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Sample records for argonne premium coals

  1. Chemical analysis of Argonne premium coal samples. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Contents: The Chemical Analysis of Argonne Premium Coal Samples: An Introduction; Rehydration of Desiccated Argonne Premium Coal Samples; Determination of 62 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Ash Samples by Automated Semiquantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of 18 Elements in 5 Whole Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Quantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of Major and Trace Elements in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (Ash and Whole Coal) by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry; Determination of 29 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis; Determination of Selected Elements in Coal Ash from Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 25 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 33 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; Determination of Mercury and Selenium in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Cold-Vapor and Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Determinaton of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Using a Gas Chromatographic Analyzer with a Thermal Conductivity Detector; and Compilation of Multitechnique Determinations of 51 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples.

  2. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  3. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  4. Argonne premium coal sample program. Annual technical progress report. Reporting period : 2/2006-2/2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J. E.; Chemistry

    2007-03-04

    This project provides highly uniform, premium (unexposed to oxygen) coal samples to researchers investigating coal structure, properties and behavior, and maintains accessible databases of published reports describing work carried out on the Argonne Premium Coal Samples. The samples are made available to DOE researchers and others. The eight carefully selected samples have been kept in as pristine a condition as possible through careful control the conditions in all stages from sample collection throughout processing and packaging. The samples are available in glass ampoules to ensure sample uniformity and maintain premium quality to ensure sample integrity.

  5. Linkages between aromatic structures in the Argonne Premium Coal Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Tomczyk, N.A.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the nature of the important linkages between aromatic clusters and variations of these links with coal rank. From studies using methods such as NMR and mass spectrometry, the authors have considerable information on the size and types of aromatic clusters in the Argonne coals. In this study, extracts, model polymers, extracted coals, and modified coals are examined by temperature resolved high resolution mass spectrometry. There is evidence that strong bond cleavage may be very important for volatile release in pyrolysis of higher rank coals.

  6. Dissolution of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples in strong base

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; McBeth, R.L.; Hunt, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this study is to solubilize the Argoruie Premium Coal Samples in order to facilitate analysis by mass spectrometry, FTIR and NMR. Earlier, in a search for relatively mild methods for solubilizing coal, we discovered that treating coals with potassium hydroxide in ethylene glycol at 250{degrees}C to be quite an effective approach. Under these conditions, secondary reactions which may obscure the distribution of the basic building blocks of the coal structure are not expected to occur. At higher temperatures, such as those used in more traditional liquefaction processes ({gt} 400{degrees}C), secondary reactions such as the formation of polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds dominate. A focus of our approach to characterization of coals is desorption-pyrolysis high resolution CI and EI mass spectrometry and laser desorption mass spectrpmetry (LDMS). It has been shown by PyMS that the yields and the distribution of products is superior for coal extracts compared to the original whole coals. There appears tobe few secondary reactions occurring and many molecules, which are released in analysis of the extract, are trapped in the solid matrix of the coal and never observed. In addition, soluble materials are more amenable to LDMS. The glycol/KOH system was chosen since in early work up to 93% of the product was soluble for lower-rank bituminous coals. Others have solubilized coals under basic conditions. Ouchi and co-workers used ethanolic - NaOH at temperatures ranging from 260{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. More recently, Stock and coworkers have discussed the use of Lochmann`s base (potassium tert-butoxide, n-butyl lithium in heptane at reflux) which is especially effective for the higher rank coals. Also, a base hydrolysis is included in a low severity liquefaction scheme devised by Shabtai and coworkers.

  7. Dissolution of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples in strong base

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; McBeth, R.L.; Hunt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to solubilize the Argoruie Premium Coal Samples in order to facilitate analysis by mass spectrometry, FTIR and NMR. Earlier, in a search for relatively mild methods for solubilizing coal, we discovered that treating coals with potassium hydroxide in ethylene glycol at 250[degrees]C to be quite an effective approach. Under these conditions, secondary reactions which may obscure the distribution of the basic building blocks of the coal structure are not expected to occur. At higher temperatures, such as those used in more traditional liquefaction processes ([gt] 400[degrees]C), secondary reactions such as the formation of polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds dominate. A focus of our approach to characterization of coals is desorption-pyrolysis high resolution CI and EI mass spectrometry and laser desorption mass spectrpmetry (LDMS). It has been shown by PyMS that the yields and the distribution of products is superior for coal extracts compared to the original whole coals. There appears tobe few secondary reactions occurring and many molecules, which are released in analysis of the extract, are trapped in the solid matrix of the coal and never observed. In addition, soluble materials are more amenable to LDMS. The glycol/KOH system was chosen since in early work up to 93% of the product was soluble for lower-rank bituminous coals. Others have solubilized coals under basic conditions. Ouchi and co-workers used ethanolic - NaOH at temperatures ranging from 260[degrees]C to 450[degrees]C. More recently, Stock and coworkers have discussed the use of Lochmann's base (potassium tert-butoxide, n-butyl lithium in heptane at reflux) which is especially effective for the higher rank coals. Also, a base hydrolysis is included in a low severity liquefaction scheme devised by Shabtai and coworkers.

  8. Automated semiquantitative direct-current-arc spectrographic analysis of eight argonne premium coal ash samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skeen, C.J.; Libby, B.J.; Crandell, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The automated semiquantitative direct-current-arc spectre-graphic method was used to analyze 62 elements in eight Argonne Premium Coal Ash samples. All eight coal ash samples were analyzed in triplicate to verify precision and accuracy of the method. The precision for most elements was within ??10%. The accuracy of this method is limited to +50% or -33% because of the nature of the standard curves for each of the elements. Adjustments to the computer program were implemented to account for unique matrix interferences in these particular coal ash samples.

  9. {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS spectroscopy of layer silicates in Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A. R.; Botto, R. E.; Chemistry; DOA

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR were employed to characterize layered silicates in the suite of eight Argonne Premium coals. Analyses were performed on native coals directly, or fractions isolated by sink-float techniques. Mineral phases of kaolinite, quartz, and illite-montmorillinite clays could readily be distinguished nonquantitatively by {sup 29}Si NMR techniques using direct detection or cross polarization. {sup 27}Al NMR was used to determine quantitatively the amounts of tetrahedral and octahedral aluminum forms present. The {sup 27}Al NMR results were consistent with mineralogical analyses by XRD, showing that increases in tetrahedral content paralleled illitization of the clay minerals. A remarkably good relationship also was found between the total amount of tetrahedral aluminum associated with the mineral matter and degree of maturation of the organic matter in the coal. The data suggest that illitization of the clays can be used as a mineralogical thermal maturity indicator for Type II kerogens, as demonstrated for the Argonne Premium coals, provided that contributions from organo-chelated aluminum species and detrital mineral matter are taken into account.

  10. Analysis of eight argonne premium coal samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.; Sellers, G.A.; Johnson, R.G.; Vivit, D.V.; Kent, J.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods were used in the analysis of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Trace elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, and Ce) in coal ash were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) in coal ash and trace elements (Cl and P) in whole coal were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results of this study will be used in a geochemical database compiled for these materials from various analytical techniques. The experimental XRF methods and procedures used to determine these major and trace elements are described.

  11. Determination of twenty-nine elements in eight argonne premium coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine elements have been determined in triplicate splits of the eight Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Samples by instrumental neutron activtaion analysis. Data for control samples NBS 1633 (fly ash) and NBS 1632b are also reported. The factors that could lead to errors in analysis for these samples, such as spectral overlaps, low sensitivity, and interfering nuclear reactions, are discussed.

  12. High-pressure sorption of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures on Argonne Premium Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas Busch; Yves Gensterblum; Bernhard M. Krooss

    2007-06-15

    Gas sorption isotherms have been measured for carbon dioxide and nitrogen and their binary mixture (N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} {approximately} 80/20) on three different moisture-equilibrated coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program by the U.S. Department of Energy, varying in rank from 0.25 to 1.68% vitrinite reflectance (VR{sub r}). The measurements were conducted at 55 C and at pressures up to 27 MPa for the pure gases and up to 10 MPa for the gas mixture. The effects of the large differences in equilibrium moisture contents (0.8 to 32.2%) on sorption capacity were estimated on the basis of the aqueous solubility of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} at experimental conditions. Especially for the Beulah-Zap coal with an equilibrium moisture content of {approximately} 32%, the amount of dissolved CO{sub 2} contributes significantly to the overall storage capacity, whereas the amounts of N{sub 2} dissolved in the moisture water are low and can be neglected. Sorption measurements with nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixtures showed very low capacities for N{sub 2}. For Illinois coal, these excess sorption values were even slightly negative, probably due to small volumetric effects (changes in condensed phase volume). The evolution of the composition of the free gas phase in contact with the coal sample has been monitored continuously during each pressure step of the sorption tests. This composition changed strongly over time. Apparently, CO{sub 2} reaches sorption sites very quickly initially and is subsequently partly replaced by N{sub 2} molecules until concentration equilibration is reached. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Combustion and leaching behavior of elements in the argonne premium coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Palmer, C.A.; Krasnow, M.R.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Sellers, G.A.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal samples and two other coal samples were used to observe the effects of combustion and leaching on 30 elements. The results were used to infer the modes of occurrence of these elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis indicates that the effects of combustion and leaching on many elements varied markedly among the samples. As much as 90% of the selenium and bromine is volatilized from the bituminous coal samples, but substantially less is volatilized from the low-rank coals. We interpret the combustion and leaching behavior of these elements to indicate that they are associated with the organic fraction. Sodium, although nonvolatile, is ion-exchangeable in most samples, particularly in the low-rank coal samples where it is likely to be associated with the organic constituents. Potassium is primarily in an ion-exchangeable form in the Wypdak coal but is in HF-soluble phases (probably silicates) in most other samples. Cesium is in an unidentified HNO3-soluble phase in most samples. Virtually all the strontium and barium in the low-rank coal samples is removed by NH4OAc followed by HCl, indicating that these elements probably occur in both organic and inorganic phases. Most tungsten and tantalum are in insoluble phases, perhaps as oxides or in organic association. Hafnium is generally insoluble, but as much as 65% is HF soluble, perhaps due to the presence of very fine grained or metamict zircon. We interpret the leaching behavior of uranium to indicate its occurrence in chelates and its association with silicates and with zircon. Most of the rare-earth elements (REE) and thorium appear to be associated with phosphates. Differences in textural relationships may account for some of the differences in leaching behavior of the REE among samples. Zinc occurs predominantly in sphalerite. Either the remaining elements occur in several different modes of occurrence (scandium, iron), or the leaching data are equivocal (arsenic, antimony

  14. Identification of the heteroatom containing compounds in the benzene/methanol extracts of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, P.H.; Xia, Yun ju; Winans, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) provide a unique opportunity to study a set of pristine samples specifically selected to represent the vast diversity of chemical structures exhibited by US coals. The purpose of this paper is to utilize high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to characterize the heteroatom containing species that can be extracted from the APCS. Of special interest is the change in structure and relative concentrations that these compounds undergo with rank. The resulting information is important in providing basic chemical structural information concerning these coals which are being used by a significant portion of the coal community, and understanding the transformations that the heteroatom containing species undergo during the coalification process. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. CO2 Isotherms Measured on Moisture-Equilbrated Argonne Premium Coals at 550C and 15 Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.L.

    2007-05-01

    Sorption isotherms, which describe the coal’s gas storage capacity, are important for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of coal seams. The DOE-NETL initiated a second inter-laboratory isotherm comparison of coals where CO2 sorption isotherms were collected on moisture-equilibrated coals at temperatures and pressures relevant to CO2 sequestration. Each laboratory used the same coal samples and followed the same general procedure; however, each laboratory used their own apparatus and isotherm measurement technique. This study investigated the inter-laboratory reproducibility of carbon dioxide isotherm measurements on moisture-equilibrated Argonne premium coal samples (Pocahontas #3, Illinois #6, and Beulah Zap). Six independent laboratories provided isotherm data on the three moisture-equilibrated coal samples at 55oC and pressures up to 15 MPa. Agreement among the laboratories was good up to 8 MPa. At the higher pressures, the data among the laboratories diverged significantly for two of the laboratories and coincided reasonably well for four of the laboratories. This work provides guidance for estimating the reproducibility that might be expected when comparing published sorption isotherms on moisture-equilibrated coals from different laboratories.

  16. Structural elucidation of Argonne premium coals: Molecular weights, heteroatom distributions and linkages between clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.,; Kim, Y.; Hunt, J.E.; McBeth, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to create a statistically accurate picture of important structural features for a group of coals representing a broad rank range. Mass spectrometric techniques are used to study coals, coal extracts and chemically modified coals and extracts. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is used to determine molecular weight distributions. Desorption chemical ionization high resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed molecular information on compound classes of molecules is obtained using tandem mass spectrometry. These results are correlated with other direct studies on these samples such as solid NMR, XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the complex sets of data, several general trends are emerging especially for heteroatom containing species. From a statistical point of view, heteroatoms must play important roles in the reactivity of all coals. Direct characterization of sulfur containing species in the Argonne coals has been reported from XANES analysis. Indirect methods used include: TG-FTIR and HRMS which rely on thermal desorption and pyrolysis to vaporize the samples. Both XANES and XPS data on nitrogen has been reported, but at this time, the XPS information is probably more reliable. Results from HRMS are discussed in this paper. Most other information on nitrogen is limited to analysis of liquefaction products. However, nitrogen can be important in influencing characteristics of coal liquids and as a source of NO{sub x}`s in coal combustion.

  17. The importance of diphenylmethane-like structural units in an Argonne premium coal sample

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.R. Jr.; Hagaman, E.W.; Woody, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Our approach for characterizing the acidic C-H bonds in coal is to treat O-methyl coal with a series of indicator bases, BLi, followed by methylation with C-13,14 double labelled methyl iodide. By varying the identity of BLi, and thus the pK/sub a/ of the conjugate acid BH, it is possible to evaluate the number of C-H bonds as a function of pK/sub a/. The application of this approach to two bituminous coals, namely Illinois No. 6 hvCb and PSOC 1197 lvb, led to the discovery of a significant concentration of acidic C-H sites with 18.5 < pK/sub a/ less than or equal to 22 which was interpreted as evidence for fluorene-like structural units in coal. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Elucidation of the nature of organic nitrogen in the Argonne Premium Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Tomczyk, N.A.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study is to provide detailed information on the types of nitrogen compounds in coals as a function of rank and age. Desorption high resolution mass spectrometry is being used to examine both whole coals and their pyridine extracts. The authors have shown that nitrogen compounds tend to have larger ring numbers compared to all other aromatic clusters. Now they have found that in low rank coals, such as the subbituminous Wyodak-Anderson, the majority of nitrogen containing compounds have one or more oxygens. The most abundant group of molecules have a nitrogen plus two oxygens and an average ring size of four to five. They have evidence that many of these molecules may be derived from alkaloids. In the higher rank coals, the average ring size increases to seven for the medium volatile Upper Freeport coal. These multiple ring nitrogen compounds play an important role in coal processing and in NO{sub x} production and elimination in combustion.

  19. Variations in organic oxygen structures in the Argonne premium coals as a function of rank

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; McBeth, R.L.; Melnikov, P.E.; Botto, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    It has been found that MS and NMR results on oxygenated species in coal correlate quite nicely. As expected, from previous studies, structures related to lignin dominate in the lower rank coals. However, benzofurans and dibenzofurans make an important contribution to the overall distribution. Singly and multiply hydroxylated benzene rings are the major oxygen structures in the low rank coals. In addition, carboxylic acids are quite abundant. In the bituminous coals, carboxylic acids are absent and multiple hydroxylated aromatic compounds become only minor contributors to the overall distribution. More furan containing aromatics are seen. In the higher rank lv and mv bituminous coals, hydroxy aromatic compounds are minor constituents and large annulated benzofurans dominate. The relative contribution from ethers is still uncertain and is currently being investigated. Overall, it appears that a dominant mechanism for oxygen loss during coalification is the coupling of phenolic species to form furan structures resulting in the loss of water (Scheme 1). These furans are expected to be stable under these conditions and remain intact as coalification proceeds.

  20. Importance of diphenylmethane-like structural units in an Argonne premium coal sample

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.R. Jr.; Hagaman, E.W.; Woody, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of chemical and spectroscopic techniques for the purpose of evaluating the acidic O-H and C-H sites in coal has received much attention recently. This approach for characterizing the acidic C-H bonds in coal is to treat O-methyl coal with a series of indicator bases, BLi, followed by methylation with C-13,14 double labelled methyl iodide. By varying the identity of BLi, and thus the pK/sub a/ of the conjugate acid BH, it is possible to evaluate the number of C-H bonds as a function of Pk/sub a/. The bases they have used thus far, 9-phenylfluorenyllithium (pK/sub a/, 18.5), fluorenyllithium (pK/sub a/, 22) and trityllithium (pK/sub a/, 31), have allowed them to evaluate the distribution of acidic C-H sites within the three pK/sub a/ ranges: 12 < pK/sub a/ /le/ 18.5, 18.5 < pK/sup a/ /le/ 22, and 22 < pK/sub a/ /le/ 31. The application of this approach to two bituminous coals, namely Illinois No. 6 hvCb and PSOC 1197 1vb, led to the discovery of a significant concentration of acidic C-H sites with 18.5 < pK/sub a/ /le/ 22 which was interpreted as evidence for fluorene-like structural units in coal. This approach to coal structure analysis is limited to the evaluation of acidic C-H sites with pK/sub a/ /le/ 31. Furthermore, it was shown that PhCH/sub 2/Ph (pK/sub a/, 33), the prototypical diarylmethane, is not alkylated to a significant extent upon treatment with trityllithium and methyl iodide. For these reasons, they have developed approaches for the evaluation of acidic C-H sites with 31 < pK/sub a/ /le/ 33. In this article, they illustrate these approaches using Upper Freeport mvb (APCS number 1) as the coal.

  1. Organic sulfur species in Argonne premium coal Sample No. 3 Illinois No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Scott, R.G.; McBeth, R.L.; Neill, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the organic sulfur compounds present in a high-sulfur Illinois bituminous coal. In order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. However, these molecules are typically bonded into an insoluble macromolecular network. Vacuum pyrolysis was used to break down this network into smaller molecules. The coal was pyrolysed, either directly into a mass spectrometer (PyMS) or in a batch mode where the tars were collected and analyzed by low eV ultra high resolution MS. In the PyMS experiment, the aliphatic sulfur compounds evolved at 250 to 350/sup 0/C while aromatics volatilized at a much higher temperature, 425 to 525/sup 0/C. Aromatic species dominate and include thiophenes, benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes. It is interesting to note that a significant amount of thiophenol species are seen. In a low voltage HRMS study, larger molecules were found with molecular ions ranging from m/z 200 to 600. They appear to be highly alkylated, annellated thiophenes, but the PyMS results indicate the majority are probably less than four rings in size. A large number of aromatics containing an additional heteroatom have been found. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Premium coal water fuel (CWF)

    SciTech Connect

    Huettenhain, H.; Chari, M.V.

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), recently completed a study which provides cost estimates for the commercial production of premium quality coal water fuel (CWF). The study was part of US Department of Energy program {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications{close_quotes}. Two plant scenarios to clean coal are addressed in the study, one using advanced column froth flotation to the clean coal and the other, selective agglomeration technology. This paper presents the study results.

  3. Premium coal water fuel (CWF)

    SciTech Connect

    Huettenhain, H.; Chari, M.V.

    1998-07-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R and D), recently completed a study which provides cost estimates for the commercial production of premium quality coal water fuel (CWF). The study was part of US Department of Energy program ``Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications''. Two plant scenarios to clean coal are addressed in the study, one using advanced column froth flotation to the clean coal and the other, selective agglomeration technology. This paper presents the study results.

  4. Premium carbon products from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinko, F. Jr.; Morrison, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The face of the US coal industry and its markets are changing. Environmental concerns over global warming and plant emissions are two factors that will continue to gain national attention and consequently will challenge the use of coal in the US within its traditional markets. The decline of coke production in the US has lead to high quality metallurgical-grade coal being used to generate electricity. One could argue this is a waste of a limited valuable resource. The debate over global warming and the generation of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, will undoubtedly negatively impact the use of coal in newly constructed power plants. What is the future of the US coal industry and the industries that benefit from coal? This paper will review the use of coal and coal-derived materials in new, non-fuel markets. It will review a new industrial consortium that has recently been formed to stimulate the use of coal in value-added carbon markets. One of the questions the reader should ask when reading this paper is: Is coal more valuable for its carbon content or its BTU content? Carbon materials such as carbon fibers, carbon-carbon composites, specialty and mechanical graphite, activated carbon, carbon black, and carbon foams may provide new markets for the coal industry. These markets are expanding and some of these markets are in their infancy. These new material applications offer an exciting, but little recognized, opportunity for the expanded use of coal.

  5. Isotope dilution study of exchangeable oxygen in premium coal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Finseth, D.

    1987-01-01

    A difficulty with improving the ability to quantitate water in coal is that truly independent methods do not always exist. The true value of any analytical parameter is always easier to determine if totally independent methods exist to determine that parameter. This paper describes the possibility of using a simple isotope dilution technique to determine the water content of coal and presents a comparison of these isotope dilution measurements with classical results for the set of Argonne coals from the premium coal sample program. Isotope dilution is a widely used analytical method and has been applied to the analysis of water in matrices as diverse as chicken fat, living humans, and coal. Virtually all of these applications involved the use of deuterium as the diluted isotope. This poses some problems if the sample contains a significant amount of exchangeable organic hydrogen and one is interested in discriminating exchangeable organic hydrogen from water. This is a potential problem in the coal system. To avoid this potential problem /sup 18/O was used as the diluted isotope in this work.

  6. Determination of selected elements in whole coal and in coal ash from the eight argonne premium coal samples by atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry, and ion-selective electrode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughten, M.W.; Gillison, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for the determination of 24 elements in whole coal and coal ash by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, flame, graphite furnace, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and by ion-selective electrode are described. Coal ashes were analyzed in triplicate to determine the precision of the methods. Results of the analyses of NBS Standard Reference Materials 1633, 1633a, 1632a, and 1635 are reported. Accuracy of the methods is determined by comparison of the analysis of standard reference materials to their certified values as well as other values in the literature.

  7. CREAT A CONSORTIUM AND DEVELOP PREMIUM CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Andresen

    2003-08-01

    The Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and matching funds from industry and academic institutions continued to excel in developing innovative technologies to use coal and coal-derived feedstocks to produce premium carbon product. During Budget Period 5, eleven projects were supported and sub-contracted were awarded to seven organizations. The CPCPC held two meetings and one tutorial at various locations during the year. Budget Period 5 was a time of growth for CPCPC in terms of number of proposals and funding requested from members, projects funded and participation during meetings. Although the membership was stable during the first part of Budget Period 5 an increase in new members was registered during the last months of the performance period.

  8. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  11. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO{sub 2} allowance valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, J.B. II; Radulski, D.R.; Ellingson, E.G.; Engels, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO{sub 2} Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances.

  12. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  14. Adsorption of pure carbon dioxide on wet Argonne coals at 328.2 K and pressures up to 13.8 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Mohammad; J.S. Chen; J.E. Fitzgerald; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; K.A.M. Gasem

    2009-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption isotherms were measured on five different rank coals at 328.2 K and pressures up to 13.8 MPa using a volumetric method. Specifically, Beulah Zap, Illinois no.6, Pocahontas No.3, Upper Freeport, and Wyodak coals from the Argonne premium coal sample program were used for these isotherm measurements. These newly acquired data are compared to our previous data on dry coals. As expected, the adsorption on the wet coals is lower than that on the dry coals. At 7 MPa, Pocahontas, Upper Freeport, Illinois no. 6, Wyodak, and Beulah Zap coals exhibited, respectively, about 19, 17, 48, 76, and 79% reduction in the amount adsorbed on the wet coal when compared to the adsorption on the dry coal. These reductions in CO{sub 2} adsorption correlate positively with the amount of moisture present on the coal. The isotherms on wet coals were measured at their equilibrium moisture content. The adsorption isotherm for each of the wet coals exhibited a Gibbs adsorption maximum between 8 and 12 MPa and occurred at a higher pressure than that of the dry coal. The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson model was used to correlate the adsorption data. The model was found capable of representing precisely the CO{sub 2} adsorption on both dry and wet coals. Specifically, the overall weighed average absolute deviation (WAAD) for the five dry and wet coals was 0.99 and 0.42, respectively. Nevertheless, more rigorous accounting for the water interactions with the coal matrix and the competitive adsorption between water and CO{sub 2} would provide an even more realistic description of coal-bed gas adsorption phenomenon on wet coals. 43 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Reaction of premium Wyodak subbituminous coal with potassium-crown ether reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.L.; Narayan, R.

    1987-01-01

    Coal conversions typically involve reacting coal under severe conditions of temperature and pressure. As a result, bond cleavage is nonselective and often accompanied by retrogressive (bond forming) reactions. This has resulted in less than satisfactory results in deducing coal structure, coal behavior, and reactivity. Incorrect model of the basic structural units of the coal, and the nature of the linkages joining these units have been postulated. In our laboratory, we are studying the solubilization of coal at ambient temperatures and pressures using a site-specific reagent potassium-crown ether (K-CE), and the characterization of the soluble coal oligomer fragments. The small size and high reactivity of the solvated electrons generated by the K-CE reagent, promotes cleavage reactions at ether, ester, and diarylethane linkages, resulting in depolymerization and solubilization of coal. Reduction of aromatic rings to dihydro and tetrahydro analogs also occur. In this paper we report on the solubilization of a Wyodak premium subbituminous coal using K-CE reagent. The characterization of the solubilized coal fragments by IR, NMR, GPC, and microanalysis, is described.

  16. Premium distillate products from direct liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.Z.; Winschel, R.A.; Klunder, E.B. |

    1994-08-01

    The net liquid products from modern coal liquefaction processes are lower boiling and have much lower end points (mostly under 400{degree}C) than crude petroleum. Coal liquids have very low concentrations of heteroatoms, particularly S, and metals, and are free of resids and asphaltenes. High yields of low-S (0.01--0.03 wt %) naphtha, kerosene, and diesel fuel fractions can be obtained simply by atmospheric distillation, with a total yield of light fuel fractions ranging from 68 to 82 LV% (W260D exclusive). The coal naphtha has a low aromatics content (5--13 LV%), readily meeting projected year-2000 requirements. Its low Reid vapor pressure allows light components from other sources to be blended. The coal light distillate of in appropriate boiling range will be a good low-S blending stock for the light diesel fuel pool. The heavy distillate can be refined into a low-S No. 4 diesel fuel/fuel oil. This fraction, along with the >343{degree}C atmospheric bottoms, can be catalytically cracked or hydrocracked to make light liquid fuels. Thus, modern coal liquids should no longer be envisioned as thick liquids (or even solids) with high concentrations of aromatics and asphaltenes. Products obtained from advanced coal liquefaction technologies are more like light naphthene-base petroleum, but with lower heteroatoms and metals contents, and they are free of resids. Coal liquids are likely to be co-refined in existing petroleum refineries; and hydroprocessing of various severities would be needed for different fractions to produce quality blending stocks for refinery fuel pools.

  17. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  19. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  20. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  2. Programmer's guide to the Argonne Coal Market Model. [USA; mathematical models

    SciTech Connect

    Guziel, K.A.; Krohm, G.C.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Macal, C.M.

    1980-02-01

    The Argonne Coal Market Model was developed as part of a comprehensive DOE study of coal-related environmental, health, and safety impacts. The model includes a high degree of regional detail on both supply and demand. Coal demand is input separately for industrial and utility users in each region, and coal supply in each region is characterized by a linearly increasing function relating increments of new mine capacity to the marginal cost of extraction. Rail transportation costs and control technology costs are estimated for each supply-demand link. A quadratic programming algorithm is used to optimize flow patterns for the system. This report documents the model for programmers and users interested in technical details of the computer code.

  3. Important structural features in coals and their relationship to coal reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze 8 Argonne premium coal samples. The most important heteroatom in coals is oxygen. There is a trend of increasing percentage of furans and ethers with rank. Influence of furans plus ethers are important and constant across all ranks for vitrinite rich coals. Strong bond cleavage may be more important than previously thought; this has strong implications for the choice of model systems for coal thermolysis.

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  9. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Ninth quarterly report, [July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1996-10-28

    Several investigations have demonstrated that oxalate anion secreted by fungi is able to mediate solubilization of leonardite, a highly oxidized lignite. We have studied oxalate mediated solubilization of several Argonne Premium Coals. Results showed that, relative to leonardite, oxalate solubilized minimal amounts of these coals.

  10. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-04-26

    The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

  13. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  17. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  18. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  2. Application of thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) to the analysis of oxygen functional groups in coal

    SciTech Connect

    L. Giroux; J.-P. Charland; J.A. MacPhee

    2006-10-15

    This paper attempts to relate oxygen-containing gases H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO evolved during pyrolysis of the Argonne premium coals to oxygen-containing functional groups as a function of rank. Our approach to functional group analysis of oxygen-containing species in coal has been to use a pyrolysis technique, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR), involving thermogravimetric analysis with the measurement of the gaseous decomposition products via IR detection. Under suitable heating conditions, TG-FTIR pyrolysis of a coal sample in a stream of inert gas has been shown to expel quantitatively all of the organic oxygen in the form of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO, and consequently, this technique can be effectively applied for determining the total oxygen content. Focusing on the Argonne premium coals, which cover a wide range in rank between lignite (Ro = 0.25) and low-volatile bituminous (Ro = 1.68), TG-FTIR provided complex pyrolysis profiles of oxygen-containing gases, which yield information on the sources of the different peaks observed in coal as a function of rank from a chemical-structure standpoint. Deconvolution of the complex profiles was performed to assign peaks to the different sources of oxygen-containing gases. Model polymers containing various oxygen functional groups in aliphatic and/or aromatic molecular environments were also pyrolyzed by TG-FTIR in an attempt to assign peaks in the gas evolution profiles of the Argonne premium coals. Although complex evolution profiles were observed for the three oxygen-containing gas species H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO in the Argonne premium coals, the strength of the TG-FTIR technique in revealing both similarities and differences in profiles depending upon the coal rank was evident. 19 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, John; Schobert, Harold; Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected 10 projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the various subcontractors on March 1, 2004.

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 13, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-01-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. During Quarter 13 (October--December 1995), testing of the GranuFlow dewatering process indicated a 3--4% reduction in cake moisture for screen-bowl and solid-bowl centrifuge products. The Orimulsion additions were also found to reduce the potential dustiness of the fine coal, as well as improve solids recovery in the screen-bowl centrifuge. Based on these results, Lady Dunn management now plans to use a screen bowl centrifuge to dewater their Microcel{trademark} column froth product. Subtask 3.3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-slurry formulation, indicated that selective agglomeration products can be formulated into slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that a very fine grind is required to meet the 2 lb ash/MBtu product specification for the Winifrede coal, while the Hiawatha coal requires a grind in the 100- to 150-mesh topsize range. Detailed design work remaining involves the preparation and issuing of the final task report. Utilizing this detailed design, a construction bid package was prepared and submitted to three Colorado based contractors for quotes as part of Task 9.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-04-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

  6. Multiple heteroatom containing sulfur compounds in coals

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system, and the products characterized by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were identified which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracted and liquefaction products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Short contact time direct coal liquefaction using a novel batch reactor. Progress report, May 16, 1994--September 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1994-09-30

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for coal liquefaction at short contact times (0.01 to 10 minutes or longer). This reactor is simple enough and low enough in cost to serve as a suitable replacement for the traditional tubing-bomb reactors for many coal liquefaction and other high-pressure, high-temperature reaction studies. The liquefaction of selected Argonne Premium coals and the role of organic oxygen components of the coal and their reaction pathways at very low conversions are being investigated.

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  11. Electricity from Coal Combustion: Improving the hydrophobicity of oxidized coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehra, Mohindar; Singh, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    To reduce pollution and improve efficiency, undesirable mineral impurities in coals are usually removed in coal preparation plants prior to combustion first by crushing and grinding coals followed by gravity separation using surfactant aided water flotation. However certain coals in the US are not amendable to this process because of their poor flotation characteristics resulting in a major loss of an energy resource. This problem has been linked to surface oxidation of mined coals which make these coals hydrophilic. In this project, we are investigating the surface and water flotation properties of the eight Argonne Premium (AP) coals using x-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The role of the surface functional groups, (phenolic -OH and carboxylic -COOH), produced as a result of chemisorptions of O2 on coals in determining their flotation behavior is being explored. The isoelectric point (IEP) in zeta potential measurements of good vs. poor floaters is being examined in order to improved the hydrophobicity of poor floating coals (e.g. Illinois #6). Results from XRD and IR will be presented along with recent findings from zeta potential measurements, and use of additives to improve hydrophobicity. Supported by USDOE/CAST, Contract #DE-FC26-05NT42457.

  12. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Amui, J.

    1992-06-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and (2) to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stages of direct coal liquefaction. Scope of work study the conversion of Argonne Premium coals in tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin and compare the following: conversion to soluble products and product composition. Hydrogen donated by both solvents will be measured by gas chromatography and the same technique will be used to establish the amount of dealkylation of 2-t-butyltetralin. Reactions will be performed at several different temperatures for varying amounts of time.

  13. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-03-01

    Work reported this quarter (1) continues the study of organic sulfur species in coal with Very High Frequency (VHF) EPR spectroscopy and (2) includes some pulsed EPR work on coals carried out with the S-band ESE spectrometer. A detailed VHF study of one coal from the Illinois Coal Sample Bank is reported, including spectra from separated macerals and solvent extracted coal. Further refinements in the two-species model for interpreting these spectra are presented. It is increasingly apparent that while the organic sulfur species seen by VHF EPR in coal may be thiophenic, they do not have spectra that directly implicate either thiophene or dibenzothiophene as unique molecular forms. The emerging picture seems to indicate a thiophenic sulfur species in which the unpaired electron is delocalized over a more extensive aromatic cluster. VHF EPR may be quite specific for aromatic organic sulfur. Spectra from eight coals in the Argonne Premium Sample program also have been studied by VHF EPR, and analysis is now under way to determine how well the two-species model accounts for the general features of these spectra. Pulsed electron spin resonance has been performed on the Argonne coals in order to determine their electron phase memory times (T{sub M}) at ca. 1000 G magnetic fields. EPR and NMR imaging experiments on Illinois coals are currently focussing on developing better resolution through improvements in the spectrometer hardware. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Sequential leaching of coal to investigate the elution of inorganic elements into coal extract (HyperCoal)

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Zhang; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Ikuo Saito; Hiroaki Tao

    2008-07-15

    Two Argonne premium coal samples, Illinois No. 6 (IL) and Wyodak-Anderson (WY), were extracted by 1-methynaphthalene for 1 h at 360{sup o}C and under 1 MPa nitrogen (cold) protection. Elution of inorganic elements into coal extracts as well as their chemistry has been mainly investigated. An indirect method for metallic speciation was employed by initially washing coal with a variety of acids. Subsequently, the washed coals as well as the respective raw coal were extracted. For a given metal, elution of its ion-exchangeable fraction was defined as the difference between its amounts eluted into the extracts of raw coal and acetic acid-washed coal. Elution of submicrometer discrete particles was defined as the difference between the extracts of acetic acid-washed coal and nitric acid-washed coal. Elution of its fraction insoluble in nitric acid was assigned as organometals which are chemically associated with coal carbonaceous matrix and/or those incorporated into fine clay minerals. About 822 and 1110 ppm inorganic elements were eluted into the extracts of IL and WY coals, respectively. Fe was the most prevalent. The transition metals including Cr, Ni, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn were also abundant. These metals were mostly nitric-acid insoluble. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy characterization suggested the high-spin Fe{sup 3+} state for Fe that is virtually totally associated with coal functional groups. Regarding the remaining metals in coal extracts, they are mainly submicrometer discrete particles in IL extract. Elution of the ion-exchangeable carboxylates was however prominent during WY coal extraction. 43 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Robert L.; Bumpus, John A.

    1996-12-01

    Several investigations have demonstrated that oxalate anion secreted by fungi is able to mediate solubilization of Ieonardite, a highly oxidized lignite. During this reporting period, we have used a biomimetic approach to study oxalate mediated solubilization of several Argonne Premium Coals. Results showed that, relative to Ieonardite, oxalate solubilized minimal amounts of these coals. Other studies showed that pH has a dramatic effect on solubilization of Ieonardite by several Lewis bases. In general, solubilization appeared to be a function of ionization of the Lewis base. Coal solubilization is estimated by an increase in the visible spectrum of aqueous solutions containing coal and a solubilizing agent. Because Ieonardite solubilization was studied over a broad pH range, it was necessary to determine if pH has a substantial effect on the absorbance of soluble coal macromolecule. Results showed that absorbance at 600 nm increased by {approx}56% between pH 4.5 and pH 12.0. Clearly, this increase must be considered when interpreting coal solubilization data. The decolonization of soluble coal macromolecule in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was also studied. In stationary and agitated cultures, respectively, 83.8% {+-} 2.3% and 89.6% {+-} 1.0% of the coal macromolecule was decolorized during 8 days of incubation.

  16. Effects of moisture and pressure cycling on sorption capacity of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V.N.; Goodman, A.L.; Soong, Yee

    2005-09-01

    Variability of the data for CO2 absorption on coal reported by different research groups suggests that it strongly depends on experimental conditions. We investigated the effects of moisture content and pressure cycling history on temporal changes in the coal sorptive capacity for Pocahontas #3, Illinois #6, and Beulah Zap powders of Argonne premium coals. The samples were tested as received and moisture equilibrated at 96-97% RH and 55°C for 48 hours. It was demonstrated that the magnitude and dynamics of the changes are affected by the coal type (maceral) and rank. Correlation between the sample volume change (swelling/shrinkage) and the variations in absorption-desorption patterns may indicate the relationship between coal structural relaxation and kinetics of CO2 absorption. Experimental and theoretical methods are proposed to study these effects.

  17. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.

    1992-08-01

    The first step in the integrated, mufti-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps convert low-ash coal to high-value, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  18. Changes in organic sulfur compounds in coal macerals during liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Joseph, J.T.; Fisher, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Environmentally sound use of coal for energy production involves effective sulfur removal from the feed coal and/or coal-derived products. Physical cleaning of coal is effective in removing substantial quantities of inorganic sulfur compounds such a pyrite. However, removal of organic sulfur by physical means has not been extremely successful. It is likely that only chemical methods will be useful in substantial removal of organic sulfur. A thorough knowledge of the chemistry of organic sulfur in coal will be valuable in attempts to remove organic sulfur from coal or its liquefaction or pyrolysis products by chemical methods. Since different coal macerals have different liquefaction reactivities, the analysis of sulfur functionalities on separated macerals is deemed to be more meaningful than studying the whole coal. Liquefaction behavior and organic sulfur speciation of the macerals separated from Lewiston-Stockton coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, APCS-7) by XPS, XANES, and HRMS has been previously described. This paper describes the preliminary speciation of sulfur compounds in the asphaltene fraction of the liquefaction products from these macerals.

  19. Effects of structural rearrangements on sorption capacity of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee; Warzinski, R.P.; Lynn, R.J.

    2006-09-01

    Recently, the problems in practical application of experimental data and modeling to the sequestration of carbon dioxide in coal seams and the concurrent enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery have underscored the need for new approaches that take into account the ability of coal for structural rearrangements. Areas of interest include plasticization of coal due to CO2 dissolution, the effect of coal swelling on estimation of the capacity of a coal-seam to adsorb CO2 (adsorption isotherm), and the stability of the CO2 saturated phase once formed, especially with respect to how it might be affected by changes in the post-sequestration environment (environmental effects). Coals are organic macromolecular systems well known to imbibe organic liquids and carbon dioxide. CO2 dissolves in coals and swells them. The problems become more prominent in the region of supercritical CO2. We investigated the effects of moisture content and pressure cycling history on temporal changes in the coal sorptive capacity for a set of Argonne premium coals. The samples were tested as received, dried at 80oC for 36 hours, and moisture equilibrated at 96-97% RH and 30oC for 48 hours. The powders were compared to core samples. Additionally, plasticization of coal powders was studied by high pressure dilatometer.

  20. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  1. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  2. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Amui, J.

    1992-06-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and (2) to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stages of direct coal liquefaction. Scope of work study the conversion of Argonne Premium coals in tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin and compare the following: conversion to soluble products and product composition. Hydrogen donated by both solvents will be measured by gas chromatography and the same technique will be used to establish the amount of dealkylation of 2-t-butyltetralin. Reactions will be performed at several different temperatures for varying amounts of time.

  3. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion. Quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Amui, J.

    1992-12-31

    The objectives of this program include: Determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stages of direct coal liquefaction. The scope includes the study of the conversion of Argonne Premium coals in tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin and a comparison of the following: Conversion to soluble products and product composition. Hydrogen donated by both solvents will be measured by gas chromatography and the same technique will be used to establish the amount of dealkylation of 2-t-butyltetralin. Reactions will be performed at several different temperatures for varying amounts of time.

  4. Characterization of coals, other kerogens, and their extracts by thermal mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Melnikov, P.E.; McBeth, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the nature of the medium size molecules derived from coals by a succession of stronger extraction conditions. The Argonne Premium Coals have been extracted with pyridine, binary solvents and with KOH/ethylene glycol at 250{degrees}C. Thermal desorption and pyrolysis mass spectrometry were the major approaches chosen to provide detailed information on structure and heteroatom composition. Soft ionization techniques including desorption chemical ionization (DCI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB) were combined with high resolution and tandem MS techniques. This paper will focus on the comparison of the nature of the unextracted coals, the pyridine extract and the extracted coal residue. With this approach the desorption-pyrolysis yields of the extracts and residues combined were greater than the yields from the starting material. Although molecule weight distributions had a monitor dependence on rank, the nature of molecules with the same nominal mass varied greatly with rank.

  5. Characterization of coals, other kerogens, and their extracts by thermal mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Melnikov, P.E.; McBeth, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the nature of the medium size molecules derived from coals by a succession of stronger extraction conditions. The Argonne Premium Coals have been extracted with pyridine, binary solvents and with KOH/ethylene glycol at 250{degrees}C. Thermal desorption and pyrolysis mass spectrometry were the major approaches chosen to provide detailed information on structure and heteroatom composition. Soft ionization techniques including desorption chemical ionization (DCI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB) were combined with high resolution and tandem MS techniques. This paper will focus on the comparison of the nature of the unextracted coals, the pyridine extract and the extracted coal residue. With this approach the desorption-pyrolysis yields of the extracts and residues combined were greater than the yields from the starting material. Although molecule weight distributions had a monitor dependence on rank, the nature of molecules with the same nominal mass varied greatly with rank.

  6. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  7. Importance of unburned coal carbon, black carbon, and amorphous organic carbon to phenanthrene sorption in sediments.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution to total phenanthrene sorption from unburned coal and black carbon (BC; soot and charcoal) in sediment. We determined sorption isotherms for five Argonne Premium Coal standards over a wide concentration interval (0.01-10 000 ng/L). The coals showed strong and nonlinear sorption (carbon-normalized K(F) = 5.41-5.96; nF = 0.68-0.82). Coal sorption appeared to become more nonlinear with increasing coal maturity. The coal's specific surface area appeared to influence K(F). On the basis of the current coal sorption observations combined with earlier petrographic analyses and BC sorption experiments, we calculated for one particular sediment that coal, BC, and "other" OC were all important to PHE sorption in the environmentally relevant nanogram per liter range. This indicates that it is important to consider strong sorption to coal in the risk assessment of coal-impacted geosorbents (e.g., river beds) where coal is mined/shipped and manufactured gas plant sites. PMID:15757337

  8. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.; Assanis; Syrimis, M.; Fatemi, S.M.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this research is to invert the conventional scale of values for products of coal utilization processes by making coal chars (carbons) that, because of their unique properties, are the most valuable materials in the product slate. A unique type of coal-derived carbon studied in this project is oxidized activated coal char having both adsorptive and catalyst properties. Major program elements were (a) preparation and characterization of materials (b) characterization of carbons and catalyst testing (c) completion of diesel engine testing of low-ash coal and (d) initiation of a two-year adsorption study. Materials prepared were (a) two low-ash coal samples one via ChemCoal processing of IBC-109 and the other by acid dissolution of IBC-109`s mineral matter, (b) coal char (MG char), (c) activated low-ash carbon (AC), (d) oxidized activated carbon (OAC). Amoco continued its support with state-of-the art analytical capabilities and development of catalyst testing procedures. Diesel engine tests were made with low ash coal dispersed in diesel fuel at solid loadings of 20% and 35%. The slurry was successfully burned in cylinder 2 of a two-cylinder diesel engine, after modifications of the engine`s fuel injection system. The higher speed proved to be more favorable but the slurry burned with a slightly improved thermal and combustion efficiency at both speeds with respect to diesel fuel alone. Adsorption studies included preparation of seven base-line carbon samples and their characterization, including their N{sub 2} BET surface areas and apparent densities. Paranitrophenol (PNP) adsorption isotherms were determined for the six controls. Oxidation of carbon with nitric acid decreases activated carbon`s PNP adsorption capacity while air oxidation increases adsorption capacity.

  9. Functional group analysis in coal and on coal surfaces by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the oxygen-bearing labile hydrogen functional groups (e.g., carboxylic acids, phenols and alcohols) in coal is required for today's increasingly sophisticated coal cleaning and beneficiation processes. Phospholanes (compounds having the general structure -POCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O (1)) are being investigated as reagents for the tagging of liable hydrogen functional groups in coal materials with the NMR-active {sup 31}P nucleus. Of twelve such reagents investigated so far, 2 (2-chloro-1,3-dioxaphospholane, ClPOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O) and 8 (2-chloro-1,3-dithiaphospholane, ClPSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}S) have been found to be useful in identifying and quantitating, by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, labile hydrogen functional groups in an Illinois No. 6 coal condensate. Reagent 2 has also been used to quantitate moisture in pyridine extracts of Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Preliminary {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic results on model compounds with the new reagent CF{sub 3}C(O)NHSnMe{sub 3} (N-trimethylstannyltrifluoroacetamide, 14) suggest that labile hydrogen functional groups in coal materials may be more precisely identified with 14 than with phospholanes. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  11. The Pupil Premium: Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The pupil premium was introduced by the Coalition government in April 2011 to provide additional funding for disadvantaged pupils. The main difference between the premium and previous funding for disadvantaged pupils is that the premium is linked to individual pupils. On July 1, 2015, The Pupil Premium Summit organized by the Education Endowment…

  12. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  13. Premium IOLs in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Sharma, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advanced technology or premium intraocular lenses have been developed to meet the patient expectations of perfect distance and near vision without the need for spectacles. Careful patient selection is critical when implanting these implants. This brief review focusses mainly on multifocal and toric IOLs and their application and limitations in patients with glaucoma. How to cite this article: Ichhpujani P, Bhartiya S, Sharma A. Premium IOLs in Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(2): 54-57. PMID:26997783

  14. Studies of coal structure and extraction by magnetic relaxation techniques. [Quarterly technical progress report, March--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-07-01

    NMP-CS{sub 2} extraction of the Argonne Premium coals results in substantial uptake of NMP, apparently H-bonding most extensively to coals for which extraction is most efficient. The solvent mobilization and exposure of free radicals in the molecular and macromolecular parts of the coals leads to preferential loss of apparently more reactive heteroatom-bearing free radicals. The resulting extract and residue free radicals are more predominantly odd-alternate hydrocarbon fire radicals. SLR of these radicals is determined by the angular amplitudes of free radical motion at the resonance frequency that modulates the electron-nuclear dipolar interaction at the CH groups. The strength of the interaction depends on the degree of ring condensation because of its effect on diluting the electron spin density at the CH group.

  15. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-09-01

    A nondestructive method to determine the atomic and molecular structures present in the organic (maceral) components of whole coal and coal products has been sought for many years. This program of research is designed to address that analytical need by applying advanced electron magnetic resonance techniques to the determination of coal molecular structure. Structural information has be obtained by using the naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal as observation posts'' from which to survey neighboring atoms through the electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction. Such an overall approach has been termed ELECTRON SPIN MAPPING of coal structure. New techniques like 2-dimensional ENDOR and ESE spectroscopies and multifrequency EPR, including the world's first S-band ESE spectrometer and one of the first W-band instruments, which we have developed in our laboratory, were employed in the determination. The materials studied were well separated macerals obtained by density gradient centrifugation techniques from Illinois {number sign}6 coals, a well as whole Illinois {number sign}6, {number sign}5, and Argonne Premium Sample Coals. model compounds, chosen to represent molecular structures typical of those believed to exist in coal also were studied by the various electron magnetic resonance (EMR) methods. Utilizing the various EMR methods available in our laboratory, we studied approaches to determine parameters that direcly reflect the atomic and molecular structure of coal. The naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal were utilized as probes of their local environment, which they reflect through hyperfine interactions with neighboring 1 > 0 nuclei (eg, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C).

  16. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium....

  17. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  18. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  19. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  20. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium....

  1. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium....

  2. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium....

  3. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium....

  4. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  5. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium....

  6. Why make premium diesel?

    SciTech Connect

    Pipenger, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the last issue of Hart`s Fuel Technology & Management (Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 62-64), a discussion of the evolution of premium diesel fuels in the US and Europe was begun. Cetane and ignition improvers were discussed. In this concluding article, different additive components such as fuel stabilizers, corrosion inhibitors and lubricity additives are reviewed--all of which are key components of any top-quality diesel fuel today. An excerpt from {open_quotes}The Making of Premium Diesel,{close_quotes} which categorizes (costs, benefits, dosage rates) the additives necessary to improve diesel quality is presented.

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Premiums. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME... Premiums. The bonds provided for shall be furnished without cost to the National Shipping Authority, but the cost of the premiums of such bonds shall be included in the overhead expense of the General Agent....

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premiums. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME... Premiums. The bonds provided for shall be furnished without cost to the National Shipping Authority, but the cost of the premiums of such bonds shall be included in the overhead expense of the General Agent....

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Premiums. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME... Premiums. The bonds provided for shall be furnished without cost to the National Shipping Authority, but the cost of the premiums of such bonds shall be included in the overhead expense of the General Agent....

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Premiums. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME... Premiums. The bonds provided for shall be furnished without cost to the National Shipping Authority, but the cost of the premiums of such bonds shall be included in the overhead expense of the General Agent....

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Premiums. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME... Premiums. The bonds provided for shall be furnished without cost to the National Shipping Authority, but the cost of the premiums of such bonds shall be included in the overhead expense of the General Agent....

  12. Time resolved small angle x-ray scattering reactivity studies on coals, asphaltenes, and polymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, S.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Winans, R. E.

    1999-07-02

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in the structures of coals, asphaltenes, and polymers in situ with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during thermal treatments. We have built a SAXS instrument at the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center at the Advanced Photon Source that allows us to obtain scattering data on very small samples and in the millisecond time domain. The Argonne Premium Coal samples, petroleum derived asphaltenes, and polymers with functionality to model fossil fuels were used in this study. The information that can be derived from these experiments includes: changes in fractal dimensionality, surface topology, and size and type of porosity. The information is correlated with other methods on the same samples.

  13. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  15. Effect of moisture on adsorption isotherms and adsorption capacities of CO{sub 2} on coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ekrem Ozdemir; Karl Schroeder

    2009-05-15

    The effect of moisture on the adsorption isotherms and adsorption capacities of CO{sub 2} on Argonne Premium coals has been investigated. In some experiments a small hysteresis was observed between the adsorption and desorption isotherms. The hysteresis was absent or negligible for high-rank and as-received coals but was discernible for lower rank and dried coals. An equation that accounted for the volumetric changes when an adsorbate alters the structure of an adsorbent was employed to interpret the data. The best-fit solutions indicate that the coal volume decreases upon drying. The microscopic shrinkage estimated using helium expansion was greater than the shrinkage reported using the bed-height technique. The microscopic shrinkage was 5-10% for low-moisture medium and high-rank coals and up to 40% for low-rank coals having higher moisture contents. The CO{sub 2} swelling of coals during adsorption isotherm measurements was estimated to be about the same as the shrinkage that occurred during the moisture loss. The adsorption capacity, isosteric heat of adsorption, average pore size, and surface area of the as-received (moist) and dried Argonne coals were estimated after accounting for the volume changes. The isosteric heat of adsorption of CO{sub 2} was found to be between 23 and 25 kJ/mol for as-received coals and between 25 and 27 kJ/mol for dried coals, regardless of the rank. The degree of drying was shown to affect the adsorption capacity and the calculated surface area. For dried coals, the adsorption capacity showed the typical 'U-shape' dependence on rank whereas the as-received coals displayed a more linear dependence. A relationship is proposed to quantify the effect of moisture on the adsorption capacity. The mechanism of CO{sub 2} adsorption on moist coals and the implications of the lower adsorption capacity of wet coals to coal seam sequestration of CO{sub 2} are presented. 70 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, September 1, 1995--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  17. 7 CFR 1786.207 - Prepayment premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prepayment premium. 1786.207 Section 1786.207... Prepayment premium. (a) A premium shall be assessed against a borrower that refinances or prepays a loan or... premium as calculated by FFB. FFB will calculate this premium as described in this section. Except...

  18. 7 CFR 1786.207 - Prepayment premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prepayment premium. 1786.207 Section 1786.207... Prepayment premium. (a) A premium shall be assessed against a borrower that refinances or prepays a loan or... premium as calculated by FFB. FFB will calculate this premium as described in this section. Except...

  19. 42 CFR 408.20 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 408.20 Section 408.20 Public... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.20 Monthly premiums. (a) Statutory provisions. (1) The law established a monthly premium of $3 for the initial period of the...

  20. 42 CFR 408.20 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 408.20 Section 408.20 Public... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.20 Monthly premiums. (a) Statutory provisions. (1) The law established a monthly premium of $3 for the initial period of the...

  1. 42 CFR 408.20 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 408.20 Section 408.20 Public... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.20 Monthly premiums. (a) Statutory provisions. (1) The law established a monthly premium of $3 for the initial period of the...

  2. 7 CFR 1786.207 - Prepayment premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Prepayment premium. 1786.207 Section 1786.207... Prepayment premium. (a) A premium shall be assessed against a borrower that refinances or prepays a loan or... premium as calculated by FFB. FFB will calculate this premium as described in this section. Except...

  3. 7 CFR 1786.207 - Prepayment premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prepayment premium. 1786.207 Section 1786.207... Prepayment premium. (a) A premium shall be assessed against a borrower that refinances or prepays a loan or... premium as calculated by FFB. FFB will calculate this premium as described in this section. Except...

  4. 42 CFR 408.20 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 408.20 Section 408.20 Public... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.20 Monthly premiums. (a) Statutory provisions. (1) The law established a monthly premium of $3 for the initial period of the...

  5. 42 CFR 408.20 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 408.20 Section 408.20 Public... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.20 Monthly premiums. (a) Statutory provisions. (1) The law established a monthly premium of $3 for the initial period of the...

  6. Problems with the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of oxygen rich Czech coals

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlikova, H.; Machovic, V.; Cerny, J.; Sebestova, E.

    1995-12-01

    Solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies are two main methods used for the structural analysis of coals and their various products. Obtaining quantitative parameters from coals, such as arornaticity (f{sub a}) by the above mentioned methods can be a rather difficult task. Coal samples of various rank were chosen for the quantitative NMR, FTIR and EPR analyses. The aromaticity was obtained by the FTIR, {sup 13}C CP/MAS and SP/MAS NMR experiments. The content of radicals and saturation characteristics of coals were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The following problems have been discussed: 1. The relationship between the amount of free radicals (N{sub g}) and f{sub a} by NMR. 2. The f{sub a} obtained by solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. 3. The differences between the f{sub a} measured by CP and SP/NMR experiments. 4. The relationship between the content of oxygen groups and the saturation responses of coals. The reliability of our results was checked by measuring the structural parameters of Argonne premium coals.

  7. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1993-12-31

    Acid pretreatment removes those alkaline metal and alkaline earth cations which inhibit coal reactivity and hydrogen transfer. Shams et al. (1992) found that through this pretreatment a large portion of the calcium present in coal was removed. Hydrochloric acid was used in that study, but sulfurous acid, if similar results are achieved, would be a much more suitable acid for processing. Another pretreatment method to remove these cations is one using ammonium acetate (Hengel and Walker, 1984). This study will evaluate the effect of combining these two principles, acid pretreatment of coal and rapid hydrogen transfer, for improving hydrogen transfer under low severity conditions. The acid pretreatment methods showed more success with low rank, subbituminous coals and lignite. Therefore, Wyodak subbituminous coal (WY) from the Argonne Premium Sample Bank and Black Thunder subbituminous coal (BT) from Amoco are being used and compared in this study. The cyclic olefin, 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene (isotetralin, ISO) and its analogue, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, TET), will also be used and compared in this study. The efficacy of the two-ringed ISO can then be compared with the previously studied three-ringed HHA. Dr. James Hool, Professor of Industrial Engineering and an expert in statistics and experimental design, assisted in formulating the four-dimensional experimental matrix found in Figure 1. It is through this parametric analysis that the effect of each factor in this pretreatment and low severity liquefaction system will be determined.

  8. Making premium diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pipenger, G.

    1997-02-01

    For refiners, extra processing and blending is a practical, though not always easy, option for improving diesel fuel properties; however, it entails compromises. For example, ignition quality can be improved by including more paraffins, but this negatively impacts the required low-temperature operability properties. Another example is adding aromatics to increase the diesel`s Btu value, but aromatics burn poorly and tend to cause smoking. Due to these and other types of diametrical trade-offs, the scope of distillate processing and fuels blending at the refinery is often very limited. Therefore, fuel additives are rapidly becoming the only alternative for obtaining the superior quality necessary in a premium diesel fuel. If stabilizers, dispersants and other fuel additive components are used in the additive package, the product can be marketed as a premium diesel fuel additive. Engines using this additive-treated fuel will consistently have less emissions, produce optimum power from the fuel energy conversion process and perform to design specifications. And the user will truly have a premium diesel fuel. The paper discusses detergent additives, cetane or ignition improvers, fuel stabilizers, cold weather additives, and lubricity additives.

  9. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR. Eighth quarterly (second annual) report

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-09-01

    A nondestructive method to determine the atomic and molecular structures present in the organic (maceral) components of whole coal and coal products has been sought for many years. This program of research is designed to address that analytical need by applying advanced electron magnetic resonance techniques to the determination of coal molecular structure. Structural information has be obtained by using the naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal as ``observation posts`` from which to survey neighboring atoms through the electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction. Such an overall approach has been termed ELECTRON SPIN MAPPING of coal structure. New techniques like 2-dimensional ENDOR and ESE spectroscopies and multifrequency EPR, including the world`s first S-band ESE spectrometer and one of the first W-band instruments, which we have developed in our laboratory, were employed in the determination. The materials studied were well separated macerals obtained by density gradient centrifugation techniques from Illinois {number_sign}6 coals, a well as whole Illinois {number_sign}6, {number_sign}5, and Argonne Premium Sample Coals. model compounds, chosen to represent molecular structures typical of those believed to exist in coal also were studied by the various electron magnetic resonance (EMR) methods. Utilizing the various EMR methods available in our laboratory, we studied approaches to determine parameters that direcly reflect the atomic and molecular structure of coal. The naturally occurring unpaired electrons in coal were utilized as probes of their local environment, which they reflect through hyperfine interactions with neighboring 1 > 0 nuclei (eg, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C).

  10. Investigation of oxygen functional groups in low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, E.W.; Lee, S.K.

    1993-07-01

    The distribution of the organic oxygen content of coals among the principal oxygen containing functional groups typically is determined by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods (1,2) and results in a classification scheme such as % carboxyl, % hydroxyl, % carbonyl, and % ether. A notable subdivision in this classification scheme is the differentiation of phenols in a coal on the basis of their ortho-substitution pattern (3). Apart from this distinction, the further classification of oxygen into functional group subsets is virtually nonexistent. This paper presents initial experiments that indicate a fuller characterization of oxygen distribution in low rank coal is possible. The experimental approach couples selective chemical perturbation and solid state NMR analysis of the material, specifically, the fluorination of Argonne Premium Coal {number_sign}8, North Dakota lignite, and spectroscopic examination by high resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR (4). The fluorination reagent is diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST), (Et){sub 2}NSF{sub 3}, which promotes a rich slate of oxygen functional group interconversions that introduce fluorine into the coal matrix (5). The virtual absence of this element in coals make {sup 19}F an attractive NMR nuclei for this application (6). The present experiments use direct detection of the {sup 19}F nucleus under conditions of proton ({sup 1}H) heteronuclear dipolar decoupling and magic angle spinning (MAS). The ca 300 ppm range of {sup 19}F chemical shifts in common carbon-fluorine bonding configurations and high {sup 19}F nuclear sensitivity permit the identification of unique and chemically dilute functional groups in the coal milieu. The unique detection of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary and secondary alcohols provide examples of the exquisite functional group detail that is revealed by this combination of techniques.

  11. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  12. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2010-01-08

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing?everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  13. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing?everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  14. Reactivity of coal in direct hydrogenation processes: Technical progress report, September-November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Research focused on two facets of the reactivity studies. First, a series of experimental runs aimed at investigation of the role of hydrogen in direct liquefaction were completed. A model compound system consisting of dibenzyl in aromatic (non-donor) or hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) vehicles was hydrogenated to determine the effect of molecular hydrogen and hydrogen from donor molecules in the radical quenching and bond scission reactions. Special attention was paid to the role of hydrogen as an active bond cleavage agent. These data show the relative participation of hydrogen from both sources at conditions relevant to the reactivity data and provide support for the role of hydrogen acting directly to promote bond cleavage. Maintenance of a ''pool'' of hydrogen atoms was found to be of great importance in terms of promoting hydrogenolysis and hydrocracking reactions of dibenzyl. Five bituminous coals from the Argonne premium coal collection were liquefied at conditions similar to those employed in the model compound study. The general findings relative to the activity of molecular hydrogen determined from the model compound experiments were evidenced in the coal liquefaction data. Additionally, the presence of aliphatic hydrodgen in the coal itself was found to be a highly significant factor in determining the sensitivity of coal conversion to the presence of gas phase molecular hydrogen. 8 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. 12 CFR 1410.5 - Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.5 Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. (a) Delinquent payments. Each insured...

  16. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt...

  17. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt...

  18. 12 CFR 1410.5 - Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.5 Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. (a) Delinquent payments. Each insured...

  19. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt...

  20. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt...

  1. 12 CFR 1410.5 - Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.5 Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. (a) Delinquent payments. Each insured...

  2. 12 CFR 1410.5 - Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.5 Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. (a) Delinquent payments. Each insured...

  3. 12 CFR 1410.5 - Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.5 Delinquent premium payments and premium overpayments. (a) Delinquent payments. Each insured...

  4. Review of risk premium methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, C.

    1995-12-31

    Over the last few years, the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) has used a simple risk premium method as supplemental evidence in determining the cost of equity in rate cases. The Board method has mainly been to add 250 to 350 basis points risk premium to an A-rated utility bond average. Recently, the Board has expressed concern that an update of the risk premium range is warranted. Is an update needed? The 250 to 350 basis points, when first adopted, apparently reflected a specific record at that time. It is not cast in stone nor invariate with time. For a number of reasons, periodic updating is reasonable and proper. First, during periods of extremely high or extremely low capital costs, commissions` desire for stability of rates and avoidance of subsequent rate cases triggered by more normal credit shifts commissions` attention from the discounted cash flow (DCF) {open_quotes}snap-shot{close_quotes} of capital costs to the broader {open_quotes}time-series perspective{close_quotes} of the risk premium method. It is essentially a judgment that the current capital cost, at times of market extremes, is not necessarily the best representative equity cost to use for prospective rates. Nevertheless, a risk premium method is a market-based method, with some tie, via the debt rate, to current market conditions. In any case, during such times when the risk premium method is given more usage, it makes sense to refine or update, if needed, the Board`s risk premium methodology.

  5. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.4 The premium. The term... association. (a) The premium on a policy will be calculated on an annual basis, and if the annual premium...

  6. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.4 The premium. The term... association. (a) The premium on a policy will be calculated on an annual basis, and if the annual premium...

  7. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.4 The premium. The term... association. (a) The premium on a policy will be calculated on an annual basis, and if the annual premium...

  8. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Premium rate. 6.2 Section... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and...

  9. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping... Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will be... in the computation of a premium, or the insured goods were short-shipped. An application for...

  10. 5 CFR 890.1109 - Premium payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Premium payments. 890.1109 Section 890... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1109 Premium..., he or she pays the premium charge for only the days actually covered. The daily premium rate is...

  11. 45 CFR 158.130 - Premium revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Premium revenue. 158.130 Section 158.130 Public... PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS Disclosure and Reporting § 158.130 Premium revenue. (a) General requirements. An issuer must report to the Secretary earned premium for each MLR reporting...

  12. 45 CFR 158.130 - Premium revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Premium revenue. 158.130 Section 158.130 Public... PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS Disclosure and Reporting § 158.130 Premium revenue. (a) General requirements. An issuer must report to the Secretary earned premium for each MLR reporting...

  13. 5 CFR 890.1109 - Premium payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Premium payments. 890.1109 Section 890... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1109 Premium..., he or she pays the premium charge for only the days actually covered. The daily premium rate is...

  14. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium rate. 6.2 Section... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1109 - Premium payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium payments. 890.1109 Section 890... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1109 Premium..., he or she pays the premium charge for only the days actually covered. The daily premium rate is...

  16. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Premium rate. 6.2 Section... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and...

  17. 45 CFR 158.130 - Premium revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Premium revenue. 158.130 Section 158.130 Public... PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS Disclosure and Reporting § 158.130 Premium revenue. (a) General requirements. An issuer must report to the Secretary earned premium for each MLR reporting...

  18. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping... Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will be... in the computation of a premium, or the insured goods were short-shipped. An application for...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1109 - Premium payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Premium payments. 890.1109 Section 890... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1109 Premium..., he or she pays the premium charge for only the days actually covered. The daily premium rate is...

  20. 42 CFR 447.55 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Premiums. 447.55 Section 447.55 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments: General Provisions Medicaid Premiums and Cost Sharing § 447.55 Premiums. (a) The agency may impose premiums upon individuals whose income exceeds 150...

  1. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Premium rate. 6.2 Section... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and...

  2. 5 CFR 890.1109 - Premium payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Premium payments. 890.1109 Section 890... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1109 Premium..., he or she pays the premium charge for only the days actually covered. The daily premium rate is...

  3. 45 CFR 158.130 - Premium revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Premium revenue. 158.130 Section 158.130 Public... PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS Disclosure and Reporting § 158.130 Premium revenue. (a) General requirements. An issuer must report to the Secretary earned premium for each MLR reporting...

  4. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Premium rate. 6.2 Section... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and...

  5. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium....

  6. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... Loan Programs § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is...

  7. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium....

  8. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a...

  9. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    During the previous quarter, a new approach for the deploymerization of the coal macromolecule was tried. This was aimed towards carbon-carbon bond cleavage in presence of strong bases. Such bond cleavage reactions are well known with the alkali metals. Electron transfer reactions take place from the metals to the aromatic nuclei resulting in the formation ofanion-radicals (or dianions) which subsequently undergo carbon-carbon bond cleavage. In our work instead of using the alkali metals, we have used strong bases to cleave the carbon-carbon bonds in hydrocarbons, and have suggested that hydrocarbon elimination reactions occur. Such anionic fragmentation reactions involving strong bases are not very well established. However, we have obtained circumstantial evidence that such bond cleavage reactions do take place in some coal systems. For example, when the high rank Lower Kittaming coal, PSOC 1197, was treated with Lochmann's base (equimolar mixture of n-butyllithiun and potassium tert-butoxide) in refluxing heptane and quenched with ammonium chloride and reethanol, the pyridine solubility of the product increased from 5% (raw coal) to 39%. A similar increase in solubility due to base treatment was also observed in a separate study for another high rank coal, Pocahontas No. 3 from the Argonne National Laboratory Premium Sample Program. The solubility of the coal increased frcm 5% to 32% after the base treatment. These results, together with the absence of literature studies on base promoted fragmentation reactions prompted us to perfom reactions on some pure compounds to assess this concept in more detail.

  10. 38 CFR 8.2 - Payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 8.2... INSURANCE Premiums § 8.2 Payment of premiums. (a) What is a premium? A premium is a payment that a policyholder is required to make for an insurance policy. (b) How can policyholders pay premiums? Premiums...

  11. 38 CFR 8.2 - Payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 8.2... INSURANCE Premiums § 8.2 Payment of premiums. (a) What is a premium? A premium is a payment that a policyholder is required to make for an insurance policy. (b) How can policyholders pay premiums? Premiums...

  12. 38 CFR 8.2 - Payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 8.2... INSURANCE Premiums § 8.2 Payment of premiums. (a) What is a premium? A premium is a payment that a policyholder is required to make for an insurance policy. (b) How can policyholders pay premiums? Premiums...

  13. 38 CFR 8.2 - Payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 8.2... INSURANCE Premiums § 8.2 Payment of premiums. (a) What is a premium? A premium is a payment that a policyholder is required to make for an insurance policy. (b) How can policyholders pay premiums? Premiums...

  14. 38 CFR 8.2 - Payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of premiums. 8.2... INSURANCE Premiums § 8.2 Payment of premiums. (a) What is a premium? A premium is a payment that a policyholder is required to make for an insurance policy. (b) How can policyholders pay premiums? Premiums...

  15. Thermodynamics and surface structure of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.S.; Larsen, J.W.; Quay, D.M.; Roberts, J.E.; Wernett, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    We have reported the determination of the average micropore diameter of an Argonne Illinois No. 6 coal (77% C, daf) and a standard 15 A diameter Spherocarb sample by {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy. We have successfully applied this technique to determine the average micropore diameter of the full series of Argonne coals. We have recently developed a computer program (Appendix A) which correlates the 129 Xe NMR spectrum of Coals directly to the micropore size distribution of each Argonne coal. The micropore size distribution of Argonne: Pocahontas No. 3 (91.8% C, dmmf); Pittsburgh No. 8 (85.0% C, dmmf); and Blind Canyon (81.3% C, dmmf) coals, determined by 129 Xe NMR spectroscopy are shown in Figures 2, 4, and 6, respectively.

  16. Production of low ash coal by high efficiency coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The washability of South African coals is described and the problems encountered in washing at low densities, to make premium products, are enumerated. The measures taken to overcome those problems, when low density separations became a commercial necessity, are described in detail. The descriptions of processes are with specific reference to the three sizes commonly treated separately in coal preparation namely coarse coal, small coal, and fine coal. Some information is given on the performance characteristics of the plants erected to meet market requirements.

  17. A study of coal extraction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-09-01

    An electron spin and proton magnetic relaxation study is presented on the effects of the solvent extraction of coal on the macromoleculer network of the coal and on the mobile molecular species that are initially within the coal. The eight Argonne Premium coals were extracted at room temperature with a 1:1 (v/v) N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP)-CS2 solvent mixture under an inert atmosphere. As much solvent as possible was removed from extract and residue by treatment in a vacuum. The mobilization of molecular free radicals by the solvent and the exposure of free radicals in the macromoleculer matrix to solvent or to species dissolved in the solvent, results in a preferential survival of residue radicals of types that depend on the particular coal and results in the apparently fairly uniform loss of all types of radicals in bituminous coal extracts. The surviving extract and residue free radicals are more predominantly of the odd- alternate hydrocarbon free radical type. The spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) of these coal free radicals has previously been inferred (Doetschman and Dwyer, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 783) to be from the modulation of the intramolecular electron-nuclear dipole-interactions of the CH groups in a magnetic field by rocldng motions of the radical in the coal matrix. Such a modulation would depend not only on the rocking amplitude and frequency but also upon the electron spin density at the CH groups in the radical. The observed SLR rates decrease with coal rank in agreement with the smaller spin densities and the lower rocidng amplitudes that are expected for the larger polycondensed ring systems in coals of higher rank. The SLR rates are found to be generally faster in the extracts (than residues) where the molecular species would be expected to have a smaller polycondensed ring system than in the macromoleculer matrix of the residue.

  18. 7 CFR 1735.44 - Prepayment premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premiums on loans guaranteed by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1610 for prepayment premiums on RTB loans. See RUS Bulletin 320-12 for additional information. This CFR part supersedes those portions of RUS Bulletin...

  19. 7 CFR 1735.44 - Prepayment premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premiums on loans guaranteed by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1610 for prepayment premiums on RTB loans. See RUS Bulletin 320-12 for additional information. This CFR part supersedes those portions of RUS Bulletin...

  20. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198.13 Section 198.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The...

  1. The height premium in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the height premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a height premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the height premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers. PMID:24480546

  2. Argonne`s new Wakefield Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1992-07-20

    The first phase of a high current, short bunch length electron beam research facility, the AWA, is near completion at Argonne. At the heart of the facility is a photocathode based electron gun and accelerating sections designed to deliver 20 MeV pulses with up to 100 nC per pulse and with pulse lengths of approximately 15 ps (fw). Using a technique similar to that originated at Argonne`s AATF facility, a separate weak probe pulse can be generated and used to diagnose wake effects produced by the intense pulses. Initial planned experiments include studies of plasma wakefields and dielectric wakefield devices, and expect to demonstrate large, useful accelerating gradients (> 100 MeV/m). Later phases of the facility will increase the drive bunch energy to more than 100 MeV to enable acceleration experiments up to the GeV range. Specifications, design details, and commissioning progress are presented.

  3. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section plus, in the case of a single-employer plan, the variable-rate premium under... determined under paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Variable-rate premium. (1) In general. Subject to the limitation in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the variable-rate premium is $9 for each $1,000 (or...

  4. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  5. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  6. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  7. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay...

  8. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  9. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... more quarters of coverage (QCs) as defined in 20 CFR 404.140 through 404.146; (2) Has been married for... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums. (a... monthly premium determined under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is reduced in each month in which...

  10. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amount. (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under... beneficiary premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii..., with the weight for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to...

  11. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under the... premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii) The... for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to the number of Part...

  12. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under the... premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii) The... for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to the number of Part...

  13. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amount. (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under... beneficiary premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii..., with the weight for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to...

  14. 42 CFR 422.262 - Beneficiary premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Plan Approval § 422.262 Beneficiary premiums. (a) Determination of MA monthly basic beneficiary premium. (1) For an MA plan with an unadjusted statutory non-drug bid amount that is less than the relevant unadjusted non-drug benchmark amount, the basic beneficiary premium is zero. (2) For an MA...

  15. 42 CFR 422.262 - Beneficiary premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Information and Plan Approval § 422.262 Beneficiary premiums. (a) Determination of MA monthly basic beneficiary premium. (1) For an MA plan with an unadjusted statutory non-drug bid amount that is less than the relevant unadjusted non-drug benchmark amount, the basic beneficiary premium is zero. (2) For an MA...

  16. 42 CFR 422.262 - Beneficiary premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Information and Plan Approval § 422.262 Beneficiary premiums. (a) Determination of MA monthly basic beneficiary premium. (1) For an MA plan with an unadjusted statutory non-drug bid amount that is less than the relevant unadjusted non-drug benchmark amount, the basic beneficiary premium is zero. (2) For an MA...

  17. 42 CFR 422.262 - Beneficiary premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Plan Approval § 422.262 Beneficiary premiums. (a) Determination of MA monthly basic beneficiary premium. (1) For an MA plan with an unadjusted statutory non-drug bid amount that is less than the relevant unadjusted non-drug benchmark amount, the basic beneficiary premium is zero. (2) For an MA...

  18. 42 CFR 422.262 - Beneficiary premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Information and Plan Approval § 422.262 Beneficiary premiums. (a) Determination of MA monthly basic beneficiary premium. (1) For an MA plan with an unadjusted statutory non-drug bid amount that is less than the relevant unadjusted non-drug benchmark amount, the basic beneficiary premium is zero. (2) For an MA...

  19. 46 CFR 308.540 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Premiums. 308.540 Section 308.540 Shipping MARITIME...-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.540 Premiums. (a) Rates. Rate Schedules for war risk facultative... of Transportation” for the full amount of the premium thereon computed on the amount to be insured...

  20. 24 CFR 2700.315 - Insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance premium. 2700.315 Section... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Mortgage Insurance § 2700.315 Insurance premium. (a) At such times as may be prescribed by HUD, the participating lender shall pay to HUD a mortgage insurance premium equal to...

  1. 7 CFR 1735.44 - Prepayment premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premiums on loans guaranteed by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1610 for prepayment premiums on RTB loans. See RUS Bulletin 320-12 for additional information. This CFR part supersedes those portions of RUS Bulletin 320-12... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prepayment premiums. 1735.44 Section...

  2. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... more quarters of coverage (QCs) as defined in 20 CFR 404.140 through 404.146; (2) Has been married for... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 406.32 Section 406.32 Public... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums....

  3. 24 CFR 2700.315 - Insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance premium. 2700.315 Section... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Mortgage Insurance § 2700.315 Insurance premium. (a) At such times as may be prescribed by HUD, the participating lender shall pay to HUD a mortgage insurance premium equal to...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.44 - Prepayment premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premiums on loans guaranteed by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1610 for prepayment premiums on RTB loans. See RUS Bulletin 320-12 for additional information. This CFR part supersedes those portions of RUS Bulletin 320-12... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prepayment premiums. 1735.44 Section...

  5. 44 CFR 62.5 - Premium refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premium refund. 62.5 Section... OF CLAIMS Issuance of Policies § 62.5 Premium refund. A Standard Flood Insurance Policyholder whose... has been paid or is pending, the full premium shall be refunded for the current policy year, and...

  6. 42 CFR 600.505 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the premium of the applicable benchmark plan, as defined in 26 CFR 1.36B-3(f). The State must assure... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Premiums. 600.505 Section 600.505 Public Health... REQUIREMENTS, PREMIUM AND COST SHARING, ALLOTMENTS, AND RECONCILATION (Eff. 1-1-15) Enrollee...

  7. 46 CFR 308.540 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premiums. 308.540 Section 308.540 Shipping MARITIME...-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.540 Premiums. (a) Rates. Rate Schedules for war risk facultative... of Transportation” for the full amount of the premium thereon computed on the amount to be insured...

  8. 46 CFR 308.540 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Premiums. 308.540 Section 308.540 Shipping MARITIME...-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.540 Premiums. (a) Rates. Rate Schedules for war risk facultative... of Transportation” for the full amount of the premium thereon computed on the amount to be insured...

  9. 12 CFR 330.101 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Premiums. 330.101 Section 330.101 Banks and... INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.101 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be “interest” as defined in § 330.1(k). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise,...

  10. 24 CFR 2700.315 - Insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance premium. 2700.315 Section... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Mortgage Insurance § 2700.315 Insurance premium. (a) At such times as may be prescribed by HUD, the participating lender shall pay to HUD a mortgage insurance premium equal to...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.44 - Prepayment premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premiums on loans guaranteed by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1610 for prepayment premiums on RTB loans. See RUS Bulletin 320-12 for additional information. This CFR part supersedes those portions of RUS Bulletin 320-12... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prepayment premiums. 1735.44 Section...

  12. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.4 The premium. The term premium as defined under 50 U.S.C. app. 540(b) shall include membership dues and assessments in...

  13. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... more quarters of coverage (QCs) as defined in 20 CFR 404.140 through 404.146; (2) Has been married for... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 406.32 Section 406.32 Public... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums....

  14. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public...) Payment § 460.186 PACE premiums. The amount that a PACE organization can charge a participant as a monthly premium depends on the participant's eligibility under Medicare and Medicaid, as follows: (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 308.540 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Premiums. 308.540 Section 308.540 Shipping MARITIME...-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.540 Premiums. (a) Rates. Rate Schedules for war risk facultative... of Transportation” for the full amount of the premium thereon computed on the amount to be insured...

  16. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... more quarters of coverage (QCs) as defined in 20 CFR 404.140 through 404.146; (2) Has been married for... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 406.32 Section 406.32 Public... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums....

  17. 12 CFR 330.101 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Premiums. 330.101 Section 330.101 Banks and... INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.101 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be “interest” as defined in § 330.1(k). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise,...

  18. 46 CFR 308.540 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Premiums. 308.540 Section 308.540 Shipping MARITIME... Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.540 Premiums. (a) Rates. Rate Schedules for war risk facultative... of Transportation” for the full amount of the premium thereon computed on the amount to be insured...

  19. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... more quarters of coverage (QCs) as defined in 20 CFR 404.140 through 404.146; (2) Has been married for... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 406.32 Section 406.32 Public... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums....

  20. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Premiums. 329.103 Section 329.103 Banks and... DEPOSITS § 329.103 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be interest as defined in § 329.1(c). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise, credit, or cash,...

  1. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premiums. 329.103 Section 329.103 Banks and... DEPOSITS § 329.103 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be interest as defined in § 329.1(c). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise, credit, or cash,...

  2. 44 CFR 62.5 - Premium refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Premium refund. 62.5 Section... OF CLAIMS Issuance of Policies § 62.5 Premium refund. A Standard Flood Insurance Policyholder whose... has been paid or is pending, the full premium shall be refunded for the current policy year, and...

  3. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.4 The premium. The term premium as defined under 50 U.S.C. app. 540(b) shall include membership dues and assessments in...

  4. 12 CFR 330.101 - Premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Premiums. 330.101 Section 330.101 Banks and... INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.101 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be “interest” as defined in § 330.1(k). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise,...

  5. Guidance on premium payments in CERCLA settlements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The directive provides guidance on the use of premium payments in CERCLA settlements. It describes the key features of a premium payment settlement, considerations regarding timing of the settlement, and the factors to be considered in deciding if a premium should be accepted.

  6. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  7. Argonne's 2012 Earth Day Event

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Argonne's 2012 Earth Day event drew crowds from across the laboratory. Argonne and U.S. Department of Energy employees toured booths and interactive displays set up by Argonne programs and clubs. Several of Argonne's partners participated, including U.S. Department of Energy, University of Chicago, Abri Credit Union, DuPage County Forest Preserve, DuPage Water Commission, PACE and Morton Arboretum. Argonne scientists and engineers also participated in a poster session, discussing their clean energy research.

  8. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost.

  9. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Grazis, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  10. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Grazis, B.M.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  11. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Twelfth quarterly report, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    During the previous quarter, a new approach for the deploymerization of the coal macromolecule was tried. This was aimed towards carbon-carbon bond cleavage in presence of strong bases. Such bond cleavage reactions are well known with the alkali metals. Electron transfer reactions take place from the metals to the aromatic nuclei resulting in the formation ofanion-radicals (or dianions) which subsequently undergo carbon-carbon bond cleavage. In our work instead of using the alkali metals, we have used strong bases to cleave the carbon-carbon bonds in hydrocarbons, and have suggested that hydrocarbon elimination reactions occur. Such anionic fragmentation reactions involving strong bases are not very well established. However, we have obtained circumstantial evidence that such bond cleavage reactions do take place in some coal systems. For example, when the high rank Lower Kittaming coal, PSOC 1197, was treated with Lochmann`s base (equimolar mixture of n-butyllithiun and potassium tert-butoxide) in refluxing heptane and quenched with ammonium chloride and reethanol, the pyridine solubility of the product increased from 5% (raw coal) to 39%. A similar increase in solubility due to base treatment was also observed in a separate study for another high rank coal, Pocahontas No. 3 from the Argonne National Laboratory Premium Sample Program. The solubility of the coal increased frcm 5% to 32% after the base treatment. These results, together with the absence of literature studies on base promoted fragmentation reactions prompted us to perfom reactions on some pure compounds to assess this concept in more detail.

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperative research in coal liquefaction is presented. Topics include: Sulfate-promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium US coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; examination of ferric sulfide as a liquefaction catalyst; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; spectroscopic studies of coal macerals depolymerization catalyzed by iron chloride; characterization of catalysts used in coal hydrogenation systems; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; mass spectrometry of coal derived liquids: determination of molecular weight distributions; catalyst cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; direct determination of hydroaromatic structures in coal and coal conversion products by catalytic dehydrogenation; surface characterization of APCSB coals by XPS; computation chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; the role of hydrogen during liquefaction using donor and non-donor solvents; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds: new approaches to low-temperature liquefaction; an investigation into the reactivity of isotetralin and tetralin using molecular orbital calculations; coal liquefaction modification for enhanced reactivity; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction -- potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; and improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and coprocessing.

  13. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. II: natural coals" IJCG, 2010, 84, 115-124 Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, D. Charriére, D. Li, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. I: Activated carbon" Carbon 47 ( 2009 ) 2958 -2969 Goodman, A.L., Busch, A., Duffy, G., Fitzgerald, J.E., Gasem, K.A.M., Gensterblum, Y., Krooss, B.M., Levy, J., Ozdemir, E., Pan, Z., Robinson, Jr., R.L., Schroeder, K., Sudibandriyo, M., White, C. (2004). An Inter-laboratory Comparison of CO2 Isotherms Measured on Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Energy and Fuels 18, 1175-1182. Goodman, A.L., Busch, A., Day, S., Duffy, G.J., Fitzgerald, J.E., Gasem, K.A.M., Gensterblum, Y., Hartman, C., Krooss, B.M., Pan, Z., Pratt, T., Robinson, Jr., R.L., Romanov, V., Sakurovs, R., Schroeder, K., Sudibandriyo, M., White, C.M. (2007) "Inter-laboratory Comparison II: CO2 Isotherms Measured on Moisture-Equilibrated Argonne Premium Coals at 55oC and 15 MPa", International Journal of Coal Geology 72, 153-164.

  14. Magnetic relaxation: Coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-11-01

    An electron spin and proton magnetic relaxation study is presented on the effects of the solvent extraction of coal on the macromolecular network of the coal and on the mobile molecular species that are initially within the coal. The eight Argonne Premium coals were extracted at room temperature with a 1:1 (v/v) N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP)-CS{sub 2} solvent mixture under an inert atmosphere. As much solvent as possible was removed from extract and residue by treatment under vacuum oven conditions ({approximately}10{sup {minus}2} torr at 145--150{degrees}C) until constant weight was achieved. The extraction, without further washing with other solvents, results in substantial uptake of NMP, apparently by H-bonding or acid-base interactions. The NMP uptake tends to be higher in coal matter with higher heteroatom (N,O,S) content and the NMP more tightly bound. The molecular material in the medium rank bituminous coals is more aromatic and heteroatom-poor than the macromolecular material and is mobilized by the extracting solvent. Likewise the more aromatic and heteroatom-poor molecular, free radicals are also extracted. However, mobilization of the molecular free radicals by solvent and the exposure of free radicals by the macromolecular matrix to solvent or species dissolved in the solvent, results in preferential reactions of the more aromatic and heteroatom-poor free radicals. Greater losses of extract free radicals, being the more aromatic, occur than residue free radicals. As a consequence, the surviving extract radicals exhibit a greater heteroatom content than the original whole coals, as determined from EPR g value changes.

  15. 42 CFR 408.27 - Rounding the monthly premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rounding the monthly premium. 408.27 Section 408.27... PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.27 Rounding the monthly premium. Any monthly premium that is not a multiple of 10 cents is rounded to the nearest...

  16. 42 CFR 408.27 - Rounding the monthly premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rounding the monthly premium. 408.27 Section 408.27... PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.27 Rounding the monthly premium. Any monthly premium that is not a multiple of 10 cents is rounded to the nearest...

  17. 42 CFR 408.27 - Rounding the monthly premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rounding the monthly premium. 408.27 Section 408.27... PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.27 Rounding the monthly premium. Any monthly premium that is not a multiple of 10 cents is rounded to the nearest...

  18. 42 CFR 408.27 - Rounding the monthly premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rounding the monthly premium. 408.27 Section 408.27... PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.27 Rounding the monthly premium. Any monthly premium that is not a multiple of 10 cents is rounded to the nearest...

  19. 42 CFR 408.27 - Rounding the monthly premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rounding the monthly premium. 408.27 Section 408.27... PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.27 Rounding the monthly premium. Any monthly premium that is not a multiple of 10 cents is rounded to the nearest...

  20. 24 CFR 266.604 - Mortgage insurance premium: Other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Other... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.604 Mortgage insurance premium: Other requirements. (a) Premium calculations on or after first principal payment. The premiums payable to...

  1. 24 CFR 266.604 - Mortgage insurance premium: Other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Other... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.604 Mortgage insurance premium: Other requirements. (a) Premium calculations on or after first principal payment. The premiums payable to...

  2. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief AGENCY: Pension Benefit... relief upon reconsideration based on the facts and circumstances. PBGC spent considerable time...

  3. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  4. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.

    1992-01-03

    The goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to produce clean, desulfurized, premium-quality chars from the Illinois basin coals. This goal is achieved by utilizing the effective capabilty of smectites in combination with methane to manipulate the char yields. The major objectives are: to determine the optimum water- ground particle size for the maximum reduction of pyrite and minerals by the selective-bitumen agglomeration process; to evaluate the type of smectite and its interlamellar cation which enhances the premium-quality char yields; to find the mode of dispersion of smectites in clean coal which retards the agglomeration of char during mild gasification; to probe the conditions that maximize the desulfurized clean-char yields under a combination of methane+oxygen or helium+oxygen; to characterize and accomplish a material balance of chars, liquids, and gases produced during mild gasification; to identify the conditions which reject dehydrated smectites from char by the gravitational separation technique; and to determine the optimum seeding of chars with polymerized maltene for flammability and transportation.

  5. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  6. 76 FR 79714 - Premium Changes Based On Recharacterization of Contributions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... plan assets for the current year higher, and the plan's variable-rate premium lower, than originally... PBGC. For single- employer plans, premiums include an amount (the variable-rate premium, or VRP)...

  7. 29 CFR 4047.4 - Payment of premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payment due dates for the outstanding premiums. (c) Methods for determining variable rate portion of the premium. In general, the variable rate portion of the outstanding premiums shall be determined...

  8. Magnetic relaxation -- coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    During this quarter, the CW (continuous wave) and pulsed EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) have been examined of the swelled Argonne Premium whole coals and the swelled residues of these coals. The CW EPR spectra will not be of high quality due to the unexpectedly microwave-lossy character of the pyridine used for swelling. Being relatively unaffected by this characteristic, the pulsed EPR measurements of the spin relaxation times of the broad (non-inertinite) and narrow (inertinite) macerals have been completed. Although detailed analyses of these results have not yet been done, marked differences have been found between the relaxation times of the swelled and unswelled coals and residues. The most startling are the less than 200 nsec times T{sub 1} of the spin-lattice relaxation of the inertinite radicals in the swelled samples. The T{sub 1} of this maceral in the unswelled coal were approaching 1 millisecond. The T{sub 1} contrast was much less pronounced between the swelled and non-swelled non-inertinite macerals. The prospects of significant progress in coal pore size measurements with xenon and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) have dimmed since the beginning of this project. This assessment is based on the dearth of these types of studies, a paper at a contractors` meeting on this subject that did not materialize, and discussions with colleagues with experience with the technique in coals. Instead, the authors have been developing a pulsed EPR technique for the spin probing of molecular motion to be applied to pores in carbonaceous materials. This report contains a copy of a nearly final draft of a paper being prepared on the development of this technique, entitled {open_quotes}Physical Characterization of the State of Motion of the Phenalenyl Spin Probe in Cation-Exchanged Faujasite Zeolite Supercages with Pulsed EPR.{close_quotes}

  9. Use of Molecular Modeling to Determine the Interaction and Competition of Gases within Coal for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey D. Evanseck; Jeffry D. Madura

    2003-02-23

    A 3-dimensional coal structural model for the Argonne Premium Coal Pocahontas No. 3 has been generated. The model was constructed based on the wealth of structural information available in the literature with the enhancement that the structural diversity within the structure was represented implicitly (for the first time) based on image analysis of HRTEM in combination with LDMS data. The complex and large structural model (>10,000 carbon atoms) will serve as a basis for examining the interaction of gases within this low volatile bituminous coal. Simulations are of interest to permit reasonable simulations of the host-guest interactions with regard to carbon dioxide sequestration within coal and methane displacement from coal. The molecular structure will also prove useful in examining other coal related behavior such as solvent swelling, liquefaction and other properties. Molecular models of CO{sub 2} have been evaluated with water to analyze which classical molecular force-field parameters are the most reasonable to predict the interactions of CO{sub 2} with water. The comparison of the molecular force field models was for a single CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O complex and was compared against first principles quantum mechanical calculations. The interaction energies and the electrostatic interaction distances were used as criteria in the comparison. The ab initio calculations included Hartree-Fock, B3LYP, and Moeller-Plesset 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order perturbation theories with basis sets up to the aug-cc-pvtz basis set. The Steele model was the best literature model, when compared to the ab initio data, however, our new CO{sub 2} model reproduces the QM data significantly better than the Steele force-field model.

  10. Important sensory properties differentiating premium rice cultivars.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rice-consuming countries worldwide, specific cultivars are recognized as premium, “gold standard” cultivars, while others are recognized as being superior, but not the best. It has been difficult to ascertain whether preferences for premium rice cultivars are driven by discernable differences in...