Science.gov

Sample records for argentinean real exchange

  1. Large Devaluations and the Real Exchange Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Ariel; Eichenbaum, Martin; Rebelo, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the primary force behind the large drop in real exchange rates that occurs after large devaluations is the slow adjustment in the prices of nontradable goods and services. Our empirical analysis uses data from five large devaluation episodes: Argentina (2002), Brazil (1999), Korea (1997), Mexico (1994), and Thailand…

  2. 78 FR 49484 - Exchange of Air Force Real Property for Non-Air Force Real Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Department of Air Force Exchange of Air Force Real Property for Non-Air Force Real Property SUMMARY: Notice identifies excess Federal real property under administrative jurisdiction of the United States Air Force it... under the administrative jurisdiction of the Air Force. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr....

  3. The Argentinean Patagonia and the Martian landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Throughout the Cenozoic Era, the geological history of the Argentinean Patagonia was dominated by basaltic volcanism and glacial and periglacial environments. Several geological and geomorphological processes that concurred to the sculpting of the landscape of this area could have been similar to those responsible of the shaping of the Martian surface. In this work a survey of some high-resolution satellite images of the Argentinean Patagonia is performed in order to identify possible geomorphological analogs of the Martian surface. Several morphologies that resemble Martian features are presented and discussed. They consist of proglacial and periglacial features, relatively small circular depressions, gullies, fan-deltas, eolian streaks, and diluvial dunes. Results suggest that the Argentinean Patagonia appears to consist of an interesting terrestrial analog for the Martian landscape. Furthermore, the study area shows to be interesting in order to test robotic instruments and human missions equipment, to train astronauts of future human expeditions to Mars, and to perform astrobiological experiments.

  4. Future Time Perspective and Motivational Categories in Argentinean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; Rapetti, Maria Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of 332 Argentinean teenagers in their last year of secondary school. In the context of the relational theory of motivation, an attempt is made to determine the motivational categories best predicting Future Time Perspective (FTP) extension. The influence of the sex, locus of control, social class, and school ethos…

  5. Estimating long-run equilibrium real exchange rates: short-lived shocks with long-lived impacts on Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zardad, Asma; Mohsin, Asma; Zaman, Khalid

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect real exchange rate volatility for Pakistan through the co-integration and error correction model over a 30-year time period, i.e. between 1980 and 2010. The study employed the autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH), generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) and Vector Error Correction model (VECM) to estimate the changes in the volatility of real exchange rate series, while an error correction model was used to determine the short-run dynamics of the system. The study is limited to a few variables i.e., productivity differential (i.e., real GDP per capita relative to main trading partner); terms of trade; trade openness and government expenditures in order to manage robust data. The result indicates that real effective exchange rate (REER) has been volatile around its equilibrium level; while, the speed of adjustment is relatively slow. VECM results confirm long run convergence of real exchange rate towards its equilibrium level. Results from ARCH and GARCH estimation shows that real shocks volatility persists, so that shocks die out rather slowly, and lasting misalignment seems to have occurred. PMID:23853758

  6. Real Time Alert System: A Disease Management System Leveraging Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vibha; Sheley, Meena E.; Xu, Shawn; Downs, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of preventive and disease management services can be improved by providing automated alerts and reminders to primary care providers (PCPs) using of health information technology (HIT) tools. Methods: Using Adaptive Turnaround Documents (ATAD), an existing Health Information Exchange (HIE) infrastructure and office fax machines, we developed a Real Time Alert (RTA) system. RTA is a computerized decision support system (CDSS) that is able to deliver alerts to PCPs statewide for recommended services around the time of the patient visit. RTA is also able to capture structured clinical data from providers using existing fax technology. In this study, we evaluate RTA’s performance for alerting PCPs when their patients with asthma have an emergency room visit anywhere in the state. Results: Our results show that RTA was successfully able to deliver “just in time” patient-relevant alerts to PCPs across the state. Furthermore, of those ATADs faxed back and automatically interpreted by the RTA system, 35% reported finding the provided information helpful. The PCPs who reported finding information helpful also reported making a phone call, sending a letter or seeing the patient for follow up care. Conclusions: We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of electronically exchanging important patient related information with the PCPs statewide. This is despite a lack of a link with their electronic health records. We have shown that using our ATAD technology, a PCP can be notified quickly of an important event such as a patient’s asthma related emergency room admission so further follow up can happen in near real time. PMID:23569648

  7. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  8. Spatial assessment of Argentinean genetic admixture with geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Walier, Maja; Penacino, Gustavo; Wienker, Thomas F; Baur, Max P

    2011-08-01

    In recent years there has been much attention to Argentinean population stratification. We were interested in assessing population stratification from a geographical perspective and summarizing it in form of maps. We mapped the genetic admixture of the extant male population in central and northern Argentina on the basis of forensic Y-chromosomal haplotypes. We addressed the question which group of genetically similar individuals is predominant in this area. Haplotypes containing seven Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs), also known as microsatellites - DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 - were constructed for 145 individuals, recruited in 10 provinces. 97 distinct haplotypes were clustered into four clusters according to molecular distances. A genetic geostatistical analysis was conducted with the open-source geographical information system GRASS GIS. For each haplotype cluster, the according frequency was spatially interpolated over the total study area. Juxtaposing the interpolation surfaces, we screened point-wisely the maximal frequency as well as the label of the respective cluster. The screening results were combined in one summary map. We repeated this procedure for the second maximal frequencies. The resulting maps subdivide the study area into continuous regions comprising one predominant group of similar haplotypes. The first summary map divides the study area into three regions and the second summary map divides the area into four regions. The results of our analysis indicate that two groups of similar European haplotypes alternatively dominate the largest extension of the Argentinean territory. A third group, including South-American haplotypes, dominates the indigenous northwestern Argentinean area. The last group, including worldwide dispersed haplotypes, preponderates in frequency in second place in central Argentina. Our findings confirm a widespread European paternal ancestry, a substantial Amerindian

  9. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraò, Angela; Pesaresi, Damiano; Bragato, Pier Luigi; di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton

    2010-05-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake (magnitude M=6.4) occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-east Italy (NI) seismic network: it currently consists of 11 very sensitive broad band and 23 more simple short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 89 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. At OGS-CRS we then adapted existing programs and created new ones like: a customized web-accessible server to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, plus scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time web site has also been recently designed and made operative in the framework of the DPC-INGV S3 Project.

  10. Simulating a Real-Life Exchange in the Second-Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Dana

    1982-01-01

    A recommended class activity is a simple gift exchange. Vocabulary, including a wide range of options, holiday terms, and idioms, is introduced at the beginning of class. Partners are assigned, exchange takes place, and thank-you notes may be written. Student enthusiasm and attention are often by-products. (MSE)

  11. Argentinean outdoor test facility for mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, M. C.; Dipold, J.; García, B.; Mansilla, A.; Maya, J.; Rasztocky, E.; de Souza, V.; Larrarte, J. J.; Benitez, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be an Observatory for very high energy -ray astronomy and will consist of several tens of telescopes which account for a reflective surface of more than 10000 m. These mirrors will be formed by a set of reflective facets. Different technological solutions, for a fast and cost efficient production of light-weight mirror facets are under test inside the CTA Consortium. Most of them involve composite structures whose behavior under real observing conditions is not yet fully tested. An outdoor test facility has been built in one of the former candidate sites for CTA, in Argentina (San Antonio de los Cobres [SAC], 3600 m a.s.l) in order to monitor the optical and mechanical properties of these facets exposed to the local atmospheric conditions for a given period of time. Four prototype mirrors built with different technologies have been installed and have been monitored for 6 months. In this work we present the preliminary results of this characterization.

  12. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples. PMID:27386109

  13. KIR genes polymorphism in Argentinean Caucasoid and Amerindian populations.

    PubMed

    Flores, A C; Marcos, C Y; Paladino, N; Capucchio, M; Theiler, G; Arruvito, L; Pardo, R; Habegger, A; Williams, F; Middleton, D; Fainboim, L

    2007-06-01

    In natural killer cells, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) loci code for either inhibitory or activating receptors, and according to the number of genes present in each individual, it is possible to identify a high rate of polymorphism in the populations. We performed KIR typing by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing in 402 Argentinean Caucasoid and in two Amerindian populations (101 Wichis and 54 Chiriguanos) from the North of Argentina. KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 were always present, whereas the frequencies of KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, KIR2DS4, KIR3DL1 and KIR2DP1 ranged between 84% and 96%. The frequencies of KIR2DS2, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL5, KIR2DS5, KIR2DS1 and KIR3DS1 ranged between 41% and 62%. The KIR2DS3 with a frequency of 29% in Argentinean Caucasoid population was present at a very low frequency in Amerindian populations. Haplotype segregation studies performed in 10 Wichi families showed the presence of only three haplotypes: A, B5 and B1. The Amerindian populations showed several similarities to Asian but not to Caucasoid populations with regard to the frequency of KIR2DS3, full-length KIR2DS4 gene and KIR2DL4 alleles. PMID:17498266

  14. Future time perspective and motivational categories in Argentinean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Stella Maris; Rapetti, María Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of 332 Argentinean teenagers in their last year of secondary school. In the context of the relational theory of motivation, an attempt is made to determine the motivational categories best predicting Future Time Perspective (FTP) extension. The influence of the sex, locus of control, social class, and school ethos variables on FTP extension is also explored. A scale measuring locus of control and the Motivational Induction Method (MIM) have been employed to obtain the data. Through stepwise multiple regression, a predictive set is determined, made up of life-meaning values, self-fulfillment, academic achievement motivation, locus of control, sensual values, and social contact. Significant differences are found in FTP extension and locus of control in relation to school ethos. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests are used as statistical proof. A one-way ANOVA is run to examine the relationship between locus of control and school ethos levels. The possibility of a motivational profile common to Argentinean teenagers is considered and the pedagogical consequences of the findings are discussed. PMID:17225665

  15. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INVENTORY: PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF ITS ARGENTINEAN VERSION.

    PubMed

    Stover, Juliana B; Solano, Alejandro Castro; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2015-12-01

    This psychometric analysis of the Argentinean version of the Personality Assessment Inventory employed a convenience sample of 998 non-clinical adults from Buenos Aires, Argentina, stratified by sex and age (50% men; M age = 40.4 yr., SD = 16.8; 50% women; M age = 40.7 yr., SD = 17.4; 69% were employed). For a criterion validity study, a second sample of 394 students at the University of Buenos Aires was selected (47% men; M age = 24 yr., SD = 3.7; 53% women; M age = 23.6 yr., SD = 3.4). Cronbach's αs ranged from .60 to .86, indicating adequate internal consistency. Following American, German, and Spanish studies, a first analysis on the 22 scales obtained a five-factor solution (65.3% of total variance), and a second analysis on 11 clinical scales isolated a two-factor solution (69.3% of total variance). Correlations with the Symptom Checklist-90-R provided support for criterion validity. Most of the scales and subscales showed sex differences and differences between American and Argentinean samples. Future research must add other psychometric indicators. PMID:26595301

  16. Obtaining model parameters for real materials from ab-initio calculations: Heisenberg exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotin, Dmitry; Mazurenko, Vladimir; Anisimov, Vladimir; Streltsov, Sergey

    An approach to compute exchange parameters of the Heisenberg model in plane-wave based methods is presented. This calculation scheme is based on the Green's function method and Wannier function projection technique. It was implemented in the framework of the pseudopotential method and tested on such materials as NiO, FeO, Li2MnO3, and KCuF3. The obtained exchange constants are in a good agreement with both the total energy calculations and experimental estimations for NiO and KCuF3. In the case of FeO our calculations explain the pressure dependence of the Néel temperature. Li2MnO3 turns out to be a Slater insulator with antiferromagnetic nearest neighbor exchange defined by the spin splitting. The proposed approach provides a unique way to analyze magnetic interactions, since it allows one to calculate orbital contributions to the total exchange coupling and study the mechanism of the exchange coupling. The work was supported by a grant from the Russian Scientific Foundation (Project No. 14-22-00004).

  17. Impact of precipitation on the treatment of real ion-exchange brine using the H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Tang, Youneng; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    The H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was used to remove nitrate and perchlorate from real ion-exchange brine at two different salinities (30- and 50-g/L NaCl). Base production from nitrate reduction to N(2) gas caused the pH to increase, and this exacerbated precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates onto the MBfR fibers. The precipitates lowered the H(2) flux to the biofilm and caused a deterioration of denitrification performance that could be reversed by mild citric-acid washing. The addition of acid seems to be the only mechanism to avoid serious precipitation, membrane fouling, and non-optimal pH for denitrification. PMID:21508550

  18. Strengthening infectious disease surveillance in a Dutch-German crossborder area using a real-time information exchange system.

    PubMed

    ter Waarbeek, Henriëtte; Hoebe, Christian; Freund, Hermann; Bochat, Verena; Kara-Zaïtr, Chakib

    2011-06-01

    International outbreaks are occurring much faster than before and require rapid trans-national detection and response. Never before has there been a more urgent need for improved crossborder collaboration on harmonisation of surveillance and response systems despite varying legislations. In the Euregion Maas Rhine, the Public Health Services of South Limburg in the Netherlands and Aachen in Germany agreed to join forces to work on a collaborative tool for sharing real-time infectious disease data. Both units had already implemented an adapted version of HPZone (a web-based software suite for managing infectious diseases at the local level). The collaborative work was realised through finding solutions to five key challenges. First, Euregional disease protocols were agreed commensurate with national guidelines. Secondly, a minimal dataset for infectious disease exchange information was negotiated taking into consideration international health regulations and differences in legislation. Thirdly, a mature risk assessment model for infectious disease was augmented to account for transborder spread and Euregional impact. Fourthly, protocol alert rules were negotiated on triggers for early warning. Finally, a crossborder dashboard, as a component of HPVista and encapsulating the four previous deliverables into a secure web-based system, was developed. HPVista is the parent application to HPZone and enables wider incident command and control regionally, nationally and internationally. The dashboard has facilities for displaying what, when, where and how cases, contacts and outbreaks happen in the crossborder area. It also provides secure communications for further discussion and exchange of other key information not currently shared electronically. The collaborative work embedded in the modified HPZone and HPVista versions with real-time surveillance and geographical information system mapping readily facilitates the systematic analysis of crossborder health incidents in

  19. Evaluation of potential biocontrol agent for aflatoxin in Argentinean peanuts.

    PubMed

    Alaniz Zanon, M S; Chiotta, M L; Giaj-Merlera, G; Barros, G; Chulze, S

    2013-04-01

    Biocontrol by competitive exclusion has been developed as the most promising means of controlling aflatoxins in peanuts. A 2-year study was carried out to determine the efficacy of an Aspergillus flavus strain as biocontrol agent to reduce aflatoxin production in peanuts under field conditions in Argentina. The competitive strain used was a nontoxigenic A. flavus (AFCHG2) naturally occurring in peanut from Córdoba, Argentina. The inoculum was produced through solid-state fermentation on long grain rice and applied at rate of 50kg inoculum/ha. The incidence of the released strain within the A. flavus communities in soil and peanuts was determined using the shift in the ratio toxigenic:nontoxigenic and VCG analysis. During the 2009/2010 growing season, treatments produced significant reductions in the incidence of toxigenic isolates of A. flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus in soil and peanuts. However, no preharvest aflatoxin contamination was observed. In the 2010/2011 growing season, plants were exposed to late season drought conditions that were optimal for aflatoxin contamination. Significant reductions in aflatoxin levels averaging 71% were detected in treated plots with different inoculation treatments. The results suggest that using the strategy of competitive exclusion A. flavus AFCHG2 can be applied to reduce aflatoxin contamination in Argentinean peanuts. PMID:23454811

  20. Mycotoxin production by Alternaria strains isolated from Argentinean wheat.

    PubMed

    Patriarca, A; Azcarate, M P; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V

    2007-11-01

    The toxigenic potential of Alternaria strains isolated from Argentinean wheat was investigated. A total of 123 strains were assayed for the production of tenuazonic acid (TA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). All but one of the isolates were able to produce at least one of the three mycotoxins. TA was produced by 72% of the strains (1-14782 mg/kg), AOH by 87% (4-622 mg/kg) and AME by 91% (7-2625 mg/kg). The average level of TA detected for all strains (1757 mg/kg) was higher than the average level of both alternariols (162 mg/kg for AOH and 620 mg/kg for AME). TA was the toxin produced at the highest concentration but in lower frequency. Most of the strains were able to synthesize more than one toxin: 74 isolates (60%) were positive for all three toxins, 30 (24%) for both AOH and AME, 5 (4%) for both TA and AME, and 2 (2%) for TA and AOH. The widespread occurrence of Alternaria in wheat and its ability to produce mycotoxins suggests the possible occurrence of its toxins in wheat naturally infected with this fungus. PMID:17804107

  1. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. The Impact of National Culture on E-Learning Implementation: A Comparative Study of an Argentinean and a Swedish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Christina; Lindh, Jorgen; Hrastinski, Stefan; Casanovas, Ines; Fernandez, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    This study compared attitudes, purposes, driving factors and barriers of using e-learning at an Argentinean and a Swedish university. Data from a questionnaire answered by 269 university teachers was analysed to discern similarities and differences in responses from Argentinean and Swedish teachers. The main conclusion of the study was that the…

  3. Flow Cytometry for Real-Time Measurement of Guanine Nucleotide Binding and Exchange by Ras-like GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Samantha L.; Tessema, Mathewos; Buranda, Tione; Phlypenko, Olena; Rak, Alexey; Simons, Peter C.; Surviladze, Zurab; Sklar, Larry A.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Ras-like small GTPases cycle between GTP-bound active and GDP-bound inactive conformational states to regulate diverse cellular processes. Despite their importance, detailed kinetic or comparative studies of family members are rarely undertaken due to the lack of real-time assays measuring nucleotide binding or exchange. Here, we report a bead-based, flow cytometric assay that quantitatively measures the nucleotide binding properties of GST-chimeras for prototypical Ras-family members Rab7 and Rho. Measurements are possible in the presence or absence of Mg2+, with magnesium cations principally increasing affinity and slowing nucleotide dissociation rate 8- to 10-fold. GST-Rab7 exhibited a 3-fold higher affinity for GDP relative to GTP that is consistent with a 3-fold slower dissociation rate of GDP. Strikingly, GST-Rab7 had a marked preference for GTP with ribose ring-conjugated BODIPY FL. The more commonly used γ-NH-conjugated BODIPY FL GTP analogue failed to bind to GST-Rab7. In contrast, both BODIPY analogues bound equally well to GST-RhoA and GST-RhoC. Comparisons of the GST-Rab7 and GST-RhoA GTP-binding pockets provide a structural basis for the observed binding differences. In sum, the flow cytometric assay can be used to measure nucleotide binding properties of GTPases in real-time and quantitatively assess differences between GTPases. PMID:18638444

  4. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2009-10-30

    This report presents data on batch contact and column testing tasks for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The testing used a non-radioactive simulant of SRS Tank 2F dissolved salt, as well as an actual radioactive waste sample of similar composition, which are both notably high in sodium (6 M). The resin was Microbeads batch 5E-370/641 which had been made on the hundred gallon scale. Equilibrium batch contact work focused on cesium at a temperature of 25 C due to the lack of such data to better benchmark existing isotherm models. Two campaigns were performed with small-scale ion exchange columns, first with Tank 2F simulant, then with actual dissolved salt in the Shielded Cells. An extrapolation of the batch contact results with radioactive waste over-predicted the cesium loaded onto the IX sRF resin bed by approximately 11%. This difference is not unexpected considering uncertainties from measurement and extrapolation and because the ion exchange that occurs when waste flows through a resin bed probably cannot reach the same level of equilibrium as when waste and resin are joined in a long term batch contact. Resin was also characterized to better understand basic chemistry issues such as holdup of trace transition metals present in the waste feed streams. The column tests involved using two beds of sRF resin in series, with the first bed referred to as the Lead column and the second bed as the Lag column. The test matrix included two complete IX cycles for both the simulant and actual waste phases. A cycle involves cesium adsorption, until the resin in the Lead column reaches saturation, and then regenerating the sRF resin, which includes eluting the cesium. Both the simulated and the actual wastes were treated with two cycles of operation, and the resin beds that were used in the Lead and Lag columns of simulant test phase were regenerated and reused in the actual waste test phase. This task is the first to demonstrate the treatment of SRS waste

  5. Real and hypothetical endowment effects when exchanging lottery tickets: Is regret a better explanation than loss aversion?

    PubMed

    Kogler, Christoph; Kühberger, Anton; Gilhofer, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    The endowment effect is the finding that possession of an item adds to its value. We introduce a new procedure for testing this effect: participants are divided into two groups. Possession group participants inspect a numbered lottery ticket and know it is theirs, while inspection group participants only inspect a lottery ticket without being endowed with it. Subsequently participants choose between playing the lottery with this (possessed or inspected) ticket, or exchanging it for another one. Our procedure tests for the effect of endowment while controlling for the influence of transaction costs as well as for inspection effects and the influence of bargaining roles (buyer vs. seller), which often afflict experimentation with the endowment effect. In a real setting, tickets in possession were valued significantly higher than inspected tickets. Contrary to some findings in the literature participants also correctly predicted these valuation differences in a hypothetical situation, both for themselves as well as for others. Furthermore, our results suggest that regret rather than loss aversion may be the source of the endowment effect in an experimental setting using lottery tickets. Applying our procedure to a setting employing riskless objects in form of mugs revealed rather ambiguous results, thus emphasizing that the role of regret might be less prominent in non-lottery settings. PMID:23913998

  6. Adapting the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale for Use with Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlan, Luis Alberto; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Perez, Edgardo Raul

    2009-01-01

    A new Spanish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS) was created to be used explicitly with Argentinean university students. The scale was translated and verified through blind back translation and given to a large sample of students majoring in psychology or chemistry (N = 752). Exploratory Factor Analysis (N = 376) showed an internal…

  7. Female Anxiety and Male Depression: Links between Economic Strain and Psychological Aggression in Argentinean Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconier, Mariana K.

    2010-01-01

    A dyadic model of economic strain was applied to the study of anxiety and depression as mediating mechanisms in the economic strain-psychological aggression relation. Data came from self-report questionnaires completed by 143 Argentinean clinical couples. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that anxiety and depression increased for…

  8. Two new species of Nyctelia Latreille (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from Argentinean Patagonia with zoogeographical and ecological remarks.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gustavo E; Cheli, Germán H

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Nyctelia Latreille (Pimeliinae: Nycteliini) from Argentinean Patagonia, N. sulcogranata sp. nov. and N. recteplicata sp. nov., are described. Distributional maps, habitus, photographs and illustrations of genitalic features for these two new species are included, with comparisons to other known species of the genus. A discussion is presented on distributional habitat records and biogeography. PMID:24870900

  9. Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3ArgSF) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of 9 overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' en...

  10. Dieting behaviors, body shape perceptions, and body satisfaction: cross-cultural differences in Argentinean and Swedish 13-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Kristina; Lunde, Carolina; Frisén, Ann

    2007-06-01

    This exploratory study represents a cross-cultural effort to examine differences in dieting practices and weight loss attempts, perceived body shape, and body satisfaction between young Argentinean and Swedish adolescents. The study group consisted of 358 Argentinean (193 girls, 165 boys) and 874 Swedish (474 girls, 400 boys) 13-year-olds. A main finding was that Argentinean and Swedish adolescents did not differ on body satisfaction, although girls in both countries displayed greater body dissatisfaction than did boys. Dieting and weight loss attempts were more prevalent among the Argentinean adolescents, especially among girls, and did not appear to depend on overweight or perception of body shape. The samples also differed in their perceptions of body shape and the effect those perceptions had on their body satisfaction, with Swedish adolescents suffering more from negative body shape perceptions. PMID:18089264

  11. Exploring the multiple biotechnological potential of halophilic microorganisms isolated from two Argentinean salterns.

    PubMed

    Nercessian, Débora; Di Meglio, Leonardo; De Castro, Rosana; Paggi, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    The biodiversity and biotechnological potential of microbes from central Argentinean halophilic environments have been poorly explored. Salitral Negro and Colorada Grande salterns are neutral hypersaline basins exploded for NaCl extraction. As part of an ecological analysis of these environments, two bacterial and seven archaeal representatives were isolated, identified and examined for their biotechnological potential. The presence of hydrolases (proteases, amylases, lipases, cellulases and nucleases) and bioactive molecules (surfactants and antimicrobial compounds) was screened. While all the isolates exhibited at least one of the tested activities or biocompounds, the species belonging to Haloarcula genus were the most active, also producing antimicrobial compounds against their counterparts. In general, the biosurfactants were more effective against olive oil and aromatic compounds than detergents (SDS or Triton X-100). Our results demonstrate the broad spectrum of activities with biotechnological potential exhibited by the microorganisms inhabiting the Argentinean salterns and reinforce the importance of screening pristine extreme environments to discover interesting/novel bioactive molecules. PMID:26369649

  12. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994-2010.

    PubMed

    Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V

    2015-12-31

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle. PMID:26520931

  13. Treatment as prevention: are Argentinean HIV care providers willing to adopt earlier antiretroviral therapy?

    PubMed

    Socías, María Eugenia; Sued, Omar; Pryluka, Daniel; Patterson, Patricia; Fink, Valeria; Cesar, Carina; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    HIV guidelines increasingly recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at a higher CD4 levels. The extent to which these evolving standards are translated into routine clinical care has not been evaluated in Argentina. During October 2012, we conducted an online survey among Argentinean HIV clinicians to assess their attitudes and practices toward ART initiation and its potential use for HIV prevention. Of the 280 physicians included, 61% would prescribe ART at CD4 ≤ 500 cells/µL for asymptomatic patients. Although, only 11% would recommend ART irrespective of CD4 cell count, 72% would do it for serodiscordant couples, and 75% for sex workers. Most participants agreed that they would consider earlier initiation of ART if transmission risk exists, and that expansion of ART could help decrease HIV incidence. These results suggest that a large proportion of Argentinean HIV care providers are willing to adopt the recently updated Argentinean guidelines recommending earlier ART, especially when high HIV transmission risk exists. PMID:24773142

  14. On the real performance of cation exchange resins in wastewater treatment under conditions of cation competition: the case of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Prelot, Benedicte; Ayed, Imen; Marchandeau, Franck; Zajac, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Sorption performance of cation-exchange resins Amberlite® IRN77 and Amberlite™ IRN9652 toward Cs(I) and Sr(II) has been tested in single-component aqueous solutions and simulated waste effluents containing other monovalent (Effluent 1) or divalent (Effluent 2) metal cations, as well as nitrate, borate, or carbonate anions. The individual sorption isotherms of each main component were measured by the solution depletion method. The differential molar enthalpy changes accompanying the ion-exchange between Cs+ or Sr2+ ions and protons at the resin surface from single-component nitrate solutions were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and they showed a higher specificity of the two resins toward cesium. Compared to the retention limits of both resins under such idealized conditions, an important depression in the maximum adsorption capacity toward each main component was observed in multication systems. The overall effect of ion exchange process appeared to be an unpredictable outcome of the individual sorption capacities of the two resins toward various cations as a function of the cation charge, size, and concentration. The cesium retention capacity of the resins was diminished to about 25% of the "ideal" value in Effluent 1 and 50% in Effluent 2; a further decrease to about 15% was observed upon concomitant strontium addition. The uptake of strontium by the resins was found to be less sensitive to the addition of other metal components: the greatest decrease in the amount adsorbed was 60% of the ideal value in the two effluents for Amberlite® IRN77 and 75% for Amberlite™ IRN9652. It was therefore demonstrated that any performance tests carried out under idealized conditions should be exploited with much caution to predict the real performance of cation exchange resins under conditions of cation competition. PMID:24728575

  15. Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U) Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Morán, Valeria E; Olaz, Fabián O; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new instrument called Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U). Based on the adapted version of the Social Skills Inventory - Del Prette (SSI-Del Prette) (Olaz, Medrano, Greco, & Del Prette, 2009), we wrote new items for the scale, and carried out psychometric analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. In the first study, we collected evidence based on test content through expert judges who evaluated the quality and the relevance of the items. In the second and third studies, we provided validity evidence based on the internal structure of the instrument using exploratory (n = 1067) and confirmatory (n = 661) factor analysis. Results suggested a five-factor structure consistent with the dimensions of social skills, as proposed by Kelly (2002). The fit indexes corresponding to the obtained model were adequate, and composite reliability coefficients of each factor were excellent (above .75). Finally, in the fourth study, we provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the SSQ-U is the first valid and reliable instrument for measuring social skills in Argentinean college students. PMID:26610605

  16. Fingerprint ridge density in the Argentinean population and its application to sex inference: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rivaldería, Noemí; Sánchez-Andrés, Ángeles; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Dipierri, José E; Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza

    2016-02-01

    Fingerprint ridge density (RD) is known to vary according to sex and population, and such variation can be used for forensic purposes. The aim of this study was to analyze the fingerprint RD of two samples of the Argentinean population in order to assess their topological, digital, bilateral, sexual, and population differences for subsequent application in the inference of sex. Data were collected from the fingerprints of 172 individuals from the Buenos Aires province and 163 from the Chubut province. RD was assessed for three different count areas for all 10 fingers of each individual. In both sexes and both samples, significant differences among areas were obtained, so that radial-RD>ulnar-RD>proximal-RD. Females presented greater RD than males in all areas and on all fingers. Regarding population differences, no significant differences were found between the Buenos Aires and Chubut samples (except for proximal RD in males). However, both samples showed RD significantly different from that of the Jujuy province. The application of Bayes' theorem allowed for the identification of an RD threshold for discrimination of sexes in these Argentinean samples. In conclusion females consistently exhibit narrower epidermal ridges than males, which may evidence a universal pattern of sexual dimorphism in this trait that can be useful in forensics in the identification of individuals. PMID:26474825

  17. An Assessment of a Social-Cognitive Model of Academic Performance in Mathematics in Argentinean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupani, Marcos; de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Perez, Edgardo Raul; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a set of hypotheses derived from the model of academic achievement in mathematics of the Social Cognitive Career Theory in a sample of Argentinean middle school students. To this aim, 277 students (male and female; age: 13-15 years) were assessed using the following instruments: logical-mathematical self-efficacy scale,…

  18. Speakers' acceptance of real-time speech exchange indicates that we use auditory feedback to specify the meaning of what we say.

    PubMed

    Lind, Andreas; Hall, Lars; Breidegard, Björn; Balkenius, Christian; Johansson, Petter

    2014-06-01

    Speech is usually assumed to start with a clearly defined preverbal message, which provides a benchmark for self-monitoring and a robust sense of agency for one's utterances. However, an alternative hypothesis states that speakers often have no detailed preview of what they are about to say, and that they instead use auditory feedback to infer the meaning of their words. In the experiment reported here, participants performed a Stroop color-naming task while we covertly manipulated their auditory feedback in real time so that they said one thing but heard themselves saying something else. Under ideal timing conditions, two thirds of these semantic exchanges went undetected by the participants, and in 85% of all nondetected exchanges, the inserted words were experienced as self-produced. These findings indicate that the sense of agency for speech has a strong inferential component, and that auditory feedback of one's own voice acts as a pathway for semantic monitoring, potentially overriding other feedback loops. PMID:24777489

  19. Real-Time Remote Monitoring of Temperature and Humidity Within a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Using Flexible Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Long-Sheng; Huang, Hao-Hsiu; Yang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    This study developed portable, non-invasive flexible humidity and temperature microsensors and an in situ wireless sensing system for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The system integrated three parts: a flexible capacitive humidity microsensor, a flexible resistive temperature microsensor, and a radio frequency (RF) module for signal transmission. The results show that the capacitive humidity microsensor has a high sensitivity of 0.83 pF%RH−1 and the resistive temperature microsensor also exhibits a high sensitivity of 2.94 × 10−3 °C−1. The established RF module transmits the signals from the two microsensors. The transmission distance can reach 4 m and the response time is less than 0.25 s. The performance measurements demonstrate that the maximum power density of the fuel cell with and without these microsensors are 14.76 mW·cm−2 and 15.90 mW·cm−2, with only 7.17% power loss. PMID:22164099

  20. Real-time remote monitoring of temperature and humidity within a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using flexible sensors.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Long-Sheng; Huang, Hao-Hsiu; Yang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    This study developed portable, non-invasive flexible humidity and temperature microsensors and an in situ wireless sensing system for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The system integrated three parts: a flexible capacitive humidity microsensor, a flexible resistive temperature microsensor, and a radio frequency (RF) module for signal transmission. The results show that the capacitive humidity microsensor has a high sensitivity of 0.83 pF%RH(-1) and the resistive temperature microsensor also exhibits a high sensitivity of 2.94 × 10(-3) °C(-1). The established RF module transmits the signals from the two microsensors. The transmission distance can reach 4 m and the response time is less than 0.25 s. The performance measurements demonstrate that the maximum power density of the fuel cell with and without these microsensors are 14.76 mW·cm(-2) and 15.90 mW·cm(-2), with only 7.17% power loss. PMID:22164099

  1. Real-time dynamics in electron-lattice coupled system: Numerical study on an extended double-exchange model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Furukawa, Nobuo; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a new theoretical method to study the photo-induced insulator-to-metal (IM) transition in strongly correlated electron systems [PRL 103, 266402 ('09) EPL 94, 27003 ('11).]. In the manganese oxides, it has been observed that the photo-induced dynamics with several tens of THz in frequency can drive IM transition [Nature Materials 6, 643 ('07).]. The excitation energy with several tens of THz in frequency is fairly lower than the insulating energy gap of the electronic state. In this study, we introduce an extended double exchange model where the conduction electron couples with the orbital-ordering field and lattice distortion, and numerically examine the lattice vibration induced IM transition in the electron-lattice coupled system. To simplify the numerical calculation, the electronic states are restricted in the Hilbert space for perfect ferromagnetic states involving the ground state. In the numerical simulation, we find that the low frequency vibration of Jahn-Teller distortion can change the orbital-ordering pattern and trigger the IM transition. A threshold behavior of the lattice-vibration induced IM transition and the electron-hole excitation by continuous forced lattice-vibration are also examined.

  2. Development and experimental evaluation of a thermography measurement system for real-time monitoring of comfort and heat rate exchange in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Sabbatini, E.; Arnesano, M.

    2012-03-01

    A measurement system based on infrared (IR) thermovision technique (ITT) is developed for real-time estimation of room thermal variations and comfort conditions in office-type environment as a part of a feasibility study in the EU FP7 project ‘INTUBE’. An IR camera installed on the ceiling allows thermal image acquisition and post-processing is performed to derive mean surface temperatures, number of occupants and presence of other heat sources (e.g. computer) through detecting algorithms. A lumped parameter model of the room, developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, receives as input the information extracted from image processing to compute room exchanged heat rate, air temperature and thermal comfort (PMV). The aim is to provide in real time the room thermal balance and comfort information for energy-saving purposes in an improved way with respect to traditional thermostats. Instantaneous information can be displayed for the users or eventually used for automatic HVAC control. The system is based on custom adaptation of a surveillance low-cost IR system with dedicated radiometric calibration. Experimental results show average absolute discrepancies in the order of 0.4 °C between calculated and measured air temperature during a time period of a day. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to identify main uncertainty sources.

  3. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology: Brief history and main scientific contributions to the discipline.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Bruni, Sergio F; Acosta, Gabriela B

    2016-07-01

    Argentina Biomedical Science has been historically strong. The development of Human and Veterinary Pharmacology in our country as a pivotal discipline has been acknowledged worldwide because of the quality of its contributions. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology (SAFE) is a non- profit association whose research fields include Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. SAFE main goals are described as follow (a) To meet active researchers for studying concerns regarding Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology (b) To launch an initiative for development of the discipline in mainly our country and other collaborative countries worldwide (c) To spread the pharmacological know-how obtained from different research teams (d) To strengthen relations between pharmacologists (e) To facilitate the presentation and discussion of scientific papers. This current article shows the SAFE's more important scientific contribution to pharmacology through its former research scientists to the present. PMID:26816088

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Antiprotozoal and Antiviral Activities of Extracts from Argentinean Mikania Species

    PubMed Central

    Laurella, Laura C.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Sarquiz, Andrea; Alonso, María R.; Giberti, Gustavo; Cavallaro, Lucia; Catalán, Cesar A.; Cazorla, Silvia I.; Malchiodi, Emilio; Martino, Virginia S.; Sülsen, Valeria P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of four Argentinean Mikania species. The organic and aqueous extracts of Mikania micrantha, M. parodii, M. periplocifolia, and M. cordifolia were tested on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, and dengue virus type 2. The organic extract of M. micrantha was the most active against T. cruzi and L. braziliensis exhibiting a growth inhibition of 77.6 ± 4.5% and 84.9 ± 6.1%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. The bioguided fractionation of M. micrantha organic extract led to the identification of two active fractions. The chromatographic profile and infrared analysis of these fractions revealed the presence of sesquiterpene lactones. None of the tested extracts were active against dengue virus type 2. PMID:22919289

  5. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2011, the Eighteenth Edition of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and Seventh Clinical Engineering Meeting were held in Mar del Plata, Argetina. The Mar del Plata SABI Regional and the School of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata invited All bioengineers, engineers, physicists, mathematicians, biologists, physicians and health professionals working in the field of Bioengineering to participate in this event. The overall objectives of the Conference were: To provide discussion of scientific research results in Bioengineering and Clinical Engineering. To promote technological development experiences. To strengthen the institutional and scientific communication links in the area of Bioengineering, mainly between Universities of Latin America. To encourage students, teachers, researchers and professionals to establish exchanges of experiences and knowledge. To provide biomedical engineering technology solutions to the society and contributing ideas for low cost care. Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SABI 2011 Chair Dra Virginia L Ballarin Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Co-Chair Dra Teresita R Cuadrado Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Local Comittee Dr Gustavo Abraham Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Josefina Ballarre Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dr Eduardo Blotta Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Agustina Bouchet Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Marcel Brun Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Silvia Ceré Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Mariela Azul Gonzalez Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Lucia Isabel Passoni Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Juan Ignacio Pastore Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Adriana Scandurra Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE

  6. Tobacco advertising and press coverage of smoking and health in 10 years of Argentinean newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Sandra; Mejia, Raul; Barnoya, Joaquín; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the extent and content of tobacco-related images, advertising and articles published in the largest Argentinean newspapers before and after a voluntary advertising ban implemented in 2001. Methods Issues from four months of each year of the four main national newspapers were examined from 1995 to 2004. We recorded the number of tobacco images (advertisement or not), tobacco-focused articles, space used, and placement within the newspaper. Regression analyses evaluated time trends. Results We identified 1800 images and articles from 4828 different issues. Non-advertisement images were the most frequent (71.2%), followed by articles (20%) and advertisement images (8.8%). Advertisements only appeared in the two best selling newspapers with a majority (57%) in the Sunday magazine and 21% in the sports sections. Non-advertisement images were published in the sports and entertainment sections (55%) and showed a public figure in 88%. Of 336 articles, 39% focused on health topics and 55% emphasized the negative effects of tobacco on health. Regression models showed that prior to 2001 there were significant time-related decreases in ad images and articles and significant increases in non-ad images. The trend of each outcome changed direction beginning in 2001 and the magnitude of the change in trend was significant for ad images and non-ad images. The number of non-ad images dropped significantly in 2001 from a model-predicted value of 178 per year to 103 non-ad images and remained constant thereafter. Conclusions Tobacco images exceeded information about tobacco hazards in Argentinean newspapers over this period. Advertisement increased from 2001 to 2005, following the voluntary advertisements ban. Partial advertisement bans are ineffective and a total ban is imperative. PMID:24032052

  7. Automated flow-based anion-exchange method for high-throughput isolation and real-time monitoring of RuBisCO in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Ruth; Miró, Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Perdomo, Juan Alejandro; Galmés, Jeroni

    2011-06-15

    In this work, a miniaturized, completely enclosed multisyringe-flow system is proposed for high-throughput purification of RuBisCO from Triticum aestivum extracts. The automated method capitalizes on the uptake of the target protein at 4°C onto Q-Sepharose Fast Flow strong anion-exchanger packed in a cylindrical microcolumn (105 × 4 mm) followed by a stepwise ionic-strength gradient elution (0-0.8 mol/L NaCl) to eliminate concomitant extract components and retrieve highly purified RuBisCO. The manifold is furnished downstream with a flow-through diode-array UV/vis spectrophotometer for real-time monitoring of the column effluent at the protein-specific wavelength of 280 nm to detect the elution of RuBisCO. Quantitation of RuBisCO and total soluble proteins in the eluate fractions were undertaken using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the spectrophotometric Bradford assay, respectively. A comprehensive investigation of the effect of distinct concentration gradients on the isolation of RuBisCO and experimental conditions (namely, type of resin, column dimensions and mobile-phase flow rate) upon column capacity and analyte breakthrough was effected. The assembled set-up was aimed to critically ascertain the efficiency of preliminary batchwise pre-treatments of crude plant extracts (viz., polyethylenglycol (PEG) precipitation, ammonium sulphate precipitation and sucrose gradient centrifugation) in terms of RuBisCO purification and absolute recovery prior to automated anion-exchange column separation. Under the optimum physical and chemical conditions, the flow-through column system is able to admit crude plant extracts and gives rise to RuBisCO purification yields better than 75%, which might be increased up to 96 ± 9% with a prior PEG fractionation followed by sucrose gradient step. PMID:21641435

  8. Development of a High-Speed Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction System Using a Circulating Water-Based Rapid Heat-Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful technique to detect microorganisms, viruses, or cells by amplifying a single copy or a few copies of a fragment of a particular DNA sequence. To reduce acquisition time, it is necessary to decrease the temperature transition time between denaturation and extension. We have developed a simple rapid real-time microlitter-sample droplet PCR system accomplished by the rapid liquid-based heat-exchange of sample droplets by quick switching of two circulating hot waters of denaturation and extension, a microlitter-sized droplet and a thin-film aluminum chip. Using this system, rapid PCR amplification of a set of droplets lined up on an aluminum chip was conducted successfully as shown by the increase in fluorescence intensity, and was accomplished within 3.5 min in 40 cycles of 1 s denaturation and 3 s extension reaction, which is one magnitude faster than conventional fast PCR systems. This method allows the rapid detection of DNA fragments and has a possibility for measuring multiple samples simultaneously in a miniaturized microfluidic chip.

  9. Real-time monitoring of in situ gas-phase H/D exchange reactions of cations by atmospheric pressure helium plasma ionization mass spectrometry (HePI-MS).

    PubMed

    Attygalle, Athula B; Gangam, Rekha; Pavlov, Julius

    2014-01-01

    An enclosed atmospheric-pressure helium-plasma ionization (HePI-MS) source avoids, or minimizes, undesired back-exchange reactions usually encountered during deuterium incorporation experiments under ambient-pressure open-source conditions. A simple adaptation of an ESI source provides an economical way of conducting gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions (HDX) in real time without the need for complicated hardware modifications. For example, the spectrum of [(2)H8]toluene recorded under exposed ambient conditions showed the base peak at m/z 96 due to fast leaching of ring hydrogens because of interactions with H2O vapor present in the open source. Such D/H exchanges are rapidly reversed if the deuterium-depleted [(2)H8]toluene is exposed to D2O vapor. In addition to the enumeration of labile protons, our procedure enables the identification of protonation sites in molecules unambiguously, by the number of H/D exchanges observed in real time. For example, molecules such as tetrahydrofuran and pyridine protonate at the heteroatom and consequently undergo only one H/D exchange, whereas ethylbenzene, which protonates at a ring position of the aromatic ring, undergoes six H/D exchanges. In addition, carbocations generated in situ by in-source fragmentation of precursor protonated species, such as benzyl alcohol, do not undergo any rapid H/D exchanges. Because radical cations, second-generation cations (ions formed by losing a small molecule from a precursor ion), or those formed by hydride abstraction do not undergo rapid H/D exchanges, our technique provides a way to distinguish these ions from protonated molecules. PMID:24325360

  10. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE THREE PATHWAYS TO WELL-BEING SCALE IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF ARGENTINEAN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures. PMID:26302293

  11. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2011, the Eighteenth Edition of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and Seventh Clinical Engineering Meeting were held in Mar del Plata, Argetina. The Mar del Plata SABI Regional and the School of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata invited All bioengineers, engineers, physicists, mathematicians, biologists, physicians and health professionals working in the field of Bioengineering to participate in this event. The overall objectives of the Conference were: To provide discussion of scientific research results in Bioengineering and Clinical Engineering. To promote technological development experiences. To strengthen the institutional and scientific communication links in the area of Bioengineering, mainly between Universities of Latin America. To encourage students, teachers, researchers and professionals to establish exchanges of experiences and knowledge. To provide biomedical engineering technology solutions to the society and contributing ideas for low cost care. Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SABI 2011 Chair Dra Virginia L Ballarin Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Co-Chair Dra Teresita R Cuadrado Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Local Comittee Dr Gustavo Abraham Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Josefina Ballarre Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dr Eduardo Blotta Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Agustina Bouchet Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Marcel Brun Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Silvia Ceré Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Mariela Azul Gonzalez Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Lucia Isabel Passoni Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Juan Ignacio Pastore Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Adriana Scandurra Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE

  12. AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...

  13. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian F; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, few studies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation of the chemical potential. Four strains belonged to the Alternaria infectoria sp.-grp., 6 to the Alternaria arborescens sp.-grp., 6 showed a sporulation pattern similar to that of "M" according to Simmons, 1 to that of Alternaria vaccinii, and the remaining 70 constituted a diverse group belonging to morphological groups "G" and "H". The cluster analysis yielded 16 almost identical dendrograms and grouped the Alternaria strains into four clusters and 11 singletons and outlier groups. The chemical analysis showed that AOH and AME were the most common metabolites produced, followed by TEN, ALXs and TeA. The A. infectoria sp.-grp. had no metabolites in common with the rest of the strains. Several secondary metabolites isolated from large-spored Alternaria species or other fungal genera were detected, such as dehydrocurvularin, pyrenochaetic acid and alternarienonic acid. The strains isolated from tomato produced lower amounts of metabolites than strains from blueberries, walnut and wheat, although individual strains from tomato produced the highest amount of some metabolites. The A

  14. Argentinean adaptation of the Social Skills Inventory IHS-Del-Prette.

    PubMed

    Olaz, Fabián Orlando; Medrano, Leonardo; Greco, María Eugenia; Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of the adaptation of the IHS-Del-Prette (Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, in English, Social Skills Inventory) to a sample of Argentinean college students. Firstly, we addressed the backward translation and carried out an equivalence study of the Portuguese and Spanish versions of the scale. The results showed the two versions were equivalent, as we obtained correlations lower than .50 in only 5 items. Secondly, we performed item analysis by calculating discrimination indexes and item-total correlations. Results indicated that the items are sensitive to differentiate between high and low social-skill groups. Exploratory factor analysis carried out with a sample of 602 college students yielded five factors that explained 26.5% of the total variance, although our data did not completely match the original factor structure. We also obtained moderate alpha values for the subscales, but high reliability for the total scale. Lastly, group differences between males and females are presented to provide evidence of validity. We discuss the implications of the results and present future lines of inquiry. PMID:19899676

  15. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. PMID:25258563

  16. Charting the Y-chromosome ancestry of present-day Argentinean Mennonites.

    PubMed

    Toscanini, Ulises; Brisighelli, Francesca; Llull, Cintia; Berardi, Gabriela; Gómez, Andrea; Andreatta, Fernando; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Salas, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Old Order Mennonite communities initially arose in Northern Europe (centered in the Netherlands) and derived from the Anabaptist movement of the 16th century. Mennonites migrated to the New World in the early 18th century, first to North America, and more recently to Mesoamerica and South America. We analyzed Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms in males from a community of Mennonites, 'La Nueva Esperanza', which arrived to Argentina in 1985 from colonies in Bolivia and Mexico. Molecular diversity indices coupled with demographic simulations show that Mennonites have a reduced variability when compared with local Argentinean populations and 69 European population samples. Mennonite Y-STR haplotypes were mainly observed in Central Europe. In agreement, multidimensional scaling analyses based on RST genetic distances indicate that Mennonite Y-chromosomes are closely related to Central/Northern Europeans (the Netherlands, Switzerland and Denmark). In addition, statistical inferences made on the most likely geographic origin of Y-chromosome haplotypes point more specifically to the Netherlands as the populations that best represent the majority of the Mennonite Y-chromosomes. Overall, Y-chromosome variation of Mennonites shows the signatures of moderate reduction of variability when compared with source populations, which is in good agreement with their lifestyle in small endogamous demes. These genetic singularities could also help to understand disease conditions that are more prevalent among Mennonites. PMID:26841831

  17. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L.

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  18. Vegetation monitoring and yield prediction from NOAA-AVHRR GAC data in the Argentinean Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdiles, Herve; Magrin, G.; Rebella, Cesar M.; Seguin, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years of NOAA GAC data over the Argentinean Pampa were analyzed in relation with climate and crop production. Correlations between crop yield and monthly NDVI (cumulated or not, weighted by the global radiation or not) reached 0.87 for wheat, 0.85 for soybean and 0.83 for corn, despite the classical limitations of AVHRR data (mixed response, atmospheric and directional noise, sensor calibration), the monthly frequency and the size of the test areas (10,000 km2). The quality of these results was partly due to the extensive character of the Pampa's cropping system since the correlation between final yield and NDVI relies on the following two hypothesis: NDVI can predict biomass and biomass is a good indicator of final grain yield. The best correlations were observed with the NDVI sensed at maximum green biomass, hence permitting yield estimations one to two months before harvest. Standard errors of regression were of 0.22, 0.17, and 0.63 t/ha for wheat, soybean, and maize respectively, for a mean yield around 1.7, 2.2, and 3.8 t/ha, respectively. Last, the complement between NDVI data and crop physiologically based models was examined. Despite the data related limitations, the relationship between CERES wheat predicted LAI and NOAA monthly GAC NDVI appeared as promising.

  19. Reproductive cycle and gonad development of the Northern Argentinean Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marko; Alfaya, José E. F.; Lepore, Mauro L.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Laudien, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    The reproductive cycle and gonad development of the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides was studied over a period of 24 months (January 2005-December 2006) at the Argentinean sandy beach Santa Teresita. Histological examination of gonadal tissue revealed that sex ratios did not significantly deviate from the proportion of 1:1 and no case of hermaphroditism was found. The reproductive cycle of M. mactroides followed an annual cyclicality, which was significantly correlated to monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST). Oocytes showed highest abundance in winter, indicating a process of gonadal development and sexual maturation. The mean oocyte size decreased significantly during spring. Modal oocyte sizes decreased significantly during winter and late spring of each year, suggesting spawning events. The condition index was not useful in describing the annual reproductive cycle of M. mactroides. Ash-free, shell-free dry mass was chosen to detect the condition of the specimens, and this significantly correlated with monthly mean SST and the gametogenic cycle. Annual recruitment patterns during summer-autumn indicated a 3-month-long planktonic phase of M. mactroides. The reproduction cycle and gonad development of M. mactroides showed only weak differences between data from the present study and those collected 40 years ago.

  20. Further study of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Spheniscidae) from Argentinean coasts.

    PubMed

    Garbin, Lucas E; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I; Cremonte, Florencia

    2007-02-01

    The anisakid species Contracaecum pelagicum Johnston and Mawson, 1942, is reported for first time at 2 different sites on the Argentine coast (Peninsula Valdés, 42 degrees 04'S, 63 degrees 38'W and Mar del Plata, 38 degrees 05'S, 57 degrees 38'W), parasitizing the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. Morphometric analysis and further studies of adult specimens of C. pelagicum were done using light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of bifurcated interlabia differentiates the present species from most others in the genus, except (1) from Contracaecum travassosi, which possesses higher interlabia and longer spicules, and a blunt, more constrained tail; (2) from Contracaecum rudolphii, which has longer spicules, blunter spicule tips, postparacloacal papillae with oblique disposition, and a blunter constrained tail; (3) from Contracaecum eudyptulae, which has a blunter tail and longer spicules; and (4) from Contracaecum variegatum, which possesses smaller-diameter, hooklike extensions on auricle lips, and a less robust interlabium with a more marked furrow. In this paper we present the first detailed description of C. pelagicum adults from S. magellanicus. Morphometric data between adult specimens of C. pelagicum from S. magellanicus and those from the black-browed albatross, Diomedea melanophris Temminck, from Argentinean coasts were compared. In addition, fourth-stage larvae that parasitized both hosts were assigned to a nondeterminated Contracaecum species. Ecological parameters for adults and larvae nematodes were calculated. PMID:17436954

  1. Evidence for interaction between markers in GABA(A) receptor subunit genes in an Argentinean autism spectrum disorder population.

    PubMed

    Sesarini, Carla V; Costa, Lucas; Naymark, Muriel; Grañana, Nora; Cajal, Andrea R; García Coto, Miguel; Pallia, Roberto C; Argibay, Pablo F

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be conceptualized as a genetic dysfunction that disrupts development and function of brain circuits mediating social cognition and language. At least some forms of ASD may be associated with high level of excitation in neural circuits, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in its etiology. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located within the GABA receptor (GABAR) subunit genes GABRA1, GABRG2, GABRB3, and GABRD were screened. A hundred and thirty-six Argentinean ASD patients and 150 controls were studied, and the contribution of the SNPs in the etiology of ASD was evaluated independently and/or through gene-gene interaction using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. From the 18 SNP studied, 11 were not present in our Argentinean population (patients and controls) and 1 SNP had minor allele frequency < 0.1%. For the remaining six SNPs, none provided statistical significant association with ASD when considering allelic or genotypic frequencies. Non-significant association with ASD was found for the haplotype analysis. MDR identified evidence for synergy between markers in GABRB3 (chromosome 15) and GABRD (chromosome 1), suggesting potential gene-gene interaction across chromosomes associated with increased risk for autism (testing balanced accuracy: 0.6081 and cross-validation consistency: 10/10, P < 0.001). Considering our Argentinean ASD sample, it can be inferred that GABRB3 would be involved in the etiology of autism through interaction with GABRD. These results support the hypothesis that GABAR subunit genes are involved in autism, most likely via complex gene-gene interactions. PMID:24249596

  2. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes

    PubMed Central

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Nee, Michael H.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:22461731

  3. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Nee, Michael H; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-01-01

    Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:22461731

  4. Immunological findings associated with Argentinean strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine models.

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Silvia B; Fernández, Bárbara; Jolly, Ana; Minatel, Leonardo; Hajos, Silvia E; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Mundo, Silvia L

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of ruminant paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological behavior of different Argentinean strains of MAP in two bovine infection models: macrophage (in vitro) and calf (in vivo) through the evaluation of early immune responses at the peripheral and local levels. Two MAP strains (A and C) were selected taking into account the different patterns of TNF-α and IL-10 secretion displayed by infected bovine macrophages in vitro. Two groups of calves were infected with 250mg of total wet weight live MAP: strain A infected group (MA, n=3), strain C infected group (MC, n=2). Another group of animals was mock-infected (MI, n=3). Infection was confirmed by MAP culture of feces and microscopic observation of granulomatous lesions in the gut tissue. All infected calves showed positive results in the DTH skin test. A significant increase in peripheral CD4CD25(+) cells in MC group on day 150 was detected. The specific cellular immune response developed allowed the identification of the infection as early as 30days in the MA group. However, the percentage of CD8CD25(+) cells was significantly increased on day 120 in MC group. Significant differences between groups in proliferation and cellular responses were also detected in ileocecal lymph node samples. In summary, the strains of MAP employed herein induced differential immune responses in peripheral cells, in the proliferative responses and in cell functionality at the local level. Our findings support the hypotheses that the in vitro behavior displayed by macrophages could be a tool to identify differences among MAP strains infecting bovines and that the host-pathogen interactions occurring upon infection are dependent on the strain of MAP involved. PMID:27138443

  5. The PAMPA datasets: a metagenomic survey of microbial communities in Argentinean pampean soils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil is among the most diverse and complex environments in the world. Soil microorganisms play an essential role in biogeochemical cycles and affect plant growth and crop production. However, our knowledge of the relationship between species-assemblies and soil ecosystem processes is still very limited. The aim of this study was to generate a comprehensive metagenomic survey to evaluate the effect of high-input agricultural practices on soil microbial communities. Results We collected soil samples from three different areas in the Argentinean Pampean region under three different types of land uses and two soil sources (bulk and rhizospheric). We extracted total DNA from all samples and also synthetized cDNA from rhizospheric samples. Using 454-FLX technology, we generated 112 16S ribosomal DNA and 14 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon libraries totaling 1.3 M reads and 36 shotgun metagenome libraries totaling 17.8 million reads (7.7 GB). Our preliminary results suggested that water availability could be the primary driver that defined microbial assemblages over land use and soil source. However, when water was not a limiting resource (annual precipitation >800 mm) land use was a primary driver. Conclusion This was the first metagenomic study of soil conducted in Argentina and our datasets are among the few large soil datasets publicly available. The detailed analysis of these data will provide a step forward in our understanding of how soil microbiomes respond to high-input agricultural systems, and they will serve as a useful comparison with other soil metagenomic studies worldwide. PMID:24450949

  6. Phenotyping and genotyping of streptococci in bovine milk in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Elina; Dieser, Silvana; Calvinho, Luis; Bogni, Cristina; Odierno, Liliana

    2010-09-01

    Most veterinary and milk hygiene laboratories identify streptococci and enterococci based on serological and biochemical tests. The analysis of 16S rDNA was suggested to be used for more exact identification; however, its use has not been considered so far in monitoring studies. The objective of the present study was to compare a conventional phenotypic method with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA (16S rDNA RFLP) for identification of streptococci isolated from composite milk samples collected in connection with intramammary infection (IMI) in six Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples (n = 1223) from cows belonging to six herds were collected for bacteriological analysis. Twelve reference strains and fifty streptococci or streptococcuslike isolates were identified to species level by the API 20 Strep system, conventional biochemical tests and 16S rDNA RFLP in a blind assay. The remaining streptococci or streptococcus-like isolates (n = 40) were identified to the species level both by 16S rDNA RFLP and conventional biochemical tests. As indicated by Kappa values, agreement between the 16S rDNA RFLP and the conventional scheme for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. equinus and Enterococcus faecalis was 0.91, 0.73, 0.92, 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. Together with the less frequently isolated streptococcal species, the conventional scheme correctly identified 77 out of 90 isolates (85.5%). Thus, the use of 16S rDNA RFLP is considered valuable for monitoring studies due to its affordable cost for standard laboratories. PMID:20713320

  7. Split liver transplantation: Report of right and left graft outcomes from a multicenter Argentinean group.

    PubMed

    Halac, Esteban; Dip, Marcelo; Quiñonez, Emilio; Alvarez, Fernando; Espinoza, Johana Leiva; Romero, Pablo; Nievas, Franco; Maurette, Rafael; Luque, Carlos; Matus, Daniel; Surraco, Paz; Fauda, Martin; McCormack, Lucas; Mattera, Francisco J; Gondolesi, Gabriel; Imventarza, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Grafts from split livers (SLs) constitute an accepted approach to expand the donor pool. Over the last 5 years, most Argentinean centers have shown significant interest in increasing the use of this technique. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the outcomes of right-side grafts (RSGs) and left-side grafts (LSGs) from a multicenter study. The multicenter retrospective study included data from 111 recipients of SL grafts from between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Incidence of surgical complications, patient and graft survival, and factors that affected RSG and LSG survival were analyzed. Grafts types were 57 LSG and 54 RSG. Median follow-up times for LSG and RSG were 46 and 42 months, respectively. The 36-month patient and graft survivals for LSG were 83% and 79%, respectively, and for RSG were 78% and 69%, respectively. Retransplantation rates for LSG and RSG were 3.5% and 11%, respectively. Arterial complications were the most common cause of early retransplantation (less than 12 months). Cold ischemia time (CIT) longer than 10 hours and the use of high-risk donors (age ≥ 40 years or body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 or ≥ 5 days intensive care unit stay) were independent factors for diminished graft survival in RSG. None of the analyzed variables were associated with worse graft survival in LSG. Biliary complications were the most frequent complications in both groups (57% in LSG and 33% in RSG). Partial grafts obtained from liver splitting are an excellent option for patients in need of liver transplantation and have the potential to alleviate the organ shortage. Adequate donor selection and reducing CIT are crucial for optimizing results. PMID:26369269

  8. Spatial Genetic Structure and Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography of Argentinean Populations of the Grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus

    PubMed Central

    Rosetti, Natalia; Remis, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Many grasshopper species are considered of agronomical importance because they cause damage to pastures and crops. Comprehension of pest population dynamics requires a clear understanding of the genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations. In this study we report on patterns of genetic variation in the South American grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus which is an agricultural pest of crops and forage grasses of great economic significance in Argentina. We use Direct Amplification of Minisatellite Regions (DAMD) and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxydase 1 (COI) mitochondrial gene to investigate intraspecific structure, demographic history and gene flow patterns in twenty Argentinean populations of this species belonging to different geographic and biogeographic regions. DAMD data suggest that, although genetic drift and migration occur within and between populations, measurable relatedness among neighbouring populations declines with distance and dispersal over distances greater than 200 km is not typical, whereas effective gene flow may occur for populations separated by less than 100 km. Landscape analysis was useful to detect genetic discontinuities associated with environmental heterogeneity reflecting the changing agroecosystem. The COI results indicate the existence of strong genetic differentiation between two groups of populations located at both margins of the Paraná River which became separated during climate oscillations of the Middle Pleistocene, suggesting a significant restriction in effective dispersion mediated by females and large scale geographic differentiation. The number of migrants between populations estimated through mitochondrial and DAMD markers suggest that gene flow is low prompting a non-homogeneous spatial structure and justifying the variation through space. Moreover, the genetic analysis of both markers allows us to conclude that males appear to disperse more than females, reducing the chance of the genetic loss

  9. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    PubMed

    Wieters, Evie A; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km) and local (10's m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against spatial variability

  10. Biogeographical Boundaries, Functional Group Structure and Diversity of Rocky Shore Communities along the Argentinean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Wieters, Evie A.; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10′s km) and local (10′s m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3–4 main ‘groups’ of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or “insurance”, against spatial

  11. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences. PMID:20623674

  12. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites.

    PubMed

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:26313257

  13. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites

    PubMed Central

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T.; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A.; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:26313257

  14. Outbreak of Query fever among Argentinean special police unit officers during a United Nations mission in Prizren, South Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Faas, Alexander; Engeler, Albin; Zimmermann, Achim; Zöller, Lothar

    2007-10-01

    After an outbreak of Query fever (Q fever) in an Argentinean special police unit, 115 officers were investigated to evaluate the risk of infection with Coxiella burnetii after having been exposed to contaminated dust originating from a nearby barn harboring infected sheep. All officers were serologically tested and the medical history of potential risk factors was performed. The percentage of officers showing acute Q-fever seroconversion was found to be 51.3%. Forty-two individuals showed clinical symptoms, among them, 28 patients underwent medical care. No relevant risk factor was found. In areas of an unknown epidemiological situation, patients with unclear respiratory infections should be serologically tested for C. burnetii to offer the correct treatment and avoid possible chronic cases. Attention has to be drawn to choosing the site of a camp so as to protect troops from possible infectious disease. During a U.N. mission in Kosovo, we observed a Q-fever outbreak among the Argentinean special police unit. Our investigation was initiated to evaluate the incidence of C. burnetii infection and Q-fever manifestations in an entire population sharing the same exposure risk and to develop suitable measures to interrupt transmission. PMID:17985775

  15. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. S17, isolated from an alkaline, hyperarsenic, and hypersaline volcano-associated lake at high altitude in the Argentinean Puna.

    PubMed

    Farias, Maria Eugenia; Revale, Santiago; Mancini, Estefania; Ordoñez, Omar; Turjanski, Adrian; Cortez, Néstor; Vazquez, Martin P

    2011-07-01

    The high-altitude Andean lakes (HAAL) in the Argentinean Puna-high Andes region represent an almost unexplored ecosystem exposed to extreme conditions (high UV irradiation, hypersalinity, drastic temperature changes, desiccation, and high pH). Here we present the first genome sequence, a Sphingomonas sp., isolated from this extreme environment. PMID:21602338

  16. Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. S17, Isolated from an Alkaline, Hyperarsenic, and Hypersaline Volcano-Associated Lake at High Altitude in the Argentinean Puna ▿

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Maria Eugenia; Revale, Santiago; Mancini, Estefania; Ordoñez, Omar; Turjanski, Adrian; Cortez, Néstor; Vazquez, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    The high-altitude Andean lakes (HAAL) in the Argentinean Puna-high Andes region represent an almost unexplored ecosystem exposed to extreme conditions (high UV irradiation, hypersalinity, drastic temperature changes, desiccation, and high pH). Here we present the first genome sequence, a Sphingomonas sp., isolated from this extreme environment. PMID:21602338

  17. DRINKING PATTERNS AND DSM-IV ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS’ CRITERIA IN ARGENTINEAN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Borges, Guilherme; Peltzer, Raquel I.; Santángelo, Pablo R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown cultural variations in normative drinking and furthermore, in the quantity and frequency of drinking related to alcohol use disorders. Aim The main goal of this study is to characterize alcohol drinking patterns in Argentinean Emergency Department patients, and secondly, to explore the association between those drinking patterns and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders. Method Data were collected from a probability sample of patients admitted to the Emergency Department of a large public hospital in Mar del Plata, Argentina. Data analyzed here pertain to those who reported consuming at least one drink during the last twelve months (n=529). A factor analysis of multiple correspondences and a hierarchic classification were performed. For the factor analysis, usual quantity and frequency of drinking (for the last 12 months) were considered active variables; number of DSM-IV dependence criteria met, positive or negative diagnostic status for abuse, positive or negative diagnostic status for dependence (both for the last 12 months), and socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender and economic level) were considered illustrative variables. Results The first five factorial axes were retained, accounting for 88% of the total variance. Hierarchic classification resulted in six distinctive classes of drinking patterns. Two patterns were associated with a positive diagnosis of abuse and dependence, respectively. One, drinking between 4 and 6 drinks per occasion mostly on a weekly basis, was associated with a diagnosis of abuse; this pattern was also associated with meeting one or two dependence criteria (dependence orphans). The other, drinking 7 or more drinks per occasion, was associated with a diagnosis of dependence, and also with a diagnostic orphan condition. This class, composed primarily of males, was not characterized by any particular frequency of drinking. The other four drinking patterns were not associated with a positive

  18. Real-time monitoring of the overall exchange of oxygen isotopes between aqueous CO32- and H2O by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Perdikouri, Christina; Kasioptas, Argyrios; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-08-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate that in situ Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study the exchange kinetics of oxygen isotopes between aqueous oxo-anions and water using the CO32--H2O system as an example. In situ exchange experiments have been carried out using a 1 M Na2CO3 solution at 45, 60, 75, and 100 °C in a closed system using an in-house-made Teflon©-based fluid cell. The solution was prepared with H2O enriched with 97 at.% 18O. At the given pH from 10.92 to 9.65 at 45-100 °C, respectively, CO32- is the dominant DIC species (>99% CO32-). At the beginning of the reaction the Raman spectrum of the solution is characterised by an intense band near 1067 cm-1 that has been assigned to the ν1(CO3) symmetric stretching vibration of the CO32- molecule. With increasing reaction time three, well-separated bands successively appear near 1046, 1026, and 1006 cm-1. These bands result from mass-related (isotopic) splitting of the ν1(CO3) mode and reflect the symmetric stretching vibration of the oxygen-related isotopologues C16O3-n18On2- (n = 1, 2, and 3). The relative integrated intensities of these bands are related to the amount of 18O present in the aqueous CO32- molecule, which allowed monitoring the time-dependent distribution of the four isotopologues at each temperature. The measured distributions as a function of time were found to agree well with those modelled on the basis of the overall reactions ΣC18O+3H18O⇌ΣC18O16O+3H16O, where the sum sign represents the sum of all carbonate species in solution and n = 0, 1, and 2. Moreover, the measured equilibrium fractions of 18O agree well with those expected from mass balance and published fractionation factors. After correcting the observed exchange rates for the dependence of the exchange kinetics on OH- and CO2(aq) activities, the observed overall logarithmic oxygen isotope exchange rates describe a linear relationship with the inverse temperature along with published exchange data that were

  19. Real-time NMR Study of Three Small GTPases Reveals That Fluorescent 2′(3′)-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-tagged Nucleotides Alter Hydrolysis and Exchange Kinetics*

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Marshall, Christopher B.; Smith, Matthew; Gasmi-Seabrook, Geneviève M. C.; Stambolic, Vuk; Rottapel, Robert; Neel, Benjamin G.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The Ras family of small GTPases control diverse signaling pathways through a conserved “switch” mechanism, which is turned on by binding of GTP and turned off by GTP hydrolysis to GDP. Full understanding of GTPase switch functions requires reliable, quantitative assays for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. Fluorescently labeled guanine nucleotides, such as 2′(3′)-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) (mant)-substituted GTP and GDP analogs, have been widely used to investigate the molecular properties of small GTPases, including Ras and Rho. Using a recently developed NMR method, we show that the kinetics of nucleotide hydrolysis and exchange by three small GTPases, alone and in the presence of their cognate GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors, are affected by the presence of the fluorescent mant moiety. Intrinsic hydrolysis of mantGTP by Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is ∼10 times faster than that of GTP, whereas it is 3.4 times slower with RhoA. On the other hand, the mant tag inhibits TSC2GAP-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Rheb but promotes p120 RasGAP-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by H-Ras. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor-catalyzed nucleotide exchange for both H-Ras and RhoA was inhibited by mant-substituted nucleotides, and the degree of inhibition depends highly on the GTPase and whether the assay measures association of mantGTP with, or dissociation of mantGDP from the GTPase. These results indicate that the mant moiety has significant and unpredictable effects on GTPase reaction kinetics and underscore the importance of validating its use in each assay. PMID:20018863

  20. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  1. Amorphous FeCoSiB for exchange bias coupled and decoupled magnetoelectric multilayer systems: Real-structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hrkac, V.; Strobel, J.; Kienle, L.; Lage, E.; Köppel, G.; McCord, J.; Quandt, E.; Meyners, D.

    2014-10-07

    The effect of field annealing for exchanged biased multilayer films is studied with respect to the resultant structural and magnetic film properties. The presented multilayer stacks comprise repeating sequences of Ta/Cu/(1 1 1) textured antiferromagnetic Mn₇₀Ir₃₀ /amorphous ferromagnetic Fe₇₀.₂Co₇.₈Si₂B₁₀. Within the ferromagnetic layers crystalline filaments are observed. An additional Ta layer between the antiferromagnet and ferromagnet is used in order to investigate and separate the influence of the common Mn₇₀Ir₃₀/Fe₇₀.₂Co₇.₈Si₁₂B₁₀ interface on the occurring filaments and structural changes. In situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy is used for a comprehensive structure characterization of multilayer stacks for selected temperature stages. Up to 250 °C, the multilayers are structurally unaltered and preserve the as-deposited condition. A deliberate increase to 350 °C exhibits different crystallization processes for the films, depending on the presence of crystal nuclei within the amorphous ferromagnetic layer. The influence of volume-to-surface ratio of the multilayer stacks to the crystallization process is emphasized by the comparison of in situ and ex situ investigations as the respective specimen thickness is changed. Complementary magnetic studies reveal a defined exchange bias obtained at the first annealing step and a decrease of total anisotropy field with partial crystallization after the subsequent annealing at 350 °C.

  2. From ideal to real: a longitudinal study of the role of implicit leadership theories on leader-member exchanges and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Epitropaki, Olga; Martin, Robin

    2005-07-01

    The results of the present longitudinal study demonstrate the importance of implicit leadership theories (ILTs) for the quality of leader-member exchanges (LMX) and employees' organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and well-being. Results based on a sample of 439 employees who completed the study questionnaires at 2 time points showed that the closer employees perceived their actual manager's profile to be to the ILTs they endorsed, the better the quality of LMX. Results also indicated that the implicit-explicit leadership traits difference had indirect effects on employee attitudes and well-being. These findings were consistent across employee groups that differed in terms of job demand and the duration of manager-employee relation, but not in terms of motivation. Furthermore, crossed-lagged modeling analyses of the longitudinal data explored the possibility of reciprocal effects between implicit-explicit leadership traits difference and LMX and provided support for the initially hypothesized direction of causal effects. PMID:16060785

  3. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples. PMID:27028847

  4. Real-time HD Exchange Kinetics of Proteins from Buffered Aqueous Solution with Electrothermal Supercharging and Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Going, Catherine C.; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R.

    2016-02-01

    Electrothermal supercharging (ETS) with electrospray ionization produces highly charged protein ions from buffered aqueous solutions in which proteins have native folded structures. ETS increases the charge of ribonuclease A by 34%, whereas only a 6% increase in charge occurs for a reduced-alkylated form of this protein, which is unfolded and its structure is ~66% random coil in this solution. These results indicate that protein denaturation that occurs in the ESI droplets is the primary mechanism for ETS. ETS does not affect the extent of solution-phase hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) that occurs for four proteins that have significantly different structures in solution, consistent with a droplet lifetime that is considerably shorter than observable rates of HDX. Rate constants for HDX of ubiquitin are obtained with a spatial resolution of ~1.3 residues with ETS and electron transfer dissociation of the 10+ charge-state using a single capillary containing a few μL of protein solution in which HDX continuously occurs. HDX protection at individual residues with ETS HDX is similar to that with reagent supercharging HDX and with solution-phase NMR, indicating that the high spray potentials required to induce ETS do not lead to HD scrambling.

  5. Real-time HD Exchange Kinetics of Proteins from Buffered Aqueous Solution with Electrothermal Supercharging and Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Going, Catherine C; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R

    2016-06-01

    Electrothermal supercharging (ETS) with electrospray ionization produces highly charged protein ions from buffered aqueous solutions in which proteins have native folded structures. ETS increases the charge of ribonuclease A by 34%, whereas only a 6% increase in charge occurs for a reduced-alkylated form of this protein, which is unfolded and its structure is ~66% random coil in this solution. These results indicate that protein denaturation that occurs in the ESI droplets is the primary mechanism for ETS. ETS does not affect the extent of solution-phase hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) that occurs for four proteins that have significantly different structures in solution, consistent with a droplet lifetime that is considerably shorter than observable rates of HDX. Rate constants for HDX of ubiquitin are obtained with a spatial resolution of ~1.3 residues with ETS and electron transfer dissociation of the 10+ charge-state using a single capillary containing a few μL of protein solution in which HDX continuously occurs. HDX protection at individual residues with ETS HDX is similar to that with reagent supercharging HDX and with solution-phase NMR, indicating that the high spray potentials required to induce ETS do not lead to HD scrambling. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26919868

  6. Real-time HD Exchange Kinetics of Proteins from Buffered Aqueous Solution with Electrothermal Supercharging and Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Going, Catherine C.; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R.

    2016-06-01

    Electrothermal supercharging (ETS) with electrospray ionization produces highly charged protein ions from buffered aqueous solutions in which proteins have native folded structures. ETS increases the charge of ribonuclease A by 34%, whereas only a 6% increase in charge occurs for a reduced-alkylated form of this protein, which is unfolded and its structure is ~66% random coil in this solution. These results indicate that protein denaturation that occurs in the ESI droplets is the primary mechanism for ETS. ETS does not affect the extent of solution-phase hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) that occurs for four proteins that have significantly different structures in solution, consistent with a droplet lifetime that is considerably shorter than observable rates of HDX. Rate constants for HDX of ubiquitin are obtained with a spatial resolution of ~1.3 residues with ETS and electron transfer dissociation of the 10+ charge-state using a single capillary containing a few μL of protein solution in which HDX continuously occurs. HDX protection at individual residues with ETS HDX is similar to that with reagent supercharging HDX and with solution-phase NMR, indicating that the high spray potentials required to induce ETS do not lead to HD scrambling.

  7. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers

  8. Formation of gravel-mantled megaripples on Earth and Mars: Insights from the Argentinean Puna and wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Spagnuolo, M. G.; de Silva, S. L.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Neely, E. M.

    2015-06-01

    Pumice and lithic clasts from gravel-mantled megaripples in the Argentinean Puna, an analog to Martian large ripples and Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), were put in a boundary layer wind tunnel to derive threshold speeds for various stages of motion of the component clasts and observe incipient bedform development. Combined with results from a field meteorological station, it is found that the gravel components can initially only move under gusty conditions, with the impact of saltating pumice and sand lowering threshold. Pumices can saltate without the impact of sand, implying that they are both an impelling force for other pumices and lithics, and are the most likely clast constituent to undergo transport. Accumulation into bedforms in the tunnel occurs when clasts self organize, with larger, more immobile particles holding others in place, a process that is accentuated in the field on local topographic highs of the undulating ignimbrite bedrock surface. In such an arrangement, pumices and especially lithics remain largely stable, with vibration the dominant mode of motion. This results in sand and silt entrapment and growth of the bedform through infiltration and uplift of the gravel. Resulting bedforms are gravel-mantled ripple-like forms cored with fine grained sediment. The Martian aeolian environment is similar to the Puna in terms of having grains of variable size, infrequent wind gusts, and saltating sand, implying that some TARs on the planet may have formed in a similar way.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n = 677) and Holstein × Jersey (n = 264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the SCS: GHR_140 and OPN_8514C-T. The heterozygote genotype for GHR_140 showed a favorable effect in reducing the SCS. On the other hand, heterozygote genotypes for OPN8514C-T caused an increase in the SCS; moreover, combined genotypes for OPN SNPs showed an even larger effect. These findings can contribute to the design of effective marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25783851

  10. A combined approach of VNTR and MLST analysis: improving molecular typing of Argentinean isolates of Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Caimi, Karina; Varni, Vanina; Melendez, Yamil; Koval, Ariel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Ruybal, Paula

    2012-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease that has been identified as both a human and animal health problem worldwide. Regular outbreaks associated with specific risk factors have been reported in Argentina. However, there are no available data concerning the genetic population level for this pathogen. Therefore, the aim of this work was to describe the genetic diversity of Leptospira interrogans through the application of two molecular typing strategies: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, seven reference strains and 18 non-epidemiologically related isolates from diverse hosts and Argentinean regions were analysed. Among them, nine genotypes and seven sequence types (STs), including three unreported STs, were described using VNTR and MLST, respectively. eBURST analysis demonstrated that ST37 was the most frequent and founder genotype of a clonal complex (CCs) containing STN1 and STN3, suggesting the importance of studying the serovars belonging to this CC in Argentina. The data from maximum parsimony analysis, which combined both techniques, achieved intra-serovar discrimination, surmounted microscopic agglutination test discrepancies and increased the discriminatory power of each technique applied separately. This study is the first to combine both strategies for L. interrogans typing to generate a more comprehensive molecular genotyping of isolates from Argentina in a global context. PMID:22850955

  11. Phosphate concentration and association as revealed by sequential extraction and microprobe analysis: The case of sediments from two Argentinean reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgnino, L.; Orona, C.; Avena, M.; Maine, M. A.; RodríGuez, A.; de Pauli, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the general characteristics of the sediments of two Argentinean reservoirs, which are used for water supply. The chemical composition, granulometry, and specific surface area are presented together with a study of total phosphate concentration and phosphate association by combining sequential extraction and microprobe analysis. In general, the sediments of both reservoirs have similar characteristics. Sequential extraction reveals that the main P fractions in the studied sediments are Ca-bound phosphate in river mouths and Fe-bound phosphate in the rest of the reservoir stations. Microprobe analysis appears to be an important complementary technique to sequential extraction. Combined with chemical fractionation and specific surface area measurements, these analyses indicate that Ca-bound phosphate is mainly distributed within grains or particles highly concentrated in Ca and P, whereas Fe-bound phosphate is rather homogeneously distributed in the sediments at the surface of fine particles. Microprobe analyses also revealed an important coating of phyllosilicate surfaces with Fe (hydr)oxides, which explains the good correlation found between Fe-bound phosphate, clay fraction, and specific surface area. The role of sediments as a potential source of phosphate is discussed in terms of P association in the solid phase and dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in the water column.

  12. Diagnosis and Molecular Variability of an Argentinean Population of Nacobbus aberrans with Some Observations on Histopathology in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, N.; Nico, A. I.; De Luca, F.; De Giorgi, C.; Castillo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an Argentinean population of Nacobbus sp. infecting sweet pepper (lamuyo) was carried out including morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and molecular studies. In light of our morphometric, molecular and host-range results, we consider the studied population to belong to N. aberrans s. l., and by host range tests the population is assigned to the "sugar beet group." ITS-PCR analysis on individual male and immature female specimens of this population yielded amplification products of approximately 922 bp. RFLP profiles and sequencing of the ITS region revealed that, in addition to the host group, the present population can be assigned to the "Argentina 2" group. Disease development and histopathology were investigated with glasshouse observations using tomato, pepper, sugar beet and potato seedlings exposed to nematode infection for 45 days at 28 ± 2°C. Histopathology of tomato roots confirmed that all immature stages and young females and males are migratory, whereas mature females are obligate sedentary endoparasites. Rather than syncytia, large regions of cortical necrosis and cavities were detected in tomato swellings infected by juveniles. However, syncytia were associated only with adult females. Large root galls, hyperplasia, abnormal proliferation of lateral roots and asymmetry of root structure were common anatomical changes induced by the nematode feeding in tomato roots. PMID:19259470

  13. Linking soil, water, and honey composition to assess the geographical origin of argentinean honey by multielemental and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Baroni, María V; Podio, Natalia S; Badini, Raúl G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Héctor A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gautier, Eduardo A; García, Pilar Peral; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-05-13

    The objective of this research was to investigate the development of a reliable fingerprint from elemental and isotopic signatures of Argentinean honey to assess its geographical provenance. Honey, soil, and water from three regions (Córdoba, Buenos Aires, and Entre Rı́os) were collected. The multielemental composition was determined by ICP-MS. δ(13)C was measured by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by chemometrics looking for the association between the elements, stable isotopes, and honey samples from the three studied areas. Honey samples were differentiated by classification trees and discriminant analysis using a combination of eight key variables (Rb, K/Rb, B, U, (87)Sr/(86)Sr, Na, La, and Zn) presenting differences among the studied regions. The application of canonical correlation analysis and generalized procrustes analysis showed 91.5% consensus between soil, water, and honey samples, in addition to clear differences between studied areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the correspondence between soil, water, and honey samples using different statistical methods, showing that elemental and isotopic honey compositions are related to soil and water characteristics of the site of origin. PMID:25905785

  14. 32 CFR 644.418 - Procedure for exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.418 Procedure for exchange. (a) Each agreement for the exchange of real property should be formalized by...

  15. 32 CFR 644.418 - Procedure for exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.418 Procedure for exchange. (a) Each agreement for the exchange of real property should be formalized by...

  16. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  17. Assessment of Argentinean Patagonia pollution: PBDEs, OCPs and PCBs in different matrices from the Río Negro basin.

    PubMed

    Miglioranza, Karina S B; Gonzalez, Mariana; Ondarza, Paola M; Shimabukuro, Valeria M; Isla, Federico I; Fillmann, Gilberto; Aizpún, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J

    2013-05-01

    This work reports the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil, sediment, suspended particle matter (SPM), streamwater and macrophytes, along the Río Negro basin, Argentinean Patagonia. The clear predominance of OCPs among all matrices indicates the impact of agriculture on the watershed. The highest levels were found for pp'-DDE which represented up to 95% in agricultural soils (42.0-1.27x10(3) ng/g d.w) from the Upper Valley (upstream), where long and historical intensive fruit cultures have been settled and represent a hot spot of legacy pesticides for the environment. The insecticide endosulfan, currently in use, was also found in all matrices. Levels ranged between 0.3 and 708.0 ng/g d.w, being the highest concentrations those of SPM from the Middle Valley, just before the delta area, where pesticides would be retained leading to lower concentrations as was observed downstream. PCB (#153, 138, 110, 101) and PBDE (BDE-47) levels were directly related with the presence of hydroelectric power plants, dams and dumping sites, mainly settled in the Upper Valley (0.8 ng/g and 15.1 ng/g d.w for PBDEs and PCBs, respectively). Although there was a decreasing gradient of these pollutant concentrations through the river flow, downstream urban areas enhanced PCB concentrations in the aquatic environment. More efforts and monitoring programs are highly required to control and reduce soil erosion in order to prevent the availability of forbidden pollutants in the environment. PMID:23523725

  18. Acute retroviral syndrome and high baseline viral load are predictors of rapid HIV progression among untreated Argentinean seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of primary HIV infection (PHI) has important clinical and public health implications. HAART initiation at this stage remains controversial. Methods Our objective was to identify predictors of disease progression among Argentinean seroconverters during the first year of infection, within a multicentre registry of PHI-patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Cox regression was used to analyze predictors of progression (LT-CD4 < 350 cells/mm3, B, C events or death) at 12 months among untreated patients. Results Among 134 subjects, 74% presented with acute retroviral syndrome (ARS). Seven opportunistic infections (one death), nine B events, and 10 non-AIDS defining serious events were observed. Among the 92 untreated patients, 24 (26%) progressed at 12 months versus three (7%) in the treated group (p = 0.01). The 12-month progression rate among untreated patients with ARS was 34% (95% CI 22.5-46.3) versus 13% (95% CI 1.1-24.7) in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.04). In univariate analysis, ARS, baseline LT-CD4 < 350 cells/mm3, and baseline and six-month viral load (VL) > 100,000 copies/mL were associated with progression. In multivariate analysis, only ARS and baseline VL > 100,000 copies/mL remained independently associated; HR: 8.44 (95% CI 0.97-73.42) and 9.44 (95% CI 1.38-64.68), respectively. Conclusions In Argentina, PHI is associated with significant morbidity. HAART should be considered in PHI patients with ARS and high baseline VL to prevent disease progression. PMID:21831310

  19. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I; Serra, Diego O; Mooi, Frits R; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host. PMID:26696973

  20. Areal changes of lentic water bodies within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean pampas. Disentangling land management from climatic causes.

    PubMed

    Booman, Gisel Carolina; Calandroni, Mirta; Laterra, Pedro; Cabria, Fabián; Iribarne, Oscar; Vázquez, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Wetland loss is a frequent concern for the environmental management of rural landscapes, but poor disentanglement between climatic and land management causes frequently constrains both proper diagnoses and planning. The aim of this study is to address areal changes induced by non-climatic factors on lentic water bodies (LWB) within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean Pampas, and the human activities that might be involved. The LWB of the Mar Chiquita basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were mapped using Landsat images from 1998-2008 and then corrected for precipitation variability by considering the regional hydrological status on each date. LWB areal changes were statistically and spatially analyzed in relation to land use changes, channelization of streams, and drainage of small SWB in the catchment areas. We found that 12 % of the total LWB in the basin had changed (P < 0.05) due to non-climatic causes. During the evaluated decade, 30 % of the LWB that changed size had decreased while 70 % showed steady increases in area. The number of altered LWB within watersheds lineally increased or decreased according to the proportion of grasslands replaced by sown pastures, or the proportion of sown pastures replaced by crop fields, respectively. Drainage and channelization do not appear to be related to the alteration of LWB; however some of these hydrologic modifications may predate 1998, and thus earlier effects cannot be discarded. This study shows that large-scale changes in land cover (e.g., grasslands reduction) can cause a noticeable loss of hydrologic regulation at the catchment scale within a decade. PMID:22990683

  1. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I.; Serra, Diego O.; Mooi, Frits R.; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M.

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host. PMID:26696973

  2. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption in soils of the Argentinean humid pampas.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Peter E; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José L; Aparicio, Virginia C

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface properties of three representative soils of the humid pampas of Argentina on atrazine and metribuzin sorption. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption isotherms were constructed for each soil at four depths. Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich constant (K(f)), distribution coefficient (Kd), and the normalized Kd based on organic carbon content (K(oc)). Multiple regression of the sorption constants against selected soil properties indicated that organic carbon content (OC) and silt were related positively and negatively, respectively, to atrazine K(f) coefficient (r2 = 0.93), while Kd coefficient of atrazine was related positively to organic carbon content and negatively to both silt and cation exchange capacity (CEC) (r2 = 0.96). For metribuzin, only organic matter content was related positively to Kr coefficient (r2 = 0.51). Lower K(f) values for atrazine were obtained for all soils with increasing depth, indicating lesser sorption at greater depths. Metribuzin sorption was quite similar across all depths. Sorption constant K(f) of atrazine ranged from 2.06 to 7.82, while metribuzin K(f) values ranged from 1.8 to 3.52 and were lower than atrazine for all soils and depths, indicating a greater leaching potential across the soil profile. PMID:12463550

  3. Molecular analysis of HEXA gene in Argentinean patients affected with Tay-Sachs disease: possible common origin of the prevalent c.459+5A>G mutation.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Stefania; Montalvo, Annalisa; Blanco, Mariana; Zanin, Irene; Amartino, Hernan; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Pittis, Gabriela; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2012-05-15

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by the deficient activity of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the HEXA gene. Up to date there is no information regarding the molecular genetics of TSD in Argentinean patients. In the present study we have studied 17 Argentinean families affected by TSD, including 20 patients with the acute infantile form and 3 with the sub-acute form. Overall, we identified 14 different mutations accounting for 100% of the studied alleles. Eight mutations were novel: 5 were single base changes leading to drastic residue changes or truncated proteins, 2 were small deletions and one was an intronic mutation that may cause a splicing defect. Although the spectrum of mutations was highly heterogeneous, a high frequency of the c.459+5G>A mutation, previously described in different populations was found among the studied cohort. Haplotype analysis suggested that in these families the c.459+5G>A mutation might have arisen by a single mutational event. PMID:22441121

  4. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  5. Science exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Dwindling scientific and technical exchange between the United States and the Soviet Union and prospects for enhancing such exchanges were discussed at an August 2 hearing by the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. The committee also heard overviews on the United States' approach to international exchange of science and technology. The hearing was the first in a series on current and future international science and technology programs.Four of eight science and technology agreements with the USSR that have expired in the last 15 months, including one on space, have not been renewed. The remaining four agreements have been extended into 1987 and 1988. Two others, including one on oceanography, are scheduled to run out in 1984.

  6. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-02-02

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

  7. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  8. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  9. On exchange rate misalignments in the Eurozone's peripheral countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochová, Ladislava; Plecitá, Klára

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we model equilibrium exchange rates for the Eurozone's countries on the basis of the Behavioural Equilibrium Exchange Rate approach, which assumes, that equilibrium exchange rates are in the long run affected by economic fundamentals. To assess the degree of exchange rate misalignment for the Eurozone's peripheral countries - Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain - the gap between the actual and the modelled equilibrium exchange rate value is calculated. Our results show that Spain, Portugal and Ireland had their real exchange rates in equilibrium when they joined the Eurozone; however their real exchange rates have been persistently overvalued since the beginning of the 2000s. Greece, on the other hand, has experienced diminishing undervaluation at the beginning of its membership in the Eurozone and since 2009 has exhibited an overvalued real exchange rate.

  10. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to differentiate Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle.

    PubMed

    Moré, Gastón; Schares, Susann; Maksimov, Aline; Conraths, Franz J; Venturini, María C; Schares, Gereon

    2013-10-18

    Cattle are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis hominis which use canids, felids or primates as definitive hosts (DH), respectively, and in addition of Sarcocystis sinensis from which the DH is unknown. The aims of the present study were to develop and optimize a multiplex real time PCR for a sensitive and specific differentiation of Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle and to estimate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. The 18S rRNA genes from individual sarcocysts were amplified and cloned to serve as controls. For the amplification of bovine Sarcocystis spp. a total of 3 primers were used in combination with specific individual probes. Each assay was evaluated and optimized individually and subsequently combined in a multiplex assay (BovSarcoMultiplex real time PCR). The analytical specificity of the multiplex assay was assessed using 5 ng of DNA of heterologous Sarcocystis spp. and other apicomplexan parasites, and no positive reactions were observed other than for the species the PCR targeted. The analytical sensitivity ranged between 0.0125 and 0.125 fg of plasmid DNA (equivalent to the DNA of 2-20 plasmid DNA copies) or resembling DNA of 0.1-0.3 bradyzoites. A total of 380 DNA loin samples from Argentina were tested and 313, 29, 14 and 2 were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta and S. hominis, respectively. S. sinensis was the most prevalent species among thick walled Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. Mixed infections were detected in 8.9% of all samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the BovSarcoMultiplex real time PCR relative to previous microscopic examination for thin and thick-walled cyst were 91.5% and 41.7%, 36.3% and 95.9% respectively. Improved DNA extraction methods may allow to further increase the specific and sensitive detection of Sarcocystis spp. in meat samples. PMID:23680541

  11. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  12. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  13. 33 CFR 211.12 - Exchange of lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of lands. 211.12 Section... of Real Estate Acquired for Civil Works Purposes § 211.12 Exchange of lands. The Secretary of the Army is authorized to exchange lands acquired for river and harbor and flood control projects...

  14. Argentinean collaborative multicenter study on the in vitro comparative activity of piperacillin-tazobactam against selected bacterial isolates recovered from hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Casellas, José María; Tomé, Gabriella; Bantar, Carlos; Bertolini, Pamela; Blázquez, Néstor; Borda, Noemí; Couto, Elsa; Cudmani, Norma; Guerrera, Josefina; Juárez, María Josefina; López, Teresa; Littvik, Ana; Méndez, Emilce; Notario, Rodolfo; Ponce, Graciela; Quinteros, Mirta; Salamone, Francisco; Sparo, Mónica; Sutich, Emma; Vaylet, Susana; Wolff, Lidia

    2003-11-01

    The in vitro activity of piperacillin-tazobactam and several antibacterial drugs commonly used in Argentinean hospitals for the treatment of severe infections was determined against selected but consecutively isolated strains from clinical specimens recovered from hospitalized patients at 17 different hospitals from 9 Argentinean cities from different geographic areas during the period November 2001-March 2002. Out of 418 Enterobacteriaceae included in the Study 84% were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam. ESBLs putative producers were isolated at an extremely high rate since among those isolates obtained from patients with hospital acquired infections 56% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 32% of Proteus mirabilis and 25% Escherichia coli were phenotypically considered as ESBLs producers Notably P.mirabilis is not considered by for screening for ESBL producers. ESBLs producers were 100% susceptible to imipenem and 70% were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam whereas more than 50% were resistant to levofloxacin. The isolates considered as amp C beta lactamase putative producers showed 99% susceptibility to carbapenems while 26.7% were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam and 38.4% to levofloxacin. Noteworthy only 4% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to amikacin. Piperacillin-tazobactam was the most active agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (MIC(90): 128 microg/ml; 78% susceptibility) but showed poor activity against Acinetobacter spp (MIC(90):>256 microg/ml; 21.7% susceptibility). Only 41.7% Acinetobacter spp isolates were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam. Piperacillin-tazobactam inhibited 100% of Haemophilus influenzae isolates (MIC(90) < 0.25 microg/ml) but only 16.6% of them were ampicillin resistant. The activity of piperacillin-tazobactam against oxacillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase negative staphylococci was excellent (MIC(90) 2 microg/ml; 100% susceptibility). Out of 150 enterococci 12 isolates (8%) were

  15. Heat exchanger demonstration expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagby, D. G.; Cormier, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A real-time expert system intended for detecting and diagnosing faults in a 20 kW microwave transmitter heat exchanger is described. The expert system was developed on a LISP machine, Incorporated (LMI), Lambda Plus computer using Process Intelligent Control (PICON) software. The Heat Exhanger Expert System was tested and debugged. Future applications and extensions of the expert system to transmitters, masers, and antenna subassemblies are discussed.

  16. Heat exchanger demonstration expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagby, D. G.; Cormier, R. A.

    1988-05-01

    A real-time expert system intended for detecting and diagnosing faults in a 20 kW microwave transmitter heat exchanger is described. The expert system was developed on a LISP machine, Incorporated (LMI), Lambda Plus computer using Process Intelligent Control (PICON) software. The Heat Exhanger Expert System was tested and debugged. Future applications and extensions of the expert system to transmitters, masers, and antenna subassemblies are discussed.

  17. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  18. Educator Exchange Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Cris; Rodriguez, Victor

    This resource guide was developed for teachers and administrators interested in participating in intercultural and international exchange programs or starting an exchange program. An analysis of an exchange program's critical elements discusses exchange activities; orientation sessions; duration of exchange; criteria for participation; travel,…

  19. 26 CFR 1.1031(j)-1 - Exchanges of multiple properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allocated to real estate R. (2) The basis of railroad car R is equal to its cost of $1000. (iii) The tax...)). (D) The basis of the property received by V in the exchange (real estate A, real estate B, and grader... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchanges of multiple properties....

  20. Real Writing for Real Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce-Crim, Marna

    1992-01-01

    An experienced teacher describes how to provide students with a real audience to motivate them to write. Suggestions include writing letters to make a difference in the community, preparing newsletters, compiling class literary magazines, and writing for local newspapers and businesses or for commercial children's magazines. (SM)

  1. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  2. Development and application of a low-cost, portable DOAS system for stratospheric composition monitoring over the Argentinean Patagonia and Antarctic stations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raponi, Marcelo; Jiménez, Rodrigo; Ristori, Pablo; Wolfram, Elian; Tocho, Jorge; Quel, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    A significant fraction of the Argentinean population is seasonally exposed to elevated UV radiation, particularly during severe stratospheric ozone destruction episodes in Antarctica. In order to provide early alert, global monitoring and to improve our understanding of these phenomena, various Argentinean and international organizations maintain stratospheric composition remote sensing sites from the southern tip of Argentina (Patagonia) to Antarctica. The understating of the ozone destruction dynamics will be significantly improved if more sites were available. For instance, the Laser and Applications Research Center, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET, Argentina) carries out systematic measurements of stratospheric ozone and tropospheric water vapor profiles at Rio Gallego (51° 36' S, 69° 19' W, 15 m asl) by means of LIDAR systems. Besides the active systems, the site possesses different passive instruments (GUV-541, UV-B and UV-A radiometers, SAOZ spectrometer, CIMEL sunphotometer) all of them working in synergy. The goal of this work is to present the design and development of a new compact atmospheric remote sensing system, able to determine the vertical column concentration in column (VCD) of multiple trace gases. We have developed a low-cost, portable passive DOAS system, ERO-DOAS, wich circumvents the cost limitations associated with new fixed monitoring sites. It is composed of commercial spectrophotometer (HR4000, Ocean Optics), a 400-μm core, 6-m long optic fiber, and a home-made automatic external shutter. We have developed a LabVIEW® based software for spectrometer/shutter control and data acquisition, and a MATLAB® based software for spectral data reduction. In the work we highlight the main characteristics of the system's components and we describe the visual interface implemented to controls the operation of the whole system, and the calculation algorithms to process the measured zenithal spectra, postulating the strategies implemented to solve the

  3. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  4. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  5. Comparative study on the in vitro replication and genomic variability of Argentinean field isolates of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4).

    PubMed

    Verna, A E; Pérez, S E; Manrique, J M; Leunda, M R; Odeón, A C; Jones, L R

    2016-06-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus, belonging to the Rhadinovirus genus, which is increasingly associated with various problems of the reproductive tract of cattle. In Argentina, analysis of BoHV-4 strains isolated from cervico-vaginal mucus of aborted cows revealed a high genetic divergence among strains, which could be classified in three different groups: Genotype 1 comprises Movar-like strains (European prototype), Genotype 2 includes DN599-like strains (American prototype) and Genotype 3 corresponds to a novel genotype group. Understanding the replication behavior in cell cultures and the molecular characteristics of this pathogen of cattle is critical for the rational design of in vitro experiments. The aim of this work was to quantitatively evaluate the replication properties of different Argentinean BoHV-4 strains and to characterize their phylogenetic relationships. Significant differences were evident among the virus titers of the different BoHV-4 isolates in vitro. The most conserved gene was the major capsid protein (ORF25). The glycoprotein B (gB), glycoprotein H (gH), and thymidine kinsase (TK) genes displayed both synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, with the highest diversity observed for gB, which displayed amino acid substitutions in 24 out of the 178 positions examined. Strains 09/759, 12/512, and 07/568 presented a deletion encompassing amino acid position 27 to 35, whereas strains 07/435 and 09/227 had a deletion from position 28 to 35. Two strains, 07/435 and 09/227, also displayed the highest divergence compared to the other strains analyzed. This study provides information about the in vitro replication and behavior of nine field isolates of BoHV-4. These findings are relevant since available information on the in vitro growth characteristics of BoHV-4 strains is scarce. The results from this study may also be useful for establishing comparisons with other related viruses. PMID:26995219

  6. The Discovery of Stromatolites Developing at 3570 m above Sea Level in a High-Altitude Volcanic Lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes

    PubMed Central

    Farías, María E.; Rascovan, Nicolás; Toneatti, Diego M.; Albarracín, Virginia H.; Flores, María R.; Poiré, Daniel G.; Collavino, Mónica M.; Aguilar, O. Mario; Vazquez, Martin P.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We describe stromatolites forming at an altitude of 3570 m at the shore of a volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes. The water at the site of stromatolites formation is alkaline, hypersaline, rich in inorganic nutrients, very rich in arsenic, and warm (20–24°C) due to a hydrothermal input. The stromatolites do not lithify, but form broad, rounded and low-domed bioherms dominated by diatom frustules and aragonite micro-crystals agglutinated by extracellular substances. In comparison to other modern stromatolites, they harbour an atypical microbial community characterized by highly abundant representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus, Rhodobacteraceae, Desulfobacterales and Spirochaetes. Additionally, a high proportion of the sequences that could not be classified at phylum level showed less than 80% identity to the best hit in the NCBI database, suggesting the presence of novel distant lineages. The primary production in the stromatolites is generally high and likely dominated by Microcoleus sp. Through negative phototaxis, the location of these cyanobacteria in the stromatolites is controlled by UV light, which greatly influences their photosynthetic activity. Diatoms, dominated by Amphora sp., are abundant in the anoxic, sulfidic and essentially dark parts of the stromatolites. Although their origin in the stromatolites is unclear, they are possibly an important source of anaerobically degraded organic matter that induces in situ aragonite precipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest altitude with documented actively forming stromatolites. Their generally rich, diverse and to a large extent novel microbial community likely harbours valuable genetic and proteomic reserves, and thus deserves active protection. Furthermore, since the stromatolites flourish in an environment characterized by a multitude of extremes, including high exposure to UV radiation, they can be an excellent model system for studying microbial adaptations under

  7. The discovery of stromatolites developing at 3570 m above sea level in a high-altitude volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes.

    PubMed

    Farías, María E; Rascovan, Nicolás; Toneatti, Diego M; Albarracín, Virginia H; Flores, María R; Poiré, Daniel G; Collavino, Mónica M; Aguilar, O Mario; Vazquez, Martin P; Polerecky, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We describe stromatolites forming at an altitude of 3570 m at the shore of a volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes. The water at the site of stromatolites formation is alkaline, hypersaline, rich in inorganic nutrients, very rich in arsenic, and warm (20-24°C) due to a hydrothermal input. The stromatolites do not lithify, but form broad, rounded and low-domed bioherms dominated by diatom frustules and aragonite micro-crystals agglutinated by extracellular substances. In comparison to other modern stromatolites, they harbour an atypical microbial community characterized by highly abundant representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus, Rhodobacteraceae, Desulfobacterales and Spirochaetes. Additionally, a high proportion of the sequences that could not be classified at phylum level showed less than 80% identity to the best hit in the NCBI database, suggesting the presence of novel distant lineages. The primary production in the stromatolites is generally high and likely dominated by Microcoleus sp. Through negative phototaxis, the location of these cyanobacteria in the stromatolites is controlled by UV light, which greatly influences their photosynthetic activity. Diatoms, dominated by Amphora sp., are abundant in the anoxic, sulfidic and essentially dark parts of the stromatolites. Although their origin in the stromatolites is unclear, they are possibly an important source of anaerobically degraded organic matter that induces in situ aragonite precipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest altitude with documented actively forming stromatolites. Their generally rich, diverse and to a large extent novel microbial community likely harbours valuable genetic and proteomic reserves, and thus deserves active protection. Furthermore, since the stromatolites flourish in an environment characterized by a multitude of extremes, including high exposure to UV radiation, they can be an excellent model system for studying microbial adaptations under

  8. Increasing levels of persistent organic pollutants in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a mega-flooding episode in the Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Fillmann, Gilberto; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2012-03-01

    In 2006, a severe flooding episode in the Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia, occurred and mainly affected the middle valley where lands are devoted to agriculture and soils known to be polluted with persistent organic pollutants. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of this event on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), endosulfans (α-, β-, sulfate), DDTs (p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues. Post-event fish showed higher contaminants levels than pre-event at expenses of all groups. DDTs presented the highest concentrations in all tissues followed by PCBs, endosulfans and PBDEs. The metabolite p,p'-DDE represented about 80% of total DDTs, while PCBs were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorobiphenyls congeners. BDE-47 was the predominant congener among PBDEs. Endosulfan showed the maximum differences between post- and pre-flood fish (up to 43-fold) with a α-/β- ratio >1, suggesting exposure to fresh technical mixture. Contaminant profiles observed in rainbow trout tissues from both periods (pre- and post-event) were consistent with previous results from water, suspended particle matter and soils, showing that this species is a good biomonitor of aquatic pollution of Negro River basin. The presence of the pesticides in the Negro River system resulted from past and current agricultural practices and it was modified and enhanced by the flooding. Additionally, PCBs and PBDEs occurrence in the aquatic environment deserve more attention, and monitoring programs are recommended in order to diminish their incorporation to aquatic ecosystem. PMID:22285089

  9. [The influence of the arterio-alveolar gradient of carbonic dioxide and of the real value of respiratory gas exchange on the estimation of alveolo-arterial gradient of oxygen].

    PubMed

    Ubeda Martínez, E; Alvarez-Sala Walther, J L; Valle Martín, M

    1994-02-01

    In 46 patients with diverse respiratory alterations, the alveolus-arterial gradient for oxygen (PA-aO2) was calculated from a simplified equation and from the complete equation of alveolar gas. In order to be able to apply the latter, the composition of expired air, ventilation, and capnogram was measured in each patient upon taking an arterial blood sample. These values are later used in determining the alveolar fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and thus, calculate the PA-aO2 from the complete equation for alveolar gas. The values for PA-aO2 estimated from this equation were greater than those derived from the simplified equation. With the latter, the PA-aO2 was underestimated in 36 percent of the patients with abnormal respiratory function. This underestimate is due to the fact that, in the simplified equation, both the possible variability of respiratory exchange (R) as well as increases in the arterio-alveolar gradient of CO2 (Pa-ACO2), as commonly found in patients with bronchopulmonary problems are taken into account. The high percentage of falsely normal gradients for O2 found in our study, we believe, may justify, at least in some cases, the calculation of PA-aO2 from the complete equation, and thus, the measurement of alveolar pressure for CO2 upon arterial blood sample extraction for gasometry. PMID:8008946

  10. Thriving Earth Exchange: AGU's new grand challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris; Williams, Billy

    2012-11-01

    Imagine a world where scientists are acknowledged and celebrated for their good works. Imagine being able to make a powerful impact, applying your expertise and experience to create real solutions to ensure a sustainable future. Now imagine those two ideas linked: AGU scientists engaged in creating solutions that are recognized and celebrated for their positive impact on our world. The AGU Grand Challenge: Thriving Earth Exchange, a new idea from our member leaders, is about making this dream real.

  11. Real-time Monitoring of Intermediates Reveals the Reaction Pathway in the Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Disulfide Bond Formation Protein A (DsbA) and B (DsbB) on a Membrane-immobilized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) System*

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Kenjiro; Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Okahata, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbBS-S,S-S) is an inner membrane protein in Escherichia coli that has two disulfide bonds (S-S, S-S) that play a role in oxidization of a pair of cysteine residues (SH, SH) in disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbASH,SH). The oxidized DsbAS-S, with one disulfide bond (S-S), can oxidize proteins with SH groups for maturation of a folding preprotein. Here, we have described the transient kinetics of the oxidation reaction between DsbASH,SH and DsbBS-S,S-S. We immobilized DsbBS-S,S-S embedded in lipid bilayers on the surface of a 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device to detect both formation and degradation of the reaction intermediate (DsbA-DsbB), formed via intermolecular disulfide bonds, as a mass change in real time. The obtained kinetic parameters (intermediate formation, reverse, and oxidation rate constants (kf, kr, and kcat, respectively) indicated that the two pairs of cysteine residues in DsbBS-S,S-S were more important for the stability of the DsbA-DsbB intermediate than ubiquinone, an electron acceptor for DsbBS-S,S-S. Our data suggested that the reaction pathway of almost all DsbASH,SH oxidation processes would proceed through this stable intermediate, avoiding the requirement for ubiquinone. PMID:24145032

  12. Real-time monitoring of intermediates reveals the reaction pathway in the thiol-disulfide exchange between disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbA) and B (DsbB) on a membrane-immobilized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) system.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Kenjiro; Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Okahata, Yoshio

    2013-12-13

    Disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbBS-S,S-S) is an inner membrane protein in Escherichia coli that has two disulfide bonds (S-S, S-S) that play a role in oxidization of a pair of cysteine residues (SH, SH) in disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbASH,SH). The oxidized DsbAS-S, with one disulfide bond (S-S), can oxidize proteins with SH groups for maturation of a folding preprotein. Here, we have described the transient kinetics of the oxidation reaction between DsbASH,SH and DsbBS-S,S-S. We immobilized DsbBS-S,S-S embedded in lipid bilayers on the surface of a 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device to detect both formation and degradation of the reaction intermediate (DsbA-DsbB), formed via intermolecular disulfide bonds, as a mass change in real time. The obtained kinetic parameters (intermediate formation, reverse, and oxidation rate constants (kf, kr, and kcat, respectively) indicated that the two pairs of cysteine residues in DsbBS-S,S-S were more important for the stability of the DsbA-DsbB intermediate than ubiquinone, an electron acceptor for DsbBS-S,S-S. Our data suggested that the reaction pathway of almost all DsbASH,SH oxidation processes would proceed through this stable intermediate, avoiding the requirement for ubiquinone. PMID:24145032

  13. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-05-05

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  14. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  15. 77 FR 72813 - Information Collection; Land Exchanges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Exchanges AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... forms of information technology. All comments received in response to this notice, including names and... discretionary, voluntary real estate transactions between the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Secretary...

  16. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and east sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Post Exchange Garage, North Eighth Street, North of Building No. 143, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Post Exchange Garage, Northwest Corner of West Pennington Avenue & North Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Cancer.gov

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  19. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  20. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 For Certain Real Estate Companies § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  1. 17 CFR 210.12-29 - Mortgage loans on real estate. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 For Certain Real Estate Companies § 210.12-29 Mortgage loans on real... loans on real estate investments has been written down or reserved against, describe the item...

  2. Lipid exchange between membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Jähnig, F

    1984-01-01

    The exchange of lipid molecules between vesicle bilayers in water and a monolayer forming at the water surface was investigated theoretically within the framework of thermodynamics. The total number of exchanged molecules was found to depend on the bilayer curvature as expressed by the vesicle radius and on the boundary condition for exchange, i.e., whether during exchange the radius or the packing density of the vesicles remains constant. The boundary condition is determined by the rate of flip-flop within the bilayer relative to the rate of exchange between bi- and monolayer. If flip-flop is fast, exchange is independent of the vesicle radius; if flip-flop is slow, exchange increases with the vesicle radius. Available experimental results agree with the detailed form of this dependence. When the theory was extended to exchange between two bilayers of different curvature, the direction of exchange was also determined by the curvatures and the boundary conditions for exchange. Due to the dependence of the boundary conditions on flip-flop and, consequently, on membrane fluidity, exchange between membranes may partially be regulated by membrane fluidity. PMID:6518251

  3. Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Roizen, Mariana; Rodríguez, Susana; Bauer, Gabriela; Medin, Gabriela; Bevilacqua, Silvina; Varni, James W; Dussel, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Background To validate the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Argentinean children and adolescents with chronic conditions and to assess the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on the instrument's comprehensibility and acceptability. Reliability, and known-groups, and convergent validity were tested. Methods Consecutive sample of 287 children with chronic conditions and 105 healthy children, ages 2–18, and their parents. Chronically ill children were: (1) attending outpatient clinics and (2) had one of the following diagnoses: stem cell transplant, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, end stage renal disease, complex congenital cardiopathy. Patients and adult proxies completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 and an overall health status assessment. Physicians were asked to rate degree of health status impairment. Results The PedsQL™ 4.0 was feasible (only 9 children, all 5 to 7 year-olds, could not complete the instrument), easy to administer, completed without, or with minimal, help by most children and parents, and required a brief administration time (average 5–6 minutes). People living below the poverty line and/or low literacy needed more help to complete the instrument. Cronbach Alpha's internal consistency values for the total and subscale scores exceeded 0.70 for self-reports of children over 8 years-old and parent-reports of children over 5 years of age. Reliability of proxy-reports of 2–4 year-olds was low but improved when school items were excluded. Internal consistency for 5–7 year-olds was low (α range = 0.28–0.76). Construct validity was good. Child self-report and parent proxy-report PedsQL™ 4.0 scores were moderately but significantly correlated (ρ = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and both significantly correlated with physician's assessment of health impairment and with child self-reported overall health status. The PedsQL™ 4.0 discriminated between healthy and chronically ill children (72

  4. 78 FR 5527 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 63997 (March 1, 2011), 76 FR 12388 (March 7, 2011). The BBO Data Feed is a real...-members.\\12\\ \\12\\ See e.g., Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66967 (May 11, 2012), 77 FR 29440 (May 17, 2012) (SR-PHLX-2012-60); and Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67720 (August 23, 2012), 77 FR...

  5. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  6. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  7. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  8. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  9. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. (a) If, during the period for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  10. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. (a) If, during the period for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  11. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  12. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. (a) If, during the period for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  13. 17 CFR 210.3-14 - Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-14 Special instructions for real estate operations... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions for real estate operations to be acquired. 210.3-14 Section 210.3-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  14. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  15. 17 CFR 49.15 - Real-time public reporting of swap data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real-time public reporting of swap data. 49.15 Section 49.15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.15 Real-time public reporting of swap data. (a) Scope. The provisions...

  16. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.

  17. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  18. Two-site exchange revisited: a new method for extracting exchange parameters in biological systems.

    PubMed Central

    Mulkern, R V; Bleier, A R; Adzamli, I K; Spencer, R G; Sandor, T; Jolesz, F A

    1989-01-01

    A new analysis is presented which links real volume fractions, relaxation rates, and intracompartmental exchange rates directly with apparent volume fractions and relaxation rates obtained from biexponential fits of transverse magnetization decay curves. The analysis differs from previous methods in that measurements from two paramagnetic doping levels are used to close the two-site exchange equations. Both the new method and one previously described by Herbst and Goldstein (HG) have been applied to paramagnetically doped whole-blood data sets. Significant differences in the calculated exchange parameters are found between the two methods. A small dependence of the intracellular relaxation rate on extracellular paramagnetic agent concentration, assumed nonexistent with the HG method, is inferred from the new analysis. The analysis was also applied to published data on perfused rat hearts, and we obtained a limited assessment of two-site exchange in this system. PMID:2713436

  19. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  20. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  1. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  2. Handicapping Social Exchange Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Barbara

    The economic theory of social exchange has some serious shortcomings when applied to minorities--especially the disabled. First, it assumes dyads comprise the basic unit where exchange occurs and that rewards and costs must occur at that level. Second, the model standardizes the experience of white, Western European and American males. The model…

  3. Building Relationships through Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  4. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  5. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  8. Money and Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This teaching guide begins with an explanation of the role of money in the economy, focusing on its circulation or exchange. The use of money as a unit of account, a store of value, and a medium of exchange are explained. Three brief teaching units are included. The grade K-2 unit, "Money Counts," provides games and activities which develop the…

  9. Anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  10. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  11. Heat and mass exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  12. Heat and mass exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  13. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1991-10-16

    This progress report is for the September--October 1991 quarter. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  14. 17 CFR 210.12-23 - Mortgage loans on real estate and interest earned on mortgages. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... Mortgage loans on real estate and interest earned on mortgages. 1 Part 1—Mortgage loans on real estate at... including interest) of prior mortgages, explain. 9 If any item of mortgage loans on real estate...

  15. 17 CFR 210.12-23 - Mortgage loans on real estate and interest earned on mortgages. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... Mortgage loans on real estate and interest earned on mortgages. 1 Part 1—Mortgage loans on real estate at... including interest) of prior mortgages, explain. 9 If any item of mortgage loans on real estate...

  16. 17 CFR 210.12-29 - Mortgage loans on real estate. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-29 Mortgage loans on real estate... loans on real estate investments has been written down or reserved against, describe the item...

  17. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  18. 17 CFR 210.12-29 - Mortgage loans on real estate. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-29 Mortgage loans on real estate... loans on real estate investments has been written down or reserved against, describe the item...

  19. 17 CFR 210.12-28 - Real estate and accumulated depreciation. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate and accumulated... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-28 Real estate and accumulated..., furnish a reconciliation, in the following form, of the total amount at which real estate was carried...

  20. Outdoor heat exchanger section

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, A.F.; Smiley, W.A. III; Wendt, M.E.

    1988-02-09

    An outdoor section for an air conditioning system is described comprising: a compressor; a heat exchanger; a cabinet having an upper cabinet section, a lower cabinet section and a louvered lower section top cover, the heat exchanger and the compressor being housed in the lower cabinet section and the upper cabinet section having a solid top which overlies the louvers in the lower section top cover; and a fan disposed in the lower cabinet section to draw air through the sides of the lower cabinet section and through the heat exchanger housed therein, the fan discharging air, after having been drawn through the heat exchanger, upward through the louvers in the lower cabinet section top cover and into the interior of the upper cabinet section.

  1. Exchange transfusion - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... her back, usually under a radiant warmer. The umbilical vein is catheterized with a fluid-filled catheter. ... plasma is injected. After the exchange transfusion, an umbilical catheter may be left in place in case ...

  2. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  3. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  4. Data exchange in metrology.

    PubMed

    Badger, P

    1996-01-01

    The adoption of the directives 71/316/EEC on measuring instruments and 90/384/EEC on non-automatic weighing instruments has resulted in a considerable quantity of certificates to be exchanged between the Central Metrological Authorities and the Local Metrological Authorities, in the member states. This requirement to exchange data, prompted the setting up of the WELMEC working group, to explore how computerisation could help the member states perform their tasks. PMID:10172832

  5. Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1990-12-27

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

  6. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  7. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  8. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  9. Application of portable CDA for secure clinical-document exchange.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Hsuan; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Lai, Feipei; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Lee, Hsiu-Hui

    2010-08-01

    Health Level Seven (HL7) organization published the Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) for exchanging documents among heterogeneous systems and improving medical quality based on the design method in CDA. In practice, although the HL7 organization tried to make medical messages exchangeable, it is still hard to exchange medical messages. There are many issues when two hospitals want to exchange clinical documents, such as patient privacy, network security, budget, and the strategies of the hospital. In this article, we propose a method for the exchange and sharing of clinical documents in an offline model based on the CDA-the Portable CDA. This allows the physician to retrieve the patient's medical record stored in a portal device, but not through the Internet in real time. The security and privacy of CDA data will also be considered. PMID:20703907

  10. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-02-28

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein.

  11. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-03-18

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein.

  12. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-03-18

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized.

  13. Downhole heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1999-09-01

    The downhole heat exchanger (DHE) eliminates the problem of disposal of geothermal fluid, since only heat is taken from the well. The exchanger consists of a system of pipes or tubes suspended in the well through which clean secondary water is pumped or allowed to circulate by natural convection. These systems offer substantial economic savings over surface heat exchangers where a single-well system is adequate (typically less than 0.8 MWt, with well depths up to about 500 ft) and may be economical under certain conditions at well depths to 1500 ft. Several designs have proven successful; but, the most popular are a simple hairpin loop or multiple loops of iron pipe (similar to the tubes in a U-tube and shell exchanger) extending to near the well bottom. An experimental design consisting of multiple small tubes with headers at each end suspended just below the water surface appears to offer economic and heating capacity advantages. The paper describes design and construction details and New Zealand`s experience with downhole heat exchangers.

  14. Modular heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Culver, Donald W.

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger for use in nuclear reactors includes a heat exchange tube bundle formed from similar modules each having a hexagonal shroud containing a large number of thermally conductive tubes which are connected with inlet and outlet headers at opposite ends of each module, the respective headers being adapted for interconnection with suitable inlet and outlet manifold means. In order to adapt the heat exchanger for operation in a high temperature and high pressure environment and to provide access to all tube ports at opposite ends of the tube bundle, a spherical tube sheet is arranged in sealed relation across the chamber with an elongated duct extending outwardly therefrom to provide manifold means for interconnection with the opposite end of the tube bundle.

  15. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  16. On exchangeable multinomial distributions

    PubMed Central

    George, E. Olusegun; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Yuan, Yilian; Szabo, Aniko

    2016-01-01

    We derive an expression for the joint distribution of exchangeable multinomial random variables, which generalizes the multinomial distribution based on independent trials while retaining some of its important properties. Unlike de Finneti's representation theorem for a binary sequence, the exchangeable multinomial distribution derived here does not require that the finite set of random variables under consideration be a subset of an infinite sequence. Using expressions for higher moments and correlations, we show that the covariance matrix for exchangeable multinomial data has a different form from that usually assumed in the literature, and we analyse data from developmental toxicology studies. The proposed analyses have been implemented in R and are available on CRAN in the CorrBin package.

  17. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  18. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  19. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  20. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  1. Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... [Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXIII Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC) SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  2. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual consumers…

  3. Estimate exchanger vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, C.D.; Zengyan, H.

    1986-04-01

    Based on the classical beam theory, a simple method for calculating the natural frequency of unequally spanned tubes is presented. The method is suitable for various boundary conditions. Accuracy of the calculations is sufficient for practical applications. This method will help designers and operators estimate the vibration of tubular exchangers. In general, there are three reasons why a tube vibrates in cross flow: vortex shedding, fluid elasticity and turbulent buffeting. No matter which is the cause, the basic reason is that the frequency of exciting force is approximately the same as or equal to the natural frequency of the tube. To prevent the heat exchanger from vibrating, it is necessary to select correctly the shell-side fluid velocity so that the frequency of exciting force is different from the natural frequency of the tube, or to vary the natural frequency of the heat exchanger tube. So precisely determining the natural frequency of the heat exchanger, especially its foundational frequency under various supporting conditions, is of significance.

  4. Research Exchange, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 2002

    2002-01-01

    These three issues of the "Research Exchange" focus on how better to conduct disability research and disseminate research results. The first issue examines the topic of human subject/human research participant protection, with a focus on research funded through the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). It provides…

  5. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  6. Technology Performance Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  7. Heat exchange enhancement structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelison, R.C.; Kreith, F.

    1980-12-02

    A passive heat exchange enhancement structure which operates by free convection includes a flat mounting portion having a plurality of integral fins bent outwardly from one side edge thereof. The mounting portion is securable around a stovepipe, to a flat surface or the like for transferring heat from the pipe through the fins to the surrounding air by rotation-enhanced free convection.

  8. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  9. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  10. Chimney heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, I.C.

    1981-09-01

    A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

  11. Visiting Scholar Exchange Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kyna, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides reports of four United States scholars who visited China as part of the Visiting Scholar Exchange Program. The titles of the reports are (1) "China Journey: A Political Scientist's Look at Yan'an," (2) "The Social Consequences of Land Reclamation in Chinese Coastal Ecosystems," (3) "Anthropology Lectures in South China," and (4) "The Use…

  12. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  14. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Foreign Exchange Trading Simulation in an International Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chen-Huei; Liu, Hao-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study if trading simulation is an effective tool to increase students' knowledge of the foreign exchange market. We developed a real-time multiuser web-based trading system that replicates an electronic brokerage foreign exchange market. To assess the effectiveness of the program, we conducted surveys in…

  15. Tweeting the Friendly Skies: Investigating Information Exchange among Twitter Users about Airlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasan, Nirupama Dharmavaram; Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate airline users' microblog postings pertaining to their travel-related information exchange so as to assess their wants, preferences and feedback about airline products and services. Examining such real-time information exchange is important as users rely on this for various purposes such as…

  16. Composite ion exchange materials

    SciTech Connect

    Amarasinghe, S.; Zook, L.; Leddy, J.

    1994-12-31

    Composite ion exchange materials can be formed by sorbing ion exchange polymers on inert, high surface area substrates. In general, the flux of ions and molecules through these composites, as measured electrochemically, increases as the ratio of the surface area of the substrate increases relative to the volume of the ion exchanger. This suggests that fields and gradients established at the interface between the ion exchanger and substrate are important in determining the transport characteristics of the composites. Here, the authors will focus on composites formed with a cation exchange polymer, Nafion, and two different types of microbeads: polystyrene microspheres and polystyrene coated magnetic microbeads. For the polystyrene microbeads, scanning electron micrographs suggest the beads cluster in a self-similar manner, independent of the bead diameter. Flux of Ru(NH3)63+ through the composites was studied as a function of bead fraction, bead radii, and fixed surface area with mixed bead sizes. Flux was well modeled by surface diffusion along a fractal interface. Magnetic composites were formed with columns of magnetic microbeads normal to the electrode surface. Flux of Ru(NH3)63+ through these composites increased exponentially with bead fraction. For electrolyses, the difference in the molar magnetic susceptibility of the products and reactants, Dcm, tends to be non-zero. For seven redox reactions, the ratio of the flux through the magnetic composites to the flux through a Nafion film increases monotonically with {vert_bar}Dcm{vert_bar}, with enhancements as large as thirty-fold. For reversible species, the electrolysis potential through the magnetic composites is 35 mV positive of that for the Nafion films.

  17. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  18. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Real Estate Career Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert; Gardner, Gene

    Designed to provide basic information on the major entry-level career fields in real estate, this document can be used as a reference manual for counselors and instructors. The manual contains general information about the following real estate careers: salesperson, sales manager, broker, land developer, property manager, appraiser, mortgage loan…

  20. Writing for Real Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugert, Diane P., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of the articles in this journal issue is helping students write for real audiences. The document contains the following articles: "Real Audiences: The Only Kind We Write For" (Margaret Queenan); "A Literary Magazine for Middle Grades" (Anthony R. Angelo and Marie-Jeanne Laurent); "Rewarding Understanding and Warmth" (Peter M. Ashe);…

  1. Real and hypothetical rewards.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Jones, Bryan A; Rachlin, Howard

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory studies of choice and decision making among real monetary rewards typically use smaller real rewards than those common in real life. When laboratory rewards are large, they are almost always hypothetical. In applying laboratory results meaningfully to real-life situations, it is important to know the extent to which choices among hypothetical rewards correspond to choices among real rewards and whether variation of the magnitude of hypothetical rewards affects behavior in meaningful ways. The present study compared real and hypothetical monetary rewards in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants played a temporal discounting game that incorporates the logic of a repeated prisoner's-dilemma (PD) type game versus tit-for-tat; choice of one alternative ("defection" in PD terminology) resulted in a small-immediate reward; choice of the other alternative ("cooperation" in PD terminology) resulted in a larger reward delayed until the following trial. The larger-delayed reward was greater for half of the groups than for the other half. Rewards also differed in type across groups: multiples of real nickels, hypothetical nickels or hypothetical hundred-dollar bills. All groups significantly increased choice of the larger delayed reward over the 40 trials of the experiment. Over the last 10 trials, cooperation was significantly higher when the difference between larger and smaller hypothetical rewards was greater. Reward type (real or hypothetical) made no significant difference in cooperation. In Experiment 2, real and hypothetical rewards were compared in social discounting - the decrease in value to the giver of a reward as social distance increases to the receiver of the reward. Social discount rates were well described by a hyperbolic function. Discounting rates for real and hypothetical rewards did not significantly differ. These results add to the evidence that results of experiments with hypothetical rewards validly apply in everyday life. PMID

  2. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  3. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  4. Lipid Exchange by Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipid species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization of the protein in the presence of a target lipid of interest. PMID:26695050

  5. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  6. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOEpatents

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  7. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  8. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  9. The exchangeability of shape

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM) allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes. PMID:20964872

  10. 76 FR 12388 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... forces. See e.g., Securities Exchange Act Release No. 59949 (May 20, 2009), 74 FR 25593 (May 28, 2009) (SR-ISE-2009-97) (order approving ISE's proposal to establish fees for a real-time depth of market... real-time, low latency data feed that includes the CBOE BBO data and last sale data. (This data feed...

  11. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with plasma exchange or exchange transfusions.

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, K. V.; Fishleder, A.; Lucas, F. V.; Goormastic, M.; Bukowski, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Of 40 patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, 17 were treated with plasma exchange, 15 with exchange transfusions, and 6 with both types of therapy. One patient died before being treated and another patient was seen but not treated. Plasma exchange was performed daily for a mean of seven exchanges per patient. The replacement fluid during plasma exchange was fresh frozen plasma in all cases. The complete response rates for each type of treatment were as follows: 88% for plasma exchange (15 patients), 47% for exchange transfusions (7 patients), and 67% for exchange transfusions and plasma exchange (4 patients). Clinical and laboratory factors were examined for any statistically significant association with therapy response. Treatment with plasma exchange was statistically the initial factor most strongly associated with prognosis. Paresis, paresthesias, seizures, mental status change, and coma showed no association with response to treatment. Some of the laboratory factors that did not show significant association with treatment response were the initial creatinine, hemoglobin, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin. This study supports the hypothesis that plasma exchange has significantly improved the prognosis of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. These patients should be treated aggressively regardless of the severity of their symptoms. PMID:1877181

  12. Exchange interaction energy in magnetic recording simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Masukazu Tonooka, Shun; Katada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Maki; Hara, Miki; Wood, Roger

    2015-05-07

    Based on a phenomenological theory, micromagnetic simulations and experiments are used to evaluate an improved function for the exchange interaction between magnetic particles in perpendicular recording media. Assuming diluted spin layers in the particle boundary and a gradual rather than abrupt rotation of magnetization between grain cores, the exchange energy is better described by an even power series of θ, rather than a cosine function. The conventional cosine function does not have a restoring torque near θ = π and adjacent grains tend to align strictly antiparallel. In contrast, using a power series of θ, adjacent grains tend to align at a small angle away from θ = π. This gives rise to a small in-plane magnetization component and therefore a distinct peak in in-plane susceptibility is observed around H = 0. From magnetization measurements of a real medium, a peak is observed around H = 0, which matches with an assumption of 2 or 3 spin layers. In some situations, the exchange interaction between discretized cells for numerical calculation is better described by a power series rather than a cosine function.

  13. Hardware for a real-time multiprocessor simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, R. A.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware for a real time multiprocessor simulator (RTMPS) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The RTMPS is a multiple microprocessor system used to investigate the application of parallel processing concepts to real time simulation. It is designed to provide flexible data exchange paths between processors by using off the shelf microcomputer boards and minimal customized interfacing. A dedicated operator interface allows easy setup of the simulator and quick interpreting of simulation data. Simulations for the RTMPS are coded in a NASA designed real time multiprocessor language (RTMPL). This language is high level and geared to the multiprocessor environment. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) has also been developed that provides a user friendly operator interface. The RTMPS and supporting software are currently operational and are being evaluated at Lewis. The results of this evaluation will be used to specify the design of an optimized parallel processing system for real time simulation of dynamic systems.

  14. Making It Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Some have proposed that realistic problem situations are better for learning. This issue contains two articles that examine the effects of "making it real" in computer architecture and human-computer interaction.

  15. Lightweight Long Life Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    A shuttle orbiter flight configuration aluminum heat exchanger was designed, fabricated, and tested. The heat exchanger utilized aluminum clad titanium composite parting sheets for protection against parting sheet pin hole corrosion. The heat exchanger, which is fully interchangeable with the shuttle condensing heat exchanger, includes slurpers (a means for removing condensed water from the downstream face of the heat exchanger), and both the core air passes and slurpers were hydrophilic coated to enhance wettability. The test program included performance tests which demonstrated the adequacy of the design and confirmed the predicted weight savings.

  16. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between horizontal phase space (x; x{prime}) and longitudinal phase space (z; {delta}). Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e. mapping x to z, x{prime} to {delta}, z to x and {delta} to x{prime} are suggested. Methods to mitigate the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are discussed. Some applications of the phase space exchanger and the feasibility of an emittance exchange experiment with the proposed chicane-type beam line at SLAC are discussed.

  17. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  18. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions as to real estate investment trusts. (a)(1) The income statement prepared pursuant to § 210.5-03....3-04 shall be modified similarly. (b) The trust's status as a real estate investment trust under... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special provisions as to...

  19. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions as to real estate investment trusts. (a)(1) The income statement prepared pursuant to § 210.5-03....3-04 shall be modified similarly. (b) The trust's status as a real estate investment trust under... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special provisions as to...

  20. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions as to real estate investment trusts. (a)(1) The income statement prepared pursuant to § 210.5-03....3-04 shall be modified similarly. (b) The trust's status as a real estate investment trust under... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special provisions as to...

  1. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Statements § 210.3-15 Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts. (a)(1) The income... real estate investment trust under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code as amended shall... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special provisions as to...

  2. 17 CFR 210.12-24 - Real estate owned and rental income. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate owned and rental... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-24 Real estate owned and rental... Part 2—Rental income Column G—Rents due and accrued at end of period Column H—Total rental...

  3. 17 CFR 210.12-24 - Real estate owned and rental income. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate owned and rental... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-24 Real estate owned and rental... Part 2—Rental income Column G—Rents due and accrued at end of period Column H—Total rental...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1038-1 - Reacquisitions of real property in satisfaction of indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reacquisitions of real property in satisfaction of indebtedness. 1.1038-1 Section 1.1038-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1038-1 Reacquisitions of real property...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1038-1 - Reacquisitions of real property in satisfaction of indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reacquisitions of real property in satisfaction of indebtedness. 1.1038-1 Section 1.1038-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1038-1 Reacquisitions of real property...

  6. Exchange lists: revised 1986.

    PubMed

    Franz, M J; Barr, P; Holler, H; Powers, M A; Wheeler, M L; Wylie-Rosett, J

    1987-01-01

    A committee composed of members of The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association has revised Exchange List for Meal Planning. Changes were made, as deemed necessary, on the basis of nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes as understood in 1986. Major changes include rewriting the text to make it more useful in the education of persons with diabetes; changing the order of the exchange lists to emphasize a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet, as well as to better reflect the order of foods in menu planning; adding symbols to foods high in fiber and sodium; changing nutritive values for the starch/bread and fruit lists; adding lists of combination foods, free foods, and foods recommended only for occasional use; developing a data base; and initiating a plan for field testing and evaluation. The committee also developed a simplified meal planning tool, Healthy Food Choices, to be used for initial or "survival" level education. In poster format, foods are grouped by calories into six food groups. Approximate portion sizes of commonly used foods are listed. Blank lines are provided for the nutrition counselor to write in a suggested menu or meal plan for the client. Because the booklet does not use the word "diabetes" specifically, it is appropriate as a general teaching tool. PMID:3794130

  7. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  8. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  9. Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Coryphaeus Software, founded in 1989 by former NASA electronic engineer Steve Lakowske, creates real-time 3D software. Designer's Workbench, the company flagship product, is a modeling and simulation tool for the development of both static and dynamic 3D databases. Other products soon followed. Activation, specifically designed for game developers, allows developers to play and test the 3D games before they commit to a target platform. Game publishers can shorten development time and prove the "playability" of the title, maximizing their chances of introducing a smash hit. Another product, EasyT, lets users create massive, realistic representation of Earth terrains that can be viewed and traversed in real time. Finally, EasyScene software control the actions among interactive objects within a virtual world. Coryphaeus products are used on Silican Graphics workstation and supercomputers to simulate real-world performance in synthetic environments. Customers include aerospace, aviation, architectural and engineering firms, game developers, and the entertainment industry.

  10. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  11. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  12. Biological Ion Exchanger Resins

    PubMed Central

    Damadian, Raymond; Goldsmith, Michael; Zaner, K. S.

    1971-01-01

    Biological selectivity is shown to vary with medium osmotic strength and temperature. Selectivity reversals occur at 4°C and at an external osmolality of 0.800 indicating that intracellular hydration and endosolvent (intracellular water) structure are important determinants in selectivity. Magnetic resonance measurements of line width by steady-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicate a difference in the intracellular water signal of 16 Hz between the K form and Na form of Escherichia coli, providing additional evidence that changes in the ionic composition of cells are accompanied by changes in endosolvent structure. The changes were found to be consistent with the thermodynamic and magnetic resonance properties of aqueous electrolyte solutions. Calculation of the dependence of ion-pairing forces on medium dielectric reinforces the role of endosolvent structure in determining ion exchange selectivity. PMID:4943653

  13. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress. PMID:26747520

  14. Monogroove liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

  15. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  16. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  17. Heat exchanger bypass test report

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-01-26

    This test report documents the results that were obtained while conducting the test procedure which bypassed the heat exchangers in the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. The test was performed on November 15, 1994 using WHC-SD-CP-TC-031, ``Heat Exchanger Bypass Test Procedure.`` The primary objective of the test procedure was to determine if the heat exchangers were contributing to condensation of moisture in the off-gas line. This condensation was observed in the rotameters. Also, a secondary objective was to determine if temperatures at the rotameters would be too high and damage them or make them inaccurate without the heat exchangers in place.

  18. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Yen, S. P. S.; Klein, E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, crosslinked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  19. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  20. Ion-exchange hollow fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Klein, Elias (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, cross-linked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution.

  1. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1966-01-01

    Changes in the oxygen partial pressure of air over the range of 8 to 258 mm of Hg did not adversely affect the photosynthetic capacity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Gas exchange and growth measurements remained constant for 3-week periods and were similar to air controls (oxygen pressure of 160 mm of Hg). Oxygen partial pressures of 532 and 745 mm of Hg had an adverse effect on algal metabolism. Carbon dioxide consumption was 24% lower in the gas mixture containing oxygen at a pressure 532 mm of Hg than in the air control, and the growth rate was slightly reduced. Oxygen at a partial pressure of 745 mm of Hg decreased the photosynthetic rate 39% and the growth rate 37% over the corresponding rates in air. The lowered metabolic rates remained constant during 14 days of measurements, and the effect was reversible after this time. Substitution of helium or argon for the nitrogen in air had no effect on oxygen production, carbon dioxide consumption, or growth rate for 3-week periods. All measurements were made at a total pressure of 760 mm of Hg, and all gas mixtures were enriched with 2% carbon dioxide. Thus, the physiological functioning and reliability of a photosynthetic gas exchanger should not be adversely affected by: (i) oxygen partial pressures ranging from 8 to 258 mm of Hg; (ii) the use of pure oxygen at reduced total pressure (155 to 258 mm of Hg) unless pressure per se affects photosynthesis, or (iii) the inclusion of helium or argon in the gas environment (up to a partial pressure of 595 mm of Hg). PMID:5927028

  2. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  3. Convergence Is Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyeart, Mike; Staman, E. Michael; Valdes, Jose J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of convergence has evolved significantly during recent years. Today, "convergence" refers to the integration of the communications and computing resources and services that seamlessly traverse multiple infrastructures and deliver content to multiple platforms or appliances. Convergence is real. Those in higher education, and especially…

  4. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  5. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  6. "Real" Books and Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Advocates the supplemental use of trade books with textbooks in introductory economics courses. States that students will learn how economists approach economic issues in the real world, building upon the organized textbook presentation of material. Acknowledging that textbooks are essential to instruction, Hansen lists several appropriate works…

  7. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions. (WRM)

  8. Where's Our Real Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Peter J.; Ferrara, Margaret M.

    1993-01-01

    Guest teachers are not sanctioned counterfeits of "real" teachers; they are optional community resources who can provide an additional, meaningful dimension to students' learning. This article provides administrators with recommendations for welcoming substitutes, familiarizing them with school schedules and lesson plans, and helping them work…

  9. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  10. Being Real for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…

  11. Real Estate Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Commercial Remote Sensing Program at Stennis Space Center assists numerous companies across the United States, in learning to use remote sensing capabilities to enhance their competitiveness. Through the Visiting Investigator Program, SSC helped Coast Delta Realty in Diamondhead, Miss., incorporate remote sensing and Geogrpahic Information System technology for real estate marketing and management.

  12. Is Optimism Real?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Joseph P.; Massey, Cade

    2012-01-01

    Is optimism real, or are optimistic forecasts just cheap talk? To help answer this question, we investigated whether optimistic predictions persist in the face of large incentives to be accurate. We asked National Football League football fans to predict the winner of a single game. Roughly half (the partisans) predicted a game involving their…

  13. Real Life 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    The Metropolitan Regional Career and Technical Center--the MET--is a multimillion-dollar Rhode Island effort to emphasize learning in real-world situations. Internships have become the torque that drives each student's education plan, focusing on higher level skills rather than on skills specific to a certain trade. (MLF)

  14. Mouldable liquid-crystalline elastomer actuators with exchangeable covalent bonds.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qiaomei; Terentjev, Eugene M; Wei, Yen; Ji, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-crystal elastomers (LCEs) are a class of actively moving polymers with remarkable practical potential for converting external stimuli into mechanical actuation. However, real-world applications of LCEs are lacking because macroscopic orientation of liquid-crystal order, which is required for reversible actuations, is hard to achieve in practice. Here we show that the processing bottleneck of LCEs can be overcome by introducing exchangeable links in place of permanent network crosslinks, a concept previously demonstrated for vitrimers. Liquid-crystal elastomers with exchangeable links (xLCEs) are mouldable, allow for easy processing and alignment, and can be subsequently altered through remoulding with different stress patterns, thus opening the way to practical xLCE actuators and artificial muscles. Surprisingly, instead of external-stress relaxation through the creep of non-liquid-crystal transient networks with exchangeable links, xLCEs develop strong liquid-crystal alignment as an alternative mechanism of mechanical relaxation. PMID:24292422

  15. On real quadric line complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A.

    2010-12-01

    We describe the topological types of the real parts of the Kummer surfaces associated with real three-dimensional quadric line complexes. The topological type of the real part of such a surface is shown to depend on the number of real singular points: it is determined by the number of such points if any exist, and otherwise the real part of the Kummer surface is either empty or consists of one or two tori.

  16. Spot foreign exchange market and time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; Serva, M.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate high frequency price dynamics in foreign exchange market using data from Reuters information system (the dataset has been provided to us by Olsen and Associates). In our analysis we show that a naïve approach to the definition of price (for example using the spot mid price) may lead to wrong conclusions on price behavior as for example the presence of short term correlations for returns. For this purpose we introduce an algorithm which only uses the non arbitrage principle to estimate real prices from the spot ones. The new definition leads to returns which are not affected by spurious correlations. Furthermore, any apparent information (defined by using Shannon entropy) contained in the data disappears.

  17. StarBright Learning Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article features StarBright Learning Exchange, a program that provides a cross-cultural exchange between Australian and South African early childhood educators. The program was originated when its president, Carol Allen, and her colleague, Karen Williams, decided that they could no longer sit by and watch the unfolding social catastrophe that…

  18. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  19. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  20. Exchange Rates and Old People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)

  1. Organ donation as gift exchange.

    PubMed

    Vernale, C; Packard, S A

    1990-01-01

    Organ donation, considered by sociologists as a type of gift exchange, involves moral, social, psychological, religious and legal issues. This gift exchange paradigm can be used as a framework to understand donor and recipient issues, cadaveric organ donation and the importance of the role of nurses during organ procurement. PMID:2292445

  2. Professional Exchange: Mapping the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    New associate editor of Professional Exchange section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses importance of section. Lists potential topics suggested in 1989, then adds several other topics to the list. Concludes with guidelines for submission to Professional Exchange section. (NB)

  3. EXCHANGE. Volume 9-92

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  4. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Stambaugh, N. ); Closser, W. Jr. ); Mollerus, F.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method.

  5. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  6. Characteristics of real futures trading networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong

    2011-01-01

    Futures trading is the core of futures business, and it is considered as one of the typical complex systems. To investigate the complexity of futures trading, we employ the analytical method of complex networks. First, we use real trading records from the Shanghai Futures Exchange to construct futures trading networks, in which nodes are trading participants, and two nodes have a common edge if the two corresponding investors appear simultaneously in at least one trading record as a purchaser and a seller, respectively. Then, we conduct a comprehensive statistical analysis on the constructed futures trading networks. Empirical results show that the futures trading networks exhibit features such as scale-free behavior with interesting odd-even-degree divergence in low-degree regions, small-world effect, hierarchical organization, power-law betweenness distribution, disassortative mixing, and shrinkage of both the average path length and the diameter as network size increases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that uses real data to study futures trading networks, and we argue that the research results can shed light on the nature of real futures business.

  7. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  8. Modular heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Giardina, A.R.

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is described having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelepiped tube bundle modules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending there through, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattices, each of which is situated in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattices extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates. 12 figs.

  9. Modular heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Giardina, Angelo R. [Marple Township, Delaware County, PA

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelpiped tube bundle moldules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending therethrough, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattice, each of which is situate d in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattice extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates.

  10. Energy-Exchange Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  11. Electrically switched ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  12. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  13. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010... Act. Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\13\\ See Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76...

  14. 75 FR 34186 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE Amex LLC; NYSE Arca, Inc.; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Chicago.... (``NYSEArca''), The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ''), National Stock Exchange, Inc. (``NSX'') and Chicago... proposed rules may exacerbate market volatility rather than reduce it due to the interplay of stock...

  15. Real Data, Real Math, All Classes, No Kidding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonsangue, Martin Vern

    1998-01-01

    Uses real data as a catalyst to explore mathematics. Presents two mathematics activities based on real data, one on earthquakes and the other on demographic data. Discusses the implications of these activities in calculus classes. (ASK)

  16. 77 FR 37079 - Versus Capital Multi-Manager Real Estate Income Fund LLC and Versus Capital Advisors; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Versus Capital Multi-Manager Real Estate Income Fund LLC and Versus Capital Advisors; Notice of Application June 14, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of...

  17. Heat exchange assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  18. Hear Exchange Assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  19. Effect of polyamine reagents on exchange capacity in ion exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. I.; Dyachenko, F. V.; Bogatyreva, Yu. V.; Borodastov, A. K.; Ershova, I. S.

    2016-05-01

    Effect of compounds involved in complex reagents is described using Helamin 906H reagent as an example. The working exchange capacity of KU-2-8chs cation exchanger in hydrogen form and Amberlite IRA 900Cl anion exchanger in OH form remained almost unchanged when they were used repeatedly to purify water that contained Helamin 906H reagent; in addition, this capacity was the same upon filtration of water that did not contain this reagent. Leakage of total organic carbon was observed earlier than that of calcium ions upon filtration of the solution through the cation exchanger layer. The test results obtained in industrial conditions indicated that using H-OH filters to purify turbine condensate enables the decrease of the concentration of organic and other impurities therein.

  20. Plasma exchange in endocrine ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Berlin, G; Hjelm, H; Liedén, G; Tegler, L

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of intensive plasma exchange on endocrine ophthalmopathy in 12 patients with Graves' disease and one with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All patients were euthyroid at the time of plasma exchange. All but five had concomitant treatment with azathioprine. Each patient had a treatment period consisting of six plasma exchanges performed in 2-3 weeks; two patients were treated in two periods. Each time a mean of 2.4 liters plasma was exchanged. There was a prompt reduction in the concentration of circulating immune complexes and/or thyrotropin receptor antibodies following plasma exchange. Six of the 13 patients improved their proptosis; their median duration of eye symptoms before treatment was less than 8 months. In patients suffering from eye symptoms for more than 1 year improvement was rare. Overall the Hertel values were 24.1 +/- 4.4 (SD) before and 22.8 +/- 3.4 after plasma exchange for the left eyes (P = 0.07) and 23.8 +/- 4.0 before and 23.0 +/- 3.8 after for the right eyes (P = 0.09). Nine patients altogether improved their ophthalmopathy index and periorbital oedema. In patients with disabling endocrine ophthalmopathy plasma exchange may sometimes be of value to induce a relief of the ophthalmopathy; when it is used it should be instituted before fibrotic changes occur. We suggest that concomitant immunosuppressive drugs should be given to prevent rebound phenomenon induced by plasma exchange. To establish the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy controlled studies should be performed. PMID:2228998

  1. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract. PMID:23461002

  2. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  3. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  4. Heat exchanger for electrothermal devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavesky, Ralph J. (Inventor); Sovey, James S. (Inventor); Mirtich, Michael J. (Inventor); Marinos, Charalampus (Inventor); Penko, Paul F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved electrothermal device is disclosed. An electrothermal thruster utilizes a generally cylindrical heat exchanger chamber to convert electricity to heat which raises the propellant temperature. A textured, high emissivity heat element radiatively transfers heat to the inner wall of this chamber that is ion beam morphologically controlled for high absorptivity. This, in turn, raises the temperature of a porous heat exchanger material in an annular chamber surrounding the cylindrical chamber. Propellant gas flows through the annular chamber and is heated by the heat exchanger material.

  5. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-09-25

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack.

  6. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  7. Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.

    2007-04-22

    We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.

  8. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity

    PubMed Central

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B.; Hodkinson, Trevor R.

    2011-01-01

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables—cultural, social, and economic—that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology—kinship, bridewealth, and filiation—we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels. PMID:22042843

  9. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.

  10. 75 FR 51138 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Exchange Act Release Nos. 62251 (June 10, 2010), 75 FR 34183 (June 16, 2010); 62252 (June 10, 2010), 75 FR...; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; EDGA... Securities Exchange LLC; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; National Stock Exchange, Inc.;...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 62 - Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application B Appendix B to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Pt. 62, App. B Appendix B to Part 62—Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor...

  12. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  13. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  14. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  15. Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Game Changing Development is taking on a technologydevelopment and demonstration effort to design, build, and test the next generation of Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers (PCM HXs) on ...

  16. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  17. Is the "glass ceiling" a real problem for women physicists in Argentina?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechero, Marisa A.; Amador, Ana; Pastor, Antonio J. Ramirez; Tamarit, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the distribution of female physicists in the Argentinean workforce, analyzing the distribution of women at different levels of education and research using several indicators. Although important imbalances still occur, our findings are encouraging and the distribution of female physicists seems to be changing for the better.

  18. Expert System For Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagby, D. Gordon; Cormier, Reginald A.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnosis simplified for non-engineers. Developmental expert-system computer program assists operator in controlling, monitoring operation, diagnosing malfunctions, and ordering repairs of heat-exchanger system dissipating heat generated by 20-kW radio transmitter. System includes not only heat exchanger but also pumps, fans, sensors, valves, reservoir, and associated plumbing. Program conceived to assist operator while avoiding cost of keeping engineer in full-time attendance. Similar programs developed for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems.

  19. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  20. Ion exchange - Simulation and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.; Finn, John E.

    1991-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for simulating multicomponent adsorption by ion-exchange resins was adapted for use as both an ASPEN-callable module and as a free-standing simulator of the ion-exchange bed. Four polystyrene-divinylbenzene sulfonic acid resins have been characterized for three principal ions. It is concluded that a chelating resin appears appropriate as a heavy-metal trap. The same ASPEN-callable module is used to model this resin when Wilson parameters can be obtained.

  1. Discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael C; Gibbs, Allen G

    2006-11-01

    Insect respiratory physiology has been studied for many years, and interest in this area of insect biology has become revitalized recently for a number of reasons. Technical advances have greatly improved the precision, accuracy and ease with which gas exchange can be measured in insects. This has made it possible to go beyond classic models such as lepidopteran pupae and examine a far greater diversity of species. One striking result of recent work is the realization that insect gas exchange patterns are much more diverse than formerly recognized. Current work has also benefited from the inclusion of comparative methods that rigorously incorporate phylogenetic, ecological and life history information. We discuss these advances in the context of the classic respiratory pattern of insects, discontinuous gas exchange. This mode of gas exchange was exhaustively described in moth pupae in the 1950s and 1960s. Early workers concluded that discontinuous gas exchange was an adaptation to reduce respiratory water loss. This idea is no longer universally accepted, and several competing hypotheses have been proposed. We discuss the genesis of these alternative hypotheses, and we identify some of the predictions that might be used to test them. We are pleased to report that what was once a mature discipline, in which the broad parameters and adaptive significance of discontinuous gas exchange were thought to be well understood, is now a thriving and vigorous field of research. PMID:16870512

  2. Hartree potential dependent exchange functional.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Lucian A; Fabiano, Eduardo; Della Sala, Fabio

    2016-08-28

    We introduce a novel non-local ingredient for the construction of exchange density functionals: the reduced Hartree parameter, which is invariant under the uniform scaling of the density and represents the exact exchange enhancement factor for one- and two-electron systems. The reduced Hartree parameter is used together with the conventional meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) semilocal ingredients (i.e., the electron density, its gradient, and the kinetic energy density) to construct a new generation exchange functional, termed u-meta-GGA. This u-meta-GGA functional is exact for the exchange of any one- and two-electron systems, is size-consistent and non-empirical, satisfies the uniform density scaling relation, and recovers the modified gradient expansion derived from the semiclassical atom theory. For atoms, ions, jellium spheres, and molecules, it shows a good accuracy, being often better than meta-GGA exchange functionals. Our construction validates the use of the reduced Hartree ingredient in exchange-correlation functional development, opening the way to an additional rung in the Jacob's ladder classification of non-empirical density functionals. PMID:27586907

  3. Virtual and real photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew, Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Maxwell did not believe in photons. However, his equations lead to electro-magnetic field structures that are considered to be photonic by Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED). They are complete, relativistically correct, and unchallenged after nearly 150 years. However, even though his far-field solution has been considered as the basis for photons, as they stand and are interpreted, they are better fitted to the concept of virtual rather than to real photons. Comparison between staticcharge fields, near-field coupling, and photonic radiation will be made and the distinctions identified. The question of similarities in, and differences between, the two will be addressed. Implied assumptions in Feynman's "Lectures" could lead one to believe that he had provided a general classical electrodynamics proof that an orbital electron must radiate. While his derivation is correct, two of the conditions defined do not always apply in this case. As a result, the potential for misinterpretation of his proof (as he himself did earlier) for this particular case has some interesting implications. He did not make the distinction between radiation from a bound electron driven by an external alternating field and one falling in a nuclear potential. Similar failures lead to misinterpreting the differences between virtual and real photons.

  4. Nanoparticle conversion chemistry: Kirkendall effect, galvanic exchange, and anion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Bryan D.; Tracy, Joseph B.

    2014-10-01

    Conversion chemistry is a rapidly maturing field, where chemical conversion of template nanoparticles (NPs) into new compositions is often accompanied by morphological changes, such as void formation. The principles and examples of three major classes of conversion chemical reactions are reviewed: the Kirkendall effect for metal NPs, galvanic exchange, and anion exchange, each of which can result in void formation in NPs. These reactions can be used to obtain complex structures that may not be attainable by other methods. During each kind of conversion chemical reaction, NPs undergo distinct chemical and morphological changes, and insights into the mechanisms of these reactions will allow for improved fine control and prediction of the structures of intermediates and products. Conversion of metal NPs into oxides, phosphides, sulphides, and selenides often occurs through the Kirkendall effect, where outward diffusion of metal atoms from the core is faster than inward diffusion of reactive species, resulting in void formation. In galvanic exchange reactions, metal NPs react with noble metal salts, where a redox reaction favours reduction and deposition of the noble metal (alloying) and oxidation and dissolution of the template metal (dealloying). In anion exchange reactions, addition of certain kinds of anions to solutions containing metal compound NPs drives anion exchange, which often results in significant morphological changes due to the large size of anions compared to cations. Conversion chemistry thus allows for the formation of NPs with complex compositions and structures, for which numerous applications are anticipated arising from their novel catalytic, electronic, optical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties.

  5. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  6. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  7. Einstein's Real "biggest Blunder"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2012-10-01

    Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term Λ, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes.

  8. Design of heat exchange element for plastic film heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, E. C.; Brownell, D. L.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to design a plastic film heat exchanger element (PFHX) suitable for use in an industrial heat pump evaporator. This report addresses the selection of materials, the expected flow and heat transfer behavior, and the mechanical design features of a parallel plate type exchanger that uses thin plastic films as the boundary between the two process fluids. Criteria for material selection are presented, candidate materials are reviewed, and material recommendations are provided. Heat transfer performance is addressed in terms of the overall or total coefficient of heat transfer between condensing steam and a confined falling film of water. Appropriate mechanical designs of water flow manifolds are described along with methods of fabrication and assembly. This report addresses only the individual heat exchange element.

  9. Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] Part XXIV Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC) SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION:...

  10. Conflict and Fairness in Social Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Collett, Jessica L.; Schaefer, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Inherent to all social exchange relations are elements of both cooperation and competition. We develop and test a theoretical model which proposes that the relative salience of the competitive, conflictual elements of exchange mediate and explain the negative effects of negotiated exchange, as compared with reciprocal exchange, on actors'…

  11. Building Cohesion in Positively Connected Exchange Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the process through which individuals build cohesive relationships in positively connected exchange relations. Positive connections exist any time exchange in one relation must precede exchange in another. Such situations arise through gatekeeping, in generalized exchange contexts, and when resources diffuse across a…

  12. Radiation Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-06-28

    A recent technology exchange between Argentina Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEA) and the US Department of Energy involved vitrification studies of ion exchange resins. Details of the spent ion exchange resins currently stored at two Argentine nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse, have been presented in earlier reports. The present study examines irradiation of simulant samples of ion exchange resins.

  13. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, Exchange Act Release No. 64874 (July 13, 2011), 76 FR 41676 (July... Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3282 (Jan. 20, 2010) (``CFTC Proposing Release... Recordkeeping; Final Rule, Exchange Act Release No. 67453 (July 18, 2012), 77 FR 48207 (Aug. 13,...

  14. A Colorful Ion Exchange Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Adélio

    1999-11-01

    A colorful ion-exchange experiment is described. The use of a resin with an adsorbed acid-base indicator allows students to follow the progress of the ion-exchange front along the column. In parallel, students can follow the ion-exchange breakthrough curve using a continuous conductometric cell at the column outlet. In the present example, K+ (KCl) exchanges with H+ (HCl) in a strong cationic resin (Amberlite IR 120). The adsorbed indicator is methyl violet. Sorption equilibrium is favorable to the K+ ions. Monovalent ions, used in this experiment, have the disadvantage of usually being colorless (except perhaps permanganate, but this is an extremely strong oxidant which attacks the resin). On the other hand, many divalent ions are colorful but the shape of the concentration front is hard to explain qualitatively as well as quantitatively. That is because the shape of the front depends on the total ionic concentration. However, color can be introduced in a monovalent ion-exchange system by adding an appropriate acid-base indicator to the resin. The text describes this experiment qualitatively. A simplified quantitative description, using the solute movement theory, can be found online.

  15. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  16. Multinucleon exchange in quasifission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayik, S.; Yilmaz, B.; Yilmaz, O.

    2015-12-01

    The nucleon exchange mechanism is investigated in the central collisions of 40Ca+238U and 48Ca+238U systems near the quasifission regime in the framework of the stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach. Sufficiently below the fusion barrier, a dinuclear structure in the collisions is maintained to a large extent. Consequently, it is possible to describe nucleon exchange as a diffusion process familiar from deep-inelastic collisions. Diffusion coefficients for proton and neutron exchange are determined from the microscopic basis of the SMF approach in the semiclassical framework. Calculations show that after a fast charge equilibration the system drifts toward symmetry over a very long interaction time. Large dispersions of proton and neutron distributions of the produced fragments indicate that the diffusion mechanism may help to populate heavy transuranium elements near the quasifission regime in these collisions.

  17. Pion exchange at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    The state of Regge pion exchange calculations for high-energy reactions is reviewed. Experimental evidence is summarized to show that (i) the pion trajectory has a slope similar to that of other trajectories; (ii) the pion exchange contribution can dominate contributions of higher trajectories up to quite a large energy; (iii) many two-body cross sections with large pion contributions can be fit only by models which allow for kinematical conspiracy at t=0. The theory of kinematic conspiracy is reviewed for two-body amplitudes, and calculations of the conspiring pion--Pomeron cut discussed. The author then summarizes recent work on pion exchange in Reggeized Deck models for multiparticle final states, with emphasis on the predictions of various models (with and without resonances) for phases of the partial wave amplitudes.

  18. Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange monitored by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poe, Brent; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the extent of isotopic exchange is a common means for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients in any type of medium (gas, liquid, amorphous solid, crystalline solid). For rapidly diffusing species such as hydrogen in condensed phases, real time methods involving vibrational spectroscopy can be used by taking advantage of the large relative mass difference between 1H and 2H, resulting in large differences in the band positions of their vibrational modes. We demonstrate rapid isotopic exchange between D2O liquid and H2O vapor using ATR (attenuated total reflectance) in a FTIR spectrometer. Over the course of a few minutes several spectra were acquired of a D2O droplet mounted on a diamond crystal. The progressive exchange reaction between the liquid phase and H2O from the atmosphere was monitored by measuring the decreasing absorbance of the D-O-D bending and O-D stretching bands and the increasing absorbance of the D-O-H and H-O-H bending and O-H stretching bands as functions of time. Our results offer some intriguing insights into the structural characteristics of water as inferred by this exchange process.

  19. Near real-time geomagnetic data for space weather applications in the European sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, M. G.; Hansen, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) is responsible for making and maintaining long time-series of geomagnetic measurements in Norway. TGO is currently operating 3 geomagnetic observatories and 11 variometer stations from southern Norway to Svalbard . Data from these 14 locations are acquired, processed and made available for the user community in near real-time. TGO is participating in several European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) space weather related projects where both near real-time data and derived products are provided. In addition the petroleum industry is benefiting from our real-time data services for directional drilling. Near real-time data from TGO is freely available for non-commercial purposes. TGO is exchanging data in near real-time with several institutions, enabling the presentation of near real-time geomagnetic data from more than 40 different locations in Fennoscandia and Greenland. The open exchange of non real-time geomagnetic data has been successfully going on for many years through services such as the world data center in Kyoto, SuperMAG, IMAGE and SPIDR. TGO's vision is to take this one step further and make the exchange of near real-time geomagnetic data equally available for the whole community. This presentation contains an overview of TGO, our activities and future aims. We will show how our near real-time data are presented. Our contribution to the space weather forecasting and nowcasting effort in the EU and ESA will be presented with emphasis on our real-time auroral activity index and brand new auroral activity monitor and electrojet tracker.

  20. NASA data exchange standards for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper covers the following topics in viewgraph format: purpose of data exchange standards; data exchange in engineering analysis/CFD; geometry data exchange through existing product data exchange standards, NASA Data Exchange Committee, and NASA-IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification); CFD grid and solution data exchange; and data exchange for multi-disciplinary engineering.

  1. The Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jacob

    Controlling magnetism via voltage in the virtual absence of electric current is the key to reduce power consumption while enhancing processing speed, integration density and functionality in comparison with present-day information technology. Almost all spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is therefore a key challenge to better spintronics. However, there is no direct interaction between magnetization and electric fields, thus making voltage control of magnetism in general a scientific challenge. The significance of controlled interface magnetism started with the exchange-bias effect. Exchange bias is a coupling phenomenon at magnetic interfaces that manifests itself prominently in the shift of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop along the magnetic-field axis. Various attempts on controlling exchange bias via voltage utilizing different scientific principles have been intensively studied recently. The majority of present research is emphasizing on various complex oxides. Our approach can be considered as a paradigm shift away from complex oxides. We focus on a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic simple oxide Cr2O3. From a combination of experimental and theoretical efforts, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr2O3 single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This is a significant scientific breakthrough providing a new route towards potentially revolutionizing information technology. In addition, a second path of electrically controlled exchange bias is introduced by exploiting the piezoelectric property of BaTiO3. An exchange-bias Co

  2. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  3. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  4. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  5. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  6. Melting barriers to faunal exchange across ocean basins.

    PubMed

    McKeon, C Seabird; Weber, Michele X; Alter, S Elizabeth; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Crandall, Eric D; Barshis, Daniel J; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan D; Oleson, Kirsten L L

    2016-02-01

    Accelerated loss of sea ice in the Arctic is opening routes connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for longer periods each year. These changes may increase the ease and frequency with which marine birds and mammals move between the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Indeed, recent observations of birds and mammals suggest these movements have intensified in recent decades. Reconnection of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins will present both challenges to marine ecosystem conservation and an unprecedented opportunity to examine the ecological and evolutionary consequences of interoceanic faunal exchange in real time. To understand these changes and implement effective conservation of marine ecosystems, we need to further develop modeling efforts to predict the rate of dispersal and consequences of faunal exchange. These predictions can be tested by closely monitoring wildlife dispersal through the Arctic Ocean and using modern methods to explore the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these movements. PMID:26618788

  7. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Hetz, Stefan K; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  8. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    .... See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69011, 78 FR 14844 (March 7, 2013). Because Topaz Exchange's... Exchange. \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69012 (March 1, 2013), 78 FR 14847 (``Notice''). \\6... Exchange Act Release No. 56955 (December 13, 2007), 72 FR 71979 (December 19, 2007) (File No....

  9. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects. PMID:23518739

  10. An Approach to Semantic Interoperability for Improved Capability Exchanges in Federations of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschoglou, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks an affirmative answer to the question whether a knowledge-based approach to system of systems interoperation using semantic web standards and technologies can provide the centralized control of the capability for exchanging data and services lacking in a federation of systems. Given the need to collect and share real-time…

  11. 75 FR 1441 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55575 (April 3, 2007), 72 FR 17963 (April 10, 2007) (SR-ISE-2006-59) (the... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Options on the Brazilian Real January 4, 2010... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The ISE proposes to change the modifier for the...

  12. 75 FR 58003 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... (August 10, 2010), 75 FR 50029. In its proposal, EDGX described real-time analytical tools offered by... an order message's receipt by an Exchange device until the time that a matching engine... market data, the time measurement will be from the time that the market data engine receives a...

  13. 75 FR 58002 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... (August 10, 2010), 75 FR 50017. In its proposal, EDGA described real-time analytical tools offered by... an order message's receipt by an Exchange device until the time that a matching engine... market data, the time measurement will be from the time that the market data engine receives a...

  14. 76 FR 79258 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ..., 2011. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65637, 76 FR 67512 (Nov. 1, 2011). The text of the... Nuevo Sol (USD/PEN) Spot, Forwards and Swaps); changes to CME Chapter 257H (Cleared OTC U.S. Dollar/Brazilian Real (USD/BRL) Spot, Forwards and Swaps); CME Chapter 260H (Cleared OTC U.S. Dollar/Russian...

  15. 7 CFR 772.8 - Sale or exchange of security property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... governed by 7 CFR part 1962, subpart A. (2) A sale or exchange of real estate that is serving as security for an IMP loan is governed by 7 CFR part 1965, subpart A. ... thereto that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, handicap, religion,...

  16. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  17. Selection of the air heat exchanger operating in a gas turbine air bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Czaja, Daniel; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    A gas turbine air bottoming cycle consists of a gas turbine unit and the air turbine part. The air part includes a compressor, air expander and air heat exchanger. The air heat exchanger couples the gas turbine to the air cycle. Due to the low specific heat of air and of the gas turbine exhaust gases, the air heat exchanger features a considerable size. The bigger the air heat exchanger, the higher its effectiveness, which results in the improvement of the efficiency of the gas turbine air bottoming cycle. On the other hand, a device with large dimensions weighs more, which may limit its use in specific locations, such as oil platforms. The thermodynamic calculations of the air heat exchanger and a preliminary selection of the device are presented. The installation used in the calculation process is a plate heat exchanger, which is characterized by a smaller size and lower values of the pressure drop compared to the shell and tube heat exchanger. Structurally, this type of the heat exchanger is quite similar to the gas turbine regenerator. The method on which the calculation procedure may be based for real installations is also presented, which have to satisfy the economic criteria of financial profitability and cost-effectiveness apart from the thermodynamic criteria.

  18. Balancing Real-World Problems with Real-World Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Real-world problems often do not mesh well with mandated curricula and texts. Designing challenges to develop the understandings, skills, and beliefs necessary for tackling real-life problems involves a commitment to authentic learning experiences of increasing sophistication. The experiential learning cycle, by combining academic, scenario, and…

  19. Real Leaders, Real Schools: Stories of Success against Enormous Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, Gerald C.

    2008-01-01

    "Real Leaders, Real Schools" tells the stories of five urban public school principals who led their schools through profound and transformative changes. In each of these cases, their efforts resulted in dramatic improvements in student achievement--improvements that occurred within the current environment of high-stakes tests. The revealing and…

  20. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer

  1. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  2. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-05-09

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  3. Homans on Exchange: Hedonism Revived

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Bengt

    1970-01-01

    George C. Homan's theory on social exchange is critically examined and found to have serious shortcomings with regard to its deductive and inductive aspects. An expecially prominent shortcoming concerns the tautological character of his concept of reward," which makes his theory deductively unclear and empirically untestable. Homan's critique…

  4. Export bill and scientific exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has signed into law the reauthorization of the Export Administration Act (EAA), first passed in 1979. The amended version of the law, signed July 12, includes a policy statement in support of “vigorous scientific enterprise. . .in accordance with applicable provisions of law. . .by means of publication, teaching, conferences, and other forms of scholarly exchange.”

  5. LENs: The Learning Exchange Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Pat

    LENs (Learning Exchange Networks) modules and seminars are a series of self-directed learning resources that are written by and for faculty. The intent of the modules and seminars is to enhance faculty learning in the fundamentals of curriculum design and adult learning. The original LENs program was developed at Humber College, Toronto, Ontario,…

  6. International Educational Exchange. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Richard E.; Awe, Ruth

    This bibliography was undertaken to facilitate and encourage further research in international education. Sources of the data include library reference works, University Microfilms containing PhD dissertations, US government agencies, foundations and universities. Entries include publications on the International Exchange of Students, Teachers and…

  7. Helping Behavior and Social Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enzle, Michael E.; Lowe, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    Social exchange theory was employed to predict instigative helping behavior as a function of two types of resources available to the recipient for reciprocation (social and non-social). The possibility of influencing reciprocation of both types of resources produced significant increases in subjects' helping. (Author)

  8. International Exchange of Official Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Johannes

    International exchange agreements potentially serve to facilitate the free access to official materials from abroad, similar to depository programs for national official publications collections and with corresponding issues of collecting and archiving electronic publications. In this connection, it is necessary to distinguish between exchange…

  9. Citizenship behavior and social exchange.

    PubMed

    Konovsky, M A; Pugh, S D

    1994-06-01

    This article develops and empirically examines a social exchange model of organizational citizenship behavior. An employee's trust in a supervisor is proposed to mediate the relationship between procedural fairness in the supervisor's decision making and employee citizenship. Data from 475 hospital employees and their supervisors were consistent with our model. We discuss future research directions. PMID:10134637

  10. Gambling, exchange systems, and moralities.

    PubMed

    Binde, Per

    2005-01-01

    History and ethnography show us that, across societies of the past and present, gambling varies considerably with respect to its organization, social meanings, and how it is regarded in moral terms. This paper presents a basic scheme for analyzing the relationship between gambling and society. A theoretical starting point is that reciprocity is fundamental to social and economic systems. An anthropological theory of exchange systems makes a broad distinction between a structural dimension (generalized versus balanced reciprocity) and a normative dimension (from voluntary to involuntary). A model of four basic forms of reciprocity, each having a characteristic exchange mode and morality, can thus be constructed. Gambling is here understood as an exchange system embedded in the reciprocal orders of society and having a necessary relationship to these; it can take on the characteristics of such an order or it can be regarded as conflicting with it. Much of the variation in the form and morality of gambling therefore emerges as systematic and explainable by a theory of forms of reciprocal exchange. PMID:16311877

  11. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  12. Teachers' Centers Exchange Directory. 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Barbara

    The 198 teacher centers listed in this directory comprise a network of teacher center practitioners who communicate with the Teachers' Centers Exchange (Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California). Centers in the United States and Canada are listed alphabetically by state. Information on each center…

  13. Lightweight long life heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. K.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of a full scale shuttle-type condensing heat exchanger constructed of aluminum and utilizing aluminum clad titanium parting sheets is described. A long term salt spray test of candidate parting sheet specimens is described. The results of an investigation into an alternate method of making composite sheet material are discussed.

  14. A Model for Student Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teays, T.; Henry, R. C.; Nagchaudhuri, A.; Bowden, M.; Chen, G.

    2011-09-01

    We describe a successful summer program to exchange students among three universities, in which they conducted hands-on research related to NASA's strategic enterprises in earth and space sciences, with particular emphases on aerospace and related engineering fields. The program was a part of NASA's Minority Serving Institutions Partnership Development Competition.

  15. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  16. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Thomas M.

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Optimal design of crossflow heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bulck, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The design of plate-fin and tube-fin crossflow heat exchangers is discussed. The transfer surface area of crossflow heat exchangers is used ineffectively because of the nonuniform distribution of the heat transfer across the volume of the exchanger. The optimal distribution of the transfer surface area for maximum heat exchanger effectiveness and constant total surface area is determined. It is found that a Dirac delta distribution of the transfer surface aligned along the diagonal of the crossflow exchanger gives the best performance; equal to that of a counterflow device. Design guidelines for optimal area allocation within crossflow heat exchangers are established. Compared to conventional designs, designs following these guidelines may lead to either a higher exchanger effectiveness for equal pressure drops and surface area, reduced pressure drops for equal exchanger effectiveness, or reduced weight and a near cubic form of the exchanger core for equal pressure drops and effectiveness.

  18. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Héctor; Fabry, Thomas; Laukkanen, Seppo; Mattila, Jouni; Tabourot, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities.

  19. Real-Time Benchmark Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-17

    This software provides a portable benchmark suite for real time kernels. It tests the performance of many of the system calls, as well as the interrupt response time and task response time to interrupts. These numbers provide a baseline for comparing various real-time kernels and hardware platforms.

  20. Diving into Real World Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  1. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  2. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira

  3. Exchange interactions in systems with multiple magnetic sites.

    PubMed

    Paul, Satadal; Misra, Anirban

    2010-06-24

    Nonequivalent magnetic interactions in systems with multiple magnetic centers can be explored through a proper description of exchange coupling. The magnetic exchange coupling constant (J) in systems with two magnetic sites is reliably estimated using Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck (HDVV) model through broken symmetry approach (BS) within a density functional theory (DFT) framework. However, in case of systems with multiple magnetic centers, exchange coupling constants, evaluated through state-of-the-art techniques, are often found to be inadequate to produce a correct fingerprint of the nature of magnetic interactions therein. This work suggests a new scheme to estimate exchange coupling constants in such systems. In this strategy, distribution of spins on magnetic sites in the ground state of systems with multiple magnetic centers is computed. On the basis of this spin mapping, exchange coupling constants between specific pairs are estimated through BS-DFT approach while keeping all other paramagnetic atoms magnetically inactive. Nonetheless, the effect of magnetically inert paramagnetic sites is already taken into account by the process of spin mapping, which is further justified through expressing the HDVV Hamiltonian in terms of spin density operators. We employ this technique to hypothetical benchmark systems, H(3)He(3) and H(4)He(4) followed by real molecules, cationic manganese trimer, 1,3,5-benzenetriyltris (N-tert-butyl nitroxide), and a pentanuclear manganese complex. Results are found to be concordant with the already established nature of magnetic interaction in these systems. This strategy is different from the most popular scheme to compute J in systems with multiple magnetic centers in the sense that it avoids the formation of a large matrix out of different spin configurations and thus provides a reliable and computationally economic way to address the magnetic interactions in non isotropic systems with multiple magnetic sites. PMID:20496941

  4. Novel graphical environment for virtual and real-world operations of tracked mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, ChuXin; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Azam, Mir; Lassiter, Nils T.

    1993-08-01

    A simulation, animation, visualization and interactive control (SAVIC) environment has been developed for the design and operation of an integrated mobile manipulator system. This unique system possesses the abilities for (1) multi-sensor simulation, (2) kinematics and locomotion animation, (3) dynamic motion and manipulation animation, (4) transformation between real and virtual modes within the same graphics system, (5) ease in exchanging software modules and hardware devices between real and virtual world operations, and (6) interfacing with a real robotic system. This paper describes a working system and illustrates the concepts by presenting the simulation, animation and control methodologies for a unique mobile robot with articulated tracks, a manipulator, and sensory modules.

  5. Offering Remotely Triggered, Real-Time Experiments in Electrochemistry for Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Sachin; Satsangee, Soami P.

    2014-01-01

    Remote access to real experiments is crucial for distance learners to experience the sciences. The exploitation of technology for this purpose is advantageous in global teaching and in exchange of ideas on a single front irrespective of distance barriers. Implementation of the distance method leads to cost-effective integrated-e-learning where…

  6. 17 CFR 210.12-24 - Real estate owned and rental income. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY... owned and rental income. 1 Part 1—Real estate owned at end of period Column A—List classification of property as indicated below 2 3 Column B—Amount of incombrances Column C—Initial cost to company Column...

  7. Distance Learning between German and Japanese School Classes Based on a Real Time Video Conference Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Klaus-D.

    We have established an environment for German-Japanese school education projects using real time interactive audio-visual distance learning between remote classrooms. In periods of 8-12 weeks, two classes are dealing with the same subject matter, exchanging materials and results via e-mail and Internet. At 3 or 4 occasions the classes met on…

  8. The optimum fin spacing of circular tube bank fin heat exchanger with vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wanling; Su, Mei; Wang, Liangcheng; Zhang, Qiang; Chang, Limin; Liu, Song; Wang, Liangbi

    2013-09-01

    In real application, once the pattern of fin is determined, fin spacing of tube bank fin heat exchanger can be adjusted in a small region, and air flow velocity in the front of the heat exchanger is not all the same. Therefore, the effects of fin spacing on heat transfer performance of such heat exchanger are needed. This paper numerically studied the optimal fin spacing regarding the different front flow velocities of a circular tube bank fin heat exchanger with vortex generators. To screen the optimal fin spacing, an appropriate evaluation criterion JF was used. The results show that when front velocity is 1.75 m/s, the optimal fin spacing is 2.25 mm, when front velocity is 2.5 m/s, the optimal fin spacing is 2 mm, and when front velocity is higher than 2.5 m/s, the optimal fin spacing is 1.75 mm.

  9. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  10. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  11. The Kinetics of Isotopic Exchange Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the kinetic interactions of these chemical processes and the determination of the actual order of such reactions. Included are multiple exchange, catalytic exchange with deuterium, and depletion of the original substrate. (CW)

  12. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  13. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  14. Spin Exchange in Rydberg EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Travis; Thompson, Jeff; Liang, Qiyu; Cantu, Sergio; Venkatramani, Aditya; Pohl, Thomas; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    The realization of strong optical nonlinearities between two photons has been a longstanding goal in quantum science. We achieve large single-photon-level nonlinearities with Rydberg EIT, which combines slow light techniques with strongly interacting Rydberg states. For two Rydberg atoms in the same state, a Van der Waals interaction is the dominant coupling mechanism. Inherently stronger dipole-dipole interactions are also possible between atoms in different Rydberg states. Using light storage and microwave resonances, we study the effect of dipole-dipole interactions in Rydberg EIT. We observe a coherent spin exchange effect for pairs of states dominated by dipole-dipole interactions. Spin exchange manifests as an increase in optical transmission through a cold Rubidium gas that is highly dissipative in the presence of Van der Waals interactions. We also observe a controlled π / 2 phase shift due to this effect, which paves the way for robust, universal all-optical quantum gates.

  15. The picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed. PMID:9857393

  16. Metabolic exchanges within tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2016-09-28

    Tumor progression toward malignancy often requires a metabolic rewiring of cancer cells to meet changes in metabolic demand to forefront nutrient and oxygen withdrawal, together with strong anabolic requests to match high proliferation rate. Tumor microenvironment highly contributes to metabolic rewiring of cancer cells, fostering complete nutrient exploitation, favoring OXPHOS of lipids and glutamine at the expense of glycolysis and enhancing exchanges via extracellular microvesicles or exosomes of proteins, lipids and small RNAs among tumor and stromal cells. Noteworthy, the same molecular drivers of metabolic reprogramming within tumor and stroma are also able to elicit motility, survival and self-renewal on cancer cells, thereby sustaining successful escaping strategies to circumvent the hostile hypoxic, acidic and inflammatory environment. This review highlights the emerging role of nutrients and vesicle-mediated exchanges among tumor and stromal cells, defining their molecular pathways and offering new perspectives to develop treatments targeting this complex metabolic rewiring. PMID:26546872

  17. Heat exchanger and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  18. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the following news headlines: ADPE acquisition process made easy with SRP; scientific reference material available; ORPS WordPerfect macro setup procedure; system managed storage is here; LIBSPOOL for MVS mainframe end-users; training center course schedule for February 1993; enjoy NJOY; scientific user services staff decreased; new release of Forwarn, a static source code analysis tool for FORTRAN programs; out of the cold with HEAT; coping cells from one table to another in word perfect; used PC equipment pool; and video training.

  19. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on computer environments: Releasing computer software outside EG G Idaho; Ilford digital photo imager; mandatory upgrade of PC ORPS software; ORPS host computer upgrade; EROB computer users see network change; password expiration notice; big iron still has place in HPC market; handy scripts to copy and move files; more on workstation password expiration; training center course schedule for April 1993; Microsoft Word Version 5.1a- button bar; file attributes can provide you greater flexibility; constructing a personal WordPerfect dictionary; and Windows shortcuts.

  20. Exchanging clinical knowledge via Internet.

    PubMed

    Buchan, I E; Hanka, R

    1997-11-01

    The need for effective and efficient exchange of clinical knowledge is increasing. Paper based methods for managing clinical knowledge are not meeting the demand for knowledge and this has undoubtedly contributed to the widely reported failures of clinical guidelines. Internet affords both opportunities and dangers for clinical knowledge. Systems such as Wax have demonstrated the importance of intuitive structure in the management of knowledge. We report on a new initiative for the global management of clinical knowledge. PMID:9506390

  1. Improved Ceramic for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Rauch, H. W.; Mccreeght, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Most promising composition developed in investigation consisted of mixed oxides described generically as ZrMAS. Has been commercially designated as GE-7808. Material was obtained from low-cost clay/talc mixture. Overall assessment of ZrMAS indicates it is a viable candidate for heat-exchanger application in automotive gas-turbine engines and possibly other areas that require dielectric materials of moderate refractoriness, good corrosion resistance, and excellent thermal-shock resistance.

  2. Security message exchange interoperability scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, Thomas

    1998-07-01

    This contribution describes three interoperability scenarios for the ATM Security Message Exchange (SME) protocol. These scenarios include network-wide signaling support for the Security Services Information Element, partial signaling support wherethe SSIE is only supported in private or workgroup ATM networks, and the case where the SSIE is nonsupported by any network elements (exceptthosethat implement security services). Explanatory text is proposed for inclusion infection 2.3 of the ATM Security Specification, Version 1.0.

  3. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.

    1996-10-01

    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  4. SODIUM-WATER HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, W.R.; Koch, L.J.

    1962-04-17

    A heat exchanger comprising a tank for hot liquid and a plurality of concentric, double tubes for cool liquid extending vertically through the tank is described. These tubes are bonded throughout most of their length but have an unbonded portion at both ends. The inner tubes extend between headers located above and below the tanmk and the outer tubes are welded into tube sheets forming the top and bottom of the tank at locations in the unbonded portions of the tubes. (AEC)

  5. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  6. Indeterminacy in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Michele; Serva, Maurizio

    2000-03-01

    We discuss price variations distributions in foreign exchange markets, characterizing them both in calendar and business time frameworks. The price dynamics is found to be the result of two distinct processes, a multi-variance diffusion and an error process. The presence of the latter, which dominates at short time scales, leads to indeterminacy principle in finance. Furthermore, dynamics does not allow for a scheme based on independent probability distributions, since volatility exhibits a strong correlation even at the shortest time scales.

  7. Heat exchanger for electrothermal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zavesky, R.J.; Sovey, J.S.; Mirtich, M.J.; Marinos, C.; Penko, P.F.

    1986-09-02

    A heat exchanger is described for heating a gaseous propellant to a temperature between about 200/sup 0/C and about 2200/sup 0/C in an electrothermal thruster having a nozzle comprising a hollow housing forming a cylindrical chamber adjacent to the nozzle, the hollow housing having a textured inner surface to provide high absorptivity and an oppositely disposed textured outer surface to provide high emissivity, an outer housing surrounding the cylindrical chamber in spaced relationship thereto thereby forming an annular chamber for conducting the gaseous propellant to the nozzle, a porous heat exchanger material selected from the group consisting of refractories, ceramics, and cermets contained within the annular chamber, housing a wire coiled about the outer surface of the hollow housing in engagement with the outer housing for providing a lengthened spiral flow path for the propellant to the annular chamber, an electrical heating comprising a coiled tube having a wall thickness of about 0.25 mm and a textured surface for providing high emissivity mounted within the cylindrical chamber in spaced relationship with the textured inner surface for radiatively heating the hollow housing and heat exchanger material without contacting the gaseous propellant, means for supplying a gaseous propellant to the lengthened spiral flow path and seal annular chamber whereby the propellant is uniformly heated by the hollow housing and the porous heat exchanger material as it flows therethrough in a minimum gas path length, and a thermal choke formed in the electrical heating element adjacent to the coiled wire for reducing conducted thermal energy.

  8. Real-time flutter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.; Walker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and a FORTRAN 77 MOdal Parameter IDentification (MOPID) computer program developed for identification of the frequencies and damping ratios of multiple flutter modes in real time are documented. Physically meaningful model parameterization was combined with state of the art recursive identification techniques and applied to the problem of real time flutter mode monitoring. The performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence speed and parameter estimation error is demonstrated for several simulated data cases, and the results of actual flight data analysis from two different vehicles are presented. It is indicated that the algorithm is capable of real time monitoring of aircraft flutter characteristics with a high degree of reliability.

  9. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-08-24

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction.

  10. Oxidizer heat exchanger component test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanic, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    The RL10-IIB engine, is capable of multimode thrust operation. The engine operates at two low-thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), approximately 1 to 2 percent of full thrust; and pumped idle, 10 percent of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank prepressurization and maneuver thrust for low-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-IIB engine during the low-thrust operating modes can be accomplished by using a heat exchanger to supply gaseous oxygen to the propellant injector. The oxidized heat exchanger (OHE) vaporizes the liquid oxygen using hydrogen as the energy source. This report summarizes the test activity and post-test data analysis for two possible heat exchangers, each of which employs a completely different design philosophy. One design makes use of a low-heat transfer (PHT) approach in combination with a volume to attenuate pressure and flow oscillations. The test data showed that the LHT unit satisfied the oxygen exit quality of 0.95 or greater in both the THI and PI modes while maintaining stability. The HHT unit fulfilled all PI requirements; data for THI satisfactory operation is implied from experimental data that straddle the exact THI operating point.

  11. 25 CFR 151.6 - Exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchanges. 151.6 Section 151.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.6 Exchanges. An individual Indian or tribe may acquire land in trust status by exchange if the acquisition comes within the terms...

  12. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  13. A theological perspective on social exchange theory.

    PubMed

    Hill, E W

    1992-06-01

    This article provides a brief review of the basic principles of social exchange theory with an emphasis on a social exchange model of conflict. The key concepts of justice, reciprocity, and equity comprised in social exchange theory are addressed from a social and theological perspective. PMID:24272881

  14. Neighbourhood Book Exchanges: Localising Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Tenny; Gollner, Kathleen; Nathan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Through this paper we report on an exploratory study into the design and use of neighbourhood book exchanges in North America. We identify dominant media framings of these book exchanges in North America, along with claims made concerning the influence of the exchanges. We compare the media claims with insights from interviews with…

  15. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  16. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  17. Wright State University International Student Exchange Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Harold L.

    The Wright State University International Student Exchange Program is described. This school's approach to student exchange programs immerses students in the daily life of countries in Asia and South America at minimal cost to the participating institutions. Through exchange agreements with universities in Japan, Brazil, and China, students get 4…

  18. A fuel-oil matrix heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulin, E. I.; Shevich, Iu. A.; Potapov, V. N.; Veselov, V. A.; Saltais, E. A.; Glukhovskii, G. I.

    A novel design of a welded matrix heat exchanger capable of handling high-pressure liquid and gas coolants is described. Results of tests conducted on matrix heat exchangers and their models are presented, and formulas are recommended for calculating the heat transfer and hydraulic resistance characteristics. A comparison of the characteristics of matrix and tube heat exchangers demonstrates the advantages of the former.

  19. Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Fred E.; Howell, Harold R.; Winkler, Roger V.

    1990-03-01

    Disclosed is an interdigitated plate-type heat exchanger interface. The interface includes a modular interconnect to thermally connect a pair or pairs of plate-type heat exchangers to a second single or multiple plate-type heat exchanger. The modular interconnect comprises a series of parallel, plate-type heat exchangers arranged in pairs to form a slot therebetween. The plate-type heat exchangers of the second heat exchanger insert into the slots of the modular interconnect. Bellows are provided between the pairs of fins of the modular interconnect so that when the bellows are pressurized, they drive the plate-type heat exchangers of the modular interconnect toward one another, thus closing upon the second heat exchanger plates. Each end of the bellows has a part thereof a thin, membrane diaphragm which readily conforms to the contours of the heat exchanger plates of the modular interconnect when the bellows is pressurized. This ensures an even distribution of pressure on the heat exchangers of the modular interconnect thus creating substantially planar contact between the two heat exchangers. The effect of the interface of the present invention is to provide a dry connection between two heat exchangers whereby the rate of heat transfer can be varied by varying the pressure within the bellows.

  20. Power and Dependence in Intimate Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Macy, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    A division of labor is mediated by exchange of valued goods and services. We use social exchange theory to extend this principal to "labors of love." Sexual activity in a close personal relationship seems outside the domain of bargaining and exchange. Nevertheless, we explore the possibility that this most intimate of human relations is influenced…

  1. Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Fred E. (Inventor); Howell, Harold R. (Inventor); Winkler, Roger V. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is an interdigitated plate-type heat exchanger interface. The interface includes a modular interconnect to thermally connect a pair or pairs of plate-type heat exchangers to a second single or multiple plate-type heat exchanger. The modular interconnect comprises a series of parallel, plate-type heat exchangers arranged in pairs to form a slot therebetween. The plate-type heat exchangers of the second heat exchanger insert into the slots of the modular interconnect. Bellows are provided between the pairs of fins of the modular interconnect so that when the bellows are pressurized, they drive the plate-type heat exchangers of the modular interconnect toward one another, thus closing upon the second heat exchanger plates. Each end of the bellows has a part thereof a thin, membrane diaphragm which readily conforms to the contours of the heat exchanger plates of the modular interconnect when the bellows is pressurized. This ensures an even distribution of pressure on the heat exchangers of the modular interconnect thus creating substantially planar contact between the two heat exchangers. The effect of the interface of the present invention is to provide a dry connection between two heat exchangers whereby the rate of heat transfer can be varied by varying the pressure within the bellows.

  2. 76 FR 33993 - Exchange Visitor Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Part 62 RIN 1400-ZA20 Exchange Visitor Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of... Sector Exchange, 2200 C Street NW., SA-5, 5th Floor, Washington, DC 20522; e-mail JExchanges@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Recent political turmoil in Libya has affected Exchange Visitor Program college...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  8. Origins of Linear Partitioning in Binary Solutions: the Exchange Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    Linear partitioning occurs when, as often in petrologic systems and perhaps always in azeotropes, a straight- line relationship occurs when the partition coefficient D = X1S/X1L is plotted against the solid composition X2S and runs from an intercept value KD at pure (2) to 1.0 at pure (1). The equation is then D = KD*X2S + X1S (Morse 1997, JGeol 105:471; 2000 GCA, 64:2309). The notation KD was taken from its long-standing familiarity in binary solutions (Roeder & Emslie 1970, CMP 29:275) and described as the exchange coefficient (Beattie et al. 1993 GCA 57:1605). But the binary loop is not in itself an exchange equilibrium; it is a transfer equilibrium marching to a different drummer, and that causes a problem (Kretz 2005, CanMin 43:1349). In at least three ways, the binary loop qualifies as an exchange reaction and justifies calling the intercept KD. To the experimentalist this issue never arises. In a perfect liquidus experiment, an infinitesimal mass of liquid is indeed transferred to the crystal. A second bulk composition is then made, and at the new liquidus a second mass transfer occurs. The ensemble of all such perfect partitioning experiments in sufficient number then completely delineates the binary loop without any continuous transfer at changing T having taken place. The partitionings are therefore truly independent of the path. Moreover, each equilibrium pair defines a common tangent in G-X space whose intercept at pure (2) unarguably gives the value of the common chemical potential, a partial Gibbs energy. But where is the exchange reaction? The real experimentalist makes no perfect experiments, and neither does nature. In reality, the barrier to nucleation (particularly formidable in the case of plagioclase) dictates that the crystals nucleate only at some supercooling. They therefore have some composition between the initial solidus and the liquid lying at the bulk composition (BC). Over time the two phases may drift apart by diffusion, the crystal

  9. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  10. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks—the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain—and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs. PMID:26482121

  11. Real-time refinery optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    This article discusses refinery operation with specific consideration of the topics of: gasoline; control projects; catalytic reforming control; hydrocracker control packages; blending optimization; real-time data acquisition; and other plant automation packages.

  12. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  13. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  14. Quantifying randomness in real networks.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs. PMID:26482121

  15. Real Automation in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Mayero, Micaela; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We provide a package of strategies for automation of non-linear arithmetic in PVS. In particular, we describe a simplication procedure for the field of real numbers and a strategy for cancellation of common terms.

  16. The real-world navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balabanovic, Marko; Becker, Craig; Morse, Sarah K.; Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    1994-01-01

    The success of every mobile robot application hinges on the ability to navigate robustly in the real world. The problem of robust navigation is separable from the challenges faced by any particular robot application. We offer the Real-World Navigator as a solution architecture that includes a path planner, a map-based localizer, and a motion control loop that combines reactive avoidance modules with deliberate goal-based motion. Our architecture achieves a high degree of reliability by maintaining and reasoning about an explicit description of positional uncertainty. We provide two implementations of real-world robot systems that incorporate the Real-World Navigator. The Vagabond Project culminated in a robot that successfully navigated a portion of the Stanford University campus. The Scimmer project developed successful entries for the AIAA 1993 Robotics Competition, placing first in one of the two contests entered.

  17. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  18. Real Time Data System (RTDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned from operational real time expert systems are examined. The basic system architecture is discussed. An expert system is any software that performs tasks to a standard that would normally require a human expert. An expert system implies knowledge contained in data rather than code. And an expert system implies the use of heuristics as well as algorithms. The 15 top lessons learned by the operation of a real time data system are presented.

  19. Real and hybrid atomic orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-09-01

    It is shown that the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. Thus the real and hybrid atomic orbitals have as sound a pedigree as the more familiar complex orbitals based on the separation of the Schrödinger equation in spherical polar coordinates.

  20. An Algorithm for Network Real Time Kinematic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Asgari, J.; Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    NRTK1 is an efficient method to achieve precise real time positioning from GNSS measurements. In this paper we attempt to improve NRTK algorithm by introducing a new strategy. In this strategy a precise relocation of master station observations is performed using Sagnac effect. After processing the double differences, the tropospheric and ionospheric errors of each baseline can be estimated separately. The next step is interpolation of these errors for the atmospheric errors mitigation of desired baseline. Linear and kriging interpolation methods are implemented in this study. In the new strategy the RINEX2 data of the master station is re-located and is converted to the desired virtual observations. Then the interpolated corrections are applied to the virtual observations. The results are compared by the classical method of VRS generation. 1 Network Real Time Kinematic 2 Receiver Independent Exchange Format

  1. Real-time GPS Ionospheric TEC Estimation over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Roh, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Ionosphere is one of the largest error sources when the navigational signals produced by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are transmitted. Therefore it is very important to estimate total electron contents (TEC) in ionosphere precisely for navigation, precise positioning and some other applications. When we provide ionospheric TEC values in real-time, its application can be expanded to other areas. In this study we have used data obtained from nine Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations which have been operated by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) to detect ionospheric TEC over South Korea in real-time. We performed data processing that covers converting 1Hz raw data delivered from GNSS reference stations to Receiver INdependent Exchange (RINEX) format files at intervals of 5 minutes. We also analyzed the elevation angles of GPS satellites, vertical TEC (VTEC) values and their changes.

  2. 45 CFR 155.140 - Establishment of a regional Exchange or subsidiary Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT General Standards Related to the Establishment of an Exchange § 155.140 Establishment of... the PHS Act. (c) Exchange standards. Each regional or subsidiary Exchange must: (1) Otherwise meet...

  3. 45 CFR 155.140 - Establishment of a regional Exchange or subsidiary Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT General Standards Related to the Establishment of an Exchange § 155.140 Establishment of... the PHS Act. (c) Exchange standards. Each regional or subsidiary Exchange must: (1) Otherwise meet...

  4. 15 CFR 806.8 - Real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate. 806.8 Section 806.8... ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.8 Real estate. Residential real..., is considered real estate held for personal use. Ownership of residential real estate by...

  5. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    DOEpatents

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  6. Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Wilhelm, R.

    2007-12-01

    Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning (REAL) is an innovative and new approach to student learning that thoughtfully integrates the excitement of space science discovery with science and mathematics. Students explore NASA images of planetary surfaces using the contexts of crater density, cratering rates, and surface age while developing critical thinking skills in science and mathematics that can be applied to any number of real life situations. Project REAL participants develop, implement, and evaluate an integrated astronomy curriculum designed for middle level students that focuses on the tools necessary for astronomy research concerning the origins and evolution of surface features on planetary bodies within our Solar System. Through the REAL curriculum, students experience the excitement of exploration by becoming authentic space science researchers. Students are provided with opportunities to: • Engage in hands-on space science research • Both quantitatively and qualitatively understand the phases of the Moon, and the origins and evolution of specific features on the surfaces of planetary bodies within our Solar System • Communicate their own scientific thinking and to understand others’ scientific thinking We present year one's findings concerning the state and effectiveness of this REAL curriculum funded by a NASA-IDEAS grant.

  7. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  8. Tear exchange and contact lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N.; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. PMID:25575892

  9. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-03-14

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment. 1.1033(g)-1 Section 1.1033(g)-1 Internal Revenue... Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(g)-1 Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business... advertising displays as real property—(1) In general. Under section 1033(g)(3) of the Code, a taxpayer...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment. 1.1033(g)-1 Section 1.1033(g)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(g)-1 Condemnation of real property held for productive use... treat outdoor advertising displays as real property—(1) In general. Under section 1033(g)(3) of the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment. 1.1033(g)-1 Section 1.1033(g)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(g)-1 Condemnation of real property held for productive use... treat outdoor advertising displays as real property—(1) In general. Under section 1033(g)(3) of the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment. 1.1033(g)-1 Section 1.1033(g)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(g)-1 Condemnation of real property held for productive use... treat outdoor advertising displays as real property—(1) In general. Under section 1033(g)(3) of the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment. 1.1033(g)-1 Section 1.1033(g)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(g)-1 Condemnation of real property held for productive use... treat outdoor advertising displays as real property—(1) In general. Under section 1033(g)(3) of the...

  15. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  16. Kondo versus indirect exchange: Role of lattice and actual range of RKKY interactions in real materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allerdt, Andrew; Büsser, C. A.; Martins, G. B.; Feiguin, A. E.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic impurities embedded in a metal interact via an effective Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling mediated by the conduction electrons, which is commonly assumed to be long ranged, with an algebraic decay in the interimpurity distance. However, they can also form a Kondo screened state that is oblivious to the presence of other impurities. We study the competition mechanisms between both effects on the square and cubic lattices by introducing an exact mapping onto an effective one-dimensional problem that we can solve with the density matrix renormalization group method. We show a dramatic departure from the conventional RKKY theory, that can be attributed to the dimensionality and different densities of states, as well as the quantum nature of the magnetic moments. In particular, for dimension d >1 , Kondo physics dominates even at short distances, while the ferromagnetic RKKY state is energetically unfavorable. Our findings can have clear implications in the interpretation of experiments and for tailoring the magnetic properties of surfaces.

  17. Real time monitoring of temperature of a micro proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Hu, Yuh-Chung; Shih, Wen-Pin; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chuang, Chih-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Silicon micro-hole arrays (Si-MHA) were fabricated as a gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a micro fuel cell using the micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) fabrication technique. The resistance temperature detector (RTD) sensor was integrated with the GDL on a bipolar plate to measure the temperature inside the fuel cell. Experimental results demonstrate that temperature was generally linearly related to resistance and that accuracy and sensitivity were within 0.5 °C and 1.68×10(-3)/°C, respectively. The best experimental performance was 9.37 mW/cm(2) at an H(2)/O(2) dry gas flow rate of 30/30 SCCM. Fuel cell temperature during operation was 27 °C, as measured using thermocouples in contact with the backside of the electrode. Fuel cell operating temperature measured in situ was 30.5 °C. PMID:22573963

  18. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators, or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  19. Electronic computers and telephone exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective on the telephone, with emphasis on development of digital methods, is presented. Starting with its invention in 1876, major breakthroughs in transmission and switching circuitry are reviewed. The thermionic valve (1917), the Eccles-Jordan trigger circuit (1921), copper oxide rectifiers (1920's), and the gas-tube binary counter (1931) are highlighted. The evolution of logic design in telephone exchanges and the interaction this had with electronic computers is then traced up to the appearance of COLOSSUS, a specialized electronic computer used for cryptanalysis (1943).

  20. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  1. Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.; Rogers, M.L.

    1980-09-30

    Starting from an effort to control airborne emissions, the Mound tritium containment program has evolved to include development of the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process. This process separates tritiated aqueous streams into detritiated water and an enriched hydrogen stream that is suitable for use by other tritium recovery processes. Experimentation has shown that the process performs as predicted by bench-scale measurements, and that available process components exhibit acceptable resistance to damage by radiation from tritium exposure. Planned future efforts are concentrated on finalizing automatic control of the process and on developing feed treatment methods for the protection of process components.

  2. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOEpatents

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  3. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOEpatents

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  4. Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids.

  5. Random exchange interaction effects on the phase transitions in frustrated classical Heisenberg model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W. C.; Song, X.; Feng, J. J.; Zeng, M.; Gao, X. S.; Qin, M. H.; Jia, X. T.

    2015-07-07

    In this work, the effects of the random exchange interaction on the phase transitions and phase diagrams of classical frustrated Heisenberg model are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in order to simulate the chemical doping effect in real materials. It is observed that the antiferromagnetic transitions shift toward low temperature with the increasing magnitude of the random exchange interaction, which can be qualitatively understood from the competitions among local spin states. This study is related to the magnetic properties in the doped iron-based superconductors.

  6. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and

  7. A real-world way to manage real options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions. PMID:15029793

  8. Orbital Propagation of Momentum Exchange Tether Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerhoff, John

    2002-01-01

    An advanced concept in in-space transportation currently being studied is the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost Tether System (MXER). The system acts as a large momentum wheel, imparting a Av to a payload in low earth orbit (LEO) at the expense of its own orbital energy. After throwing a payload, the system reboosts itself using an electrodynamic tether to push against Earth's magnetic field and brings itself back up to an operational orbit to prepare for the next payload. The ability to reboost itself allows for continued reuse of the system without the expenditure of propellants. Considering the cost of lifting propellant from the ,ground to LEO to do the same Av boost at $10000 per pound, the system cuts the launch cost of the payload dramatically, and subsequently, the MXER system pays for itself after a small number of missions.1 One of the technical hurdles to be overcome with the MXER concept is the rendezvous maneuver. The rendezvous window for the capture of the payload is on the order of a few seconds, as opposed to traditional docking maneuvers, which can take as long ets necessary to complete a precise docking. The payload, therefore, must be able to match its orbit to meet up with the capture device on the end of the tether at a specific time and location in the future. In order to be able to determine that location, the MXER system must be numerically propagated forward in time to predict where the capture device will be at that instant. It should be kept in mind that the propagation computation must be done faster than real-time. This study focuses on the efforts to find and/or build the tools necessary to numerically propagate the motion of the MXER system as accurately as possible.

  9. Making real options really work.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

  10. Improved ceramic heat exchange material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollister, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    Improved corrosion resistant ceramic materials that are suitable for use as regenerative heat exchangers for vehicular gas turbines is reported. Two glass-ceramic materials, C-144 and C-145, have superior durability towards sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate compared to lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) Corning heat exchange material 9455. Material C-144 is a leached LAS material whose major crystalline phase is silica keatite plus mullite, and C-145 is a LAS keatite solid solution (S.S.) material. In comparison to material 9455, material C-144 is two orders of magnitude better in dimensional stability to sulfuric acid at 300 C, and one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate at 1000 C. Material C-145 is initially two times better in stability to sulfuric acid, and about one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate. Both C-144 and C-145 have less than 300 ppm delta L/L thermal expansion from ambient to 1000 C, and good dimensional stability of less than approximately 100 ppm delta L/L after exposure to 1000 C for 100 hours. The glass-ceramic fabrication process produced a hexagonal honeycomb matrix having an 85% open frontal area, 50 micrometer wall thickness, and less than 5% porosity.

  11. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  12. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  13. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  14. Breath tests and airway gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Measuring soluble gas in the exhaled breath is a non-invasive technique used to estimate levels of respiratory, solvent, and metabolic gases. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the assumption that the measured gases exchange in the alveoli. While the respiratory gases have a low blood-solubility and exchange in the alveoli, high blood-soluble gases exchange in the airways. The effect of airway gas exchange on the interpretation of these exhaled breath measurements can be significant. We describe airway gas exchange in relation to exhaled measurements of soluble gases that exchange in the alveoli. The mechanisms of airway gas exchange are reviewed and criteria for determining if a gas exchanges in the airways are provided. The effects of diffusion, perfusion, temperature and breathing maneuver on airway gas exchange and on measurement of exhaled soluble gas are discussed. A method for estimating the impact of airway gas exchange on exhaled breath measurements is presented. We recommend that investigators should carefully control the inspired air conditions and type of exhalation maneuver used in a breath test. Additionally, care should be taken when interpreting breath tests from subjects with pulmonary disease. PMID:16413216

  15. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  16. DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.

    1990-11-01

    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs. 27 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Establishment Reality vs. Maintenance Reality: How Real Is Real Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, E. D.; Murray, S.; Liu, D. K.; Lowe, D. B.; Bright, C. G.

    2009-01-01

    Remote and virtual laboratories are increasingly prevalent alternatives to the face-to-face laboratory experience; however, the question of their learning outcomes is yet to be fully investigated. There are many presumptions regarding the effectiveness of these approaches; foremost amongst these assumptions is that the experience must be "real" to…

  18. Model of Wikipedia growth based on information exchange via reciprocal arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, V.; Štefančić, H.

    2011-03-01

    We show how reciprocal arcs significantly influence the structural organization of Wikipedias, online encyclopedias. It is shown that random addition of reciprocal arcs in the static network cannot explain the observed reciprocity of Wikipedias. A model of Wikipedia growth based on preferential attachment and on information exchange via reciprocal arcs is presented. An excellent agreement between in-degree distributions of our model and real Wikipedia networks is achieved without fitting the distributions, but by merely extracting a small number of model parameters from the measurement of real networks.

  19. Electric Control of Exchange Bias Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, W.; Binek, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr2O3, and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  20. Crude oil preheat exchanger fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of fouling in crude oil preheat exchangers. The mechanism is based on experimental work performed by simulating fouling using a thermal fouling test unit. Based on experimental results, the authors concluded that organic fouling is caused by asphaltene/oil incompatible, which lead to asphaltene separation, adhesion to the metal and finally carbonization into infusable coke on the hot metal surface. Based on results obtained from the mechanism studies, they developed an instrumental fouling analyzer to measure asphaltene/oil incompatibility and translate it into digital index representing thermal fouling. Exxon fouling analyzer is currently used successfully at seven refineries. This paper also describes fouling mitigation by the use of antifoulants. The correct selection and proper use of antifoulants are key factors in successful and economical treatment of high fouling crude oils.

  1. The dynamic multimodeling exchange language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Fishwick, Paul A.

    2003-09-01

    The web has made it easy to create multimedia content, which is then viewable by the general community at large. By extending multimedia to include the area of modeling, we make it possible to share and process model structures in the same way as the typical web page. For models of the geometric variety, the new X3D (eXtensible 3D) standard will allow sharing and presentation of 3D scene graphs within the web browser. We have created a dynamic model counterpart to X3D, which we call DXL (Dynamics eXchange Language). DXL is low-level XML-based language, comprising blocks, ports, and connectors. We will define how DXL is used for constructing individual level models, as well as multimodels over multiple abstraction layers.

  2. Oxidizer heat exchanger component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T.; Kanic, P.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the RL10 Rocket Engine Product Improvement Program, Oxidizer Heat Exchanger (OHE) stages 1, 2, and 3 were designed and fabricated during late 1983 and early 1984. The purpose of the OHE is to provide gaseous oxygen to the propellant injector for stable engine operation at tank head idle and pumped idle operating modes. This report summarizes the OHE stages 1 and 3 rig testing, and includes the separation of the stage 1-and-2 assembly and the remanifolding of stage 1. The OHE performance analysis and analytical model modifications for both stages are also presented. The flow tests were accomplished during the time period from 9 October 1984 to 12 November 1984.

  3. The Fantastic and the Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The National Engineers Week Future City Competition provides compelling evidence of the power of pairing computer software and technology with traditional hands-on activities to teach challenging subject matter and also harder- to- measure "real" workplace skills. Now in its 13th year, the Competition asks middle school students to work in teams…

  4. Real-World Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Richard

    1997-01-01

    In addition to virtual field trips, technology can play a role in planning for real-world field trips. Describes how students at the Woodbridge Academy in Lexington, Kentucky planned a field trip to Washington, DC, using the Internet and computer software to research, administer, and report their experiences. Provides the addresses of related Web…

  5. Computing in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Dan

    1985-01-01

    Describes an innovative, tool-based high school computer literacy course that involves student use of productivity software to learn what computers do in the real world rather than programing. Several student projects, teacher qualifications and responsibilities, and the role of peer teaching are discussed. (MBR)

  6. Alice in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  7. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  8. Was Adam a Real Person?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Denis O.

    2011-01-01

    Belief in the historicity of Adam has been held firmly throughout the history of the church. In the light of modern biblical criticism and the evolutionary sciences, some conservative Christians are now questioning whether or not Adam was a real person. This paper argues that the existence of Adam in the opening chapters of scripture reflects an…

  9. Percolation in real interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2015-07-01

    The function of a real network depends not only on the reliability of its own components, but is affected also by the simultaneous operation of other real networks coupled with it. Whereas theoretical methods of direct applicability to real isolated networks exist, the frameworks developed so far in percolation theory for interdependent network layers are of little help in practical contexts, as they are suited only for special models in the limit of infinite size. Here, we introduce a set of heuristic equations that takes as inputs the adjacency matrices of the layers to draw the entire phase diagram for the interconnected network. We demonstrate that percolation transitions in interdependent networks can be understood by decomposing these systems into uncoupled graphs: the intersection among the layers, and the remainders of the layers. When the intersection dominates the remainders, an interconnected network undergoes a smooth percolation transition. Conversely, if the intersection is dominated by the contribution of the remainders, the transition becomes abrupt even in small networks. We provide examples of real systems that have developed interdependent networks sharing cores of `high quality’ edges to prevent catastrophic failures.

  10. Real Time Data System (RTDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Real Time Data System (RTDS). Topics covered include applications to the Space Station Freedom, the Space Shuttle flight controllers, the Mission Control Center workstations, and the Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS). Also covered are the technology gap, pacing factors, and lessons learned during research.

  11. The Real E-books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the "real" e-books. Discusses Stephen King's novella released exclusively for electronic publication, and discusses experiences of another author writing on a specialized subject. Presents a brief background of e-books. Examines the differences between Portable Document Format (PDF) technology and the new Open eBook (OEB) standard.…

  12. Back to the Real Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Donna

    1983-01-01

    The real basics are not the three Rs, rock-hard discipline, or spoon-fed values. Instead, they are strong, capable, well-trained teachers who can work in an enlightened and supportive environment, encouraged by a caring public. (Author)

  13. Getting Real in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary

    2004-01-01

    To say an issue is academic can mean it doesn't really matter, not in the real world, anyway. Gary Brown takes a critical look at how higher education has become unreal for many students and what we might do to help re-engage our institutions with the world. (Contains 17 notes.)

  14. Materials exchanges promote waste, recycling markets

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, M.

    1994-05-01

    Material exchanges are industry's version of garage sales. Materials exchanges provide information clearinghouses for recycled products. One-stop shopping catalogs and databases list a host of industrial materials -- virgin and raw products; surplus, overstock, obsolete and off-specification goods; byproducts; and used, expired and damaged materials. Materials exchanges are cost-effective tools for managing commercial industrial wastes for which no source reduction methods exist. North American exchanges annually divert millions of tons of waste from landfills and incinerators, saving US and Canadian businesses more than $27 million in disposal fees.

  15. Designing health insurance exchanges: key decisions.

    PubMed

    Starc, Amanda; Kolstad, Jonathan T

    2012-02-01

    A cornerstone of health care reform is the establishment of state-level insurance exchanges where individuals and small businesses can purchase health insurance in an online marketplace. States are required to develop an exchange by 2014, or participate in a federal one. The exchanges will help people without employer-sponsored insurance find and choose a health plan to meet their needs. This Issue Brief reviews the experience of Massachusetts in developing a health insurance exchange and offers policymakers guidance on key features and likely consumer responses. PMID:22451998

  16. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, David P.

    2005-04-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet ingredient whose function is to rapidly disrupt the tablet matrix on contact with gastric fluid). One of the more elegant approaches to improving palatability of ionizable drugs is the use of ion-exchange resins as taste-masking agents. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a review of scaleup of typical manufacturing processes for taste-masked products are provided. Ion-exchange resins have been extensively utilized in oral sustained-release products. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a summary of commonly occurring commercial sustained-release products are discussed. Ion-exchange resins have also been used in topical products for local application to the skin, including those where drug flux is controlled by a differential electrical current (ionotophoretic delivery). General applicability of ion-exchange resins, including ophthalmic delivery, nasal delivery, use as drugs in their own right (e.g., colestyramine, formerly referred to as cholestyramine), as well as measuring gastrointestinal transit times, are discussed. Finally, pharmaceutical monographs for ion-exchange resins are reviewed.

  17. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  18. Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.

  19. 28 CFR 70.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 70.32 Section 70.32...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.32 Real property. (a) Title to real property will vest in the recipient subject to the condition that the recipient use the real property...

  20. 28 CFR 70.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property. 70.32 Section 70.32...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.32 Real property. (a) Title to real property will vest in the recipient subject to the condition that the recipient use the real property...