The native forests are, in fact, rangelands. In addition to livestock grazing, there is timber extraction, wildlife harvest (think tegu lizard cowboy boots), and charcoal production. I took part in a project co...

  3. Rangeland Research Roundup -1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the inaugural edition of “Rangeland Research Roundup”. Please allow me to introduce myself and provide an overview of our rangeland research in this edition. My name is Justin Derner and I have been the Research Leader for the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Rangeland Resources...

  4. Rangelands and Grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are a type of land cover dominated by grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs, where the land is managed as a natural ecosystem for multiple uses including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, recreation, and grazing by livestock. The area cover by rangelands is 48.2% of the land surfac...

  5. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  6. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

  7. Rangeland decision-making in Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands make up much of Wyoming’s diverse landscapes. In fact, around 85% of Wyoming is considered rangeland. So, what exactly is rangeland? Rangelands are a type of land dominated by some mix of mostly native grasses, forbs and shrubs. Some woodlands are considered rangelands too, particularly i...

  8. Cheatgrass and Grazing Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charles Elliot Fleming was one of the first scientists to work on the western range. In 1946 he published a series of questions concerning grazing of the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorm), which had invaded millions of acres of the western rangelands. The introduction and subsequent invasi...

  9. Water harvesting applications for rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although water harvesting techniques have been used effectively in irrigated agriculture and domestic water supplies, there seems to have been little continued exploitation of the same techniques in arid and semiarid rangeland restoration. A review of the history of rangeland water harvesting allow...

  10. Rangeland Research Roundup - October 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conducting rangeland research that is relevant for, and can be applied by, land managers is the core foundation for research projects involving the Rangeland Resources Research Unit. We are continually evaluating our research program to determine which research projects are meeting the needs of land...

  11. INDICATORS OF GREAT BASIN RANGELAND HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-warning indicators of rangeland health can be used to estimate the functional integrity of a site and may allow sustainable management of desert rangelands. The utility of several vegetation canopy-based indicators of rangeland health at 32 Great Basin rangeland locations was investigated. T...

  12. Biodiversity of rangelands

    SciTech Connect

    West, N.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Biodiversity is a multifaceted phenomenon involving the variety of organisms present, the genetic differences among them, and the communities, ecosystems, and landscape patterns in which they occur. Society will increasingly value biodiversity and influence the passage of laws and writing of regulations involving biodiversity which rangeland managers will have to abide by over the coming decades. Even private and developing world rangelands will be affected. While taxonomic knowledge of vertebrates and vascular plants and their abundance, rarity, and distribution, in the developed nations is generally adequate, the same cannot be said of the developing world. Furthermore, adequate knowledge of invertebrates, nonvascular plants, and microbes is deficient everywhere. Although the basis of variation at all higher levels, genetic variation within rangeland species, even the major ones, has barely been assessed. Obtaining statistically adequate data on populations of rare species that are small and secretive is well nigh impossible. There are many means of measuring community diversity, but all of them are value laden. That is, choice of variables to measure and how they are indexed betrays what one considers are important. One should be more forthright in stating to the users the biases of these methods. There are many other, more useful ways to describe community-level diversity besides the traditional focus on species. Ungulate grazing is an important process in many ecosystems. Thus, removal of grazing destabilizes some systems. Livestock grazing will actually increase the chances of survival of some species. Sustainable development will depend on finding balance between use and protection, from range sites to landscapes, and even on a global basis. 120 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  14. Mapping rangelands with unmanned aircraft

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico, ongoing research is aimed at determining the utility of UAS for rangeland mapping and monitoring and developing an operational UAS-based remote sensing program for ecological applications. ...

  15. Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and Conversion in California's Rangeland Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. Richard; Marty, Jaymee; Holland, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change in rangeland ecosystems is pervasive throughout the western United States with widespread ecological, social and economic implications. In California, rangeland habitats have high biodiversity value, provide significant habitat connectivity and form the foundation for a number of ecosystem services. To comprehensively assess the conservation status of these habitats, we analyzed the extent and drivers of habitat loss and the degree of protection against future loss across a 13.5 M ha study area in California. We analyzed rangeland conversion between 1984 and 2008 using time series GIS data and classified resulting land uses with aerial imagery. In total, over 195,000 hectares of rangeland habitats were converted during this period. The majority of conversions were to residential and associated commercial development (49% of the area converted), but agricultural intensification was surprisingly extensive and diverse (40% across six categories). Voluntary enrollment in an agricultural tax incentive program provided widespread protection from residential and commercial conversions across 37% of the remaining rangeland habitat extent (7.5 M ha), though this program did not protect rangeland from conversion to more intensive agricultural uses. Additionally, 24% of the remaining rangeland was protected by private conservation organizations or public agencies through land or easement ownership while 38% had no protection status at all. By developing a spatial method to analyze the drivers of loss and patterns of protection, this study demonstrates a novel approach to prioritize conservation strategies and implementation locations to avert habitat conversion. We propose that this approach can be used in other ecosystem types, and can serve as a regional conservation baseline assessment to focus strategies to effect widespread, cost-effective conservation solutions. PMID:25141171

  16. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  17. A rangeland hydrology and erosion model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil loss rates on rangelands are considered one of the few quantitative indicators for assessing rangeland health and conservation practice effectiveness. An erosion model to predict soil loss specific for rangeland applications is needed because existing erosion models were developed from cropland...

  18. Modeling overland erosion on disturbed rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) is a new process-based model developed by the USDA-ARS primarily for undisturbed rangeland. Greater sediment detachment rates are usually generated by concentrated flow rather than by sheet flow. Disturbance on rangeland such as fire and tree encroach...

  19. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  20. Grasslands, Rangelands, and Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agro-ecosystems are those systems whose production does not negatively affect energy flow, nutrient cycling or ecosystem services. We examined literature reports in each of these different arenas to determine if cellulosic biomass production in rangelands met these criteria. We focused...

  1. Rangelands: a closing carbon sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Two thirds of the world's agricultural land is suitable for grazing only. Much of this land has experienced severe erosion due to mismanagement, massive redistribution of soil and sediment, and significant degradation of vegetation. As a consequence, geochemical cycles have changed. Unlike croplands, the impact of degradation on nutrient fluxes is hardly compensated on rangelands, potentially disturbing the carbon cycle because of the declining biomass production and the subsequent conversion of litter into soil organic matter. Over time, the degradation leads to a decline in soil C stocks and, if associated with soil erosion, also to a decline in carbon transfer from soil into sediment sinks. A priory reasoning suggests that during the degradation process, with soil productivity not yet massively affected, the Carbon transfer initially increases because soil erosion rates are also greater than in the non-disturbed system. With most soil degradation in rangelands occurring during the past 200 years, this mechanism on a large part of the global land area could have generated an unintentional terrestrial carbon sink during a time period with increasing industrial CO2 emissions. Using global data on soil degradation, soil erosion, soil carbon stocks and dynamics to simulate their interaction and potential role for rangeland carbon cycles supports the assumption that rangelands may have functioned as a carbon sink, but reveals major uncertainties with regards to the size. This highlights the need to improve our knowledge and understanding of rangeland erosion, landscape change and soil formation, both with regards to the recent past, but also the impacts of their future use and climate.

  2. LOCALIZING THE RANGELAND HEALTH METHOD FOR SOUTHEASTERN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interagency manual Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health, Version 4 (Technical Reference 1734-6) provides a method for making rangeland health assessments. The manual recommends that the rangeland health assessment approach be adapted to local conditions. This technica...

  3. Trap-mulching Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Sorenson, Clyde E; Waldvogel, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), management is constrained, in large part, by polydomy where nestmates are distributed extensively across urban landscapes, particularly within mulch. Management with trap-mulching is a novel approach derived from trap-cropping where ants are repelled from a broad domain of nest sites to smaller defined areas, which are subsequently treated with insecticide. This concept was field-tested with mulch surrounding ornamental trees replaced with a narrow band of pine (Pinus spp.) needle mulch (trap) within a much larger patch of repellent aromatic cedar (Juniperus spp.) mulch. After ants reestablished around the trees, the pine needle mulch band was treated with 0.06% fipronil (Termidor). Poor results were obtained when the trap extended from the tree trunk to the edge of the mulched area. When the trap was applied as a circular band around the tree trunk reductions in the number of foraging ants were recorded through 14 d compared with an untreated mulch control, but not for longer periods. Reductions in the number of ant nests within mulch were no different between the trap mulch and any of the other treatments. We conclude that trap-mulching offers limited benefits, and that successful management of Argentine ants will require implementation of complementary or perhaps alternative strategies. PMID:17066809

  4. Developing the 18th indicator for interpreting indicators of rangeland health on Northern Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Resources Inventory (NRI) resource assessment report shows little to no departure on Rangeland Health for most Northern Great Plains Rangelands. This information is supported by Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) data collected at local to regional scales. There is however a...

  5. Rangeland research: strategies for providing sustainability and stewardship to the rangelands of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland research is an important determinant of how rangelands are and will be used. Although larger external forces such as national and global economies and social and political attitudes have direct impact on uses of rangelands, the methods by which we implement and evaluate those economic and...

  6. Agriculture, Forestry and Rangeland Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for providing information on agriculture, forestry, and rangeland resources is described. The use of the ERTS-1 system for stratification and sampling estimates of relatively small areas is discussed. Examples of maps to improve resource definition for land use planning, resource allocation, and resource development are provided. Inventories of various crops, as determined by photointerpretation of ERTS imagery are submitted in tabular form.

  7. [Theory of Argentine cultural "isoidia"].

    PubMed

    Pagés Larraya, F

    1982-03-01

    For the epidemiological study of mental pathology in the Argentine Republic the country has been systematically divided into 25 Cultural Areas, to which it is necessary to add the "megalopolis" of Buenos Aires City and conurbation. Each one of these Cultural Areas is analysed according to the anthropological method, which enables us to comprise an innumerable series of epidemiological variants. We investigate, for example, in every one of them the situation of the mentally sick within the community and the cultural attitude of the latter towards mental illness. For statistical purposes of Psychiatrical Epidemiology an experimental study of the prevalence of this type of disease is carried out in each of the above mentioned areas. As a complement to this investigation an analysis of the Institutional Prevalence of Mental Pathology has been performed, i.e., of the patients attended at the State Establishments, be they national, provincial or municipal. PMID:7136824

  8. Multiple Scale Remote Sensing for Monitoring Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a land-cover classification from NASA’s MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rangelands cover 48% of the Earth’s land surface, not including Antarctica. Nearly all analyses imply the most economical means of monitoring large areas of rangelands worldwide is with remote se...

  9. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool for Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation is the keystone to sustainable livestock grazing and maintenance of native species on our western rangelands. Good rangeland management requires the ability to assess the potential impacts of climate and management actions on runoff and erosion at both hillslope and wate...

  10. Applying animal behavior to arid rangeland mangement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production is one of many demands placed on today’s arid rangelands. Therefore, understanding plant and animal biology and their effects on biotic and abiotic landscape components is fundamental if rangelands are to remain ecologically sustainable. One limiting factor to accomplishing posi...

  11. Monitoring Rangeland Health by Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a land-cover classification from NASA’s MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rangelands cover 48% of the Earth’s land surface, not including Antarctica. Nearly all analyses imply the most economical means of monitoring large areas of rangelands worldwide is with remote s...

  12. Rangeland sequestration potential assessment (Final Report)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terriestrial c...

  13. CARBON FLUXES ON NORTH AMERICAN RANGELANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal patterns of growth and thus carbon uptake are relevant to both scientists who study ecosystem properties and managers who strive to maintain rangeland productivity. We studied seasonal patterns of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) on 11 US rangelands over a 6-year period. All sites w...

  14. Monitoring response to disturbance in dynamic rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi-arid rangelands worldwide provide important ecosystem services and see a diversity of land uses. To maintain the health of these lands, it is necessary to monitor rangeland conditions in response to management and disturbance. Spatial patterns from disturbance are superimposed on patte...

  15. Automated Geospatial Waershed Asessment Tool for Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation is the keystone to sustainable livestock grazing and maintenance of native species on our western rangelands. Good rangeland management requires the ability to assess the potential impacts of climate and management actions on runoff and erosion at both hillslope and water...

  16. Meeting wild bees' needs on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some arid rangeland regions, notably those with warm dry climates of the temperate zones, host great diversities of native bees, primarily non-social species among which are many floral specialists. Rangeland bee faunas are threatened indirectly by invasive exotic weeds wherever these displace nat...

  17. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of ecosystem services. An economic perspective on ecosystems portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of ecosystem goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern California yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input

  18. Meadow degradation, hydrological processes and rangeland management in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Richards, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Alpine meadow dominated by species of Kobresia is widely distributed in the Tibetan Plateau. Kobresia pygmaea is often a main species and the meadow has evolved as a result of long-term trampling, being a main rangeland resource for livestock grazing. This alpine meadow also plays an important role in regulating the water and energy balance through land-atmosphere interaction, leaving an impact on local hydrological processes and beyond. Therefore, alpine meadow degradation is detrimental to both the health of the ecosystems, and to pastoralism. This research therefore studies the hydrological process with regard to degradation of Kobresia pygmaea meadow, tracing the possible causes, detecting the impacts on soil and biological properties, and further considering the herders' role in future rangeland management. The study area is around the Kema village of the Nagqu Prefecture in Northern Tibet, where human population depends on livestock grazing for livelihood. Main driving factors of alpine meadow degradation are climatic variations and human disturbance. The periodical change in local climate may be related to quasi-oscillatory atmospheric circulations in this monsoon dominated area and the climatic trends with extreme weather conditions can make the whole system hard to recover. Along with climatic variations, overgrazing is predominant with an exceeding of the carrying capacity by almost every household in this village. This is related to the change of rangeland management by the policies of privatisation of pasture and sedentarisation. The acceleration of degradation since the 1980s results in a series of distinct soil-vegetation combination classified in this research as the normal meadow, compact crust and bare soil. The species composition, soil physical and chemical properties and the vertical water movement along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are significantly different at the sites representing stages of degradation, revealed by multiple methods

  19. Rehabilitation of degraded rangelands: lessons learned

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has had astronomical effects to Great Basin rangelands. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent seed banks that take advantage of condi...

  20. Aerospace video imaging systems for rangeland management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Escobar, D. E.; Richardson, A. J.; Lulla, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the application of airborne video imagery (VI) for assessment of rangeland resources. Multispectral black-and-white video with visible/NIR sensitivity; color-IR, normal color, and black-and-white MIR; and thermal IR video have been used to detect or distinguish among many rangeland and other natural resource variables such as heavy grazing, drought-stressed grass, phytomass levels, burned areas, soil salinity, plant communities and species, and gopher and ant mounds. The digitization and computer processing of VI have also been demonstrated. VI does not have the detailed resolution of film, but these results have shown that it has considerable potential as an applied remote sensing tool for rangeland management. In the future, spaceborne VI may provide additional data for monitoring and management of rangelands.

  1. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecosystems are multifaceted biophysical systems with highly variable soils, weather, landforms, animals, and vegetation that are manifest in complex management options which involve diverse human goals, values, beliefs and decision-making strategies. Overlaying this vast background variabi...

  2. Revegetating sagebrush rangelands invaded by medusahead

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) effective treatments for controlling medusahead and 2) the appropriate plant materials for revegetating medusahead-invaded rangelands. Initial treatments of prescribed burning immediately followed with applications of the preemergent herbicide imaza...

  3. RANGELAND NUTRITIONAL PATTERNS AND CATTLE DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several animal and environmental characteristics affect livestock distribution on rangelands. An understanding of mechanisms governing livestock distribution can help land and livestock managers avoid or ameliorate potential deleterious grazing effects. This research tested hypotheses that foragin...

  4. Revegetating sagebrush rangelands invaded by medusahead

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study are to determine: 1) effective treatments for controlling medusahead and 2) the appropriate plant materials for revegetating medusahead-invaded rangelands. Initial treatments of prescribed burning immediately followed with applications of the preemergent herbicide imazap...

  5. RANGELAND COMMUNITIES: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND CLASSIFICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the vegetational attributes of rangelands is critical to their management. Yet incorporating vegetation structure, function, and classification into a single chapter is an ambitious goal and an attempt to blur the boundaries between classical community ecology that characterize patterns...

  6. [Potential emigration of young Italian-Argentines].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C

    1992-12-01

    The author examines trends in out-migration among young, highly skilled Argentines, with a focus on those of Italian descent. Data are from interviews conducted among young adults in Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, and Rosario. Major factors influencing migration include perceived labor force and economic opportunities. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12344794

  7. Radiation Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-06-28

    A recent technology exchange between Argentina Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEA) and the US Department of Energy involved vitrification studies of ion exchange resins. Details of the spent ion exchange resins currently stored at two Argentine nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse, have been presented in earlier reports. The present study examines irradiation of simulant samples of ion exchange resins.

  8. Estimating Sediment Yield on Disturbed Rangeland Using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of a single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes on normal rangeland, as well as, r...

  9. USDA internet tool to estimate runoff and soil loss on rangelands: rangelands hydrology and erosion model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are the most dominant land cover type in the United States (770 million acres) with approximately 53% of the nation’s rangelands owned and managed by the private sector, while approximately 43% are managed by the federal government. Information on the type, extent, and spatial location of...

  10. Weather and climate applications for rangeland restoration planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecosystems generally have an arid or semi-arid climatology, and are characterized by relatively high variability in seasonal and annual patterns of precipitation. Weather variability during seedling establishment is universally acknowledged as a principal determinant of rangeland seeding...

  11. LANDSCAPE NUTRITIONAL PATTERNS AND CATTLE DISTRIBUTION IN RANGELAND PASTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On rangelands, uneven or unmanaged livestock distribution can adversely affect plant community composition, riparian function, or displace wildlife. These issues have historic precedents and are still a challenge for those managing rangelands. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms governing l...

  12. Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

  13. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... continued livestock grazing ] within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area. The analysis will... conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area towards desired conditions. The project...

  14. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  15. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  16. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  17. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  18. Is the historical range of variation relevant to rangeland management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands occupy about 40% of the Earth’s terrestrial surface, comprising grasslands, shrublands, and deserts (Havstad et al., 2007). Over a billion people live in rangelands, engaged primarily in pastoralism and limited crop agriculture for subsistence. Rangelands can be ideal coupled human-natura...

  19. Estimating effects of targeted conservation on nonfederal rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On arid and semiarid rangelands, soil erosion is episodic in nature because of extremes in precipitation from year to year. Evaluation of long-term, average, annual soil loss on rangeland is inappropriate because, in many cases, water-induced soil erosion may not occur on arid or semiarid rangelands...

  20. A new Splash and Sheet Erosion Equation for Rangelands 1957

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil loss rates predicted from erosion models for rangelands have the potential to be important quantitative indicators for rangeland health and for assessing conservation practice effects. Splash and sheet erosion processes on rangelands differ in substantial ways from those in croplands, where the...

  1. Sediment source determination using fallout Cesium-137 in arid rangelands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediment source identification in arid rangelands is necessary to understanding rangeland conditions and developing management practices to improve rangeland health and reduce sediment load to streams. The purpose of this research was to use Cesium-137 to identify sources of sediments in an arid ran...

  2. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  3. Western rangelands: overgrazed and undermanaged

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, D.

    1981-05-01

    Overgrazing and poor management of the western arid lands causes desertification as the levels of water tables and surface waters drop, top soil and surface waters become more saline, soil erodes, and native vegetation disappears. This process had led to severe desertification in an estimated 1.1 million square miles and very severe desertification on 10,500 square miles in the US. The three areas in the very severe category occur in the Navajo Indian reservation in Arizona and New Mexico and on either side of El Paso, Texas. All were subjected to overgrazing. Government policies have only recently tried to bring public land grazing in line with the land's carrying capacity by focusing on long-term productivity. The Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 authorizes better management and multiple use of public lands, but the Bureau of Land Management has not established an effective monitoring system to ensure its implementation or to overcome political constraints against reducing livestock. Ranchers disagree with the assessments made by scientists and support vegetation modification instead of grazing allotments. 58 references, 7 figures. (DCK)

  4. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  5. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: concepts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) onto millions of acres of Intermountain West rangelands has caused astronomical changes to numerous ecosystems and the multiple uses that depend on healthy and functional ecosystems. This is the first part, of a 3-part series ...

  6. Improving estimates of rangeland carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration on rangelands has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) levels in the atmosphere and mitigate the effects of global climate change. This enhanced sequestration can be accomplished through the management of soils and...

  7. Managing Complex Problems in Rangeland Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of rangelands, and natural resources in general, has become increasingly complex. There is an atmosphere of increasing expectations for conservation efforts associated with a variety of issues from water quality to endangered species. We argue that many current issues are complex by their...

  8. Is rangeland health relevant to Mongolia?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 800,000 of Mongolia’s 2.5 million people depend directly on livestock production and rangelands for their livelihood. Overgrazing is widespread in the western provinces and near the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, while forage is often underutilized in eastern parts of the country. The ra...

  9. Adaptive management for drought on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management for drought on rangelands encompasses 1) enterprise flexibility – herd structure where the proportion of cow-calf pairs and yearlings provides plasticity to match forage availability with forage demand, with advantages to economic returns and increased resiliency of plant communi...

  10. Turning information into knowledge for rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kind of knowledge system that will be capable of meeting the needs of rangeland managers will evolve as scientists, technology specialists, managers, and biologists find ways to integrate the ever expanding array of information systems and tools to meet their needs. The tools and techniques high...

  11. UAS remote sensing missions for rangeland applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands cover about 50% of the earth’s land surface, are in remote areas and have low population densities, all of which provide an ideal opportunity for remote sensing applications from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). In this paper, we describe a proven workflow for UAS-based remote sensing, an...

  12. CONTROL OF RANGELAND GRASSHOPPERS USING PRESCRIBED FIRE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are considered among the most damaging rangeland pests yet desired for the development of many wildlife species. Most grasshoppers are innocuous, but control with insecticides is non-discriminatory among species. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of p...

  13. National estimates of soil loss on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1995, an interagency group composed of the Natural Resources Conservation Service, Agricultural Research Service, and U.S. Geological Survey have worked together to develop a robust field approach for National Resource Inventory (NRI) on rangeland. The new NRI protocols are designed to detect ...

  14. Cross-protection in nonhuman primates against Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher, M C; Coto, C E; Calello, M A; Rondinone, S N; Damonte, E B; Frigerio, M J

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus to Tacaribe virus infection was investigated to perform cross-protection studies between Junin and Tacaribe viruses. Five marmosets inoculated with Tacaribe virus failed to show any signs of disease, any alterations in erythrocyte, leukocyte, reticulocyte, and platelet counts or any changes in hematocrit or hemoglobin values. No Tacaribe virus could be recovered from blood at any time postinfection. Anti-Tacaribe neutralizing antibodies appeared 3 weeks postinfection. The five Tacaribe-infected marmosets and four noninfected controls were challenged with the pathogenic strain of Junin virus on day 60 post-Tacaribe infection. The former group showed no signs of disease, no viremia, and no challenge virus replication, whereas the control group exhibited the typical symptoms of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, high viremia, and viral titers in organs. Soon after challenge, the Tacaribe-protected marmosets synthesized neutralizing antibodies against Junin virus. These results indicate that the marmoset C. jacchus can be considered an experimental model for protection studies with arenaviruses and that the Tacaribe virus could be considered as a potential vaccine against Junin virus. PMID:6276301

  15. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  16. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), butmore » dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.« less

  17. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  18. REVEGETATION SUCCESS OF MEDUSAHEAD-INFESTED RANGELANDS WITH PLATEAU® AND PRESCRIBED BURNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that is rapidly invading rangelands. Medusahead invasion reduces the productivity and biodiversity of rangelands. Efforts to control medusahead and revegetation infested rangelands are often unsuccessful. We evaluated...

  19. Sediment Budgets and Source Determination Using Fallout Cesium-137 in Semiarid Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of soil redistribution and sediment sources in semiarid and arid rangelands can provide information for understanding watershed sediment budgets and rangeland conditions and for implementing management practices to improve rangeland conditions and reduce sediment loads in streams. The purpo...

  20. Rangeland Rummy - a board game to support adaptive management of rangeland-based livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Farrié, B; Jouven, M; Launay, F; Moreau, J-C; Moulin, C-H; Piquet, M; Taverne, M; Tchakérian, E; Thénard, V; Martin, G

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland-based livestock systems have to deal with the significant instability and uncertainty of the agricultural context (policy changes, volatility of input prices, etc.), and especially of the climatic context. Thus, they are particularly concerned by adaptive management strategies. To support the development of such strategies, we developed a board game including a computer model called "Rangeland Rummy". It is to be used by groups of farmers and agricultural consultants in the context of short workshops (about 3 h). Rangeland Rummy builds upon five types of material object: (i) a game board; (ii) a calendar stick indicating the starting date of the game board; (iii) sticks marked with the feed resources available for combinations of vegetation types and their management practices; (iv) cards to define animal groups and their feeding requirements throughout the year; (v) cards related to types of feed that can be attributed to animal groups throughout the year. Using these material objects, farmers collectively design a rangeland-based livestock system. This system is immediately evaluated using a computer model, i.e. a spreadsheet providing graphs and indicators providing information on, among other things, the extent to which quantitative and qualitative animal feeding requirements are covered across the year. Playing the game thus consists in collectively and iteratively designing and evaluating rangeland-based livestock systems, while confronting the players with new contextual challenges (e.g. interannual variability of weather, volatility of input prices) or new farmers' objectives (e.g. being self-sufficient for animal feeding). An example of application of Rangeland Rummy with 3 farmers in southern France is reported. Applications show that it tends to develop farmers' adaptive capacity by stimulating their discussions and the exchange of locally-relevant knowledge on management strategies and practices in rangeland-based livestock systems. PMID

  1. A qualitative evaluation of Landsat imagery of Australian rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graetz, R.D.; Carneggie, David M.; Hacker, R.; Lendon, C.; Wilcox, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of multidate, multispectral ERTS-1 imagery of three different rangeland areas within Australia was evaluated for its usefulness in preparing inventories of rangeland types, assessing on a broad scale range condition within these rangeland types, and assessing the response of rangelands to rainfall events over large areas. For the three divergent rangeland test areas, centered on Broken W, Alice Springs and Kalgoorlie, detailed interpretation of the imagery only partially satisfied the information requirements set. It was most useful in the Broken Hill area where fenceline contrasts in range condition were readily visible. At this and the other sites an overstorey of trees made interpretation difficult. Whilst the low resolution characteristics and the lack of stereoscopic coverage hindered interpretation it was felt that this type of imagery with its vast coverage, present low cost and potential for repeated sampling is a useful addition to conventional aerial photography for all rangeland types.

  2. Modeling Overland Erosion on Disturbed Rangeland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Hernandez, M.; Pierson, F. B.; Nearing, M.; Stone, J. J.; Williams, C. J.; Boll, J.; Weltz, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) is a new process-based model developed by the USDA-ARS primarily for undisturbed rangeland. Greater sediment detachment rates are usually generated by concentrated flow rather than by sheet flow. Disturbance on rangeland such as fire and tree encroachment can increase overland flow erosion rate by increasing the likelihood of concentrated flow formation on a more erodible surface. In this study, we made advancement to RHEM by developing a new version of the model to predict concentrated flow erosion rate from disturbed rangelands. The model was conceptualized based on observations and results of experimental studies on rangelands disturbed by fire and/or by tree encroachment. A logistic equation was used to partition overland flow into concentrated flow and sheet flow. The equation predicts the probability of overland flow to become concentrated based on slope angle, percentage bare soil, and flow discharge per unit width. Sediment detachment rate from concentrated flow was calculated using soil erodibility of the site and hydraulic parameters of the flow such as flow width and stream power. Soil detachment was assumed to start when concentrated flow starts (i.e. no threshold concept for initiating detachment was used). Width of concentrated flow was determined by flow discharge and slope using an equation which was developed specifically for rangeland. A dynamic erodibility concept was used where concentrated flow erodibility was set to be high at the beginning of the event and then decrease exponentially due to the reduction of availability of disturbance-source-sediment. Initial erodibility was estimated using an empirical parameterization equation as a function of readily available vegetation cover and surface soil texture data. Detachment rate from rain splash and sheet flow was determined by rainfall intensity and sheet flow discharge. A dynamic partial differential sediment continuity equation was used to

  3. Integration of Hyperspectral Data for Rangeland Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, Gregg M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Cadwell, Larry L.; Downs, Janelle L.; Perry, Eileen M.; Turner, Jim

    2000-12-30

    Grazing lands in the United States consist of approximately 312 million hectares of federal, state, and private land. A recent review by the National Research Council indicates a need to collect comprehensive, consistent, and uniform data to evaluate rangeland health. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, and working cooperatively with the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service to address these data needs using new remote sensing methods designed to characterize large areas quickly and at minimal cost. Anticipated application for new remote sensing protocols range from conducting national assessments of the ecological condition of rangelands to monitoring change in condition of individual grazing allotments.

  4. Where and how Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) spreads in Corsica?

    PubMed

    Blight, Olivier; Orgeas, Jérôme; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Provost, Erick

    2009-08-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Dolichoderinae), is one of the most widespread invasive ant species in the world. When established in optimal habitat, this species usually excludes most other local ants and can heavily impact other arthropods as well. Although Argentine ants have been present in southern Europe for more than 100 years, they were first noted in Corsica, a French Mediterranean island, in 1957 in only one urban station. In this study, we aimed to map precisely their geographical distribution in Corsica and to quantify their presence by using an infestation index. We recorded changes in the distribution of Argentine ants in Corsica over the past decade. Argentine ants appeared to be well established within their introduced range and spreading along the Corsican coasts principally through Human-mediated jump-dispersal but not homogenously. PMID:19632658

  5. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  7. Climate change and rangelands: Responding rationally to uncertainty

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands constitute a substantial portion of the earth’s surface and contribute a wide variety of products and services to human well being. Global climate change will have an inordinate impact on rangelands because the productivity of grass and shrub dominated ecosystems is so closely linked to ...

  8. DIGITAL IMAGERY AND LANDSCAPE-SCALE RANGELAND MONITORING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring is critical when manipulating rangeland ecosystems toward a desired goal. Unfortunately, cost and(or) logistics may limit a rangeland manager’s choice of monitoring tools. Ultimately, such tools must be affordable and provide rapid, accurate, and precise information that can be used to ...

  9. Strategies for sustaining multiple ecosystem services from rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of natural resource science to both management needs and policy formation has been spotty, at best. Interestingly, rangeland science had an early history of closely supporting management needs and USA rangeland policies during the early 20th century. This history of support unrave...

  10. Making spatial predictions of rangeland ecosystem attributes using regression kriging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sound rangeland management requires accurate information on condition over large landscapes. Typical approaches to making spatial predictions rangeland condition attributes (e.g., shrub or bare ground cover) are via regression between field and remotely-sensed data. This works well in some situation...

  11. Contributing to the mitigation of climate change using rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitigation of climate change through rangeland management based projects seems to be viable in the marketplace. Carbon sequestration via rangeland management has a sound basis in both economics and ecology if the offset projects are compatible with existing land uses and management systems. Ho...

  12. Grand challenges for resilience-based management of rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The social and ecological contexts for rangeland management are changing rapidly, prompting a reevaluation of science, management, and the linkages between them. Here, we argue that the recent transformation from a steady state to an ecosystem management model has served the rangeland profession wel...

  13. Conservation program participation and adaptive rangeland decision-making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper analyzes rancher participation in conservation programs in the context of a social-ecological framework for adaptive rangeland management. We argue that conservation programs are best understood as one of many strategies of adaptively managing rangelands in ways that sustain livelihoods a...

  14. Mongolia's rangelands: is livestock production the key to the future?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately half of the world’s land areas is rangeland. Over 1.5 billion people live on or immediately adjacent to this land type. Common to these rangelands are over 1 billion domesticated animals, primarily cattle, sheep and goats that are managed by pastoralists. The ruminant digestive system...

  15. Sustaining working rangelands: Insights from rancher decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazed rangeland ecosystems encompass diverse global land resources, and are complex social-ecological systems from which society demands both goods (e.g., livestock and forage production) and services (e.g., abundant and high quality water). In the dialogue on rangeland conservation and sustainable...

  16. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Rowland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for range-land monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (Kc) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the Kc values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the Kc values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to 'normal' years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov/adds/.

  17. Management implications of global change for Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just as water and temperature drive the ecology of Great Plains rangelands, we predict that the impacts of global change on this region will be experienced largely through changes in these two important environmental variables. A third global change factor which will impact rangelands is increasing ...

  18. The western United States rangelands, a major resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland is a type of land found predominantly in arid and semiarid regions, and managed as a natural ecosystem supporting vegetation of grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs. There are approximately 761 m ac of rangeland in the United States, about 31% of the total land area. This land ty...

  19. Weather variability and adaptive management for rangeland restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inherent weather variability in upland rangeland systems requires relatively long-term goal setting, and contingency planning for partial success or failure in any given year. Rangeland plant communities are dynamic systems and successional planning is essential for achieving and maintaining system...

  20. Spatial redistribution of nitrogen by cattle in semiarid rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) availability can strongly influence forage quality and the capacity for semiarid rangelands to respond to increasing atmospheric CO2. Although many pathways of nitrogen input and loss from rangelands have been carefully quantified, cattle-mediated N losses are often poorly understood. W...

  1. APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH USING REMOTE SENSING FOR RANGELAND MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are grasslands, shrublands and savannas which may be used for grazing livestock in order to produce food and fiber. Assessment and monitoring of rangelands are currently based on comparing the species present in relation to a defined successional end-state. However, future assessment an...

  2. New research themes after a century of rangeland science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rangeland science profession in the United States has its roots in the widespread overgrazing and concurrent severe droughts of the late 19th Century. These drivers contributed to rangeland resource degradation especially in the American Southwest. Experimental stations like those established ea...

  3. Variation in ecological resilience: a fundamental concept for rangeland ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concepts and terminology associated with ecological resilience are fast becoming a common language for the study of global change. We review the application of the broad concept of resilience to rangeland ecology, connecting it to several well-established rangeland concepts including equilibrial...

  4. Grazing behavioral responses of beef cattle to medusahead invasion in sagebrush steppe rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study are to determine: 1) seasonal forage quality of medusahead-invaded rangeland relative to adjacent rangeland supporting desirable vegetation; 2) relative grazing preference of beef cattle for medusahead-invaded rangeland and adjacent rangeland supporting desirable vegetat...

  5. Sustainable rangeland management, economic growth, and a cautious role for the SRM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the art and science of rangeland management increased dramatically during the 20th century and it was out of this interest that the profession of rangeland management was born. As public interest in rangeland management grew, so did the number, breadth, and depth of rangeland management ...

  6. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengjie; Han, Guodong; Wang, Shiping; Zhai, Xiajie; Brown, Joel; Havstad, Kris M; Ma, Xiuzhi; Wilkes, Andreas; Zhao, Mengli; Tang, Shiming; Zhou, Pei; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Tingting; Wang, Zhongwu; Li, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implemented in the main rangeland regions of China. The influences of rangeland improvement, utilization and livestock production on CH4 flux/emission were assessed to estimate CH4 reduction potential. Results indicate that the grazed rangeland ecosystem is currently a net source of atmospheric CH4. However, there is potential to convert the ecosystem to a net sink by improving management practices. Previous assessments of capacity for CH4 uptake in grazed rangeland ecosystems have not considered improved livestock management practices and thus underestimated potential for CH4 uptake. Optimal fertilization, rest and light grazing, and intensification of livestock management contribute mitigation potential significantly. PMID:24658176

  7. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengjie; Han, Guodong; Wang, Shiping; Zhai, Xiajie; Brown, Joel; Havstad, Kris M.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Wilkes, Andreas; Zhao, Mengli; Tang, Shiming; Zhou, Pei; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Tingting; Wang, Zhongwu; Li, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implemented in the main rangeland regions of China. The influences of rangeland improvement, utilization and livestock production on CH4 flux/emission were assessed to estimate CH4 reduction potential. Results indicate that the grazed rangeland ecosystem is currently a net source of atmospheric CH4. However, there is potential to convert the ecosystem to a net sink by improving management practices. Previous assessments of capacity for CH4 uptake in grazed rangeland ecosystems have not considered improved livestock management practices and thus underestimated potential for CH4 uptake. Optimal fertilization, rest and light grazing, and intensification of livestock management contribute mitigation potential significantly. PMID:24658176

  8. Assessing transportation infrastructure impacts on rangelands: Test of a standard rangeland assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linear disturbances associated with on and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable ene...

  9. Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) enhancements for applications on disturbed rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) is a new process-based model developed by the USDA-ARS. Disturbance such as fire or woody plant encroachment can amplify overland flow erosion by increasing the likelihood of concentrated flow formation. In this study, we enhanced RHEM applications on...

  10. Modeling soil erosion impact of rangeland disturbance using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbance on rangeland such as fire and tree encroachment can increase overland flow erosion rate by increasing the likelihood of concentrated flow formation on a more erodible surface. In this study, we made advancements to RHEM by developing a new version of the model to predict concentrated flo...

  11. Rangeland health assessment - The key to understanding and assessing rangeland soil health in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the science related to soil and rangeland health evolves, so do their protocols and assessment methodologies. Rangeland health assessments consist of evaluating how well ecological processes such as the water cycle, energy flow and nutrient cycling are functioning at a site. Soil health is the ca...

  12. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  13. Biophysical characterization and management effects on semiarid rangeland observed from Landsat ETM+ data

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Hongliang; Liang, Shunlin; McClaran, Mitchell P.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Drake, Sam; Marsh, Stuart E.; Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    2005-01-20

    Semi-arid rangelands are very sensitive to global climatic change; studies of their biophysical attributes are crucial to understanding the dynamics of rangeland ecosystems under human disturbance. In the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER), Arizona, the vegetation has changed considerably and there have been many management activities applied. This study calculates seven surface variables: the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface albedos (total shortwave, visible and near-infrared), leaf area index (LAI) and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FPAR) from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data. Comparison with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) vegetation index and albedo products indicate they agree well with our estimates from ETM+ while their LAI and FPAR are larger than ETM+. Human disturbance has significantly changed the cover types and biophysical conditions. Statistical tests indicate that surface albedos increased and FPAR decreased at all sites. The recovery will require more than 67 years, and is about 50% complete within 40 years at the higher elevation. Grass cover, vegetation indices, albedos and LAI recovered from cutting faster at the higher elevation. Woody plants, vegetation indices and LAI have recovered to their original characteristics after 65 years at the lower elevation. More studies are needed to examine the spectral characteristics of different ground components.

  14. Carbohydrate supply limits invasion of natural communities by Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2009-08-01

    The ability of species to invade new habitats is often limited by various biotic and physical factors or interactions between the two. Invasive ants, frequently associated with human activities, flourish in disturbed urban and agricultural environments. However, their ability to invade and establish in natural habitats is more variable. This is particularly so for the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). While biotic resistance and low soil moisture limits their invasion of natural habitats in some instances, the effect of food availability has been poorly explored. We conducted field experiments to determine if resource availability limits the spread and persistence of Argentine ants in remnant natural forest in North Carolina. Replicated transects paired with and without sucrose solution feeding stations were run from invaded urban edges into forest remnants and compared over time using baits and direct counts at feeding stations. Repeated under different timing regimes in 2006 and 2007, access to sucrose increased local Argentine ant abundances (1.6-2.5 fold) and facilitated their progression into the forest up to 73 +/- 21% of 50-m transects. Resource removal caused an expected decrease in Argentine ant densities in 2006, in conjunction with their retreat to the urban/forest boundary. However, in 2007, Argentine ant numbers unexpectedly continued to increase in the absence of sugar stations, possibly through access to alternative resources or conditions not available the previous year such as honeydew-excreting Hemiptera. Our results showed that supplementing carbohydrate supply facilitates invasion of natural habitat by Argentine ants. This is particularly evident where Argentine ants continued to thrive following sugar station removal. PMID:19452171

  15. Rangeland degradation in North China: perceptions of pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Rangeland degradation, a worldwide problem, is serious in China, especially in the Northern provinces. To assess the pastoralists' perceptions toward rangeland trend and degradation, a survey was conducted in Ningxia, North China. Data were collected from a total of 284 pastoralists in six Ningxia counties. Findings showed that the majority of respondents believe the rangelands in Ningxia have been degraded, although there are some disparities among the counties that illustrate differing severity of degradation. Findings also clarified that the pastoralists have more knowledge about the "technical" and "supportive" aspects of conditions, while remaining less aware of "economic" and "management" factors of this issue. Yet, a high disparity was revealed between pastoralists' perceptions among the counties in this study. The correlation matrix showed that most of their perceptions do not act independently. Findings also showed that those pastoralists who believe that their rangeland trend is "improved" have broader management and social perceptions than those who believe their rangeland is "degraded". Finally, correlation analysis showed that the management and social perceptions have a negative correlation with degradation severity. Based on the findings, recommendations for possible interventions through extension/educational programs to diminish rangeland degradation are made. The programs are suggested to be presented in three packages including "management", "social", and "economic" issues in rangeland degradation. PMID:20106474

  16. Detrimental effects of highly efficient interference competition: invasive Argentine ants outcompete native ants at toxic baits.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that disrupts the balance of natural ecosystems by displacing indigenous ant species throughout its introduced range. Previous studies that examined the mechanisms by which Argentine ants attain ecological dominance showed that superior interference and exploitation competition are key to the successful displacement of native ant species. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that effective interference competition by Argentine ants may also be detrimental to the survival of Argentine ant colonies where Argentine ants and native ants compete at toxic baits used to slow the spread of Argentine ants. To study this hypothesis, we examined the competitive interactions between Argentine ants and native odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile, in the presence and absence of toxic baits. Results showed that Argentine ants aggressively outcompete T. sessile from toxic baits through efficient interference competition and monopolize bait resources. This has severe negative consequences for the survival of Argentine ants as colonies succumb to the toxic effects of the bait. In turn, T. sessile avoid areas occupied by Argentine ants, give up baits, and consequently suffer minimal mortality. Our results provide experimental evidence that highly efficient interference competition may have negative consequences for Argentine ants in areas where toxic baits are used and may provide a basis for designing innovative management programs for Argentine ants. Such programs would have the double benefit of selectively eliminating the invasive species while simultaneously protecting native ants from the toxic effects of baits. PMID:18559180

  17. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  18. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  19. Assessing transportation infrastructure impacts on rangelands: test of a standard rangeland assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.; Toledo, David

    2010-01-01

    Linear disturbances associated with on- and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable energy, and ex-urban), and recreational activities. In addition to the direct impacts of road development, the presence and use of roads may alter resilience of adjoining areas through indirect effects such as altered site hydrologic and eolian processes, invasive seed dispersal, and sediment transport. There are few standardized methods for assessing impacts of transportation-related land-use activities on soils and vegetation in arid and semi-arid rangelands. Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) is an internationally accepted qualitative assessment that is applied widely to rangelands. We tested the sensitivity of IIRH to impacts of roads, trails, and pipelines on adjacent lands by surveying plots at three distances from these linear disturbances. We performed tests at 16 randomly selected sites in each of three ecosystems (Northern High Plains, Colorado Plateau, and Chihuahuan Desert) for a total of 208 evaluation plots. We also evaluated the repeatability of IIRH when applied to road-related disturbance gradients. Finally, we tested extent of correlations between IIRH plot attribute departure classes and trends in a suite of quantitative indicators. Results indicated that the IIRH technique is sensitive to direct and indirect impacts of transportation activities with greater departure from reference condition near disturbances than far from disturbances. Trends in degradation of ecological processes detected with qualitative assessments were highly correlated with quantitative data. Qualitative and quantitative assessments employed in this study can be used to assess impacts of transportation features at the plot scale. Through integration with remote

  20. [The Argentine Health System: organization and financial features].

    PubMed

    Arce, Hugo E

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine health system is defined by the following features: a) federal country organization; b) coexistence of public and private services with either outpatients or inpatients; c) fragmented entities of social security, most of these originated outside of the state organization. Components of the system are described and weighed; making decisions strength between national and provincial health authorities is analyzed and the Argentine system is compared with that of other countries. Statistical data on distribution of health expenditures and coverage of health services are presented as well as financial flow among diverse funding sources, insurers, providers and users of each sector. PMID:23089118

  1. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental evaluation of grazing systems represents a highly visible and lengthy chapter in the history of the rangeland profession. Although experimentation has largely concluded, contrasting interpretations still remain regarding the potential benefits of rotational grazing systems on rangel...

  2. IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINING RANGELAND STRESSORS TO WESTERN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency is developing rangeland ecological indicators in eleven western states using advanced remote sensing systems. Fine spectral resolution (hyperspemal) sensors, or imaging spectrometers, can detect the subtle spectral features that makes vegetatio...

  3. Medusahead in sagebrush steppe rangelands: Prevention, control, and revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead is an exotic annual grass invading western rangelands. Medusahead invasion is particularly troublesome, because revegetation of invaded areas is difficult. This manuscript synthesizes the literature to provide recommendations for managing medusahead in sagebrush plant communities. Beca...

  4. Future scenarios of impacts to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin; Alvarez, Pelayo; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley of California provide multiple benefits or “ecosystem services” to people—including wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, recreation, and cultural resources. Most of this land is privately owned and managed for livestock production. These rangelands are vulnerable to land-use conversion and climate change. To help resource managers assess the impacts of land-use change and climate change, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators developed scenarios to quantify and map changes to three main rangeland ecosystem services—wildlife habitat, water supply, and carbon sequestration. Project results will help prioritize strategies to conserve these rangelands and the ecosystem services that they provide.

  5. IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINING RANGELAND STRESSORS TO WESTERN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency is developing rangeland ecological indicators in twelve western states using advanced remote sensing techniques. Fine spectral resolution (hyperspectral) sensors, or imaging spectrometers, can detect the subtle spectral features that make veget...

  6. Different Argentine Rural Extensionists' Mindsets and Their Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reflects upon the practice of Argentine rural extensionists working in the extension public system through the process of identifying different rural extensionists' types of mindsets and comparing them with transfer of technology extension approach, dialogical processes of horizontal knowledge exchange, participatory…

  7. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  8. Integrating a rangeland health assessment with successional management: A synergistic approach to EBIPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative Rangeland Health Assessments are extremely useful because they provide a relative indication of resource problems on rangelands. Additionally, theSuccessional Management framework identifies three primary causes of plantcommunity change, ecological processes, and factors that modify thes...

  9. Perceptions of ranchers about medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) management on sagebrush steppe rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an exotic annual grass invading rangelands in the western United States. Medusahead is a serious management concern because its decreases biodiversity, reduces livestock forage production, and degrades ecological function of rangelands. Despit...

  10. Very High Resolution Panoramic Photography to Improve Conventional Rangeland Monitoring 1994

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland monitoring often includes repeat photographs as a basis for documentation and although photographic equipment and electronics have been evolving rapidly, basic rangeland photo monitoring methods have changed little over time. Ground based digital photography is underutilized, especially s...

  11. Mapping total vegetation cover across western rangelands with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remotely sensed observations of rangelands provide a synoptic view of vegetation condition unavailable from other means. Multiple satellite platforms in operation today (e.g. Landsat, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer [MODIS]) offer opportunities for regional monitoring of rangelands. Ho...

  12. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  13. The Argentine ant persists through unfavorable winters via a mutualism facilitated by a native tree.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, Robert J; Silverman, Jules

    2011-10-01

    Mutualisms and facilitations can fundamentally change the relationship between an organism's realized and fundamental niche. Invasive species may prove particularly suitable models for investigating this relationship as many are dependent on finding new partners for successful establishment. We conducted field-based experiments testing whether a native tree facilitates the successful survival of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), through unfavorable winter conditions in the southeastern United States. We found Argentine ant nests aggregated around the native loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., during the winter months. The bark of this tree absorbed enough radiant solar energy to reach temperatures suitable for Argentine ant foraging even when ambient temperatures should have curtailed all foraging. Conversely, foraging ceased when the trunk was shaded. The sun-warmed bark of this tree gave the Argentine ant access to a stable honeydew resource. Argentine ants were not found on or near deciduous trees even though bark temperatures were warm enough to permit Argentine ant foraging on cold winter days. Augmenting deciduous trees with sucrose water through the winter months lead to Argentine ant nests remaining at their base and Argentine ants foraging on the tree. The Argentine ant requires both foraging opportunity and a reliable winter food source to survive through unfavorable winter conditions in the southeastern United States. The loblolly pine provided both of these requirements extending the realized niche of Argentine ants beyond its fundamental niche. PMID:22251714

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  15. State-and-transition model archetypes: a global taxonomy of rangeland change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    State and transition models (STMs) synthesize science-based and local knowledge to formally represent the dynamics of rangeland and other ecosystems. Mental models or concepts of ecosystem dynamics implicitly underlie all management decisions in rangelands and thus how people influence rangeland sus...

  16. Influence of grazing on rangeland soil carbon: State of the science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of rangeland to the soil carbon pools and cycles, as well as the drivers that influence soil carbon in rangelands is presented here with emphasis on grazing, global change and drought. Experimental results will be presented addressing soil carbon responses in rangelands to grazing x c...

  17. Characteristics of concentrated flow hydraulics for rangeland ecosystems: implications for hydrologic modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated flow is often the dominant source of water erosion following disturbance on rangeland. Because of the lack of studies that explain the hydraulics of concentrated flow on rangelands, cropland-based equations have typically been used for rangeland hydrology and erosion modeling, leading t...

  18. Spatial predictions of cover attributes of rangeland ecosystems using regression kriging and remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sound rangeland management requires accurate information on rangeland condition over large landscapes. A commonly-applied approach to making spatial predictions of attributes related to rangeland condition (e.g., shrub or bare ground cover) from remote sensing is via regression between field and rem...

  19. Invasive rangeland plants in range and animal sciences and resources management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprising about 50% of the world’s land surface, rangelands are an important ecological and economic resource. Rangeland plant communities are changing. Even though the composition of plant communities in rangeland changes continually through the process of succession, in more recent years this c...

  20. New concentrated flow hydraulics equations for physically-based rangeland hydrology and erosion models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hydraulics of concentrated flow using unconfined field experimental data over diverse rangeland landscapes, and developed new empirical prediction models of different rangeland concentrated flow hydraulic parameters, which can be applicable across a wide span of rangeland sites, soil...

  1. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to inform rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Do you want a relatively easy to use tool to assess rangeland soil and water conservation practices on rangeland erosion that is specifically designed to use ecological information? Effective rangeland management requires the ability to assess the potential impacts of management actions on soil ero...

  2. 78 FR 49723 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests; Ely Ranger District; Ely Westside Rangeland Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Forest Service Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests; Ely Ranger District; Ely Westside Rangeland Project... of the Ely Westside Rangeland Project began in 2006 with the original Notice of Intent published in... and conditions) on the allotments in the Ely Westside Rangeland Project area. The objection...

  3. Rangelands: Changes to improve the quality and performance of an important SRM journal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, an effort to improve the quality and financial performance of the journal RANGELANDS was begun. Reviews by the Society for Range Management (SRM) Board of Directors (BOD) appointed RANGELANDS Task Force (RTF) and the Advisory Council identified aspects of RANGELANDS critical to membership s...

  4. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  5. The Argentine ant: challenges in managing an invasive unicolonial pest.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Brightwell, Robert John

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, has invaded urban, agricultural, and natural habitats worldwide, causing economic damage and disrupting ecosystem processes. Introduced populations of L. humile and those of many other invasive ants tend to be unicolonial, forming expansive, multiqueened supercolonies that dominate native ant communities and challenge control practices in managed habitats. Argentine ant management typically entails the application of residual insecticide liquids, granules, or baits to only a portion of the colony, resulting in fairly rapid reinfestation. We suggest that prevailing control methodologies are incomplete and not compatible with the behavior, nesting habits, and population structure of this ant, and therefore, more aggressive management strategies are required. Successful eradication efforts against other invasive unicolonial ant species can provide useful insights for local-scale L. humile eradication. PMID:17877449

  6. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2011-04-19

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N

  7. Argentine Valuation of the EQ-5D Health States

    PubMed Central

    Augustovski, Federico Ariel; Irazola, Vilma Edit; Velazquez, Alberto Pascual; Gibbons, Luz; Craig, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of EQ-5D health state values for the Argentine general population. Methods Consecutive subjects attending six primary care centers in Argentina were selected based on quota sampling and interviewed using the EuroQol Group protocol for measurement and valuation of health studies. Initially respondents were randomly assigned a unique card set; however, to improve efficiency, subjects were later randomly assigned to one of three fixed sets of EQ-5D states. Using the VAS and TTO responses for these states, we estimated a valuation model using ordinary least squares regression clustered by respondent. Predicted values for EQ-5D health states are compared to published values for the United States. Results Six hundred eleven subjects were interviewed by 14 trained interviewers, rendering 6,887 TTO and 6,892 VAS responses. The model had an R2 of 0.897 and 0.928 for TTO and VAS respectively. The mean absolute difference between observed and predicted values was 0.039 for TTO and 0.020 for VAS, each showing a Lin’s concordance coefficient above 0.98. United States and Argentine TTO predicted values were highly correlated (Pearson’s rho=0.963), though the average absolute difference was clinically meaningful (0.06), rejecting the US values for nearly two thirds of the states (62.8%). The Argentine population placed lower values on mild states and higher values on severe states. Conclusion This study provides an Argentine value set that could be used locally or regionally, with meaningful and significant differences with that of the US. Health policy in Latin America must incorporate local values for sovereignty and validity. PMID:19900257

  8. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  9. Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2007-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (<2 years) close to the encampments. The latter constitutes the herding of bulls and immatures (>2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on

  10. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  11. Nitrogen uptake: invasive annual vs. native perennial rangeland grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incursion into perennial dominated rangelands of the Intermountain West by two winter exotic annual grasses, cheatgrass and medusahead, is one of the most serious plant invasion in North America. The invasions have decreased productivity and biological diversity and increased the frequency of range...

  12. Integrated approach to cheatgrass suppression on great basin rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), native to central Eurasia, is a highly invasive annual grass that has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Cheatgrass has revolutionized secondary succession by providing a fine-textured, early-maturing fuel that increases the c...

  13. Managing the herbage utilisation and intake by cattle grazing rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To be able to predict the performance of grazing cattle in extensive rangeland environments, herbage intake is paramount because it quantifies energy intake and performance. Nutrient demand of the animals is the major driver of herbage intake and characteristics of the sward dictate how this demand...

  14. Cattle as ecosystem engineers: New grazing management enhances rangeland biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A confluence of factors has shaped the composition and structure of vegetation on rangelands in the American West. These factors include climate, soils, topography, history of grazing and fire (both wildfire and prescribed fire) as well as legacy effects from prior land management practices. Despite...

  15. Integrating Weed Management and Restoration on Western Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, we began experiments to control cheatgrass and restore native species on Great Basin Rangelands. Experiments, which tested transitional species and functional groups on restoration, were established at eight sites in Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah. After two years of trials, accessions of ...

  16. Brush management as a rangeland conservation strategy: A critical evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most striking land cover changes on rangelands worldwide over the past 150 years has been the proliferation of trees and shrubs at the expense of perennial grasses. Woody plant encroachment represents a threat to grassland, shrub-steppe and savanna ecosystems and the plants and animals n...

  17. Hydrology, erosion, and soil interrelationships after rangeland wildfire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfire is a major ecological process and management issue on rangelands throughout the western United States. Fire suppression and land management activities over the past century have disrupted natural fire cycles which can result in more intense and sometimes catastrophic events. Managers are ...

  18. Revegetating medusahead-invaded sagebrush rangelands in the intermountain west

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revegetation of medusahead-invaded rangeland is needed to increase forage production, decrease the risk of wildfires, and improve wildlife habitat. Successful revegetation starts with effective control of medusahead. Prescribed burning followed by a fall application of a pre-emergent herbicide has...

  19. Response of native ungulates to drought in semiarid Kenyan rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution and abundance of native ungulates were measured on commercially-managed, semiarid rangeland in central Kenya over a 3-year period that encompassed severe drought and above-average rainfall. Ungulate biomass density averaged 7556 kg/km2 over the study and was dominated by elephant (L...

  20. Monitoring Rangeland Health With MODIS Vegetation Index Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Rangelands cover approximately one third of the land area of the conterminous U.S. These lands supply much of the forage for the U.S. cattle industry. Large area monitoring of these vast expanses of range has proved challenging since most of these lands are in the western U.S., are relatively sparsely populated, and are not well covered by meteorological weather stations. Improvements in the spatial and temporal precision of rangeland health information would be useful both for the cattle industry and for scientific studies of soil erosion, water runoff, ecosystem health, and carbon cycling. Optical multispectral remote sensing data from satellites are an objective source of synoptic, timely information for monitoring rangeland health. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a method for measuring and monitoring rangeland health over large areas. In the past, data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer has proved useful for this purpose, however the basic 1 km spatial resolution is not ideal when scaling up from ground observations. This study assesses MODIS 250 meter resolution vegetation index data for this purpose. MODIS data not only have finer spatial resolution and improved geolocation, but they also exhibit enhanced vegetation sensitivity and minimized variations associated with external atmospheric and non-atmospheric effects. Ground data collected over 51 sites in western South Dakota over four years are used as training for regression tree models of range health. Range health maps for the growing season derived from the models are presented and evaluated.

  1. Simplifying ecological site verification, rangeland health assessments, and monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past several decades, scientists and land managers in North America have increasingly recognized the importance of rangeland assessment relative to ecological potential based on soil and climate. The adoption of the site potential based “ecological site” system was recently formalized in ...

  2. Ecosystem Services from U.S. Rangelands: A Synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The over 300 million ha of public and private rangelands in the United States are characterized by low and variable precipitation, nutrient-poor soils, and high spatial and temporal variability in plant production. This land type has provided a variety of goods and services, with the provisioning of...

  3. Prioritizing rangeland research and restoration based on societal outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecological research is generally driven by interest in a particular pattern, process or organism, by a desire to maximize a particular ecosystem service (such as livestock production) at a specific location, or by an interest in the effects of a particular management system on soils, veget...

  4. Are we ready for the (range)land revolution?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland scientists have a tremendous amount of knowledge that could ensure that the transition from livestock production to other land uses is as sustainable as possible, while maintaining livestock production systems where they are the most biophysically, socially, culturally and economically sus...

  5. Germination and Persistence of Rangeland Grasses on Heavy Metal Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of acres of Western rangeland have been degraded by mining and other land disturbances which often result in soil with elevated salinity, increased acidity, high levels of sodium, metals, and decreased nutrient availability. Chemical amendment of degraded soils followed by reseeding has result...

  6. A PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CONTROLLING LEAFY SPURGE ON NEBRASKA RANGELAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a non-native perennial forb that invades rangeland and pasture in the central and northern Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada. It quickly increases in pastures, reduces available forage by displacing desirable plants and changing species composition, and may reduce forage use by ca...

  7. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming trend and a slight increase in precipitation. In general, the effects of climate change on crop species have been better studied than in pastureland and rangeland s...

  8. Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...

  9. Financial incentives: Possible options for sustainable rangeland management?

    PubMed

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Yigezu, Yigezu A; Werner, Jutta; Dashtseren, Lojoo; El-Shater, Tamer; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Large-scale mismanagement of natural resources emanating from lack of appropriate policies and regulatory framework is arguably one of the reasons that led to resource degradation and poor livelihoods in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Sustainable rangeland management practices (SRMPs) are considered to be a solution to feed shortages and rangeland degradation. However, the scope for SRMP adoption, has been a subject of debate. Using a case study from Syria and the application of the Minimum Data Analysis method (TOA-MD), this paper provides empirical evidence for ensuring wider adoption of SRMP. The paper argues that the introduction of financial incentives in the form of payments for agricultural-environmental services can increase the economic viability and enhance the adoption of SRMPs and is a better alternative to the unsustainable state subsidies for fodder purchases and barley cultivation on rangelands. Model results indicate that further investment in reasearch toward generating low cost technologies and tailored governance strategies including a financial incentive system would lead to better management of rangelands and improve livelihoods in the Syrian Badia. These findings are valuable for policy makers, donors as well as development and extension practitioners in the MENA region as they can better inform future courses of actions. PMID:27288553

  10. Rangeland ecology and management in a changing world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecological science and management over the past century has emphasized external human actions to supplement and direct natural ecological processes in the hope of achieving sustained production. The focus has usually been on an improve efficiency of production, generally achieved by addin...

  11. Germination and Persistence of Rangeland Grasses on Heavy Metal Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many acres of Western rangeland have been degraded by mining and other land disturbances which often results in soil with elevated salinity, increased acidity, high levels of sodium, metals, and decreased nutrient availability. Chemical amendment of degraded soils followed by reseeding has resulted...

  12. Integrated approach to cheatgrass suppression on Great Basin Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), native to central Eurasia, is a highly invasive annual grass that has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Cheatgrass has revolutionized secondary succession by providing a fine-textured, early-maturing fuel that increases the c...

  13. EXPERIENCING THE SUCCESS AND FAILURES OF RANGELAND RESTORATION/REVEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anyone who has ever attempted to restore (native species) or revegetate (introduced species) disturbed arid rangelands knows the frustration inherent in such efforts. Exotic species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) significantly add to the complicatio...

  14. The importance of seed germination in rangeland research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS)/ Great Basin Rangelands Research Unit, Wildland Seed Laboratory, located in Reno, NV, has been studying seed germination for the past 40 years. The wildland seed laboratory has collected, processed, and quantified germination characteristics of hundreds...

  15. SELECTIVE CONTROL OF RANGELAND GRASSHOPPERS WITH PRESCRIBED FIRE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are considered among the most damaging rangeland pests, but are necessary for the survival of many wildlife species. Most grasshoppers are innocuous, but control with insecticides is non-discriminatory among species. The objectives were to evaluate the effects ...

  16. THE EFFECTS OF INTERSEEDED ALFALFA ON NATIVE RANGELAND SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration impacts on global change have spurred research in the field of soil carbon sequestration. Rangeland soils, generally nitrogen and water deficient, have shown potential as a sink for carbon through management practices and plant community improvement. Introducing ...

  17. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a lar...

  18. Rangeland CEAP: An assessment of natural resources conservation service practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NRCS uses science-based technology to provide conservation planning and assistance to land owners and land operators to maintain productive lands and healthy ecosystems. Evaluating science-based literature on effectiveness of rangeland conservation practices is an important first step as it pro...

  19. Parameterization of erodibility in the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of runoff and erosion processes. For undisturbed rangelands, sediment is primarily detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in isolated bare batches, but sedime...

  20. The Importance of Seed Germination in Rangeland Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS)/ Great Basin Rangelands Research Unit, Wildland Seed Laboratory, located in Reno, NV, has been studying seed germination for the past 40 years. The wildland seed laboratory has collected, processed, and quantified germination characteristics of hundreds...

  1. Incorporating plant mortality and recruitment into rangeland management and assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management is largely focused on managing vegetation change. Objectives may include managing against change if the desired vegetation is in place, or attempting to create a shift in vegetation if the desired state is not present. Describing potential vegetation states and requirements fo...

  2. A simple graphical approach to quantitative monitoring of rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term monitoring is an essential part of good rangeland management – but is often overlooked because managers perceive it to be complicated, technical, or time-consuming. We introduce a quick, easy, and quantitative approach to monitoring changes in plant and ground cover, plant density, and veg...

  3. PROCESS OF SELECTING INDICATORS FOR MONITORING CONDITIONS OF RANGELAND HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on a process for selecting a suite of indicators that, in combination, can be useful in assessing the ecological conditions of rangelands. onceptual models that depict the structural and functional properties of ecological processes were used to show the linkag...

  4. Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature's Supply and Human's Demands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...

  5. Importance of shrub restoration on great basin rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recognition of brush species and the browse these plants provide as an important component of rangeland production was often overlooked in land management for some time. Even after the birth of range management in the early twentieth century, herbaceous species were considered the basic componen...

  6. Making soil health a part of rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health describes the ability of a soil to function at its potential, specifically “The capacity of a soil to function as a vital, living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans”. The objectives of this paper are to 1) contextualize rangeland soil health by examining the common defini...

  7. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implement...

  8. Development of a UAV rangeland remote sensing capability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting in 2000, experiments have been conducted at the Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, NM to evaluate the utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for applications on arid rangelands. When compared to all types of remote sensing research ongoing at Jornada and other locations, UAVs h...

  9. Slope impacts on concentrated flow hydraulics in rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have been conducted to describe rill or concentrated flow hydraulics. However, most of these studies used data obtained from either laboratory experiments or field sites located on gently sloping crop lands. The data sets in the few rangeland field studies conducted did not cover a ...

  10. Revegetating medusahead-invaded sagebrush rangelands in the Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revegetation of medusahead-invaded rangeland is needed to increase forage production, decrease the risk of wildfires, and improve wildlife habitat. Successful revegetation starts with effective control of medusahead. Prescribed burning followed by a fall application of a pre-emergent herbicide has...

  11. Opportunities for increasing utility of models for rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tremendous need exists for ecosystem models to assist in rangeland management, but the utility of models developed to date has been minimal for enterprise-level decision making. Three areas in which models have had limited effectiveness for land managers are 1) addressing contemporary needs associ...

  12. Medusahead In Sagebrush Steppe Rangelands: Control, Restoration, And Prevention.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead is a non-native annual grass that is degrading sagebrush rangelands. However, information on its management is not widely available to land managers. We compiled results from previous studies to provide information on controlling, restoring, and preventing medusahead infestations in sag...

  13. Ecologically appropriate plant materials for functional restoration of rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystems of rangelands targeted for restoration have often been modified, hindering restoration efforts. WEhile local adaptation has long been used as an argument for the exclusive use of local plant materials, recent meta-analysis results indicate that general adaptation across a variety of envi...

  14. Rangelands and climate change: A synthesis and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change, along with other aspects of global change, represents a great challenge to rangeland management in the coming century. Coping with this challenge requires collaboration among scientists, managers and policy makers to develop new tools and management systems. This collaboration shou...

  15. Fire, plant invasions, and erosion events on western rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of hectares of rangeland in the western United States have been invaded by annual and woody plants that have increased the role of wildland fire. Altered fire regimes pose significant implications for runoff and erosion. In this paper we synthesize what is known about fire impacts on rang...

  16. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a large...

  17. A site-based approach to delivering rangeland ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecosystems are capable of providing an array of ecosystem services important to the wellbeing of society. Some of these services (e.g. meat, fibre) are transported to markets and their quantity, quality and value are established via a set of widely accepted standards. Other services (e.g. ...

  18. Giant mudwaves in the Northern Argentine Basin: born and buried by bottom currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Dmitrii; Murdmaa, Ivar; Ivanova, Elena; Levchenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    New sedimentary records and very high resolution seismic profiles collected during four cruises of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2011-2013) were correlated with seismic, multibeam and coring data obtained during cruises of the RV "Robert Conrad", "Knorr", "Meteor". A complex analysis of the geological-geophysical data revealed an extensive field of giant mudwaves (48 000 km2) in the northwestern Argentine Basin, South Atlantic. The symmetric waves up to 60 m in height and 4000 m in wavelength are oriented roughly parallel to contours. They partly cover the Santa Catarina Plateau and extend through the Santos Basin to the Sao Paulo Plateau. The mudwaves field is traced at the depth range from 3400 to 4000 m and divided into buried (northern) and non-buried (southern) parts. The non-buried sediment waves cover the surface of the huge drift in the Santa Catarina Plateau. The wave height increases from the drift summit to its flanks and decreases at the foot. Two cores retrieved from the drift top and its northern flank recovered muddy contourites with a greater amount of silt-size material in the core from the drift flank. The age of the recovered sediments is at least 130 ka. In the northern Santos basin, the sediment waves are buried under a large lens-like sediment body (drift?) inclined at the margins. Cores obtained from the buried part of the mudwaves field recovered an intercalation of hemipelagic clay and silty-clay contourite. The age of recovered sediments does not exceed 150 ka (Bleil et al., 1993). Contourites deposition in the study area is related to the activity of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) contour current. The AABW flow is considered to be divided into two branches by the Santa Catarina Plateau. We suggest that this topographic obstacle causes a flow velocity increase. Wave height and grain-size variations indicate higher bottom current velocities at the plateau flanks and relative tranquil conditions at the flat summit of the plateau. The symmetric

  19. Insights into the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rangelands Through Measurement and Modeling of Differently Managed Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Hartman, M.; Parton, W. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    generally declined due to a legacy effect of the historical shift in vegetation from perennial to annual grasses, and did not recover over the timespan considered here. These results demonstrate the potential of manure amendment to increase soil C in some rangelands and the ability of DayCent to reasonably approximate changes in soil C in response to management.

  20. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

  1. Deterrency and Toxicity of Essential Oils to Argentine and Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate deterrency and contact toxicity of six essential oils to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In choice tests, both Argentine ants and fire ants crossed barriers treated with multiple rates...

  2. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  3. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  4. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  5. Rangelands, pastoralists and governments: interlinked systems of people and nature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian H; Janssen, Marco A

    2002-05-29

    We analyse commercially operated rangelands as coupled systems of people and nature. The biophysical components include: (i) the reduction and recovery of potential primary production, reflected as changes in grass production per unit of rainfall; (ii) changes in woody plants dependent on the grazing and fire regimes; and (iii) livestock and wool dynamics influenced by season, condition of the rangeland and numbers of wild and feral animals. The social components include the managers, who vary with regard to a range of cognitive abilities and lifestyle choices, and the regulators who vary in regard to policy goals. We compare agent-based and optimization models of a rangeland system. The agent-based model leads to recognition that policies select for certain management practices by creating a template that governs the trajectories of the behaviour of individuals, learning, and overall system dynamics. Conservative regulations reduce short-term loss in production but also restrict learning. A free-market environment leads to severe degradation but the surviving pastoralists perform well under subsequent variable conditions. The challenge for policy makers is to balance the needs for learning and for preventing excessive degradation. A genetic algorithm model optimizing for net discounted income and based on a population of management solutions (stocking rate, how much to suppress fire, etc.) indicates that robust solutions lead to a loss of about 40% compared with solutions where the sequence of rainfall was known in advance: this is a similar figure to that obtained from the agent-based model. We conclude that, on the basis of Levin's three criteria, rangelands with their livestock and human managers do constitute complex adaptive systems. If this is so, then command-and-control approaches to rangeland policy and management are bound to fail. PMID:12079532

  6. Evaluating the capability of the enhanced Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) for modeling the soil erosion impact of disturbance on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, enhancement of the application of RHEM has been made using a new approach for predicting concentrated flow erosion in order to expand its applicability to disturbed rangelands. The enhanced model was conceptualized based on observations and results of experimental studies on rangeland...

  7. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  8. Rangeland degradation assessment: a new strategy based on indigenous ecological knowledge of pastoralists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmanesh, B.; Barani, H.; Abedi Sarvestani, A.; Shahraki, M. R.; Sharafatmandrad, M.

    2015-10-01

    In the changing world, the prevalence of land degradation is becoming a serious problem worldwide especially in countries with arid and semiarid rangelands. There are many techniques to assess rangeland degradation but most of them rely on classic science. So a study was conducted to find out how indigenous people assess rangeland degradation and how their ecological knowledge can be used for rangeland degradation assessment. We interviewed pastoralists of two sites (Mirza-Baylu and Dasht) where part of both areas is located in Golestan National Park (NE Iran). A structured questionnaire was designed based on some indicators taken from literature and also primary discussions with pastoralists in order to evaluate land degradation. A qualitative Likert scale was used for scoring rangeland degradation indicators. The results revealed that pastoralist pay first attention to edaphic indicators than vegetative and other indicators. There were significant differences between inside and outside of the park in rangeland degradation indicators for both sites. The results show that the rangelands outside the park in both sites were degraded compare to inside the park especially in the areas near to villages. It can be concluded that pastoralists own a vast amount of knowledge on the vegetation and grazing animal habits that can be used in rangeland degradation assessment and it is necessary to document their ecological indigenous knowledge and involve them in rangeland degradation assessment process.

  9. The swift fox in rangeland and cropland in western Kansas: Relative abundance, mortality, and body size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matlack, R.S.; Gipson, P.S.; Kaufman, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    We assessed suitability of cropland and shortgrass rangeland for swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in western Kansas. Relative abundance and survival were similar for foxes in rangeland and cropland. Mortality resulting from non-traumatic causes, coyotes, and motor vehicles differed significantly between habitats. Predation by coyotes, motor vehicles, and non-traumatic causes were responsible for 45%, 36%, and 18%, respectively, of 11 deaths in rangeland and 20%, 10%, and 70%, respectively, of 10 deaths in cropland. Swift foxes in rangeland were larger and in better condition than those in cropland. Males were larger than females based on mass, standardized mass (mass/body length), body length, hindfoot length, and ear length.

  10. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  11. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s−1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  12. Rangeland health attributes and indicators for qualitative assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Herrick, J.E.; Pellant, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Panels of experts from the Society for Range Management and the National Research Council proposed that status of rangeland ecosystems could be ascertained by evaluating an ecological site's potential to conserve soil resources and by a series of indicators for ecosystem processes and site stability. Using these recommendations as a starting point, we developed a rapid, qualitative method for assessing a moment-in-time status of rangelands. Evaluators rate 17 indicators to assess 3 ecosystem attributes (soil and site stability, hydrologic function, and biotic integrity) for a given location. Indicators include rills, water flow patterns, pedestals and terracettes, bare ground, gullies, wind scour and depositional areas, litter movement, soil resistance to erosion, soil surface loss or degradation, plant composition relative to infiltration, soil compaction, plant functional/structural groups, plant mortality, litter amount, annual production, invasive plants, and reproductive capability. In this paper, we detail the development and evolution of the technique and introduce a modified ecological reference worksheet that documents the expected presence and amount of each indicator on the ecological site. In addition, we review the intended applications for this technique and clarify the differences between assessment and monitoring that lead us to recommend this technique be used for moment-in-time assessments and not be used for temporal monitoring of rangeland status. Lastly, we propose a mechanism for adapting and modifying this technique to reflect improvements in understanding of ecosystem processes. We support the need for quantitative measures for monitoring rangeland health and propose some measures that we believe may address some of the 17 indicators.

  13. Decision methodology for the resource utilization of rangeland watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, D.

    1986-01-01

    Degradation of rangeland resources leading to the desertification process is viewed in terms of human and climatic influences. While climatic impacts are important, resource utilization as practiced by man is the major cause of desertification. A multi-objective decision methodology developed here is intended for the analysis of alternative management plans of rangeland watersheds under climatic variability. First, a system model is employed to portray the dynamics of a rangeland as it would respond to climatic changes and different grazing intensities. This approach allows for an interaction of inputs such as rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature with the sate of the system which is a range condition index, and with outputs such as production and sediment yield. A simulation package is developed to implement the system model by actually using available data and providing some output values for production and sediment yield. At this stage a number of alternative management plans are identified. The information obtained from the simulation as well as other information of interest are represented by performance criteria, leading to an array of alternative versus criteria. Then, management plans need to be evaluated as they would impact the criteria. A multi-objective decision-making technique is selected to perform the analysis for an identification of preferred management alternatives.

  14. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss. PMID:22308313

  15. Response to Barnes et al. Letter to the Editor (reference to Bracy Knight et al. 2011 paper in Rangelands)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our original article “Cross-fencing on private US rangelands: financial costs and producer risks” (Bracy Knight et al. 2011 Rangelands 33(2):41-44), demonstrated that producers incur high initial and continuing long-term costs associated with cross-fencing rangelands. While these costs can be partia...

  16. Activity of Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Fipronil, and Thiamethoxam against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined following topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and th...

  17. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  18. Collection and Domestication of Rangeland Plant Species with Emphasis on Mongolia and China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing economic and social conditions are threatening plant diversity on rangelands in Mongolia and China. Teams of collaborating scientists from the U.S.A., Mongolia, and China collected seed of rangeland plant species in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China, to preserve plant biodiversity from th...

  19. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  20. Hydrologic effects of fire in sagebrush plant communities: Implications for rangeland hydrology and erosion modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of dollars are spent annually in the United States mitigating fire effects on rangeland hydrology and erosion. Rangeland managers and scientists need predictive tools to simulate hydrologic processes dictating post-fire responses, assist mitigation and risk assessments, and predict post-fir...

  1. Climate change and North American rangelands: Assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current evidence and projected future climates indicate that climate change is likely to modify the function of and services supplied by rangeland ecosystems. Recent history has demonstrated that climatic variability has a strong influence on both ecological and social components of rangeland system...

  2. Heat dosage and oviposition depth influence egg mortality of two common rangeland grasshopper species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland fire is a common naturally occurring event and management tool, with the amount and structure of biomass controlling transfer of heat belowground. Temperatures grasshopper eggs are exposed to during rangeland fires are mediated by species specific oviposition traits. This experiment examin...

  3. Evaluation of Utah trefoil collections for rangeland restoration in the southern Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires, weed invasion, and various other land disturbances are common in rangeland ecosystems of the Intermountain Region in the western U.S. Revegetation/restoration may be required on many of these rangelands to improve degraded conditions, speed recovery, and minimize soil erosion. Legumes n...

  4. Application of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model to Ecological Site Descriptions and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and State-and-Transition Models (STMs) concepts in guiding rangeland management hinges on their ability to accurately describe and predict community dynamics and the associated consequences. For many rangeland ecosystems, plant community dynamics ar...

  5. Fire impacts on rangeland hydrology and erosion in a steep sagebrush dominated landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfire is a major ecological process and management issue on sagebrush dominated rangelands throughout the western United States. Fire in these systems can induce soil water repellency and increase runoff and erosion. Few data are available to quantify fire induced hydrologic impacts on rangelands...

  6. Editorial: a scientifically rigorous and user-friendly Rangeland Ecology & Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland Ecology and Management (REM) is the premier journal for communication of science-based knowledge and for fostering both innovation and rigor in our stewardship of the world’s rangelands. REM is critical to the mission of the Society for Range Management and has had increasing scientific im...

  7. Discussion of submitted posters for Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the IX International Rangeland Congress held in Rosario, Argentina, a total of 70 posters from 17 countries were submitted to Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources). These posters documented research conducted in five major regions of the world: South America, North America, Africa...

  8. Concentrated flow erodibility for physically-based erosion models: temporal variability in disturbed and undisturbed rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current physically based overland flow erosion models for rangeland application do not separate disturbed and undisturbed conditions in modeling concentrated flow erosion. In this study, concentrated flow simulations on disturbed and undisturbed rangelands were used to estimate the erodibility and t...

  9. Fire severity modeling of sagebrush-steppe rangelands in Southeastern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildland fires are common in rangelands throughout the world and the sagebrush steppe ecosystem of the Intermountain West is no exception. The potential for high severity fires to affect long-term changes in rangelands is considerable and for this reason, assessing fire severity shortly after the fi...

  10. Cooperative prevention systems to protect rangelands from the spread of invasive plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants continue to spread and impact rangelands in the western United States. Fortunately, many rangeland ecosystems still remain invasive weed-free.Cooperative prevention systems can safeguard these remaining areas. Local-level weed prevention areas (WPAs) prioritize prevention in the larg...

  11. Estimating rangeland runoff, soil erosion, and salt mobility and transport processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 55% of sediment and salts entering the Colorado River are derived from accelerated soil erosion from federal rangelands with damages estimated to be $385 million per year. About 55% of the loading is derived from rangelands. This suggests a significant potential to reduce dissolved-solids loa...

  12. Hydrologic ramifications of an increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum in the western United States (US) presents landscape-scale consequences relative runoff and erosion. Much of the Intermountain West now exists in a state in which rangeland and woodland wildfires stimulated by invasive che...

  13. Hydrologic vulnerability of western US rangelands in the wake of woodland encroachment and increasing wildfire activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have dramatically increased their range in the past 150 years and currently occupy more than 30 million ha of the western US. Range expansion has primarily occurred through encroachment into sagebrush rangelands. Woodland expansion and infill on western rangelands have a...

  14. Western and Searls Prairie Clovers: North American Legumes for Rangeland Revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata) and Searls prairie clover (D. searlsiae) are two North American legumes that hold promise for use in rangeland revegetation and conservation. Seeds of w...

  15. Earth stewardship on rangelands: Coping with ecological, economic, and political marginality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...

  16. Fire effects on rangeland hydrology and erosion in a steep sagebrush-dominated landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-fire runoff and erosion from wildlands has been well researched, but few studies have researched the degree of control exerted by fire on rangeland hydrology and erosion processes. Furthermore, the spatial continuity and temporal persistence of wildfire impacts on rangeland hydrology and erosi...

  17. Forage Production on Dry Rangelands of Binary Grass-Legume Mixtures at Four Plant Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage production on Western US rangelands can be increased with the right combination of plants. Our objective was to demonstrate the relative forage production advantage of including a legume on dry rangelands. A falcata and rhizomatous alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), alti wildrye [Leymus andustus...

  18. Using the best available data: integrating field data and remote sensing imagery to monitor rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring of rangelands poses significant challenges to land managers due to broad extent and many uses of rangelands. The Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program seeks to efficiently collect standard, quantitative monitoring data which is collected onc...

  19. Does Mesquite Growth and Removal Impact Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Southwestern Rangelands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The encroachment of velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina) has resulted in increased N inputs to Southwestern rangeland soils. Because woody plant proliferation threatens the sustainability of livestock grazing, however, control of mesquite has been advocated as a means to increase rangeland forage pro...

  20. The 'range problem' after a century of rangeland science: New research themes for altered landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rangeland science profession in the United States has its roots in the widespread overgrazing and concurrent severe droughts of the late 19th Century. These drivers contributed to rangeland resource degradation especially in the American Southwest—what E. O. Wooton (1908) called "The Range Probl...

  1. Pilot Study for an Assessment of Vegetation Structure for Steppe Rangelands of Central Anatolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last fifty years, rangelands in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey have been converted to cropping lands, which has negatively accelerated vegetation change, resulting in overgrazing, poor condition and productivity. In these steppe rangelands, to develop a rational basis for making resto...

  2. Development of an operational UAV / remote sensing capability for rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland comprises approximately 70% of the Earth’s land surface area. Much of this vast space is in very remote areas with difficult access. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications. UAVs have several advantages over satellites and piloted aircr...

  3. Parameterization of the GPFARM-Range model for simulating rangeland productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major limitations to rangeland model usage is the lack of parameter values appropriate for reliable simulations at different locations and times. In this chapter we seek to show how the GPFARM-Range, a rangeland model, which has been previously parameterized, tested and validated for the ...

  4. Techniques for Assessing the Environmental Outcomes of Conservation Practices Applied to Rangeland Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grazing lands are the most dominant land cover type in the United States, with approximately 311.7 Mha being defined as rangelands (Mitchell 2000). Approximately 53% (166.2 Mha) of the nation’s rangelands (USDA 2009) are owned and managed by the private sector, while approximat...

  5. UTILIZATION OF HISTORIC AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY TO TRACK LONG-TERM VEGETATION RESPONSE TO RANGELAND TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 100 years, semiarid grasslands in the Southwest have been heavily invaded by shrubs. To combat shrub invasion, a variety of rangeland remediation treatments have been conducted at the Jornada Experimental Range and the New Mexico State University Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research...

  6. Techniques for assessing the environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to rangeland watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing lands are the most dominate land cover type in the United States with approximately 311.7 Mha being defined as rangelands. Approximately 53% of the Nation’s rangelands are owned and managed by the private sector while the Federal government manages approximately 43% of the Nation’s rangelan...

  7. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to Inform Rangeland Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do you want a relatively easy to use tool to assess rangeland soil and water conservation practices on rangeland erosion that is specifically designed to use ecological information? New Decision Support Tools (DSTs) that are easy-to-use, incorporate ecological concepts and rangel...

  8. Lotus utahensis: southern great basin legume for possible use in rangeland revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecosystems in the western USA are increasingly vulnerable to wildland fires, weed invasion, and mismanagement. On many of these rangelands, revegetation/restoration may be required to improve degraded conditions, speed recovery, and minimize soil erosion. Legumes native to the Great Basi...

  9. TGS pipeline primed for Argentine growth, CEO says

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-03-01

    Nowhere in Latin America has the privatization process been more aggressively pursued than in Argentina where President Carlos Menem has successfully turned over the bulk of state companies to the private sector. In the energy sector, that meant the divestiture in 1992 of Gas del Estado, the state-owned integrated gas transportation and distribution company. It was split in two transportation companies: Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) and Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), and eight distribution companies. TGS is the largest transporter of natural gas in Argentina, delivering more than 60 percent of that nation`s total gas consumption with a capacity of 1.9 Bcf/d. This is the second in a series of Pipeline and Gas Journal special reports that discuss the evolving strategies of the natural gas industry as it continues to restructure amid deregulation. The article focuses on TGS, the Argentine pipeline system in which Enron Corp. is a key participant.

  10. Tectonics of the Argentine and Chilean Andes: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Alvarado, Patricia; Arriagada, César; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    This Special Issue gathers a series of contributions derived from presentations at the 19° Congreso Geológico Argentino held in Córdoba in 2-6 June 2014. Specific subjects cover a wide variety of topics and regions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes, varying from sedimentological analyses and U/Pb dating of detrital zircons in different rocks to determine source areas for different times and regions along the southern Andes; satellite gravity data for monitoring earthquakes at the subduction zone to understand their complex rupture structure; fission track data from the Andes to the foreland region; use of seismic tomographies and conventional seismic reflection data for analyzing crustal structure; to paleomagnetic data and structural and morphological analyses (Fig. 1).