These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality and Recharge in a Semi-arid Alluvial Basin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impac...

2

The enigma of fine-grained alluvial basin fills: the Permo-Triassic (Cumbrian Coastal and Sherwood Sandstone Groups) of the Solway Basin, NW England and SW Scotland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late Permian to Triassic sediments of the Solway Basin consist of a layer-cake succession of mature, predominantly fine-grained red clastics laid down in semi-arid alluvial plain to arid sabkha and saline marginal marine or lacustrine environments. The Cumbrian Coastal Group consists of Basal Clastics and Eden Shales. The Basal Clastics are thin regolith deposits resting unconformably on all-underlying units

Michael E. Brookfield

2004-01-01

3

Infiltration on alluvial fans in arid environments: Influence of fan morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain-front recharge through highly permeable alluvial fans can be an important source of groundwater recharge in arid climates. To better understand the geomorphic factors (e.g., fan slope, fan area, active channel proportion of fan area, sediment permeability, and entrenchment of the active channel) that control flow and infiltration on alluvial fans, we developed a coupled numerical model of steady surface water flow and Green-Ampt-type infiltration. The model was applied to synthetic alluvial fans using random walkers to create connected distributary networks. The purpose of this approach is to predict where and how recharge occurs on fans as a function of fan morphology. Using the numerical model, we examined how the fan shape and the sequence of fan surfaces influenced where infiltration occurred on the fan. We also investigated how fan morphology influenced the partitioning of infiltration between the fan and the valley floor. Finally, we examined how infiltration influenced the spatial distribution of flooding. The greatest amount of infiltration occurred on low gradient fans where water spread laterally with shallower ponded water depths, although the large inundation area often included less permeable sediments outside of the active channel. The ratio of the incision depth to the input flow depth was an important predictor of the amount of infiltration. The greatest amount of infiltration occurred on fans with incision depths slightly smaller than the input flow depth. These results have implications for groundwater resource assessment and for development of monitoring networks on fans in arid environments.

Blainey, Joan B.; Pelletier, Jon D.

2008-09-01

4

The diachroneity of alluvial-fan lithostratigraphy? A test case from southeastern Ebro basin magnetostratigraphy  

E-print Network

The diachroneity of alluvial-fan lithostratigraphy? A test case from southeastern Ebro basin: R.W. Carlson Available online 12 July 2007 Abstract Alluvial-fan strata contain valuable proxy data composite alluvial-fan sections assumes the chronostratigraphic significance of lithostratigraphy. We

Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas

5

Seasonal Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry of an Arid-lands Hyporheic Corridor Along the Alluvial Rio Grande, New Mexico, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Rio Grande in central New Mexico flows through a semiarid, sand-dominated Quaternary rift basin. Flow regulation measures include dams, irrigation diversions, levees, and bank stabilization. These have caused severe eco-hydrologic impairment including 1) incision, lowered water tables, and the end of overbank flooding; 2) disruption of shallow groundwater cycling; 3) sediment depletion; 4) altered seasonal organic carbon dynamics; and 5) declining native riparian biota. Historically bidirectional flowpaths in the shallow alluvial aquifer (hyporheic corridor) are less reversible due to parallel drainage ditches with lower beds than the river. These ditches impose relatively static hydraulic gradients on the alluvial aquifer and isolate the shallowest groundwater from the agricultural floodplain. Groundwater data along flowpaths and depth profiles indicate seasonally variable biogeochemical cycling, especially metal and sulfate reduction and phreatophyte evapoconcentration. Dissolved Fe is highest in summer and low to undetectable in winter. Both Fe and Mn exhibit substantial spatial variability, indicating the importance of solid-phase interactions. Sulfate reduction is another active terminal electron accepting process, made especially significant by the river's high sulfate concentration, a product of regional geology and semiarid climate. Mn exhibits pervasive down-gradient enrichment unlike Fe, whose mobility along flowpaths is mitigated by a temporary reservoir of sulfide minerals. These processes have been explored further by in situ mineral growth incubations. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has confirmed the importance of redox-sensitive minerals to aquifer biogeochemistry. These phases include Fe-oxyhydroxides and sulfides, both amorphous and apparently crystalline; Mn-oxyhydroxides; and occasional solid phase P. Our research has demonstrated 1) the occurrence of seasonal mineral cycling in this alluvial aquifer, 2) the influence of sulfate from an arid landscape, and 3) that water chemistry alone may not provide a full accounting of biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic corridor.

Vinson, D. S.; Pershall, A. D.; Spilde, M. N.; Block, S. E.; Crossey, L. J.; Dahm, C. N.

2002-05-01

6

Precambrian alluvial fan and braidplain sedimentation patterns: Example from the Mesoproterozoic Rjukan Rift Basin, southern Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated approach of facies analysis, geochemistry and paleohydrology provides new insight into the sedimentology and paleogeography of alluvial sediments in the Precambrian. Here, alluvial fan and braidplain sedimentation patterns are documented in a Mesoproterozoic rift basin, called (known as) the Rjukan Rift Basin in southern Norway. The studied formation (Heddersvatnet Formation) consists of volcanoclastic breccias and conglomerates, cross-bedded sandstones with associated mudstones, and subaerial basaltic lava beds, deposited in a rift basin during the syn-rifting phase. Based on genetically related major lithofacies associations and individual minor lithofacies, the sedimentation is characterized by colluvial and screen apron deposits, subaerial debris flows, hyperconcentrated or sheet flood deposits in the proximal part, representing waning-flood cycles. The distal part contains shallow-water traction current deposits and associated subaerial continental flood basalts that flowed down the rift valleys. The synsedimentary intra-rift faulting formed seasonal or climatically controlled, intrafan ponded-lake with playa lake type cycles and shrinkage cracks. The geochemical composition of the of the studied sandstones and mudstones suggests a passive rifted continental margin with minor to moderate chemical weathering, possible in a semi-arid/arid paleoclimate. Clastic petrofacies of the sandstones indicate a locally uplifted and syn-rift paleotectonic setting during the main sedimentation stage, passing toward a post-rifting stage of the depositional basin. Small-scale structures within the sedimentary basin affected the depositional patterns of the Heddersvatnet Formation by creating local sites of uplift and erosion, controlling the sediment transport, and defining the accommodation space for deposition. The sedimentation of the Heddersvatnet Formation reflects a tectonic base level fall, which resulted in an accumulation of thick alluvial fan or braidplain sediments near uplifted flank(s) of the sedimentary basin. This was combined with intensive erosion of the basement in the pre-vegetation landscape, which resulted in changes in the hydraulic geometry of flow and sediment discharge of stream channels. The following criteria, observed from the Heddersvatnet Formation, are suggestive of an ancient alluvial fan and associated braidplain sedimentation: (1) deposition close to the source area; (2) slightly divergent paleoflows; (3) high-energy flows with waning flood-cycles; (4) abundance of poorly sorted and laterally extensive subaerial debris flows, and related streamflows, possible sheetfloods, hyperconcentrated flows, and their associations; (5) great distribution of grain size and lithofacies changes in proximal vs. distal parts; (6) limited suite of sedimentary structures (cross-stratification, ripple-marks, and desiccanation cracks); (7) fault bounded basin (graben) with hanging wall close to uplifted flank(s); (8) paleoslope estimation indicating at least moderate paleotopographic highs; (9) colluvial and scree apron breccias; (10) lack of any typical braided stream channel fill conglomerates and floodplains; and (11) channelized sediment bodies lacking extensive lateral continuity.

Köykkä, Juha

2011-03-01

7

Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Qaidam Basin in Northern Tibet is one of the largest hyper-arid intermontane basins on Earth. Alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, shorelines and a thick succession of sediments within the basin, coupled with moraines and associated landforms in the adjacent high mountain catchments of the Kunlun Mountains, record a complex history of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change and landscape evolution. The region provides an ideal natural laboratory to examine the interaction between tectonics and climate within a continent-continent collision zone, and to quantify rates of landscape evolution as controlled by climate and the associated glacial and hydrological changes in hyper-arid and adjacent high-altitude environments. Geomorphic mapping, analysis of landforms and sediments, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure and optically stimulated luminescence dating serve to define the timing of formation of Late Quaternary landforms along the southern and northwestern margins of the Qaidam Basin, and in the Burhan Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains adjacent to the basin on the south. These dates provide a framework that suggests links between climatic amelioration, deglaciation, lake desiccation and alluvial fan evolution. At least three glacial advances are defined in the Burham Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains. On the northern side of this range these occurred in the penultimate glacial cycle or early in the last glacial cycle, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Lateglacial and during the Holocene. On the south side of the range, advances occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle, MIS-3, and possibly the LGM, Lateglacial or Holocene. Several distinct phases of alluvial fan sedimentation are likewise defined. Alluvial fans formed on the southern side of the Kunlun Mountains prior to 200 ka. Ice-contact alluvial fans formed during the penultimate glacial and during MIS-3. Extensive incised alluvial fans that form the main valley fills north of the Burham Budai and extend into the Qaidam Basin are dated to ???30 ka. These ages suggest that there was a period of alluvial fan aggradation and valley filling that persisted until desiccation of the large lakes in the Qaidam Basin post ???30 ka led to base level lowering and active incision of streams into the valley fills. The continued Lateglacial and Holocene desiccation likely led to further degradation of the valley fills. Ice wedge casts in the Qaidam Basin date to ???15 ka, indicating significant Lateglacial climatic amelioration, while Holocene loess deposits north of the Burham Bdudai suggest that aridity has increased in the region since the early Holocene. From these observations, we infer that the major landscape changes within high glaciated mountains and their adjacent hyper-arid intermontane basins, such as the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, occur rapidly over millennial timescales during periods of climatic instability. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Haizhou, M.; Barnard, P.L.

2006-01-01

8

Variation in sedimentology and architecture of Eocene alluvial strata, Wind River and Washakie basins, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Eocene continental, alluvial strata of the Wind River Formation (Wind River Basin) and the Cathedral Bluffs Member of the Wasatch Formation (Washakie basin) provide two examples of Laramide intermontane basin aggradation. These alluvial sediments primarily represent overbank flood deposits marginal to channel complexes. Their sedimentology and architecture, although grossly similar, appear to vary somewhat with proximity to Laramide uplifts. In both cases, repetitive sedimentation on the floodplain produced a succession of depositional couplets, each composed of a light-gray sand overlain by a red clay-rich silt or sand. The lower sands are tabular bodies that, near their distal margins, taper discernibly. They commonly display planar and ripple-drift laminations. Upper clay-rich layers, which are laminated, are also generally tabular. Those floodplain strata depositional proximal to Laramide uplifts show little evidence of scouring prior to deposition of the next, overlying couplet. Most of these sedimentary layers, therefore, are laterally continuous (up to 2 km). This alluvial architecture results in relatively uniform porosity laterally within depositional units but variable porosity stratigraphically through the sequence. In contrast, alluvial sediments deposited farther from the Laramide uplifts have undergone sporadic incision (either during rising flood stage or subsequently) followed by aggradation. As a result, many of these floodplain couplets are discontinuous laterally and, hence, exhibit large-scale lateral variability in porosity. Both alluvial sequences have undergone similar types and extents of burial diagenesis.

Patterson, P.E.; Larson, E.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-03-01

9

Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a time interval of about 500 kyr centered around chron C6r, although inferred absolute ages diverge depending on the assumed calibration of geomagnetic reversals with the astronomical time scale (Billups et al., 2004, Lourens et al., 2004). The section was sampled with a portable drill at regular intervals of about 30 cms, representing a time resolution of near 1 kyr. Spectral analysis of different measured parameters (lithology code, color, magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic parameters) revealed significant power at 20.4 m, 9.6 m and 4.2 m, which correspond to a ratio of 1:2.1:4.9 similar to that given by the Milankovitch cycles of eccentricity, obliquity and precession. Maximum power in the spetrum is focused in the eccentricity and obliquity bands while signal corresponding to precession is weakly expressed. The existing uncertainties in the astronomical tuning of the Early Miocene geomagnetic polarity time scale prevents us from using magnetostratigraphy to anchor the Peñarroya record with the astronomical solutions (Laskar et al., 2004). Instead, we have tried the expression of the eccentricity cycle to tune the Peñarroya section. We correlated the thick red clayed (dry phase) intervals with eccentricity minima, a phase relationship which is in agreement with that derived from earlier studies in marine and continental records from the Miocene of the Iberian plate (Abels et al., 2008, Sierro et al., 2000). The resulting tuning of the Peñarroya section yields an age for the base of geomagnetic chron C6r which fits with earlier work of Billups et al., (2004), while the top of C6r gives a significantly younger age. References Abels, H., Abdul Aziz, A., Calvo, J.P. and Tuenter, E., 2008. Shallow lacustrine carbonate microfacies document orbitally paced lake-level history in the Miocene Teruel Basin (North-East Spain), Sedimentology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.00976.x. Billups, K., Pälike, H., Channell, J.E.T., Zachos, J. and Shackleton, N.J., 2004. Astronomic calibration of the late Oligocene through early Miocene geomagnetic polarity time sca

Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

2009-04-01

10

Distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels in forested mountain drainage basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MOUNTAIN river networks often consist of both bedrock and alluvial channels1-5, the spatial distribution of which controls several fundamental geomorphological and ecological processes6,7. The nature of river channels can influence the rates of river incision and landscape evolution1,2, as well as the stream habitat characteristics affecting species abundance and aquatic ecosystem structure8-11. Studies of the factors controlling the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels have hitherto been limited to anthropogenic badlands12. Here we investigate the distribution of channel types in forested mountain drainage basins, and show that the occurrence of bedrock and alluvial channels can be described by a threshold model relating local sediment transport capacity to sediment supply. In addition, we find that valley-spanning log jams create alluvial channels- hospitable to aquatic life-in what would otherwise be bedrock reaches. The formation of such jams depends critically on the stabilizing presence of logs derived from the largest trees in the riverside forests, suggesting that management strategies that allow harvesting of such trees can have a devastating influence on alluvial habitats in mountain drainage basins.

Montgomery, David R.; Abbe, Tim B.; Buffington, John M.; Peterson, N. Phil; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Stock, Jonathan D.

1996-06-01

11

THE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT ARID CONDITIONS USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN YESILIRMAK BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of arid condition was evaluated in Tokat Amasya, Corum ve Samsun provinces which composed of most of the yesilirmak basin. Arid condition was evaluated based on meteorological, agricultural, hydrologic and sociological- economic conditions. The soil, water resources and agricultural activities with corpo- ration of aridness of Yesilirmak basin must be investigated. The study was per- formed using long

Bilal Cemek; Yusuf Demir; Mustafa Güler; Sedat Karaman

12

Occurrence of saltwater in the alluvial aquifer in the Boeuf-Tensas Basin, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of saline water in the alluvial aquifer in the Boeuf-Tensas basin in southeastern Arkansas has been of increasing concern. A band of saline water containing chloride concentrations of greater than 50 milligrams per liter extends through the entire length of the basin. The most severely affected area is located in the southern part of the basin where chloride concentrations are as high as 1,360 milligrams per liter. The origin of the saline water in the alluvial aquifer is not definitely known, but can probably be attributed at least in part, to both upward movement from the Arkansas River. Upward instrusion of saline ground water has probably occurred through one or more of the following: 1) leakage where the Jackson confining unit is thinned or absent, 2) leakage along a fault, and 3) movement through abandoned oil and gas test holes. (USGS)

Fitzpatrick, D.J.

1985-01-01

13

Alluvial chronologies and archaeology of the Gila River drainage basin, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary alluvial chronologies are established for five streams (Gila River, Salt River, Tonto Creek, Santa Cruz River, and San Pedro River) in the Gila basin of southern Arizona. Each streams has a complex history of deposition, erosion, and landscape stability that structured and fragmented the archaeological record over the last 15,000 years. The limitations that geologic processes imposed on the archaeological record of these alluvial environments must be recognized before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. These stratigraphic sequences also provide the basis for reconstructing changes to the alluvial landscape of each valley over time. All five streams were intensively utilized during the Late Prehistoric period (A.D. 300-1450) by the Hohokam. The Hohokam were irrigation agriculturalists who were dependent upon these streams for survival. Thus, the regional stability and instability of the floodplain environments of southern Arizona influenced the expansion, contraction, reorganization, and collapse of the Hohokam.

Waters, Michael R.

2008-10-01

14

Depositional facies and Hohokam settlement patterns of Holocene alluvial fans, N. Tucson Basin, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of depositional facies on eight Holocene alluvial fans of varying dimensions is used to evaluate prehistoric Hohokam agricultural settlement patterns. Two facies are recognized: channel gravelly sand facies and overbank silty sand facies. No debris flow deposits occur. The channel facies is characterized by relatively well sorted stratified sands and gravels with common heavy mineral laminations. Overbank facies deposits are massive and very poorly sorted due to heavy bioturbation. Lithostratigraphic profiles from backhoe trenches and sediment size analysis document headward migration of depositional facies which results in fining upward sequences. Each sequence is a channel fan lobe with an underlying coarse grained channel sand which fines to overbank silty sands. Lateral and vertical variations in facies distributions show that depositional processes are affected by drainage basin area (fan size) and distance from fan head. Gravelly channel sands dominate at the headward portions of the fan and are more pervasive on large fans; overbank silty sands are ubiquitous at fan toes and approach closer to the fan head of smaller alluvial fans. When depositional facies are considered as records of water flow over an alluvial surface, the farming potential of each fan can be analyzed. Depositional models of alluvial fan sedimentation provide the basis for understanding Hohokam settlement patterns on active alluvial surfaces.

Field, J.J.

1985-01-01

15

Extreme Flood-Driven Dynamics of a mixed bedrock-alluvial Influenced Semi-Arid River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the large rivers draining southern Africa are characterised by incised bedrock ';macrochannels' cut 10-20 m into ancient planation surfaces but with variable amounts of unconsolidated sediment infill. Variations in lithology, structure, flow regime, sediment supply, and vegetation assemblages have created morphologically diverse river systems, many of which have been characterised by extended periods of alluviation on an historic timescale, thereby leading to the development of an increasingly alluviated set of channel types that commonly mask the underlying bedrock. However, cyclone-driven extreme flows are known to cause extensive erosion along these systems and may exert the primary control over their morphologic development. This paper reports on two significant cyclone events (2000 and 2012) that have impacted on the rivers of the Kruger National Park, with floods on the Sabie and Olifants estimated as among the largest documented Holocene floods for any South African river. Prior to the floods, both rivers displayed a diverse but well-ordered set of channel types (e.g. braided, anastomosed), with considerable lengths of both systems exhibiting fully alluvial conditions. Evaluation of post-flood aerial imagery has shown that the extreme flows have stripped this sediment, exposing and eroding the underlying weathered bedrock, particularly along the Olifants. This response suggests that although alluviation occurs over short timescales, the systems remain highly susceptible to alluvial and bedrock erosion during extreme floods. This is demonstrated by the results of a 2D hydraulic modelling study of the rivers. Simulation of the peak flood flow conditions shows that extreme shear stresses capable of eroding cohesive, well-vegetated sediments were predicted extensively within the macrochannels. Where remnant deposits remained from the 2000 floods, these areas were seen to be particularly vulnerable to erosion in the 2012 floods, due principally to their increased exposure to fluid forces. The ephemeral nature of the sediment infill is also supported by OSL dating, with preliminary ages from remnant bars, islands and floodplains suggesting that no deposits older than around 500 years can be found along the rivers. Together, the results imply that although periods of extensive alluviation may have been witnessed historically, on a longer (late Quaternary) timescale the alluvial morphologies are frequently reworked, with the geological setting and extreme climatic influence creating conditions conducive to the continuing erosion and development of the bedrock macrochannel template.

Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Tooth, S.; Milan, D. J.

2013-12-01

16

Groundwater and Surface Water Interaction of Several Irrigation Systems in the Mississippi River Basin Alluvial Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Mississippi River Basin alluvial aquifer provides irrigation water for agriculture in most of eastern Arkansas, western Tennessee, southeastern Missouri, western Mississippi and northeastern Louisiana. The alluvial aquifer depth to water has been declining by approximately 1 foot per year due to unsustainable pumping levels. Replacing groundwater with surface water sources in the Lower Mississippi River Basin is one of the many solutions to declining groundwater stores that has taken root in the region, especially in eastern Arkansas. Surface water irrigation systems consist of an on-farm reservoir and tailwater recovery. The reservoir is used to store water for later use during wet periods of the year and the tailwater recovery creates a closed basin of the irrigation system, allowing for use and re-use of irrigation water. Several irrigation systems were instrumented to further understand the interaction between surface water and groundwater in alluvial aquifer region. Three reservoirs, 9 streams and ditches, and 8 groundwater wells were instrumented in fall of 2011. Groundwater potentiometric surface under the storage reservoirs showed a rebound while a potentiometric surface falls sharply south and west moving away from the storage reservoirs. Preliminary results from the findings from these sites are presented.

Reba, M. L.; Rigby, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Rawlings, L.

2013-12-01

17

Hydrogeochemical indicators of groundwater flow systems in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, Xinzhou Basin, Shanxi, China.  

PubMed

Based on analysis of groundwater hydrochemical and isotopic indicators, this article aims to identify the groundwater flow systems in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, in the Xinzhou Basin, China. Groundwater delta(2)H and delta(18)O values indicate that the origin of groundwater is mainly from precipitation, with local evaporative influence. d-excess values lower than 10% in most groundwaters suggest a cold climate during recharge in the area. Major ion chemistry, including rCa/rMg and rNa/rCl ratios, show that groundwater salinization is probably dominated by water-rock interaction (e.g., silicate mineral weathering, dissolution of calcite and dolomite and cation exchange) in the Yangwu River alluvial fan, and locally by intensive evapotranspiration in the Hutuo River valley. Cl and Sr concentrations follow an increasing trend in shallow groundwater affected by evaporation, and a decreasing trend in deep groundwater. (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios reflect the variety of lithologies encountered during throughflow. The groundwater flow systems (GFS) of the Yangwu River alluvial fan include local and intermediate flow systems. Hydrogeochemical modeling results, simulated using PHREEQC, reveal water-rock interaction processes along different flow paths. This modeling method is more effective for characterizing flow paths in the intermediate system than in the local system. Artificial exploitation on groundwater in the alluvial fan enhances mixing between different groundwater flow systems. PMID:19548025

Han, Dongmei; Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Currell, Matthew J; Han, Ying; Song, Xianfang

2009-08-01

18

Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada.  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

Donald S. Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

2007-01-22

19

Spatial and temporal characteristics of aridity conditions in Tarim Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid ecosystems are very sensitive to a variety of physical, chemical and biological degradation processes. Tarim Basin, the biggest endorheic basin in the Central Asia continent, is considered as one of the least water-endowed regions in the world and arid and semi-arid environmental conditions are dominant. For the purposes of the convention, arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas were defined as "areas, other than polar and sub-polar regions, in which the ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration falls within the range from 0.05 to 0.65." In this study, the Aridity Index (AI), the ratio of precipitation and land surface temperature, was also adopted as the base method for determining dry land types and thereby delineating boundaries and showing changes of aridity conditions in Tarim Basin. Here, precipitation is from TRMM/PR, and land surface temperature is from Modis LST. To analyze the spatial and temporal variations of arid environmental conditions in Tarim basin, we calculated the yearly aridity index (the ratio of total yearly rainfall to yearly mean Land Surface Temperature) based on the accumulated monthly precipitation and the monthly Land Surface Temperature in growing season for the period 2000-2009. The results indicated it is possible to work out an aridity index map with more detailed spatial patterns, which is valuable for identifying human impacts by associated with vegetation and soil moisture characters.

Sun, Zhandong; Chang, Ni-Bin; Opp, Christian; Hennig, Thomas

2010-10-01

20

Diffraction of seismic waves from 3-D canyons and alluvial basins modeled using the Fast Multipole-accelerated BEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic wave propagation and amplification in complex media is a major issue in the field of seismology. To compute seismic wave propagation in complex geological structures such as in alluvial basins, various numerical methods have been proposed. The main advantage of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is that only the domain boundaries (and possibly interfaces) are discretized, leading to a

S. Chaillat; M. Bonnet; J. F. Semblat

2007-01-01

21

Southern California Alluvial Basins Regional Aquifer-Systems analysis; a bibliography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bibliography for the Southern California Alluvial Basins Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis includes references for about 3,500 publications related to the geohydrology of the 75,000 sq-mi region, which encompasses all of southern California except the Central Valley, the Channel Islands and the Pacific Ocean floor off southern California, and parts of adjacent states and Mexico. The report indexes the publications in six geographic categories and induces a list of sources of publications. Because of the large number of references in the bibliography, a system was developed for computer storage and retrieval. References can be retrieved by geographic location, author, or geohydrologic discipline and subject. The computer system allows for updating and addition of references. (USGS)

Moyle, W.R., Jr.; Martin, Peter; Schluter, R.C.; Woolfenden, L.R.; Downing, Karen; Elliott, A.L.; Maltby, D.E.

1986-01-01

22

Upper Fort Union coals in western Powder River Basin, Wyoming: alluvial-plain deposits  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic distribution of coals and associated lithofacies in the upper Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) was investigated in outcrop and subsurface from southeast of Sussex to south of Buffalo, Wyoming. In this area, Ayers and Kaiser in 1982 proposed that upper Fort Union coals accumulated in deltas and interdeltas, and pinched out into a lake. Our study does not support these interpretations. The upper 1000 ft (300 m) of the Fort Union Formation in the western Powder River basin comprises interbedded conglomerates, conglomeratic sandstones, sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, carbonaceous shales, and coals. The conglomerates, consisting of pebbles and cobbles reworked from Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks, are in scour-based bodies as thick as 25 ft (8 m). A 300-ft (90 m) thick, 12-mi (19 km) long conglomeratic channel-sandstone complex is in the lower part of the interval. In the upper part of the interval, conglomeratic single- and multistory channel sandstones reach thickness of 100 ft (30 m) and widths of 4000 ft (1200 m). These channel sandstones grade into overbank-floodplain sediments, which are interbedded with backswamp deposits of coals and carbonaceous shales. The conglomeratic channel sandstones are interbedded with coal beds as thick as 20 ft (6 m). These coal beds probably are laterally equivalent to the 178-ft (54 m) thick Sussex coal deposit to the east. Lithofacies associated with the coals in the western Powder River basin suggest an alluvial-plain paleoenvironment. The alluvial plain consisted of braided and meandering streams flanked by well-drained and poorly drained backswamps. These streams probably are northeasterly flowing tributaries of trunk streams.

Flores, R.M.; Hardie, J.K.; Coss, J.M.; Weaver, J.N.; Van Gosen, B.S.

1984-04-01

23

Formation of Internally-Drained Contractional Basins by Aridity-Limited Bedrock Incision Hinders Creation of Steady-State Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low internal relief, aridity, and internal drainage characterize the Tarim basin, the Altiplano\\/Puna and the Tibetan plateaus. Structurally, these areas are reverse fault bounded terrains with intervening wedge-top basins that store thick accumulations of sediment for millions of years. Orographic barriers along the margins of these basins are oriented normal to moisture bearing winds, resulting in regional aridity. The combination

E. R. Sobel; G. E. Hilley

2002-01-01

24

Modern sediment yield compared to geologic rates of sediment production in a semi-arid basin, New Mexico: Assessing the human impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the semi-arid Arroyo Chavez basin of New Mexico, a 2.28 km2 sub-basin of the Rio Puerco, we contrasted short-term rates (3 years) of sediment yield measured with sediment traps and dams with long-term, geologic rates (???10 000 years) of sediment production measured using 10Be. Examination of erosion rates at different time-scales provides the opportunity to contrast the human impact on erosion with background or geologic rates of sediment production. Arroyo Chavez is grazed and we were interested in whether differences in erosion rates observed at the two time-scales are due to grazing. The geologic rate of sediment production, 0-27 kg m-2 a -1 is similar to the modern sediment yields measured for geomorphic surfaces including colluvial slopes, gently sloping hillslopes, and the mesa top which ranged from 0.12 to 1.03 kg m -2 a-1. The differences between modern sediment yield and geologic rates of sediment production were most noticeable for the alluvial valley floor, which had modern sediment yields as high as 3.35 kg m-2 a-1. The hydraulic state of the arroyo determines whether the alluvial valley floor is aggrading or degrading. Arroyo Chavez is incised and the alluvial valley floor is gullied and piped and is a source of sediment. The alluvial valley floor is also the portion of the basin most modified by human disturbance including grazing and gas pipeline activity, both of which serve to increase erosion rates. ?? 2004 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Bierman, P.R.; Clapp, E.M.; Ellevein, A.; Aby, S.

2004-01-01

25

Alluvial model for Eocene Wasatch Formation coal, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Powder River basin, Wyoming, consists of a conglomerate facies (Kingsbury Conglomerate Member) on the western margin of the basin and a coal-bearing facies near the center of the basin. The conglomeratic facies consists of abundant, basally scoured, pebble to boulder conglomerates and sandstones, and minor rooted siltstones. The conglomerates contain abundant sedimentary and subordinate crystalline rock fragments derived from the adjoining Bighorn uplift. The coal-bearing facies comprises dominant coarse to conglomertic sandstones and rooted siltstones and claystones. Minor constituents are fossiliferous limestones, carbonaceous shales, and coals. A thick, widespread coal bed (Felix coal) ranges from 10 to 28 ft (3 to 8.5 m) thick within a 400 mi/sup 2/ (1035 km/sup 2/) area and splits outward from this area into several beds. Where the coal is thick, it is underlain by sandstones and the coal splits are underlain by finer grained deposits. The conglomeratic facies represents wet alluvial-fan deposits consisting of graded gravel bars, channel sands, and finer overbank detritus. These sediments grade eastward into the coal-bearing facies that represents deposits of meandering streams and their adjoining flood plain and backswamp. The locations of the thickest, most widespread coal body and its splits in this facies are governed by depositional topography controlled by differential compaction of the substrate. Where the substrate is poorly compactible channel sandstones, the swamp surface was relatively high and free of sediment influx. Where the underlying deposits are fine grained and more compactible, the resulting low-lying swamp attracted water-borne sediments that interrupted peat accumulation.

Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Ferm, J.C.

1984-07-01

26

Palaeohydrological and palaeoecological studies on South Cameroonian alluvial sedimentary basins - New evidence on the palaeoenvironmental evolution of western Central Africa since the Late Pleistocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new valuable and innovative contribution will be presented to ascertain the timing and extension of climatic and ecological changes in western equatorial Africa. Main focus is laid on the dynamics of climate, fluvial systems and the high sensitive tropical ecosystems (dense evergreen and semi-deciduous rain forest and savanna-rain forest margin) since the Late Pleistocene (~50 kyrs. BP). For this purpose extended fieldworks were carried out in South Cameroon (2004-2008) by the ReSaKo-Project (sub-project of DFG-Project 510) with abundant investigations on alluvial sedimentary basins of equatorial tropical fluvial systems. Suitable alluvial sediment-archives for palaeoenvironmental research were uncovered along selected braiding, meandering and anabranching/anastomosing reaches of major southwestern, into the Gulf of Guinea (Ntem, Nyong and Sanaga) and southeastern, into the Congo basin (Boumba, Dja and Ngoko) draining rivers (RUNGE et al. 2006, SANGEN 2008). Among geomorphological investigations and cross section discussions, 150 corings (Edelman, 20 cm layers) reaching maximum depths of 550 cm were carried out on river benches, levees, cut-off and periodical branches, islands and terraces as well as in seasonal inundated floodplains and backswamps. Corresponding sedimentary profiles and catenae recovered multilayered, sandy to clayey alluvia containing sedimentary form-units and palaeosurfaces which contribute to the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions in western equatorial Africa. Several (59) radiocarbon (AMS) dated samples (Erlangen and Lecce) from fossil organic layers and macro-rests embedded in these units yielded Late Pleistocene to recent ages (14C-ages around 48 to 0.2 kyrs. BP), spanning also the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Holocene record. Abrupt grain-size modifications and alternating form-units (sandy and clayey layers, palaeosurfaces) in the stratigraphic records display fluctuations in the fluvial-morphological response of the fluvial systems to climatic variability and other extrinsic and intrinsic impacts. Although the sedimentary record varies among the studied river reaches, fossil organic sediment layers (palaeosurfaces) containing valuable proxy data were found in almost all alluvia basins of examined southern Cameroonian rivers. Around 56 ^13C-values corresponding to the dated samples (-31.4 to -18.0 ) evidence that despite major disturbances of the African rain forest over geological times (MALEY 2001) mainly rain forest ecosystems have prevailed during the corresponding time periods, presumably as gallery forests, which were able to persist in this fluvial habitat ("fluvial refuge"), even during arid periods (e.g. LGM). The results are consistent with earlier findings from lacustrine (SERVANT & SERVANT-VILDARY 2000), marine (WELDEAB et al. 2007) and additional sediment archives (GASSE et al. 2008) and will add additional insights and information to the unravelling of the complex respond of the African monsoon, the Central African ecosystems and fluvial systems to Late Quaternary climatic and environmental fluctuations within a globally teleconnected system. References: GASSE, F., CHALIé, F., VINCENS, A., WILLIAMS, M.A.J. & WILLIAMSON, D. (2008): Climatic patterns in equatorial and southern Africa from 30,000 to 10,000 years ago reconstructed from terrestrial and near-shore proxy data. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27 (25-26), 2316-2340. MALEY, J. (2001): The impact of arid phases on the African rain forest through geological history. In: WEBER, W., WHITE, L., VEDDER, A., NAUGHTON-TREVES, L. (Eds.): African rain forest ecology and conservation - An interdisciplinary perspective. Yale University Press, New Haven, 68-87. RUNGE, J., EISENBERG, J., SANGEN, M. (2006): Geomorphic evolution of the Ntem alluvial basin and physiogeographic evidence for Holocene environmental changes in the rain forest of SW Cameroon (Central Africa) - preliminary results. Z. Geomorph. N.F., Suppl. Bd. 145, 63-79. SERVANT, M. & SERVANT-VILDARY, S. (2000): Dynamique à long terme des

Sangen, M.

2009-04-01

27

Changes in alluvial architecture associated with Eocene hyperthermals: Preliminary results from the Bighorn Basin Coring Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was followed by two lesser hyperthermal events: ETM2 and H2 both at ~53.7 Ma. The carbon isotope excursion for ETM2 was approximately half that of the PETM and the H2 excursion even smaller, indicating lower increases in temperature than during the PETM. The paleohydrologic responses to these events are less well understood than the response to PETM warming. Although the ETM2 and H2 events are better known from marine than continental strata, both events have been identified from outcrops of the alluvial Willwood Formation from the Deer Creek and Gilmore Hill areas of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (Abels et al., 2012). Here, we analyze two cores drilled from stratigraphically equivalent Willwood strata from Gilmore Hill. The cores provide an opportunity to examine the impact of these events on the architecture of fluvial strata. Willwood strata are composed largely of channel sandstones, heterolithic deposits generated by channel avulsion, and paleosols that formed on overbank deposits. The paleosols provide qualitative and quantitative information on changes in soil moisture and precipitation through this interval. The cores also show a distinct change in the stacking of paleosols The core is subdivided into three parts: (1) the lowest ~third has thinner, more densely spaced paleosols, (2) the middle has thicker paleosols that are more widely spaced, and (3) the upper third has thicker and more common channel sandstones interspersed with avulsion deposits and fewer red paleosols; this corresponds to the hyperthermal interval. In particular, a ~20 m thick sandstone complex caps the section and appears to truncate part of the hyperthermal interval. Although vertical variations in alluvial architecture can reflect tectonic or climatic change, the correspondence of the sandstone-rich part of the cores with the hyperthermals suggests climate was the major control on their formation. Thick purple paleosols associated with the hyperthermals at Deer Creek suggest wetter conditions, and our preliminary interpretation is that a change to wetter conditions caused increased discharge and deposition of coarser (sandy) sediment. The thick sandstone complex at Gilmore Hill is underlain by paleosols with abundant calcrete nodules, which indicate drier soil conditions prior to deposition of the sandstone, and the change from drier to wetter conditions probably also caused increased sediment yield.

Acks, R.; Kraus, M. J.

2012-12-01

28

Hydrochemical Differentiation of Salinisation Process of the Water in Endoreic Semi-Arid Basin: Case of Rémila Basin, Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine and treat a hierarchical basis of the various mechanisms responsible for the space variation of the water quality in a endoreic semi-arid basin. The water chemistry showed a large variability in space and time. The total dissolved solid (TDS) in water increases from upstream to downstream due to the effect of the

Houha Belgacem; Kherici Nacer; Kachi Slimane; Valles Vincent

29

Tectonic controls of the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) on the geomorphic evolution of the alluvial fans and fan catchments in Erzincan pull-apart basin; Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Erzincan pull-apart basin is located in the eastern section of the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS). The tectonic evolution of this basin is mostly controlled by strike slip master faults of the NAFS. This study examines the topography-structure relationships in an effort to evaluate the tectonic signatures in the landscape, paying special attention to recent tectonic activity. In the study, the main focus is on the tectonic controls of the NAFS on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans and fan catchments in the Erzincan pull-apart basin. The observations of the amount of tilting of the alluvial fans (?) and its relation with morphometric (Asymmetry Factor (AF), Hypsometric Integral (HI), Fractal analysis of drainage networks (D)) properties of the fan catchments provide valuable information about the tectonic evolution of the basin area. The results of the analyses showed that the alluvial fan and fan catchment morphology in the pull-apart basin are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activity of the NAFS. The fault system in the basin has controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin, and aggradation processes by causing channel migration, channel incision and tilting the alluvial fans.

Sarp, Gulcan

2015-02-01

30

Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the abandonment and shallow incision of mid fan surfaces.

Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

2014-05-01

31

Mapping and assessment of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, arid northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the arid inland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects of environmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resource utilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, such as its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based on field observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classification and evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River. There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in the southern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the low reaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2, 22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin was evaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils, land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

Qi, Shanzhong; Cai, Yumin

2007-01-01

32

Hydrogeologic features of the alluvial deposits in the Owl Creek Valley, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The alluvial acquifer principally of the flood-plain alluvium and part of the Arapahoe Ranch terrace deposits and consists subordinately of alluvial-fan deposits. Thickness of the alluvial aquifer is generally 20 to 40 feet. Dissolved-solids concentration of water in the alluvial aquifer ranges from about 500 to more than 3,000 milligrams per liter. The most favorable areas for groundwater development are the flood-plain alluvium and part of the Arapahoe Ranch terrace deposits; however, in much of these units, the water contains more than 2,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Measurements of specific conductance of the flow of Owl Creek indicate a progressive increase in the down stream direction and range between 15 and 355 micromhos per centimeter at 25C per mile. The increases are due to return flow of irrigation water, inflow from tributaries, and inflow from groundwater. Conspicuous terraces in Owl Creek Valley included an unnamed terrace at 500 feet above Owl Creek, the Embar Ranch terrace 160 to 120 feet above the creek, and the Arapahoe Ranch terrace 50 to 20 feet above the creek. (USGS)

Cooley, M.E.; Head, W.J.

1982-01-01

33

A cellular model of Holocene upland river basin and alluvial fan evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAESAR (Cellular Automaton Evolutionary Slope And River) model is used to simulate the Holocene development of a small upland catchment (4Ð 2k m 2? and the alluvial fan at its base. The model operates at a 3 m grid scale and simulates every flood over the last 9200 years, using a rainfall record reconstructed from peat bog wetness indices

T. J. Coulthard; M. G. Macklin; M. J. Kirkby

2002-01-01

34

S2-Project: Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems" , the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies < 2Hz) and hybrid deterministic- stochastic source and propagation simulations are carried out for different fault rupture scenarios (but including important features such as the dominant near-surface geology), and the results in terms of representative ground motion parameters appropriately enveloped. The fully 3D problem is solved using the Spectral Element (SE) method, extensively published by Faccioli and his co-workers, and Quarteroni and co- workers, starting from 1996, and the computational code GeoELSE (http://GeoELSE.stru.polimi.it/). Finally, numerical results are compared with available data and attenuation relationships of peak values of ground motion in the near-fault regions elsewhere. Based on the results of this work, the unfavorable interaction between fault rupture, radiation mechanism and complex geological conditions may give rise to large values of peak ground velocity (exceeding 1 m/s) even in low-to-moderate seismicity areas, and therefore increase considerably the level of seismic risk, especially in highly populated and industrially active regions, such as the Central Italy.

Faccioli, E.; Stupazzini, M.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

2008-12-01

35

Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower Narmada basin, western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication reports the occurrence of an ash layer intercalated within the late Quaternary alluvial succession of the\\u000a Madhumati River, a tributary of the lower Narmada River. Petrographic, morphological and chemical details of glass shards\\u000a and pumice fragments have formed the basis of this study. The ash has been correlated with the Youngest Toba Tuff. The finding\\u000a of ash layer

Rachna Raj

2008-01-01

36

Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary sedimentation in a semi-arid foreland basin (Neuquén Basin, Western Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Late Cretaceous transgression and a subsequent Paleocene regression is recorded in the Neuquén Basin of western Argentina in the sediments of the Upper Malargüe Group. Seven facies associations (D through J) representing different depositional subenvironments have been recognized in the younger depositional sequence. Facies association E, green calcareous mudstones, was deposited in the outer shelf. Facies association F, bioclastic carbonates, represents inner-shelf deposits to littoral sediments. Facies association G, sandy calcarenites, corresponds to nearshore to coastal deposits. Facies association H, oolitic calcarenites, and facies association D, evaporites, composed a shallowing upward carbonate sequence. Facies association I, cross-bedded lithic sandstones, and facies association J, red mudstones, are characterized as meandering fluvial deposits. The lateral and vertical distribution of facies association changes from north to south in the basin, according to several depositional controls. The foreland setting of the Neuquén Basin at this time, with different sediment input and paleoslopes on the retro-arc vs. the cratonic side of the basin, influenced sedimentation. Basin embayment geometry caused differences in tidal regime, which in turn affected depositional environments. Westerly winds generated clockwise tidal currents inside the basin, which affected alongshore lateral facies association variation. The semi-arid climate favoured deposition of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lithologies and evaporites.

Barrio, Claudio A.

1990-03-01

37

Predicting the Affects of Climate Change on Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Productivity of Semi-arid Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many arid and semi-arid regions around the world are experiencing water shortages that have become increasingly problematic. Since the late 1800s, upstream diversions in Nevada's Walker River have delivered irrigation supply to the surrounding agricultural fields resulting in a dramatic water level decline of the terminal Walker Lake. Salinity has also increased because the only outflow from the lake is evaporation from the lake surface. The Heihe River basin of northwestern China, a similar semi-arid catchment, is also facing losses from evaporation of terminal locations, agricultural diversions and evapotranspiration (ET) of crops. Irrigated agriculture is now experiencing increased competition for use of diminishing water resources while a demand for ecological conservation continues to grow. It is important to understand how the existing agriculture in these regions will respond as climate changes. Predicting the affects of climate change on groundwater flow, surface water flow, ET and agricultural productivity of the Walker and Heihe River basins is essential for future conservation of water resources. ET estimates from remote sensing techniques can provide estimates of crop water consumption. By determining similarities of both hydrologic cycles, critical components missing in both systems can be determined and predictions of impacts of climate change and human management strategies can be assessed.

Peri, L.; Tyler, S. W.; Zheng, C.; Pohll, G. M.; Yao, Y.

2013-12-01

38

Integrative geomorphological mapping approach for reconstructing meso-scale alluvial fan palaeoenvironments at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial fans and aprons are common depositional features in general Iranian geomorphology. The countries major cities as well as settlements and surrounding area have often been developed and been built up on this Quaternary sediment covers. Hence they periodically face the effects of varying fluvial and slope-fluvial activity occurring as part of this geosystem. The Geological Survey of Iran therefore supports considerable efforts in Quaternary studies yielding to a selection of detailed mapped Quaternary landscapes. The studied geomorphologic structures which are settled up around an endorheic basin in Semnan Province represent a typical type of landform configuration in the area. A 12-km-transect was laid across this basin and range formation. It is oriented in north-south direction from the southern saltpan, called "Kavir-e-Haj Aligholi"/"Chah-e-Jam" ("Damghan Kavir"), across a vast sandy braided river plain, which is entering from the north east direction of the city of Shahroud. At its northern rim it covers alluvial sediment bodies, which are mainly constituted by broad alluvial aprons, fed by watersheds in Alborz Mountains and having their genetic origins in Mio-/Pliocene times. During this study a fully analytical mapping system was used for developing a geodatabase capable of integrating geomorphological analyses. Therefore the system must provide proper differentiation of form, material and process elements as well as geometric separation. Hence the German GMK25 system was set up and slightly modified to fit to the specific project demands. Due to its structure it offers most sophisticated standards and scale independent hierarchies, which fit very well to the software-determinated possibilities of advanced geodatabase applications. One of the main aspects of mapping Quaternary sediments and structures is to acquire a proper description and systematic correlation and categorization of the belonging mapping-objects. Therefore the team from GSI and University of Würzburg performs additional geochronologic and stratigraphic studies of different alluvial surfaces in the investigation area. Relative and absolute dating methods are applied, as well as non-invasive and invasive methods for studying subsurface sedimentation and layering. The ongoing mapping work has revealed a progradational sequence of at least five more or less dissected surfaces of alluvial deposits. These can be distinguished by optically taken morphometric and spectrometric parameters and material reflectance using remote sensing imagery data. An important role for geomorphometric measurements and landform identification was occupied by DEM data. In the field these parameters could be correlated with differently developed covers of desert pavement, and changes in curvature, roughness and levels of sediment surfaces. The studied alluvium has been formed by several phases of debris flow activity and braided river dynamics over a distance of more than 3.5 km and is reworked recently. Gradual differences in structure and form may be linked to changes in depositional process and quaternary environmental development as well as neotectonic activity. Future correlation between alluvium and sediment cores from the playa is targeting on better understanding of depositional milieus during activity phases.

Büdel, Christian; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

2013-04-01

39

Diffraction of seismic waves from 3-D canyons and alluvial basins modeled using the Fast Multipole-accelerated BEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic wave propagation and amplification in complex media is a major issue in the field of seismology. To compute seismic wave propagation in complex geological structures such as in alluvial basins, various numerical methods have been proposed. The main advantage of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is that only the domain boundaries (and possibly interfaces) are discretized, leading to a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom. The main drawback of the standard BEM is that the governing matrix is full and non- symmetric, which gives rise to high computational and memory costs. In other areas where the BEM is used (electromagnetism, acoustics), considerable speedup of solution time and decrease of memory requirements have been achieved through the development, over the last decade, of the Fast Multipole Method (FMM). The goal of the FMM is to speed up the matrix-vector product computation needed at each iteration of the GMRES iterative solver. Moreover, the governing matrix is never explicitly formed, which leads to a storage requirement well below the memory necessary for holding the complete matrix. The FMM-accelerated BEM therefore achieves substantial savings in both CPU time and memory. In this work, the FMM is extended to the 3-D frequency-domain elastodynamics and applied to the computation of seismic wave propagation in 3-D. The efficiency of the present FMM-BEM is demonstrated on seismology- oriented examples. First, the diffraction of a plane wave or a point source by a 3-D canyon is studied. The influence of the size of the meshed part of the free surface is studied, and computations are performed for non- dimensional frequencies higher than those considered in other studies (thanks to the use of the FM-BEM), with which comparisons are made whenever possible. The method is also applied to analyze the diffraction of a plane wave or a point source by a 3-D alluvial basin. A parametrical study is performed on the effect of the shape of the basin and the interaction of the wavefield with the basin edges is analyzed.

Chaillat, S.; Bonnet, M.; Semblat, J.

2007-12-01

40

Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the unconformity during a phase of tectonic quiescence, and show a fining-upward depositional trend. This trend was generated by a progressive decrease in sediment supply stemming out from upstream migration of the knickpoints developed during the embanking of the axial system.

Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara

2013-05-01

41

Remotely-Sensed Regional-Scale Evapotranspiration of a Semi-Arid Great Basin Desert and its Relationship to Geomorphology, Soils, and Vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper data is used to estimate instantaneous regional-scale surface water and energy fluxes in a semi-arid Great Basin desert of the western United States. Results suggest that it is possible to scale from point measurements of environmental state variables to regional estimates of water and energy exchange. This research characterizes the unifying thread in the classical climate-topography-soil-vegetation relation-the surface water and energy balance-through maps of the partitioning of energy throughout the landscape. The study was conducted in Goshute Valley of northeastern Nevada, which is characteristic of most faulted graben valleys of the Basin and Range Province of the western United States. The valley comprises a central playa and lake plain bordered by alluvial fans emanating from the surrounding mountains. The distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) is lowest in the middle reaches of the fans where the water table is deep and plants are small, resulting in low evaporation and transpiration. Highest ET occurs in the center of the valley, particularly in the playa, where limited to no vegetation occurs, but evaporation is relatively high because of a shallow water table and silty clay soil capable of large capillary movement. Intermediate values of ET are associated with large shrubs and is dominated by transpiration.

Laymon, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Malek, E.; Hipps, L.; Boettinger, J.; McCurdy, G.

1997-01-01

42

Remotely-Sensed Regional-Scale Evapotranspiration of a Semi-Arid Great Basin Desert and its Relationship to Geomorphology, Soils, and Vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat thematic mapper data are used to estimate instantaneous regional-scale surface water and energy fluxes in a semi-arid Great Basin desert of the western United States. Results suggest that it is possible to scale from point measurements of environmental state variables to regional estimates of water and energy exchange. This research characterizes the unifying thread in the classical climate-topography-soil-vegetation relation -the surface water and energy balance-through maps of the partitioning of energy throughout the landscape. The study was conducted in Goshute Valley of northeastern Nevada, which is characteristic of most faulted graben valleys of the Basin and Range Province of the western United States. The valley comprises a central playa and lake plain bordered by alluvial fans emanating from the surrounding mountains. The distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) is lowest in the middle reaches of the fans where the water table is deep and plants are small, resulting in low evaporation and transpiration. Highest ET occurs in the center of the valley, particularly in the playa, where limited to no vegetation occurs, but evaporation is relatively high because of a shallow water table and silty clay soil capable of large capillary movement. Intermediate values of ET are associated with large shrubs and is dominated by transpiration.

Laymon, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Malek, E.; Hipps, L.; Boettinger, J.; McCurdy, G.

1998-01-01

43

Stages of the development of alluvial soils in the Bikin River valley (the Amur River basin) in the Middle and Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of alluvial soils in the Bikin River basin in the Middle and the Late Holocene is discussed. On the basis of biostratigraphic data, four pollen zones have been identified in the soils: Pinus koraiensis- Picea, Pinus koraiensis- Quercus- Sphagnum, Betula- Alnus- Alnaster, and Quercus. A set of soil characteristics (texture, acid-base properties, and the organic matter content and group composition) have also been determined. These data allow us to distinguish between four stages of alluvial soil formation in the Bikin River basin. They characterize humus-forming conditions in the Middle and the Late Holocene. Reconstruction of ancient vegetation conditions makes it possible to conclude that climatic fluctuations were synchronous with changes in the soil characteristics. During the Holocene climatic optimum, humus was formed in a slightly acid medium, and humic acids predominated. In cold periods with increased precipitation, fulvic acids predominated in the composition of humus, and the portion of insoluble residue was high because of the more acid medium. The stages of alluvial pedogenesis in the Bikin River valley follow the sedimentation model of soil evolution. Alluvial gray humus soils evolved from typical gray humus soils under meadow communities during warm periods to gleyic and gleyed soils under birch shrubs and alder groves in colder and wetter periods.

Nazarkina, A. V.; Belyanin, P. S.

2014-05-01

44

Ground water in the alluvial deposits of Cottonwood Creek Basin, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cottonwood Creek basin is a 377 square mile area in central Oklahoma. The rim of the basin has altitudes as high as 1,300 feet, and the mouth is at an altitude of 910. Deposits of Quaternary age consist of alluvium along the stream courses and high terrace deposits along the southern rim of the basin. The alluvium contains a high percentage of clay and silt, ranges in thickness from a few inches to 40 feet, and underlies about 36 square miles of the basin. Sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Permian age, which form the bedrock, consist of the Garber sandstone along the eastern edge, the Hennessey shale through the central part, and Flowerpot shale along the western edge. Replenishment of water in the alluvium is from precipitation, lateral seepage and runoff from adjoining areas, and infiltration from the stream channels during high flows. The major use of ground water in the alluvium is transpiration by cottonwood and willow trees. Virtually no water is withdrawn from the alluvium by wells. (available as photostat copy only)

Stacy, B.L.

1960-01-01

45

Estimating basin-wide hydraulic parameters of a semi-arid mountainous watershed by recession-flow analysis  

E-print Network

Estimating basin-wide hydraulic parameters of a semi-arid mountainous watershed by recession 2002; accepted 23 April 2003 Abstract Insufficient sub-surface hydraulic data from watersheds often and in watersheds with low population densities because well-drilling to obtain the hydraulic data is expensive

Walter, M.Todd

46

Interaction of a river with an alluvial basin aquifer: Stable isotopes, salinity and water budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryDetailed sets of tracer data (isotopes, salinity) and the results of MODFLOW modeling of water budgets provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparing modeling with field data in the area where the Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson basin of Texas and Chihuahua. Water from the Rio Grande has recharged the Hueco Bolson aquifer to a depth of 300 m below the surface in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez area, the depth of infiltration corresponding to the depth of ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments. Groundwater beneath the river exhibits complex isotope and salinity stratification. Post-dam (post -1916, type A) river water has infiltrated to depths up to 80 m. Pre-dam (type B) river water has infiltrated to 300 m depth near downtown El Paso, and has mixed with, or been displaced further downstream by high-salinity native Hueco Bolson groundwater (type C, present in the basin north of the river). Salinity and isotope boundaries do not correspond precisely. Isotope stratification corresponds to water residence time and (for type C) to degree of evaporation; the highest salinities are associated with the most evaporated water. Modeling of water budgets in the basin fill beneath the river predicts present-day mixing of water types B and C where changing rates of pumping have caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, and deep recharge of type B water under conditions prevailing in the 1960s.

Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hutchison, William R.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Hawley, John; Hogan, James F.

2010-12-01

47

Modern alluvial history of the Paria Rver drainage basin, southern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream channels in the Paria River basin were eroded and partially refilled between 1883 and 1980. Basin-wide erosion began in 1883; channels were fully entrenched and widened by 1890. This erosion occurred during the well-documented period of arroyo cutting in the Southwest. Photographs of the Paria River channel taken between 1918 and 1940 show that the channel did not have a floodplain and remained wide and deep until the early 1940s. A thin bar (<50 cm), now reworked and locally preserved, was deposited at that time. Basin-wide aggradation, which began in the early 1940s, developed floodplains by vertical accretion. The floodplain alluvium, 1.3-3 m thick. consists of two units recognizable throughout the studied area. An older unit was deposited during a time of low flow and sediment yield whereas the younger unit was deposited during times of high flow, sediment yield, and precipitation. Tree-ring dating suggests that the older unit was deposited between the early 1940s and 1956, and the younger between 1956 and 1980. The units are not time transgressive, suggesting that deposition by knickpoint recession was not an important process. High peak-flood discharges were associated with crosion and low flood discharges with aggradation. The erosional or aggradational mode of the streams was determined principally by peak-flood discharge, which in turn was controlled by precipitation. ?? 1986.

Hereford, R.

1986-01-01

48

Sustainability of Water Resources in Arid Ecosystems: A View from Hei River Basin, China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwest of China is characterized by an arid climate and fragile ecosystems. With irrigated agriculture, the region is a prolific producer of cotton, wheat, and maize with some of the highest output per acre in the country. The region is also rich in ore deposits, with the reserves of numerous minerals ranked at or near the top in the country. However, the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and economic development in the region is threaten by severe eco-environmental problems resulting from both global changes and human activities, such as desertification, salinization, groundwater depletion, and dust storms. All these problems are a direct consequence of water scarcity. As global warming accelerates and rapid economic growth continues, the water shortage crisis is expected to worsen. To improve the bleak outlook for the health of ecosystem and environment in northwest China, the Chinese government has invested heavily in ecosystem restoration and watershed management in recent years. However, the effectiveness of such measures and actions depends on scientific understanding of the complex interplays among ecological, hydrological and socioeconomic factors. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of a major new research initiative supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to study the integration of ecological principles, hydrological processes and socioeconomic considerations toward more sustainable exploitation of surface water and groundwater resources in the Hei River Basin in northwest China. The Hei River Basin is an inland watershed located at the center of the arid region in East Asia, stretching from Qilianshan Mountains in the south to the desert in the north bordering China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Mongolia. The total area of Hei River Basin is approximately 130,000 km2. The research initiative builds on existing research infrastructure and ecohydrological data and seeks to reveal complex interactions and feedbacks between ecosystem functioning and water resources in an arid inland watershed. The findings will provide scientific basis for sustainable water resource management that maximizes the economic benefits without irreparably damaging the ecosystem.

Zheng, C.; Cheng, G.; Xiao, H.; Ma, R.

2009-12-01

49

Estimation of alluvial-fill thickness in the Mimbres ground-water basin, New Mexico, from interpretation of isostatic residual gravity anomalies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic structure of the Mimbres ground-water basin in southwest New Mexico is characterized by north- and northwest-trending structural subbasins. Sedimentation of Miocene and Pliocene age has filled and obscured the boundaries of these subbasins and formed poten- tially productive aquifers of varied thickness. The location and depth of the subbasins can be esti- mated from analysis of isostatic residual gravity anomalies. Density contrasts of various basement lithologies generate complex regional gravity trends, which are convolved with the gravity signal from the Miocene and Pliocene alluvial fill. An iterative scheme was used to separate these regional gravity trends from the alluvial-fill grav- ity signal, which was inverted with estimated depth-density relations to compute the thickness of the alluvial fill at 1-kilometer spacing. The thickness estimates were constrained by explor- atory drill-hole information, interpreted seismic- refraction profiles, and location of bedrock lithol- ogy from surficial geologic mapping. The result- ing map of alluvial-fill thickness suggests large areas of thin alluvium that separate deep structural subbasins.

Heywood, Charles E.

2002-01-01

50

Stratigraphic architecture of alluvial-aeolian systems developed on active karst terrains: An Early Pleistocene example from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Early Pleistocene, fluvial, alluvial and aeolian depositional systems interacted in the central Ebro Basin, Spain, constructing wide alluvial plains over a Neogene evaporite substratum. Fluvial sediments, mainly longitudinal gravel bars and channels, are interdigitated with gravel mass flow and distal mudflat deposits. Aeolian sedimentation is registered as aeolian dunes and sand sheets. Episodes of fluvial deposition alternated with periods of alluvial fan progradation and aeolian deposition. These changes are related to climate-driven water availability. Stratigraphic units and deformation structures show synsedimentary karstification of the evaporite substratum that, although karst was not restricted to any particular climate scenario, was probably favoured during periods of high water availability. Karstification conditioned the development of local sedimentary depocentres which, in turn, influenced the distribution of sedimentary subenvironments as well as the accumulation and preservation of aeolian dunes and lacustrine-palustrine deposits. Stratigraphic architecture shows that thickening of the series due to karst subsidence did not occur homogeneously, but was controlled by diachronous subsidence resulting in numerous angular unconformities. In subsiding karst areas transport capacity was reduced and sediment preservation increased.

Gil, H.; Luzón, A.; Soriano, M. A.; Casado, I.; Pérez, A.; Yuste, A.; Pueyo, E.; Pocoví, A.

2013-10-01

51

The impact of changing environments on the runoff regimes of the arid Heihe River basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the inter- and inner-annual variations of discharge regimes in the upper and mid reaches of the Heihe River basin. These variations then correlated with temperature and precipitation variations in the area. The differences between the runoff regimes at the upper and mid reaches were compared, and the human impacts on discharge variations in the Heihe River were discussed. The results indicate that in the upper reaches, the long-term trends and periods of discharge and precipitation correlate well. In the mid reaches, the discharge and temperature trends correlate well, and the short discharge and precipitation periods correlate well. Precipitation increases would generate more runoff in both the upper and mid reaches, but the effects of temperature increases on discharge are different in the upper and mid reaches. Temperature increases would enhance the glacial ablation processes and increase runoff in the upper reaches. However, temperature increases would increase the evaporation and decrease runoff in the mid reaches. After the 1980s, higher temperature enhanced snow and glacial melt, and increasing precipitation increased the discharge in the upper reaches. Although increasing precipitation increased some discharge, great human activities caused a notable discharge decrease in the 1990s in the mid reaches, especially during the spring to autumn when large amounts of water resources were used for irrigation. In summary, both precipitation and temperature impact the availability of water resources in the study area, and active and effective adaptation strategies should be developed to improve the efficiency of water resource exploration and to prevent the desertification processes in the arid Heihe River basin.

Sang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Yu, Jingjie

2014-01-01

52

Regionalising a meso-catchment scale conceptual model for river basin management in the semi-arid environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meso-scale catchments are often of great interest for water resources development and for development interventions aimed at uplifting rural livelihoods. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa IWRM planning in such catchments, and the basins they form part of, are often ungauged or constrained by poor data availability. Regionalisation of a hydrological model presents opportunities for prediction in ungauged basins and catchments. This study regionalises HBVx, derived from the conceptual hydrological model HBV, in the semi-arid Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe. Fifteen meso-catchments were studied, including three that were instrumented during the study. Discriminant analysis showed that the characteristics of catchments in the arid agro-ecological Region V were significantly different from those in semi-arid Region IV. Analysis of flow duration curves statistically separated sub-perennial catchments from (sub-)ephemeral catchments. Regionalised parameter sets for HBVx were derived from means of parameters from the sub-perennial catchments, the (sub-)ephemeral catchments and all catchments. The parameter sets that performed best in the regionalisation are characterised by slow infiltration with moderate/fast “overland flow”. These processes appear more extreme in more degraded catchments. This is points to benefits to be derived from conservation techniques that increase infiltration rate and from runoff farming. Faster, and possibly greater, sub-surface contribution to streamflow is expected from catchments underlain by granitic rocks. Calibration and regionalisation were more successful at the dekad (10 days) time step than when using daily or monthly data, and for the sub-perennial catchments than the (sub-)ephemeral catchments. However, none of the regionalised parameter sets yielded C NS ? 0.3 for half of the catchments. The HBVx model thus does offer some assistance to river basin planning in semi-arid basins, particularly for predicting flows in ungauged catchments at longer time steps, such as for water allocation purposes. However, the model is unreliable for more ephemeral and drier catchments. Without more reliable and longer rainfall and runoff data, regionalisation in semi-arid ephemeral catchments will remain highly challenging.

Love, David; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; van der Zaag, Pieter

53

Mercury accumulation in sediment and fish from rivers affected by alluvial gold mining in the Brazilian Madeira River basin, Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree and distribution of mercury (Hg) accumulation in sediment and fish from a tributary affected by alluvial small-scale gold mining in the Madeira River\\/Amazon is studied, in relation to a reference site. The results obtained so far agree well with previous studies and confirm that a tremendous contamination of main food web compartments occurs in these highly exposed, but

Rudolf Reuther

1994-01-01

54

Estimates of recharge in two arid basin aquifers: a model of spatially variable net infiltration and its implications (Red Light Draw and Eagle Flats, Texas, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of estimating recharge in arid basin aquifers (such as the 1 % rule, Maxey-Eakin method, storm-runoff infiltration and others) overlook the potential contribution of direct recharge on the basin floors. In the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas, USA, this has resulted in potential recharge and solute flux to basin aquifers being ignored. Observed trends in groundwater nitrate (NO3 -) concentrations and the presence of young (<70 years old) water in the basins indicate that recharge is occurring through the basin floors. A spatially variable net infiltration model (INFIL 3.0.1) was used to estimate the volume and spatial distribution of potential recharge to two basins: Red Light Draw and Eagle Flats. The INFIL model provides insight into the mechanisms by which recharge and solute flux occurs in arid basin systems. This method demonstrated that recharge is widespread; it is not limited to the mountainous areas and mountain-front recharge mechanisms, and up to 15 % of total potential recharge in these basins occurs across widespread areas of the basin floors. Models such as this should improve scientific understanding and sustainable management of arid basin aquifers in Texas and elsewhere.

Robertson, Wendy Marie; Sharp, John M.

2013-12-01

55

The Italian Project S2 - Task 4:Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems", the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies < 2Hz) and hybrid deterministic- stochastic source and propagation simulations are carried out for different fault rupture scenarios (but including important features such as the dominant near-surface geology), and the results in terms of representative ground motion parameters appropriately enveloped. The fully 3D problem is solved using the Spectral Element (SE) method, extensively published by Faccioli and his co-workers, and Quarteroni and co- workers, starting from 1996, and the computational code GeoELSE (Stupazzini et al., 2009; http://GeoELSE.stru.polimi.it/). Finally, numerical results are compared with available data and attenuation relationships of peak values of ground motion in the near-fault regions elsewhere. Based on the results of this work, the unfavorable interaction between fault rupture, radiation mechanism and complex geological conditions may give rise to large values of peak ground velocity (exceeding 1 m/s) even in low-to-moderate seismicity areas, and therefore increase considerably the level of seismic risk, especially in highly populated and industrially active regions, such as the Central Italy. Faccioli E., Maggio F., Paolucci R. and Quarteroni A. (1997),2D and 3D elastic wave propagation by a pseudo-spectral domain decomposition method, Journal of Seismology, 1, 237-251. Field, E.H., T.H. Jordan, and C.A. Cornell (2003), OpenSHA: A Developing Community-Modeling Environment for Seismic Hazard Analysis, Seism. Res. Lett. 74, 406-419. Stupazzini M., R. Paolucci, H. Igel (2009), Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Grenoble Valley by a high-performance spectral element code, accepted for publication in Bull. of the Seism. Soc. of America.

Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Cauzzi, C.; Faccioli, E.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

2009-04-01

56

The organic and mineral matter contents in deposits infilling floodplain basins: Holocene alluviation record from the K?odnica and Osob?oga river valleys, southern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work examines the timing and environmental conditions of floodplain sedimentation in the valleys of the upland K?odnica and piedmont Osob?oga rivers in the Upper Odra River basin. A distribution of 52 14C-ages shows relatively high floodplain sedimentation at the Late Glacial-Holocene transition, more stable floodplain environments since the Early (in the K?odnica Valley) and Middle Holocene (in the Osob?oga Valley) and a gradual increase in floodplain deposition in the Late Holocene (since < 3.4 kyr BP). Organic matter [OM] and mineral matter [MM] fluctuations were correlated with variables responsible for the activation of erosion (i.e. vegetation changes, human impact and hydrological events) as well as factors affecting the local record of sedimentation (i.e. valley morphology, hydrologic conditions and episodes of local erosion). A clear relationship is shown between an increase in alluviation and climate- or human-induced extension of unforested areas. The deposition of mineral-rich sediments increases rapidly during periods characterized by non-arboreal pollen values exceeding approximately 8% in pollen diagrams. On the other hand, the results obtained do not confirm significant interactions between Holocene changes in forest composition and alluviation. Despite the settlement of agrarian groups, the sedimentary record of human activity in the Osob?oga catchment is very poor during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. A large-scale alluviation of the Osob?oga and K?odnica valleys was initiated during the settlement of people of the Lusatian culture from the middle Bronze Age and escalated in the early Middle Ages and Modern Times. The deposition of products of soil erosion was limited to between ca. 1.9-1.2 kyr BP, probably due to demographic regression during the Migration Period. Comparison of OM/MM fluctuations with phases of increased fluvial activity does not show a relationship between Holocene wetter phases and catchment sediment yield. Sedimentary episodes in the Upper Odra basin also show a low degree of correlation with the probability density curve of the 14C-ages. The results obtained in the K?odnica and Osob?oga valleys indicate a strong to moderate correlation between the spatial distribution of the study sites and the origin of MM-rich deposits, but a weak correlation between the spatial distribution of the study sites and TOC content. Such a pattern suggests that OM/MM fluctuations relate predominantly to the changes in sediment yield, although morphological conditions have a significant impact on the capture potential of sedimentary basins during phases of alluviation. Additionally, high OM content is not a simple function of an increase in wetness of the sedimentary environment. On the other hand, hydrologically-conditioned hiatuses as well as erosion episodes impoverish the sedimentary record, complicating the consideration on the geochronology of deposits and making it difficult to calculate reliable accumulation rates. However, they do not reduce the value of OM/MM fluctuations as an indicator of alluviation events for a preserved series of sediments.

Wójcicki, K. J.; Marynowski, L.

2012-07-01

57

The impact of the development of water resources on environment in arid inland river basins of Hexi region, Northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources use is a key parameter in the hydrological cycle, especially in arid inland of Northwest China, groundwater movement and circulation processes are closely related to the surface water, while recoverable and renewable groundwater mainly comes from the conversion of surface river water, and there is extensive transfer among rainfall, surface water and groundwater. Human activity, in particular, large-scale water resources exploitation and development associated with dramatic population growth in the last decades, has led to tremendous changes in the water regime. There are misuse and wastage of surface water with traditional multi-channel irrigation for most rivers, which in turn leads to over-exploitation of groundwater to augment supplies. This situation has been exacerbated by rapid population growth and socio-economic development, with decreased irrigational systems return to groundwater due to the irrigation system in the middle reaches of rivers in the Hexi region becoming better. The investigations of this study revealed that over the last decades, man-made oases have developed rapidly in various inland river basins. With the increasing human demand for water, the contradiction between water demand and water supply is becoming increasingly acute and the amount of groundwater usage significantly increased. Notwithstanding the annual surface water from mountains is relatively stable in the Hexi region, the recharges of groundwater have been reduced by 11.1%, with a maximum reduction of 50% in the Shiyang River basin. Groundwater abstraction increased by approximately six times, particularly in the Shiyang River basin, groundwater abstraction exceeds recharge by 4.1×108 m3 year-1 in recent decades. Consequently, the groundwater level has declined widely by 3 16 m, with a maximum decline of 45 m in several groundwater observation wells in the Minqin basin on the lower reaches of the Shiyang River basin. These cause serious human activity-induced environmental problems, such as water-quality deterioration, vegetation degradation, soil salinization and land desert desertification, etc. It is suggested that modernized irrigation technology and new regulation to cover water resources management and allocation with the river basins are urgently needed to achieve a sustainable development. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the development of water resources on the environment in arid inland river basins in Northwestern China, which were analyzed by comparing the three main river basins (i.e., the Shuilei, the Heihe and the Shiyang River basins) with different water resources development cases.

Ji, Xibin; Kang, Ersi; Chen, Rensheng; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Zhihui; Jin, Bowen

2006-08-01

58

Shallow subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture of the Kosi and Gandak megafans in the Himalayan foreland basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kosi and the Gandak are two major Himalayan tributaries of the Ganga River in the north Bihar plains India. With a large hinterland in the Nepal Himalaya, both these rivers have generated megafans in the plains over the Quaternary time scale. Both these rivers are known to be highly dynamic and sediment-charged. A few conceptual models and limited field data suggested that these megafans have produced thick sand sheets over Late Quaternary period but these ideas have remained speculative and there is no data on the size and dimension of these sand bodies. This paper attempts to reconstruct the subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture for the upper ~ 100 m of the megafans based on electrical resistivity soundings, borehole data and drill cores. Alluvial architecture of the Kosi megafan shows significant variability from proximal to medial parts of the fan in terms of sediment grain size and layer thicknesses. While the medial part shows ~ 20-30 m thick medium to coarse sand sheets which are laterally stacked, the proximal part of the fan has a dominantly gravel unit below ~ 15 m depth that is underlain and overlain by medium to coarse sand units. Further, the medial fan also shows significant vertical and lateral variability in alluvial stratigraphy. The near-surface (< 20 m depth) deposits from the Kosi megafan have pockets of clay and silt within large amalgamated sand bodies whereas the shallow sub-surface (50-100 m depth) sediments are largely sandy and devoid of clay and silt pockets. Alluvial architecture of the Gandak megafan shows two major lithounits; the upper fan succession has a higher stacking density of smaller sand bodies perhaps reflecting the migratory behavior of the river whereas the lower succession shows narrow but thick sand fills reflecting incised channels. The western part of the Gandak megafan has more abundant sand bodies compared to the eastern side of the river along both transects. There are no significant differences between proximal and medial transects across the Gandak megafan. The absence of gravel deposits in the shallow subsurface of the Gandak megafan may be attributed to the presence of a prominent intermontane valley in the hinterland of the Gandak river which has acted as a 'sediment filter' thereby trapping most of the coarser fraction. On the other hand, the Kosi river exits directly through the mountain front, and therefore, has been able to transport gravels into the plains in pre-historic times. Our study thus suggests significant variability in subsurface stratigraphy of the Kosi and the Gandak megafans even though they are located in similar geographic region. Such differences are attributed to the geomorphic diversity of the mountain exits of these megafans and their sediment transport history.

Sinha, Rajiv; Ahmad, Jawed; Gaurav, Kumar; Morin, Guillaume

2014-03-01

59

Mapping ecological processes and ecosystem services for prioritizing restoration efforts in a semi-arid Mediterranean river basin.  

PubMed

Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin. PMID:24728487

Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

2014-06-01

60

Mapping Ecological Processes and Ecosystem Services for Prioritizing Restoration Efforts in a Semi-arid Mediterranean River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A.

2014-06-01

61

Large Alluvial Fans on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several dozen distinct alluvial fans, 10 to greater than 40 km long downslope are observed exclusively in highlands craters. Within a search region between 0 deg. and 30 deg. S, alluvial fan-containing craters were only found between 18 and 29 S, and they all occur at around plus or minus 1 km of the MOLA-defined Martian datum. Within the study area they are not randomly distributed but instead form three distinct clusters. Fans typically descend greater than 1 km from where they disgorge from their alcoves. Longitudinal profiles show that their surfaces are very slightly concave with a mean slope of 2 degrees. Many fans exhibit very long, narrow low-relief ridges radially oriented down-slope, often branching at their distal ends, suggestive of distributaries. Morphometric data for 31 fans was derived from MOLA data and compared with terrestrial fans with high-relief source areas, terrestrial low gradient alluvial ramps in inactive tectonic settings, and older Martian alluvial ramps along crater floors. The Martian alluvial fans generally fall on the same trends as the terrestrial alluvial fans, whereas the gentler Martian crater floor ramps are similar in gradient to the low relief terrestrial alluvial surfaces. For a given fan gradient, Martian alluvial fans generally have greater source basin relief than terrestrial fans in active tectonic settings. This suggests that the terrestrial source basins either yield coarser debris or have higher sediment concentrations than their Martian counterpoints. Martian fans and Basin and Range fans have steeper gradients than the older Martian alluvial ramps and terrestrial low relief alluvial surfaces, which is consistent with a supply of coarse sediment. Martian fans are relatively large and of low gradient, similar to terrestrial fluvial fans rather than debris flow fans. However, gravity scaling uncertainties make the flow regime forming Martian fans uncertain. Martian fans, at least those in Holden crater, apparently formed around the time of the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. We infer that these fans formed during an episode of enhanced precipitation (probably snow) and runoff, which exhibited both sudden onset and termination.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.

2004-01-01

62

Development and Application of Grid-GA Model in a Semi-Humid and Semi-Arid Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the hydrologic processes in semi-arid and semi-humid basins is specially challenging due to the specific characteristics of these basins. In this paper, combining with GIS technology and DEM, the Grid- and Green-Ampt infiltration approach-based distributed hydrologic model of the runoff-production in excess infiltration is developed (Grid-GA model). In Grid-GA model, the Green-Ampt infiltration approach has improved in three parts: (1) the effective hydraulic conductivity of the wetting front at saturation, is power function decaying with the depth of the wetting front; (2) F, the cumulative infiltration, is modified at the end of every time step; (3) the moisture content rate of the soil, is redistribution during the infiltration process. In flow concentration formation, there are kinematic wave approach for un-channel grid and Muskingum approach for channel grid. The model described that includes vegetation and root interception, evapotranspiration, and runoff generation via the excess infiltration mechanism, as well as subsurface via the Darcian approach used by TOPMODEL, runoff concentration, and flow routing. The water exchange among grids within the watershed and the runoff routing along the river drainage networks are taken into consideration in the model. The Grid-GA model is applied to Gaoli basin in Yi River, a tributary of the Yishusi Watershed, with an area of 552 km2 for flood simulation. The results show that the model performs well in the simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in the semi-humid and semi-arid region.

Wang, L.; Li, Z.; Bao, H.; Yu, Z.

2009-12-01

63

Water Resources, Land Exploration and Population Dynamics in Arid Areas - The Case of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources are the root of life and development in arid areas like the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. In the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, one of the driest places in the world, melting glaciers are the exclusive water source. Population growth, in particular in-migration, has greatly changed the ecological conditions of the Tarim River Basin in the past 2,500 years.

Jiang Leiwen; Tong Yufen; Zhao Zhijie; Li Tianhong; Liao Jianhua

2005-01-01

64

Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER): An Remote Sensing Experiment in a Typical Arid Region Inland River Basin of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many land surface experiments have been carried out so far, arid and cold regions were paid little attentions. The land surface observations in arid and cold regions, both remotely sensed and in situ, need to be strengthened for a better understanding of hydrological and ecological processes at different scales. The Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) is a simultaneous air-borne, satellite- borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment conducted in the Heihe Basin, the second largest inland river basin in the northwest arid regions of China. The WATER is aiming at the research on water cycles, eco- hydrological and other land surface processes in catchment-scale. Data sets with high-resolution and spatiotemporal consistency will be generated based on this experiment. An integrated watershed model and a catchment-scale land/hydrological data assimilation system is proposed to be developed. The mission of WATER is to improve the observability, understanding, and predictability of hydrological and related ecological processes at catchmental scale, accumulate basic data for the development of watershed science and promote the applicability of quantitative remote sensing in watershed science studies. The objectives of the experiment will be (1) Observing major components of water cycle in three experiment areas, i.e., cold region, forest, and arid region hydrology experiment areas, by carrying out a simultaneous air-borne, satellite-borne, and ground-based experiment. (2) Developing the scaling method using airborne high-resolution remote sensing data and intensive in situ observations, and improving remote sensing retrieval models and algorithms of water cycle variables and corresponding ecological and other land variables/parameters. (3) Developing a catchment-scale land data assimilation system, which is capable of merging multi-source and multi-scale remote sensing data to generate high resolution and spatiotemporal consistent data sets in order to improve the predictability of water resources and environmental changes. (4) Using all the available data in the validation, possible improvement and development of catchment-scale hydrological and ecological models as well as decision support tools for water resource management.

Li, X.; Wang, J.; Ma, M.; Liu, Q.; Hu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Che, T.; Su, P.; Jin, R.; Wang, W.

2007-12-01

65

Volcaniclastic-alluvial sedimentation interaction in the Tordillo Fm., Upper Jurassic, Neuquén Basin (Argentina): An approach for paleogeographic and tectonic development.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neuquén Basin is a Mesozoic back-arc basin located in central-western Argentina and eastern Chile and today incorporated into the Andean retro-arc foreland basin. The Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation at the northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina, was developed during a generalized subsidence with still clear fault influence that followed a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting phase. Although this formation comprises a multi-stage suit of predominantely alluvial sediments that is heterolithic in nature, aeolian and volcaniclastic sediments are also present. Volcaniclastic sediments are mainly andesitic in composition where subaerial pyroclastic flows and fallout deposits (and their remobilised sediments) are common. They are interbedded with fluvial braided and meandering sediments showing a clear interdependence. Sediment supply in the Neuquén Basin was markedly influenced by the uplift and later subsidence controlled by the magmatic activity. Explosive volcanic eruptions coupled with sporadic high rainfall events led to transportation and accumulation of large quantities of coarse volcaniclastic debris, including dm-scale blocks. Defined volcaniclastic facies include pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits of both primary and secondary origin. Pyroclastic deposits include flow and fall deposits, this latter with bombs and lapilli deposits. They are massive or show sequences. These latter normally show erosive base and are represented by 0.4 to 0.8m in thickness of reverse, normal and normal-reverse grading in which traction structures as lamination and cross-bedding appear. Associated flame, load and scour structures are also common at the top of the sequences. All of these deposits are related to a range that varies from subaerial to shallow water in origin. Some of those of shallow water may have resulted from the accumulation of decelerating turbulent suspensions of low density currents. Available detailed information from the evolution of the Neuquén Basin during the episodes without marine deposition is still scarce, particularly for the late Jurassic. This determines great limitations for reconstructing that evolution within a paleogeographic, magmatic and tectonic context. This study gives some clues for a better understanding of these aspects.

López-Gómez, José; Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Lago, Marceliano; Palma, Ricardo; Kietzmann, Diego

2010-05-01

66

The effect of vegetation and beaver dams on geomorphic recovery rates of incised streams in the semi-arid regions of the Columbia River basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel incision is a common occurrence in semi-arid regions of the Columbia River basin and throughout the world, where a fragile balance between climate, vegetation and geology makes channels susceptible to changes in hillslope erosion, stream discharge and sediment yield. Incision is defined as a rapid downcutting and lowering of the stream bed such that it reduces the frequency and

M. Pollock; T. Beechie; C. Jordan

2005-01-01

67

Runoff generation processes during the wet-up phase in a semi-arid basin in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the hydrological processes in catchments is important for water resources management, particularly in semi-arid regions of the world. To contribute to this field, dominant runoff generation processes in a semi-arid basin (283 km2) in Southwestern Iran were investigated using analysis of hydrometric data in combination with natural isotopic tracers through the wet-up phase of a rainy season. The analysis of seven rainfall-runoff events during the rainfall dominated period illustrated the role of antecedent base flow and cumulative rainfall for explaining the hydrological response. Three distinct storm events and the corresponding discharge were collected and analyzed for oxygen-18 and deuterium isotope composition. The results show that during the wetting-up cycle, the runoff ratio during storm events increased progressively from 1 to 10%. Higher event runoff ratios following catchment wet-up were shown to be directly linked to changes in soil moisture, which in turn controlled the runoff generation processes. In line with the hydrometric results, the two-component hydrograph separation using ?18O and ?2H demonstrated a clear connection to the antecedent wetness conditions. The results suggest that the runoff ratios during storms and the partitioning of event and pre-event water fractions are sensitive to the amount of catchment wet-up and could hence be strongly impacted by changes in the timing, duration and amount of precipitation in the future.

Zarei, H.; Akhondali, A. M.; Mohammadzadeh, H.; Radmanesh, F.; Laudon, H.

2014-04-01

68

Mercury accumulation in sediment and fish from rivers affected by alluvial gold mining in the Brazilian Madeira River basin, Amazon.  

PubMed

The degree and distribution of mercury (Hg) accumulation in sediment and fish from a tributary affected by alluvial small-scale gold mining in the Madeira River/Amazon is studied, in relation to a reference site. The results obtained so far agree well with previous studies and confirm that a tremendous contamination of main food web compartments occurs in these highly exposed, but vulnerable tropical waters. An essential part of the released metallic Hg may still exist as macroscopic liquid Hg drops in the sediment. Both global (0.4 mg/kg of Hg) and local (0.1 mg/kg of Hg) background sediment values as well as safety levels for fish (0.5 mg/kg of Hg) are considerably exceeded by a factor of up to 25, 100, and 4, respectively, and give rise to serious concern, not least with regard to the formation of the very toxic monomethyl-Hg. It is further discussed that atmospheric transport and deposition of Hg in water reservoirs built for hydroelectric power generation may act as critical pathways for longterm Hg accumulation, even in unexposed riverine systems. PMID:24214137

Reuther, R

1994-09-01

69

Alluvial Fan-lacustrine Sedimentation and its Tectonic Implications in the Cretaceous Athgarh Gondwana Basin, Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athgarh Formation is the northernmost extension of the east coast Upper Gondwana sediments of Peninsular India. The formation of the present area is a clastic succession of 700 m thick and was built against an upland scarp along the north and northwestern boundary of the basin marked by an E-W-ENE-WSW boundary fault. A regular variation in the dominant facies

Banabehari Mishra; Krishna Lal Pandya; Wataru Maejima

2004-01-01

70

Stable isotope and hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of subtropical northwest Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Hamersley Basin, in the semi-arid Pilbara region of northwest Australia, is currently subject to increasing pressure from altered hydrology associated with mining activities as well as water abstraction for regional development. Sustainable water management across the region must be underpinned by an understanding of the factors that constrain water supply in arid zones. We measured the amount and isotopic signature of individual rainfall events over three consecutive years (2009-2011) to determine the likely processes that control surface water pools in streams and groundwater recharge across the Hamersley Basin. We also measured concentrations of ions (in particular bromide and chloride) to define and quantify sources of major recharge. Stable isotope composition of precipitation across the basin forms a Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) defined by the equation: ?2H = 7.03 ± 0.17 × ?18O + 4.78 ± 1.45. Thus, the slope of the LMWL was similar to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). However, the intercept of the LMWL was significantly different to the GMWL, which is attributable to the amount or "rainout" effect. The stable isotope composition of rainfall events was highly variable and dependent on event size. However, the ?2H and ?18O values of fresh groundwater from the alluvium and fractured aquifers were similar and characterised by a very narrow range (alluvium aquifer ?18O -8.02 ± 0.83‰, ?2H -55.6 ± 6.0‰, n = 65; fractured aquifer ?18O -8.22 ± 0.70‰, ?2H -56.9 ± 5.0‰, n = 207). Our findings suggest that intense rainfall events of >20 mm with limited evaporation prior to infiltration contribute most to recharge. In contrast, the ?2H and ?18O values and chemical composition of the relatively saline groundwater in the terminal Fortescue Marsh suggest a combination of evaporation and cyclic drying and wetting of the marsh surface prior to recharge. Saline groundwater samples were more 18O enriched than fresh groundwater; ?2H and ?18O values shifted to the right of the LMWL, forming a straight line with a slope of 3.58 ± 0.20 and an intercept of -25.55 ± 0.71 (R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001, n = 18). The stable isotope mass balance for most of the surface water pools in the basin show significant evaporation and are highly enriched compared to underlying groundwater. We conclude that significant seepage from highly evaporated pools to groundwater is very limited.

Dogramaci, Shawan; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dodson, Wade; Grierson, Pauline F.

2012-12-01

71

Late Eocene arid climate in Asia inferred from multi-proxy sclerochronology using oyster shells from the Tarim Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian climate is characterized by a strong duality between monsoon dominant climate in southeastern Asia and arid climate in central Asia. Based on climate modelling, this pattern has been explained by two main driving mechanisms associated to the Indo-Asia collision: uplift of Tibetan Plateau and/or retreat of an epicontinental sea formerly covering Asia. However, climate proxies are lacking to test these hypotheses and understand how and when this climate pattern was established. The aim of this study is to develop a new method to understand the Late Eocene climate in central Asia, when the Paratethys was still covering the continent. A crucial task to this end is to reconstruct the climate seasonality in central Asia: when and how the climate changed from a probably temperate climate, due to the sea presence, to an arid climate? Did this climate change have an impact on the monsoon intensification in southestern Asia? Here we use bivalve sclerochronology to assess the Eocene climate variability on seosonal time scales in Central Asia. Well preserved oyster shells (Sokolowia buhsii, Grewingk) were sampled in marine sediments from Lutetian to Bartonian age in southwestern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China (Aertashi and Kezi sections). The Paratethys sea was shallow and partially closed, thus the challenge is to distinguish temperature from salinity effects on the biomineralization. Here, we present a new method using multi-proxy approach. The fossils were cut perpendicularly to the maximum growth axis to expose incremental yearly growth lines of the shell to be analysed. We first obtained Mg/Ca record using LA ICP-MS indicative of the temperature variations. We then recovered an isotopic sclerogeochemistry (?18Oc) record using micromilling extraction to assess the ?18Ow (and thereby the salinity) of the sea. Results show that seasonal temperature variability was considerable. Furthemore salinity increase during summers indicating a negative water balance. Thus, we infer that central Asian climate was already very arid during the Late Eocene, although the Paratethys sea was still covering the Asian continent. This is an apparent contradiction with the first assumption of a temperate climate before sea retreat but is in agreement with coeval palynological data from the Tarim Basin and with recent climate models of Eocene Asian monsoons.

Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Nicollin, Florence; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

2013-04-01

72

ERODIBILITY OF URBAN BEDROCK AND ALLUVIAL CHANNELS, NORTH TEXAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Major erosion of urban stream channels is found in smaller basins in the North Texas study area with contributing drainage areas of less than ten square miles. Within these basins, four basic channel types are identified based on bed and bank lithologies: alluvial banks and bottoms, alluvial banks ...

73

Why conceptual groundwater flow models matter: a trans-boundary example from the arid Great Basin, western USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring and Snake valleys, western USA, are scheduled for development and groundwater export to Las Vegas, Nevada (USA). New work, compared to published studies, illustrates the critical role of conceptual models to underpin water withdrawals in arid regions. Interbasin flow studies suggest that 30-55 % of recharge to Snake Valley arrives from adjacent Spring Valley. This study, however, suggest little or no interbasin flow; rather, Spring and Snake valleys comprise separate systems. Contrary to expectation, ?D and ?18O contours are perpendicular to proposed interbasin flow paths. 14C age gradients up to 10 ka along interbasin flow paths indicate that old waters are not displaced by such fluxes. 14C and 3H patterns indicate local recharge occurs in adjacent mountain ranges and is transferred to basin-fill by losing streams, mountain front recharge, and upward leakage from carbonate bedrock beneath basins. The choice of conceptual models is critical for groundwater development. Simple analyses of water withdrawals indicate that monitoring discharges at desert springs is an inadequate protective measure. Once flows decline, recovery is lengthy even if pumping is stopped. The conceptual framework behind quantitative evaluations of sustainable yield is critical to determine the ability of a groundwater system to deliver sustained withdrawals.

Gillespie, J.; Nelson, S. T.; Mayo, A. L.; Tingey, D. G.

2012-09-01

74

Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (? 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (? 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated nitrate levels in domestic well water are most strongly associated with citrus orchards when located in areas with a very shallow (? 21 m) water table. Kings County had relatively few nitrate MCL exceedances in domestic wells, probably due to the deeper water table in Kings County.

Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

2013-08-01

75

Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production.  

PubMed

Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (?150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (?21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated nitrate levels in domestic well water are most strongly associated with citrus orchards when located in areas with a very shallow (?21 m) water table. Kings County had relatively few nitrate MCL exceedances in domestic wells, probably due to the deeper water table in Kings County. PMID:23800783

Lockhart, K M; King, A M; Harter, T

2013-08-01

76

Northwest Arid Lands : an introduction to the Columbia Basin shrub-steppe  

SciTech Connect

This book explores the rich variety of life in shrub-steppe lands of the Columbia River Basin. It describes, for a non-technical audience, the flora, fauna, and geology of the lower Columbia Basin in and around the Tri-Cities, Washington. Features include color photos and maps of shrub-steppe plants and animals; lists and illustration of common plants, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, fish, and species of conservation concern; tips on places to see wildflowers and wildlife; geological travel logs from the Tri-Cities to Seattle and Spokane; and a comprehensive bibliography and definition of ecological terms.

O'Connor, Georganne P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wieda, Karen J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2001-04-15

77

Hydrogeochemical zonation and its implication for arsenic mobilization in deep groundwaters near alluvial fans in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High As groundwater has been found in shallow aquifers of the flat plain of the Hetao basin, but little is known about As concentration in deep groundwaters around piedmont areas, which are the major drinking water resources. One hundred and three groundwater samples from wells with depths >50 m and seven samples from one multi-level monitoring well (89 m in depth) were analyzed for chemical compositions and 18O and D isotopes to examine the geochemical processes controlling As mobilization. According to hydrogeological setting, chemical and isotopic characteristics of deep groundwater, three distinguished hydrogeochemical zones are delineated, including Recharge-Oxic Zone (Zone I), Groundwater Flow-Moderate Reducing Zone (Zone II), and Groundwater Flow-Reducing Zone (Zone III). Zone I is located in proximal fans in the recharge area with oxic conditions, where low As groundwater generally occurs. In Zone II, located in the intermediate between the fans and the flat plain with Fe-reduction predominated, groundwater As is moderate. Zone III lies in the flat plain with the occurrence of SO42- reduction, where high As groundwater is mostly found. This indicates that release of As to groundwater is primarily determined by reduction sequences. Arsenic is immobilized in O2 /NO3- reduction stage in Zone I and released in Fe-reducing conditions of Zone II, and displays a significant elevated concentration in SO4-reducing stage in Zone III. Dissolution of carbonate minerals occurs in Zone I, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ are expected to precipitate in Zone II and Zone III. In the multi-level monitoring well, both chemical and isotopic compositions are dependent of sampling depths, with the similar trend to the hydrogeochemical zonation along the flow path. The apparent increases in ?D and ?18O values in Zone III reveal the possibility of high As shallow groundwater recharge to deep groundwater. It indicates that deep groundwaters in proximal fans have low As concentrations and are considered as safe drinking water resources in the Hetao basin. However, high As concentration is frequently observed in deep groundwater in the flat plain, which should be routinely monitored in order to avoid chronic As poisoning.

Jia, Yongfeng; Guo, Huaming; Jiang, Yuxiao; Wu, Yang; Zhou, Yinzhu

2014-10-01

78

Geochemistry and solute sources of surface waters of the Tarim River Basin in the extreme arid region, NW Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major ion concentrations of river, lake and snow waters were measured to better understand the water quality, hydrochemical processes and solute sources of surface waters within the Tarim River Basin in the extreme arid region. Surface waters are slightly alkaline and are characterized by high total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS values varies over two orders of magnitude from fresh (76%) to brackish (24%) with a mean value of 1000 mg/L, higher than the global river average and river waters draining the Himalayas and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Most of the samples were Ca2+sbnd (Mg2+)sbnd HCO3- type and suited for drinking and irrigation. Water quality of Aksu River (AK), Hotan River (HT) and Northern Rivers (NR) is better than the others. Rock weathering, ion exchange and precipitation are the major hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the solutes in rivers waters. Anthropogenic input to the water chemistry is minor and human activities accelerate increase of river TDS. The quantitative solute sources are first calculated using a forward model in this area. The results show that evaporite dissolution, carbonate weathering, atmospheric input, and silicate weathering contributed 58.3%, 25.7%, 8.7%, and 8.2% of the total dissolved cations for the whole basin. Evaporite dissolution dominated in Lake Waters (LW), HT, Yarkant River (YK), Tarim River (TR), and Southern Rivers (SR), contributing 73.5%, 53.4%, 56.7%, 77%, and 74.2% of the total dissolved cations, respectively. Carbonate weathering dominated in AK and NR, contributing 48% and 44.4% of the total dissolved cations, respectively. The TDS flux of HT, TR, AK, YK was 66.0, 118.6, 134.9, and 170.4 t/km2/yr, respectively, higher than most of the rivers in the world. Knowledge of our research can promote effective management of water resources in this desert environment and add new data to global river database.

Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhang-Dong; Ding, Hu; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Fei

2012-08-01

79

Large alluvial fans in the north-central Po Plain (Northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventeen alluvial fans in the Po Plain, between the Ticino and Mincio Rivers, in Northern Italy were identified and studied. The research was carried out following a semi-quantitative approach that combined display and analysis of altitude data, interpretation of morphometrical maps, and comparative inspection of geomorphological maps. Boundaries between fans were drawn interactively on a shaded relief image, computed from a 50 m resolution digital terrain model prepared interpolating 5 and 1 metre contour lines. For each fan, or for each portion making up a larger fan, geometric and morphometric criteria were computed. Fan morphometric criteria were compared to the present drainage basins morphological setting. The relationship between fan area and drainage basin area shows positive allometry, with the slope of the regression line lower than that commonly proposed for both arid and humid regions.

Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchetti, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola

1997-02-01

80

Late Miocene episodic lakes in the arid Tarim Basin, western China.  

PubMed

The Tibetan Plateau uplift and Cenozoic global cooling are thought to induce enhanced aridification in the Asian interior. Although the onset of Asian desertification is proposed to have started in the earliest Miocene, prevailing desert environment in the Tarim Basin, currently providing much of the Asian eolian dust sources, is only a geologically recent phenomenon. Here we report episodic occurrences of lacustrine environments during the Late Miocene and investigate how the episodic lakes vanished in the basin. Our oxygen isotopic (?(18)O) record demonstrates that before the prevailing desert environment, episodic changes frequently alternating between lacustrine and fluvial-eolian environments can be linked to orbital variations. Wetter lacustrine phases generally corresponded to periods of high eccentricity and possibly high obliquity, and vice versa, suggesting a temperature control on the regional moisture level on orbital timescales. Boron isotopic (?(11)B) and ?(18)O records, together with other geochemical indicators, consistently show that the episodic lakes finally dried up at ?4.9 million years ago (Ma), permanently and irreversibly. Although the episodic occurrences of lakes appear to be linked to orbitally induced global climatic changes, the plateau (Tibetan, Pamir, and Tianshan) uplift was primarily responsible for the final vanishing of the episodic lakes in the Tarim Basin, occurring at a relatively warm, stable climate period. PMID:25368156

Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Zhonghui; An, Zhisheng; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Hong; Wang, Ning; Dong, Jibao; Wang, Huanye

2014-11-18

81

Causality analysis of groundwater dynamics based on a Vector Autoregressive model in the semi-arid basin of Gundal (South India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Causal relationships existing between observed levels of groundwater in a semi-arid sub-basin of the Kabini River basin (Karnataka state, India) are investigated in this study. A Vector Auto Regressive model is used for this purpose. Its structure is built on an upstream/downstream interaction network based on observed hydro-physical properties. Exogenous climatic forcing is used as an input based on cumulated rainfall departure. Optimal models are obtained thanks to a trial approach and are used as a proxy of the dynamics to derive causal networks. It appears to be an interesting tool for analysing the causal relationships existing inside the basin. The causal network reveals 3 main regions: the Northeastern part of the Gundal basin is closely coupled to the outlet dynamics. The Northwestern part is mainly controlled by the climatic forcing and only marginally linked to the outlet dynamic. Finally, the upper part of the basin plays as a forcing rather than a coupling with the lower part of the basin allowing for a separate analysis of this local behaviour. The analysis also reveals differential time scales at work inside the basin when comparing upstream oriented with downstream oriented causalities. In the upper part of the basin, time delays are close to 2 months in the upward direction and lower than 1 month in the downward direction. These time scales are likely to be good indicators of the hydraulic response time of the basin which is a parameter usually difficult to estimate practically. This suggests that, at the sub-basin scale, intra-annual time scales would be more relevant scales for analysing or modelling tropical basin dynamics in hard rock (granitic and gneissic) aquifers ubiquitous in south India.

Mangiarotti, S.; Sekhar, M.; Berthon, L.; Javeed, Y.; Mazzega, P.

2012-08-01

82

Quantifying Recharge in Semi-Arid Basins: Translating Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Groundwater Resources  

E-print Network

temperature (Barnett et al., 2008). Groundwater recharge is thus likely to be altered due to climate change and variability impacting groundwater resources. Our current knowledge of recharge rates is poor because recharge and change on recharge rates in the future (IPCC, 2007). In arid and semi-arid environments recharge

Fay, Noah

83

Application of multi-agent simulation to evaluate the influence of reservoir operation strategies on the distribution of water availability in the semi-arid Jaguaribe basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the processes responsible for the distribution of water resources in a river basin over space and time is of great importance for spatial planning. In this study a multi-agent simulation approach is applied for exploring the influence of alternative reservoir operation strategies on water use distribution in the semi-arid Jaguaribe basin in case of decreasing rainfall. Water use distribution is analyzed both for one specific subbasin - our study area - and for the river basin level. Agents in this study are farmers that adapt to local variations in water availability. In this way both natural and human influences on water availability are taken into account. This study shows that a decrease in rainfall and runoff in the Jaguaribe basin leads to a transition of water use from the dry season to the wet season. The dry season water use decreases because of reduced water availability in the dry season. This mainly is the result of reduced rainfall and runoff in the wet season and the consequent increased water use for irrigation in the wet season. A decrease in rainfall and runoff also leads to a relative transition of water use from downstream to upstream at the basin scale. Strategic reservoir operation enables local water managers to offset the effect of decreasing rainfall and runoff with regards to water use at the subbasin level, at the cost of further decreasing water availability at the basin level.

van Oel, Pieter R.; Krol, Maarten S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

84

Groundwater quality and management in arid and semi-arid regions: Case study, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a model budget for groundwater in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The stable isotopic composition and hydrochemistry of groundwater samples collected from different aquifers were determined to identify recharge sources and water quality. Stable isotopic values suggest that shallow alluvial and fracture zone aquifers are recharged from seasonal precipitation, while groundwater in deeper sedimentary sub-basins is paleowater that was recharged during periods of less arid regional climate. Hydrochemical analysis indicates elevated salinity in each aquifer type, which is attributed to leaching and dissolution of terrestrial salts and to mixing with marine water. Groundwater from sedimentary sub-basin aquifers can be treated and used for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater from shallow alluvial and fracture zone wells is suitable for animal husbandry and mineral ore dressing. A model water budget shows that approximately 4.8 × 109 m3 of recoverable groundwater is stored in sedimentary sub-basin aquifers, or approximately 550 years of water at present utilization rates.

Amer, Reda; Ripperdan, Robert; Wang, Tao; Encarnación, John

2012-07-01

85

Evaluation of future climate change impacts on semi-arid Cobres basin in southern Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated future climate change impacts on hydrological and sediment transport processes for the medium-sized (705 km2) agriculture dominated Cobres basin, Portugal, in the context of anti-desertification strategies. We used the Spatial-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (STNSRP) model—RainSim V3, a rainfall conditioned weather generator—ICAAM-WG, developed in this study but based on the modified Climate Research Unit daily weather generator (CRU-WG), and a PBSD hydrological model—SHETRAN, to downscale projections of change. Climate projections were derived from the RCM HadRM3Q0 output, provided by the ENSEMBLES project, for the SRES A1B scenario for the period 2041-2070. The RainSim V3 and ICAAM-WG models are demonstrated to be able to reproduce observed climatology for the period 1981-2010. The SHETRAN model reproduces hourly runoff with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.86 for calibration (2004-2006) and 0.74 for validation (2006-2008) for basin outlet; it reproduces hourly sediment discharge with NSE of 0.48 for the storm from October 23rd 2006 to October 27th 2006. We found that future mean climate is drier, with mean annual rainfall decreased by ~88 mm (19%), mean annual PET increased ~196 mm (16%) and consequent mean annual runoff and sediment yield decreased respectively ~48 mm (50%) and 1.06 t/ha/year (45%). The future mean annual AET decreases ~41 mm (11%), which occurs mainly in spring indicating a more water-limited future climate for vegetation and crop growth. Under current conditions, November to February is the period in which runoff and sediment yield occur frequently; however, it is reduced to December to January in future, with changes in the occurrence rate of ~50%. On the other hand, future wet extremes are more right-skewed. Future annual maximum discharge and sediment discharge decrease for extremes with return periods (T) less than 20 years and the decreases are especially greater for those with T less than 2 years; besides, both quantities present the same or slightly lower magnitudes as those with T larger than 20 years. The annual maximum discharge (sediment discharge) series, under control climate, follows the GEV distribution with location parameter of 64.6 m3/s (164.4 kg/s), scale parameter of 46.5 m3/s (120.3 kg/s) and shape parameter of 0.09 (-0.24); under future climate, the annual maximum discharge series follows the gamma distribution with scale parameter of 75.2 m3/s and shape parameter of 0.97 and the annual maximum sediment discharge series follows the three-parameter lognormal distribution with location parameter of -46.2 kg/s, mean of 5.3 kg/s and standard deviation of 0.78. This study has confirmed the increasing concerns of water scarcity and drought problems in southern Portugal; but it also indicated the mitigation of sediment transport for most of time in the future except heavy events. However, the results should be interpreted carefully since we did not consider possible changes of land-use in the future, as well as the climate and hydrological modelling uncertainties.

Zhang, Rong; Corte-Real, João; Moreira, Madalena; Kilsby, Chris; Burton, Aidan; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Forsythe, Nathan; Nunes, João; Sampaio, Elsa

2014-05-01

86

Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400–1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tribu- taries of the Paria River and is largely co- incident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a map- pable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Col- orado Plateau.

Richard Hereford

2002-01-01

87

Geomorphology and morphometric characteristics of alluvial fans, Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas, west Texas and New Mexico  

E-print Network

This study qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the geomorphology of alluvial fans in the Guadalupe Mountains Region (GMR) of west Texas and south-central New Mexico. Morphometric data for 31 alluvial fans and drainage basins ha ve been...

Given, Jeffrey Lyle

2004-09-30

88

Atmospheric-Ecosystem CO2 Exchange in Sparse Arid Shrublands Across the Great Basin USA Over Multiple Years: Identifying Patterns and Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to recently, desert ecosystems have essentially been ignored with respect to their influence on global carbon cycling and their potential role in modulating atmospheric CO2 levels. Because deserts, defined here as ecosystems receiving <280 mm of precipitation annually, cover 35% of Earth's surface, even small positive or negative net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE=fluxes) can have globally meaningful effects on atmospheric CO2. Since 2003 we have been measuring NEE and annual NEP at 10 arid shrubland sites around the Great Basin in Nevada, USA using eddy covariance and large static chamber "domes" with the objectives of quantifying seasonal, annual and interannual fluxes and the environmental and ecological factors that may be modulating these fluxes. Surprisingly, annual NEP measured in Mojave Desert creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)-dominated ecosystems, high desert sagebrush steppe (Aremesia tridentata) ecosystems, and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) ecosystems have been largely positive (net C uptake by ecosystems; range of zero to 90 g C m-2 yr-1) and often large (as high 100 to 180 g C m-2 yr-1). Thus, the data from these arid shrublands suggest a much larger arid land C sink than has been previously assumed and call for closer tracking of the CO2 fluxes in these ecosystems.

Arnone, J. A.; Jasoni, R. L.; Larsen, J. D.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2008-12-01

89

Holocene dune accumulation in the Youledusi Basin of Tianshan Mt., NW China Response to the westerly-dominated climate in arid central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of climate change in a given region may provide insights into the underlying climate-forcing mechanisms. In east and south Asia, Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene have been well-documented by precisely dated cave deposits, peat and lake and marine sediments. However, Holocene climate patterns in arid central Asia (ACA) dominated by the Westerlies are poorly documented and understood. Although there have been some published studies on lake cores recording Holocene moisture evolution in the ACA, we still know little about the climate evolutionary patterns and mechanisms that drive the westerlies. In the arid areas aeolian dunes are often regarded as indicators of past aridity, and the development of palaeosol implicates relatively wet condition. This study will first provide the chronostratigraphy of a set of palaeodunes in the Youledusi Basin (ca. 2400 m above sea level) of Tianshan Mt., NW China. Systematic optically stimulated luminescence dating (ca. 60 samples) of multiple sites (eight sections) is used together with stratigraphic analysis in order to reconstruct the evolution of the sand dunes, which is able to infer the history of Holocene moisture variation.

Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Frechen, Manfred; Chen, Jianhui; Yang, Linhai

2013-04-01

90

Understanding hydrologic budgets, dynamics in an arid basin and explore spatial scaling properties using Process-based Adaptive Watershed Simulator (PAWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California hot desert hosts a fragile ecosystem as well as a range of human economic activities, primarily mining, energy production and recreation. This inland arid landscape is characterized by occasional intensive precipitation events and year-round strong potential evapotranspiration. In this landscape, water and especially groundwater is vital for ecosystem functions and human use. However, the impact of recent development on the sustainability of groundwater resources in the area has not been thoroughly investigated. We apply an integrated, physically-based hydrologic-land surface model, the Process-based Adaptive Watershed Simulator + Community Land Model (PAWS+CLM) to evaluate the sustainability of the groundwater resources in the area. We elucidate the spatio-temporal patterns of hydrologic fluxes and budgets. The modeling results indicate that mountain front recharge is the essential recharging mechanism for the alluvial aquifer. Although pumping activities do not exceed annual-average recharge values, they are still expected to contribute significantly to groundwater drawdown in business-as-usual scenario. The impact of groundwater withdrawals is significant on the desert ecosystem. The relative importance of groundwater flow on NPP rises significantly as compared to other ecosystems. We further evaluate the fractal scaling properties of soil moisture in this very arid system and found the relationship to be much more static in time than that found in a humid continental climate system. The scaling exponents can be predicted using simple functions of the mean. Therefore, multi-scale model based on coarse-resolution surrogate model is expected to perform well in this system. The modeling result is also important for assessing the groundwater sustainability and impact of human activities in the desert environment.

Fang, K.; Shen, C.; Salve, R.

2013-12-01

91

Relief threshold for eolian sand transport on alluvial fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arid alluvial-fan terraces downwind from eolian sand sources exhibit an abrupt increase in eolian epipedon thickness and sand content below a critical elevation which varies from fan to fan. Above this elevation, sand accumulates locally and is not transported across the fan. Below this elevation eolian sand from nearby playa and channel sources is readily transported across the distal

Joseph P. Cook; Jon D. Pelletier

2007-01-01

92

Isotopic evidence for climatic influence on alluvial-fan development in Death Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least three semiarid to arid cycles are recorded by ..delta..¹³C values of organic matter in layers of rock varnishes on surfaces of Hanaupah Canyon and Johnson Canyon alluvial fans, Death Valley, California. These isotopic paleoenvironmental signals are interpreted as indicating major periods of fan aggradation during relatively more humid periods and fan entrenchment during subsequent lengthy arid periods.

Ronald I. Dorn; M. J. DeNiro; H. O. Ajie

1987-01-01

93

Isotopic evidence for climatic influence on alluvial-fan development in Death Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

At least three semiarid to arid cycles are recorded by ..delta../sup 13/C values of organic matter in layers of rock varnishes on surfaces of Hanaupah Canyon and Johnson Canyon alluvial fans, Death Valley, California. These isotopic paleoenvironmental signals are interpreted as indicating major periods of fan aggradation during relatively more humid periods and fan entrenchment during subsequent lengthy arid periods.

Dorn, R.I.; DeNiro, M.J.; Ajie, H.O.

1987-02-01

94

Estimating basin-wide hydraulic parameters of a semi-arid mountainous watershed by recession-flow analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient sub-surface hydraulic data from watersheds often hinders design of water resources structures. This is particularly true in developing countries and in watersheds with low population densities because well-drilling to obtain the hydraulic data is expensive. The objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of ‘Brutsaert’ recession flow analysis to steeper and more arid watersheds than those that

Guillermo F. Mendoza; Tammo S. Steenhuis; M. Todd Walter; J.-Yves Parlange

2003-01-01

95

HYDRO-MICROMETEOROLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS ACROSS MOUNTAIN ISLAND FOREST, GRASSLAND AND RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF A SEMI-ARID BASIN 1760  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observations from a sky Island forested ecosystem in the semi-arid southwestern U.S.established that the type of ecosystems represented by the Mt Bigelow site in the Santa Catalina Mountain Ranges, NE of Tucson Arizona, respond to an annual wet-dry cycle instead of a hot-cold (summer-winter) cycle t...

96

The effect of vegetation and beaver dams on geomorphic recovery rates of incised streams in the semi-arid regions of the Columbia River basin, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel incision is a common occurrence in semi-arid regions of the Columbia River basin and throughout the world, where a fragile balance between climate, vegetation and geology makes channels susceptible to changes in hillslope erosion, stream discharge and sediment yield. Incision is defined as a rapid downcutting and lowering of the stream bed such that it reduces the frequency and duration of flooding onto the adjacent floodplain. We are studying the feasibility of restoring incised streams throughout the interior Columbia River basin. We hypothesize that under proper land use management, it is possible for them to aggrade such that they reconnect to their former floodplains within relatively short time frames. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that over decadal time scales, changes to land management that excludes grazing and allows riparian vegetation to become established can cause significant fill within the incised valleys. Preliminary modeling suggests that factors most affecting the length of time for an incised valley to completely aggrade and reconnect to its pre-incision floodplain are the depth of the incision, sediment production in the watershed, the amount and type of riparian vegetation, and the extent of beaver dam construction. While most natural resource and fisheries managers are aware of widespread incision throughout the Columbia River basin, the extent of incision within the range of the Pacific salmon is largely undocumented. However, we do know many incised streams that historically supported salmon no longer do so, and that habitat conditions are severely degraded in these incised streams. The historical record shows that numerous salmon-bearing streams in the semi-arid region of the interior Columbia River basin once contained narrow and deep, slowly meandering channels lined with cottonwoods, willows and/or sedges, contained numerous beaver dams, contained abundant and easily accessible off-channel habitat on the floodplain and had good flow and cool temperatures throughout most of the year. Today most of these streams are incised and contain little or no riparian vegetation or beaver dams. Stream temperatures are high and flow is ephemeral. Incision is thought to have lowered stream-adjacent water tables, causing both the loss of riparian vegetation and the increase in stream temperature. Many of these streams no longer support fish populations. We hypothesize that if incised streams were restored by creating conditions such that they could aggrade and reconnect to their former floodplains, that habitat conditions would be sufficient to again support salmon populations, and that this would greatly expand their range throughout much of the Columbia River basin.

Pollock, M.; Beechie, T.; Jordan, C.

2005-05-01

97

Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery and transport of sediment through mountain rivers affects aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure. While climate change is widely expected to produce significant changes in hydrology and stream temperature, the effects of climate change on sediment yield have received less attention. In the northern Rocky Mountains, we expect climate change to increase sediment yield primarily through changes in temperature and hydrology that promote vegetation disturbances (i.e., wildfire, insect/pathogen outbreak, drought-related die off). Here, we synthesize existing data from central Idaho to explore (1) how sediment yields are likely to respond to climate change in semi-arid basins influenced by wildfire, (2) the potential consequences for aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure, and (3) prospects for mitigating sediment yields in forest basins. Recent climate-driven increases in the severity and extent of wildfire suggest that basin-scale sediment yields within the next few years to decades could be greater than the long-term average rate of 146 T km - 2 year - 1 observed for central Idaho. These elevated sediment yields will likely impact downstream reservoirs, which were designed under conditions of historically lower sediment yield. Episodic erosional events (massive debris flows) that dominate post-fire sediment yields are impractical to mitigate, leaving road restoration as the most viable management opportunity for offsetting climate-related increases in sediment yield. However, short-term sediment yields from experimental basins with roads are three orders of magnitude smaller than those from individual fire-related events (on the order of 10 1 T km - 2 year - 1 compared to 10 4 T km - 2 year - 1 , respectively, for similar contributing areas), suggesting that road restoration would provide a relatively minor reduction in sediment loads at the basin-scale. Nevertheless, the ecologically damaging effects of fine sediment (material < 6 mm) chronically produced from roads will require continued management efforts.

Goode, Jaime R.; Luce, Charles H.; Buffington, John M.

2012-02-01

98

The earliest well-dated archeological site in the hyper-arid Tarim Basin and its implications for prehistoric human migration and climatic change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The routes and timing of human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are crucial for understanding the evolution of Tibetan populations and associated paleoclimatic conditions. Many archeological sites have been found in/around the Tarim Basin, on the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Unfortunately, most of these sites are surface sites and cannot be directly dated. Their ages can only be estimated based on imprecise artifact comparisons. We recently found and dated an archeological site on a terrace along the Keriya River. Our ages indicate that the site was occupied at ~ 7.0-7.6 ka, making it the earliest well-dated archeological site yet identified in the Tarim Basin. This suggests that early human foragers migrated into this region prior to ~ 7.0-7.6 ka during the early to mid-Holocene climatic optimum, which may have provided the impetus for populating the region. We hypothesize that the Keriya River, together with the other rivers originating from the TP, may have served as access routes onto the TP for early human foragers. These rivers may also have served as stepping stones for migration further west into the now hyper-arid regions of the Tarim Basin, leading ultimately to the development of the Silk Road.

Han, WenXia; Yu, LuPeng; Lai, ZhongPing; Madsen, David; Yang, Shengli

2014-07-01

99

A multi-method approach to quantify groundwater/surface water-interactions in the semi-arid Hailiutu River basin, northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification and quantification of groundwater and surface-water interactions provide important scientific insights for managing groundwater and surface-water conjunctively. This is especially relevant in semi-arid areas where groundwater is often the main source to feed river discharge and to maintain groundwater dependent ecosystems. Multiple field measurements were taken in the semi-arid Bulang sub-catchment, part of the Hailiutu River basin in northwest China, to identify and quantify groundwater and surface-water interactions. Measurements of groundwater levels and stream stages for a 1-year investigation period indicate continuous groundwater discharge to the river. Temperature measurements of stream water, streambed deposits at different depths, and groundwater confirm the upward flow of groundwater to the stream during all seasons. Results of a tracer-based hydrograph separation exercise reveal that, even during heavy rainfall events, groundwater contributes much more to the increased stream discharge than direct surface runoff. Spatially distributed groundwater seepage along the stream was estimated using mass balance equations with electrical conductivity measurements during a constant salt injection experiment. Calculated groundwater seepage rates showed surprisingly large spatial variations for a relatively homogeneous sandy aquifer.

Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wenninger, Jochen; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

2014-05-01

100

Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

2011-01-01

101

Tectonic and climatic control on geomorphological and sedimentary evolution of the Mercure basin, southern Apennines, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Mercure intramontane basin (Calabria-Lucania boundary, southern Apennines) has been assessed through facies analysis, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The Mercure basin, one of the most active seismogenic zones of the southern Apennines, is a favorable area for reconstructing the main stages of landscape evolution of the axial zone because of its capability to record changes in base level during the Quaternary. In addition, the presence of both erosional and depositional Palaeosurfaces is a useful marker for reconstructing tectonic and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect the role played by tectonics and climate in its genesis, evolution and extinction. The present study identifies the key role of tectonics and denudation, combined with high-frequency floods, as mechanisms controlling alluvial sedimentation in the study area. During endorheic conditions, denudational processes driven by pulses of extensional deformation of the basin margin caused strong alluvial inputs that resulted in the development of alluvial fans. Alluvial facies are mainly characterized by turbulent, subaerial, hyperconcentrated flood flows deposited during the glacial, semi-arid conditions of MIS 14. The retrogradational stacking pattern of the alluvial system indicates decreasing rates of tectonic activity along with declining river gradients. The Mercure coalescing alluvial fans were inundated by lake transgression during MIS 13 in response to (i) abrupt tectonic subsidence at the basin margins and (ii) large decrease of coarse sediment supply due to the interplay among climate, tectonics and catchment size changes. In this regard, it is suggested that tectonic control on the drainage network along with climate and long-term slope evolution may have caused marked pulses in sediment supply, thus influencing the arrangement of facies associations in the sedimentary succession. In addition, the study points out that the main tectonic landforms developed during each period of the landscape evolution well correspond with some active fault segments.

Robustelli, Gaetano; Ermolli, Elda Russo; Petrosino, Paola; Jicha, Brian; Sardella, Raffaele; Donato, Paola

2014-06-01

102

Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

Hereford, R.

2002-01-01

103

Assessment of the Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality of the Tarim River Basin in an Extreme Arid Region, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca2+-HCO3 - water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na+-Cl- water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B3+, F-, and SO4 2- and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

2014-01-01

104

Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future. PMID:24221557

Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

2014-01-01

105

The problems of overexploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: the Murcia Region and the Segura Basin (South-east Spain) case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general analysis of the problems arising from aquifer exploitation in semi-arid areas such as the Autonomous Region of Murcia, which belongs to the Segura Basin is presented, with particular reference to the Ascoy-Sopalmo aquifer, which is the most overexploited aquifer in Spain. It has suffered intense overabstraction over the last forty years, given renewable water resources of 2 Mm3 yr-1 and abstractions amounting to as much as 55 Mm3 yr-1. This has resulted in the drying of springs, continuous drawdown of water levels (5 m yr-1); piezometric drops (over 30 m in one year, as a consequence of it being a karstic aquifer); increase in pumping costs (elevating water from more than 320 m depth); abandoning of wells (45 reduced to 20), diminishing groundwater reserves, and deteriorating water quality (progressing from a mixed sodium bicarbonate-chloride facies to a sodium chloride one). This is a prime example of poor management with disastrous consequences. In this sense, a series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the overexploitation of this aquifer and of the Segura Basin, with the aim of contributing to a sustainable future.

Rodríguez-Estrella, T.

2012-05-01

106

Responses of surface runoff to climate change and human activities in the arid region of central Asia: a case study in the Tarim River basin, China.  

PubMed

Based on hydrological and climatic data and land use/cover change data covering the period from 1957 to 2009, this paper investigates the hydrological responses to climate change and to human activities in the arid Tarim River basin (TRB). The results show that the surface runoff of three headstreams (Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River) of the Tarim River exhibited a significant increasing trend since 1960s and entered an even higher-runoff stage in 1994. In the contrary, the surface runoff of Tarim mainstream displayed a persistent decreasing trend since 1960s. The increasing trend of surface runoff in the headstreams can be attributed to the combined effects of both temperature and precipitation changes during the past five decades. But, the decreasing trend of surface runoff in the mainstream and the observed alterations of the temporal and spatial distribution patterns were mainly due to the adverse impacts of human activities. Specifically, increasingly intensified water consumption for irrigation and the associated massive constructions of water conservancy projects were responsible for the decreasing trend of runoff in the mainstream. And, the decreasing trend has been severely jeopardizing the ecological security in the lower reaches. It is now unequivocally clear that water-use conflicts among different sectors and water-use competitions between upper and lower reaches are approaching to dangerous levels in TRB that is thus crying for implementing an integrated river basin management scheme. PMID:23377191

Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Yapeng; Zhao, Ruifeng; Ding, Hui

2013-04-01

107

Bedload transport in alluvial channels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic, sediment, land-use, and rock-erosivity data of 22 alluvial streams were used to evaluate conditions of bedload transport and the performance of selected bedload-transport equations. Transport categories of transport-limited (TL), partially transport-limited (PTL), and supply-limited (SL) were identified by a semiquantitative approach that considers hydraulic constraints on sediment movement and the processes that control sediment availability at the basin scale. Equations by Parker et al. in 1982, Schoklitsch in 1962, and Meyer-Peter and Muller in 1948 adequately predicted sediment transport in channels with TL condition, whereas the equations of Bagnold in 1980, and Schoklitsch, in 1962, performed well for PTL and SL conditions. Overall, the equation of Schoklitsch predicted well the measured bedload data for eight of 22 streams, and the Bagnold equation predicted the measured data in seven streams.

Bravo-Espinosa, M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Lopes, V.L.

2003-01-01

108

Holocene fire occurrence and alluvial responses at the leading edge of pinyon-juniper migration in the Northern Great Basin, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire and vegetation records at the City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO), south-central Idaho, display the interaction of changing climate, fire and vegetation along the migrating front of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma). Radiocarbon dating of alluvial charcoal reconstructed local fire occurrence and geomorphic response, and fossil woodrat (Neotoma) middens revealed pinyon and juniper arrivals. Fire peaks occurred ~ 10,700-9500, 7200-6700, 2400-2000, 850-700, and 550-400 cal yr BP, whereas ~ 9500-7200, 6700-4700 and ~ 1500-1000 cal yr BP are fire-free. Wetter climates and denser vegetation fueled episodic fires and debris flows during the early and late Holocene, whereas drier climates and reduced vegetation caused frequent sheetflooding during the mid-Holocene. Increased fires during the wetter and more variable late Holocene suggest variable climate and adequate fuels augment fires at CIRO. Utah juniper and single-leaf pinyon colonized CIRO by 3800 and 2800 cal yr BP, respectively, though pinyon did not expand broadly until ~ 700 cal yr BP. Increased fire-related deposition coincided with regional droughts and pinyon infilling ~ 850-700 and 550-400 cal yr BP. Early and late Holocene vegetation change probably played a major role in accelerated fire activity, which may be sustained into the future due to pinyon-juniper densification and cheatgrass invasion.

Weppner, Kerrie N.; Pierce, Jennifer L.; Betancourt, Julio L.

2013-09-01

109

REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

110

The implications of geology, soils, and vegetation on landscape morphology: Inferences from semi-arid basins with complex vegetation patterns in Central New Mexico, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the relationship between land surface properties (e.g. soil, vegetation, and lithology) and landscape morphology quantified by the catchment descriptors: the slope-area (S-A) relation, curvature-area (C-A) relation, and the cumulative area distribution (CAD), in two semi-arid basins in central New Mexico. The first site is composed of several basins located in today's desert elevations with mesic north-facing and xeric south-facing hillslopes underlain by different lithological formations. The second site is a mountainous basin exhibiting vegetation gradients from shrublands in the lower elevations to grasslands and forests at higher elevations. All three land surface properties were found to have significant influences on the S-A and C- A relations, while the power-law exponents of the CADs for these properties did not show any significant deviations from the narrow range of universal scaling exponents reported in the literature. Among the three different surface properties we investigated, vegetation had the most profound impact on the catchment descriptors. In the S-A diagrams of the aspect-controlled ecosystems, we found steeper slopes in north-facing aspects than south-facing aspects for a given drainage area. In elevation-controlled ecosystems, forested landscapes exhibited the steepest slopes for the range of drainage areas examined, followed by shrublands and grasslands in all soil textures and lithologies. In the C-A diagrams, steeper slopes led to a higher degree of divergence on hillslopes and a higher degree of convergence in the valleys than shallower slopes. The influence of functional types of vegetation detected on observed topography provided some initial understanding of the potential impacts of life on the organization of topography. This finding also emphasizes the critical role of climate in catchment development. We suggest that climatic fluctuations that are capable of replacing vegetation communities could lead to highly amplified hydrological and geomorphic responses.

Yetemen, Omer; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Vivoni, Enrique R.

2010-04-01

111

Temporal variations of atmospheric water vapor ?D and ?18O above an arid artificial oasis cropland in the Heihe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temporal resolution measurements of ?D, ?18O, and deuterium excess (d) of atmospheric water vapor provide an improved understanding of atmospheric and ecohydrological processes at ecosystem to global scales. In this study, ?D, ?18O, and d of water vapor and their flux ratios were continuously measured from May to September 2012 using an in situ technique above an arid artificial oasis in the Heihe River Basin, which has a typical continental arid climate. The monthly ?D and ?18O increased slowly and then decreased, whereas the monthly d showed a steady decrease. ?D, ?18O, and d exhibited a marked diurnal cycle, indicating the influence of the entrainment, local evapotranspiration (ET), and dewfall. The departures of ?D, ?18O, and d from equilibrium prediction were significantly correlated with rain amount, relative humidity (RH), and air temperature (T). The "amount effect" was observed during one precipitation event. ?D and ?18O were log linear dependent on water vapor mixing ratio with respective R2 of 17% and 14%, whereas d was significantly correlated with local RH and T, suggesting the less influence of air mass advection and more important contribution of the local source of moisture to atmospheric water vapor. Throughout the experiment, the local ET acted to increase ?D and ?18O, with isofluxes of 102.5 and 23.50 mmol m-2 s-1‰, respectively. However, the dominated effect of entrainment still decreased ?D and ?18O by 10.1 and 2.24‰, respectively. Both of the local ET and entrainment exerted a positive forcing on the diurnal variability in d.

Huang, Lvjun; Wen, Xuefa

2014-10-01

112

Estimating Spatially-distributed Surface Fluxes in a Semi-arid Great Basin Desert Using Landsat TM Thermal Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research described in this chapter demonstrates a method for using Landsat Thematic Mapper data to estimate instantaneous regional-scale energy fluxes over an arid valley in eastern Nevada, U.S.A. Here point-based models of surface energy and water balance fluxes were applied to individual pixels of a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene over the study area. Although the method used to estimate these instantaneous fluxes requires certain assumptions be made about the spatial distribution of several physical parameters, the results from this analysis and modeling suggest that it is possible to scale from point measurements of environmental state variables (i.e., net radiation flux, surface heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) to regional estimates of energy exchange to obtain an understanding of the spatial relationship between these fluxes and landscape variables.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

2004-01-01

113

A 30000 year record of vegetation dynamics at a semi-arid locale in the Great Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant macrofossils extracted from fossil woodrat (Neotoma spp.) middens at a single locale in the northwestern Great Basin were used to examine vegetation dynamics during the last 30 000 yr. Although the modem assemblage of xeric species at the study site is a recent occurrence, a large propor- tion of the modem plant taxa near the study locale were also

Robert S. Nowak

114

Large wood dynamics and biophysical consequences for riparian forests: A comparison of an unconfined alluvial river in a temperate rainforest and a bedrock confined river in a semi-arid South African savanna.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large wood shapes the geomorphology and ecology of rivers. We determined the origin, distribution, and fate of large wood in two rivers from contrasting environments. The Queets is an unstable temperate, rainforest river running from the Olympic Mountains (USA) through a glacial valley with colossal trees. In most years, the channel erodes a variety of forested landforms which forms jams that sculpt habitats. Many are displaced in a few years. Remaining jams initiate landform development and forest renewal. Thus, wood is stockpiled in the floodplain where it may become buried. Channel movements recapture most logs within 50 years. In contrast, the Sabie is a perennial river running through a confined bedrock channel in a fire-prone semi-arid South African savanna. Riparian trees are relatively small and many sink in water. A recent flood (February 2000) devastated the riparian forest, introducing wood to the channel. Jams formed on toppled trees, transported logs, and bedrock outcrops. Many trees survived and resprouted. Jams facilitated the establishment of woody plant seedlings and the intrusion of fire into riparian areas. Sunken wood formed unique depositional features. The Queets and Sabie rivers are strikingly different systems. However, large wood appears to promote the renewal and development of complex riparian forests in both rivers.

Latterell, J. J.; Pettit, N. E.; Naiman, R. J.

2005-05-01

115

Nuclear-waste isolation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions  

SciTech Connect

The vadose zone in arid regions is considered as a possible environment for geologic isolation of nuclear waste. There are several topographic and lithologic combinations in the vadose zone of arid regions that may lend themselves to waste isolation considerations. In some cases, topographic highs such as mesas and interbasin ranges - comprised of several rock types, may contain essentially dry or partially saturated conditions favorable for isolation. The adjacent basins, especially in the far western and southwestern US, may have no surface or subsurface hydrologic connections with systems ultimately leading to the ocean. Some rock types may have the favorable characteristics of very low permeability and contain appropriate minerals for the strong chemical retardation of radionuclides. Environments exhibiting these hydrologic and geochemical attributes are the areas underlain by tuffaceous rocks, relatively common in the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Adjacent valley areas, where tuffaceous debris makes up a significant component of valley fill alluvium, may also contain thick zones of unsaturated material, and as such also lend themselves to strong consideration as respository environments. This paper summarizes the aspects of nuclear waste isolation in unsaturated regimes in alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range province.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

1982-05-01

116

Using cosmogenic nuclides to contrast rates of erosion and sediment yield in a semi-arid, arroyo-dominated landscape, Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of in-situ-produced 10Be and 26Al in 52 fluvial sediment samples shows that millennial-scale rates of erosion vary widely (7 to 366 m Ma-1) through the lithologically and topographically complex Rio Puerco Basin of northern New Mexico. Using isotopic analysis of both headwater and downstream samples, we determined that the semi-arid, Rio Puerco Basin is eroding, on average, about 100 m Ma-1. This rapid rate of erosion is consistent with estimates made using other techniques and is likely to result from a combination of easily eroded lithologies, sparse vegetation, and monsoon-dominated rainfall. Data from 331 stream water samples collected by the US Geological Survey between 1960 and 1995 are consistent with basin-wide, average chemical denudation rates of only about 1??4 m Ma-1; thus, the erosion rates we calculate may be considered rates of sediment generation because physical weathering accounts for almost 99 per cent of mass loss. The isotopic data reveal that sediment is generally well mixed downstream with the area-weighted average sediment generation rate for 16 headwater samples (234 ton km-2 a-1 for basin area 170 to 1169 km2) matching well that estimated from a single sample collected far downstream (238 ton km-2 a-1, basin area = 14 225 km2). A series of 15 samples, collected from an arroyo wall and representing deposition through the late Holocene, indicates that 10Be concentration in sediment delivered by the fluvial system has not changed appreciably over the last 1200 years despite at least two cycles of arroyo cutting and filling. Other samples (n = 21) were collected along the drainage network. Rio Puerco erosion rates scale directly with a variety of metrics describing vegetation, precipitation, and rock erodibility. Using the headwater basins for calibration, the erosion rates for both the downstream samples and also the data set as a whole, are best modelled by considering a combination of relief and vegetation metrics, both of which co-vary with precipitation and erodibility as inferred from lithology. On average, contemporary sediment yields, determined by monitoring suspended-sediment discharge, exceed cosmogenically determined millennial-scale erosion rates by nearly a factor of two. This discrepancy, between short-term rates of sediment yield and long-term rates of erosion, suggests that more sediment is currently being exported from the basin than is being produced. Because the failure of incised channel walls and the head cutting of arroyo complexes appear to be the main sources of channel sediment today, this incongruence between rates of sediment supply and sediment yield is likely to be transitory, reflecting the current states of the arroyo cycle and perhaps the influence of current or past land-use patterns. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bierman, P.R.; Reuter, J.M.; Pavich, M.; Gellis, A.C.; Caffee, M.W.; Larsen, J.

2005-01-01

117

Attribution of satellite-observed vegetation trends in a hyper-arid region of the Heihe River basin, Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by both climate and by both climate and by land use and/or land cover change (LULCC) caused by human activities. Both can change over time in a monotonic way and it can be difficult to separate the effects of climate change from LULCC on vegetation. Here we attempt to attribute trends in the fractional green vegetation cover to climate variability and to human activity in Ejina Region, a hyper-arid landlocked region in northwest China. This region is dominated by extensive deserts with relatively small areas of irrigation located along the major water courses as is typical throughout much of Central Asia. Variations of fractional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2012 were determined using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index data with 250 m spatial resolution over 16-day intervals. We found that the fractional vegetation cover in this hyper-arid region is very low but that the mean growing season vegetation cover has increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We further report that the area of land irrigated each year can be predicted using the runoff gauged 1 year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010. The results demonstrate that it is possible to separate the satellite-observed changes in green vegetation cover into components due to climate and human modifications. Such results inform management on the implications for water allocation between oases in the middle and lower reaches and for water management in the Ejina oasis.

Wang, Y.; Roderick, M. L.; Shen, Y.; Sun, F.

2014-09-01

118

Flood series data for the later Holocene: Available approaches, potential and limitations from UK alluvial sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood sediments characterise the alluvial record, though the series of floods these deposits record is a complex one because of variable deposition in different alluvial subenvironments. To date, flood sequences in the UK have been analysed using upland boulder berms, vertically accreting fills in contracting channels, cutoff fills and flood basin deposits. These cover different timespans ranging from c. 100—300

A. F. Jones; J. Lewin; M. G. Macklin

2010-01-01

119

Luminescence ages for alluvial-fan deposits in Southern Death Valley: Implications for climate-driven sedimentation along a tectonically active mountain front  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists over whether alluvial-fan sedimentation along tectonically active mountain fronts is driven by climatic changes or tectonics. Knowing the age of sedimentation is the key to understanding the relationship between sedimentation and its cause. Alluvial-fan deposits in Death Valley and throughout the arid southwestern United States have long been the subjects of study, but their ages have generally eluded

M. F. Sohn; S. A. Mahan; J. R. Knott; D. D. Bowman

2007-01-01

120

Configuration of water resources for a typical river basin in an arid region of China based on the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert riparian vegetation is a natural cover promoting the stability and development of inland river ecosystems in arid regions. Calculating the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation is an important step in achieving reasonable water utilization. Therefore, this study examined the Tarim River, located in an extremely arid region of China, and collected relevant data on hydrology, weather and vegetation using remote sensing. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the desert riparian vegetation in four sections of the Tarim River and calculated the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation using the phreatic evaporation model; additionally, we determined the required runoffs at five hydrologic stations based on the water balance principle. Ultimately, the necessary protection ranges and goals for desert riparian vegetation were established according to the water resource variations in the Tarim River. Our research showed that the total area of desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River is 16,285.3 km2; this distribution area gradually decreased as the distance from the river increased, and areas varied in the different river sections. The EWRs of desert riparian vegetation from Sections 1 to 5 are 5.698 × 108, 7.585 × 108, 4.900 × 108, 4.101 × 108 m3 and 1.078 × 108 m3, respectively. Therefore, the total EWR of the study region is 23.362 × 108 m3. In terms of the transpiration law of the "unimodal type", the peak value of EWR of natural vegetation occurs in July, and the decreasing trend appears in the other months. Based on the water balance principle, the required runoffs in Alar, Xinquman, Yingbaza, Wusiman and Qiala were determined to be 47.105 × 108, 35.174 × 108, 22.734 × 108, 15.775 × 108 and 7.707 × 108 m3, respectively. According to the water resource frequency and the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River, we divided the region into three protection ranges: key protection (8.9-11.8 km from the river), basic protection (15.8-21.8 km from the river) and influence protection (43.0 km from the river). This research not only provides a reasonable calculation method for EWR on the scale of a river basin but also supports the healthy development of the desert riparian vegetation ecosystem and helps to achieve the optimal water allocation for this river.

Ling, Hongbo; Guo, Bin; Xu, Hailiang; Fu, Jinyi

2014-11-01

121

Isotopes in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico): local and general implications for recharge sources in alluvial basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope data for the Hueco Bolson aquifer (Texas, USA and Chihuahua, Mexico) distinguish four water types. Two types relate to recharge from the Rio Grande: pre-dam (pre-1916) river water with oxygen-18 and deuterium (?18O, ?D, ‰) from (-11.9, -90) to (-10.1, -82), contrasts with present-day river water (-8.5, -74) to (-5.3, -56). Pre-dam water is found beneath the Rio Grande floodplain and Ciudad Juárez, and is mixed with post-dam river water beneath the floodplain. Two other types relate to recharge of local precipitation; evidence of temporal change of precipitation isotopes is present in both types. Recharge from the Franklin and Organ Mountains plots between (-10.9, -76) and (-8.5, -60) on the global meteoric water line (GMWL), and is found along the western side of the Hueco Bolson, north of the Rio Grande. Recharge from the Diablo Plateau plots on an evaporation trend originating on the GMWL near (-8.5, -58). This water is found in the southeastern Hueco Bolson, north of the river; evaporation may be related to slow recharge through fine-grained sediment. Pre-dam water, recognizable by isotope composition, provides information on groundwater residence times in this and other dammed river basins.

Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Olivas, Alfredo Granados; Hogan, James F.; Hawley, John; Hutchison, William R.

2008-06-01

122

A debris flow deposit in alluvial, coal-bearing facies, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA: Evidence for catastrophic termination of a mire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal and clastic facies investigations of a Paleocene coal-bearing succession in the Grass Creek coal mine, southwestern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, suggest that disruption of peat accumulation in recurrent mires was caused by the repetitive progradation of crevasse splays and, ultimately, by a catastrophic mass movement. The mass movement, represented by deposits of debris flow, marked the termination of significant peat accumulation in the Grass Creek coal mine area. Megascopic and microscopic analyses of coal beds exposed along the mine highwalls suggest that these deposits developed in low-lying mires, as evidenced primarily by their ash yields and maceral composition. Disruption of peat accumulation in successive mires was caused by incursions of sediment into the mire environments. Termination by crevasse splay progradation is represented by coarsening-upward successions of mudrock and tabular, rooted sandstone, which overlie coal beds in the lower part of the coal-bearing interval. A more rapid process of mire termination by mass movement is exemplified by a debris flow deposit of diamictite, which overlies the uppermost coal bed at the top of the coal-bearing interval. The diamictite consists of a poorly sorted, unstratified mixture of quartzite cobbles and pebbles embedded in a claystone-rich or sandy mudstone matrix. Deposition of the diamictite may have taken place over a matter of weeks, days, or perhaps even hours, by catastrophic flood, thus reflecting an instantaneous process of mire termination. Coarse clastics and mud were transported from the southwest some 20-40 km as a viscous debris flow along stream courses from the ancestral Washakie Range to the Grass Creek area, where the flow overrode a low-lying mire and effectively terminated peat accumulation. ?? 1994.

Roberts, S.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Flores, R.M.

1994-01-01

123

Gully incision as a key factor in desertification in an arid environment, the Negev highlands, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gully incision has been eroding the alluvial sediments and loess soils deposited and developed along the valleys in the arid and semiarid regions of Israel. This phenomenon is critical in the arid regions of the Negev Highlands where the agricultural fields, the main floral biomass and the areas which have the highest grazing value, are limited to narrow valleys filled

Y. Avni

2005-01-01

124

Radiogenic 3He\\/4He Estimates and Their Effect on Calculating Plio-Pleistocene Cosmogenic 3He Ages of Alluvial-Fan Terraces in the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several alluvial-fan terraces near Topock, AZ were created by successive entrenchment of Pliocene and Pleistocene alluvial-fan gravels shed from the adjacent Black Mountains along the lower Colorado River corridor below Hoover Dam. These fans interfinger with and overlie main-stem Colorado River sands and gravels and grade to terrace levels that correspond with pre-existing elevations of the Colorado River. Absolute dates

C. Fenton; J. Pelletier

2005-01-01

125

Impact of wind erosion on detecting active tectonics from geomorphic indexes in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect active tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic indexes (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) index) to determine active tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic indexes are good indicators of active faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic indexes show quite active tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly active tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic indexes exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher activities, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.

Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng

2014-11-01

126

Combined estimation of specific yield and natural recharge in a semi-arid groundwater basin with irrigated agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA water budget approach is developed to jointly estimate specific yield and natural recharge in an unconfined aquifer with significant seasonal water table fluctuations. Water table fluctuations are due to distinct seasonality in groundwater recharge. The separation of the hydrologic year into two (or more) extended seasons of recharge (wet season) and no-recharge (dry season) with accompanying changes in water table allows for a split use of the water table fluctuation (WTF) method, first to estimate specific yield from the water table drop during the dry season (no recharge) and, second, to estimate recharge from the water table rise during the wet season, after considering all other water budget components explicitly. The latter includes explicit computation of groundwater storage with the WTF method. The application of the WTF method requires a large number of water level measurements throughout the unconfined aquifer before and after each season. The advantage of the method is that specific yield and recharge are estimated at the scale of interest to basin hydrologic studies and that the method requires no extensive in situ instrumentation network. Here, the method is demonstrated through a case study in a fractured hard-rock aquifer subject to intensive groundwater pumping for irrigation purposes.

Maréchal, J. C.; Dewandel, B.; Ahmed, S.; Galeazzi, L.; Zaidi, F. K.

2006-09-01

127

Early Holocene fluvial activity from the sedimentology and palaeohydrology of gravel terrace in the semi arid Mahi River Basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeocompetence analysis and palaeodischarge estimation techniques are applied to a late Pleistocene-early Holocene gravel terrace in the Mahi River Basin, western India. Terrace sedimentology, comprising gravels overlain by sand lithofacies suggests a gradual change in palaeohydrological conditions marking a switch from braided to meandering fluvial styles. The discharge values for the gravel bedforms based on the clast size and the cross bed set thickness are estimated between ˜150-180 m3 s-1 comparable with the present day observed values albeit with a much higher competence. Results indicate that fluvial aggradation occurred under low discharge conditions with intermittent high discharge events depositing longitudinal gravel bars. The incision of these gravel bars and the formation of terraces can be attributed to the higher discharge regime post 9.2 ka. The study further indicates that whereas the aggradation of the gravel terrace during the early Holocene was controlled by the large sediment influx, the incision that followed was in response to the increase in the discharge and competence of the river flow.

Sridhar, Alpa; Chamyal, L. S.; Bhattacharjee, Falguni; Singhvi, A. K.

2013-04-01

128

Vegetation and geomorphic significance of the riparian greenline in the Sprague River basin, southern Oregon: implications for biogeomorphic monitoring of riparian corridors in semi-arid mountain valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many regions in the western U.S., valley-floor environments of the semi-arid Sprague River basin of southern Oregon are heavily irrigated and widely grazed by cattle. To better understand the impacts of grazing and other land uses on river quality, the Klamath Tribes have begun a long-term, basin-wide program aimed at: (1) establishing baseline geomorphic and vegetative conditions along the Sprague River and its tributaries, and (2) monitoring changes in these conditions over time. Because of its widespread use and ease of application, determining the composition of the lowest line of perennial vegetation above baseflow, or the “greenline,” has been included. The goal of this paper is to summarize results of 38 greenline surveys conducted at 19 sites in 2008-9 and to explore geomorphic hypotheses that may explain vegetation patterns evident in the surveys. Spikerush (Eleocharis ssp.) and reed-canary grass (Phalaris arudinacea) were the most commonly occurring vegetation in the greenline across all sites. Because these species are aggressive colonizers, they indicate high availability of fresh alluvium, which may be associated with sustained channel-bank disturbance. Sedges dominated some portions of the greenline at most of the sites, but occurred in less abundance. The late successional or early-to-late transitional state of these sedges, combined with their relatively low frequency, further supports the hypothesis that channel-bank systems remain chronically disturbed and dynamic. Grazing is common, but variable in intensity, at nearly all of the study sites, likely contributing to the persistence of channel-bank disturbance. Among meandering channels, the richness of dominant species (i.e., “community diversity”) was higher on the outer bends than on the inner bends of meanders at 10 of 12 sites. The variability of geomorphic surfaces (old floodplain, new floodplain, failed bank, accreted toe, etc.) incorporated in the greenline by the spatially discontinuous processes of channel-bank erosion and failure on the outer meander bends appears to increase the types of habitats surveyed and their combined biodiversity. In contrast, the spatial continuity of bar accretion on the inner meander bends appears to result in a more uniform geomorphic setting with fewer dominant species in the greenline. Despite widespread recognition that geomorphic processes influence riparian vegetation, factors such as the type and severity of bank erosion, the location of the survey with respect to meander geometry, and the type of geomorphic surface underlying greenline observations are not explicitly included in published guidance for biogeomorphic monitoring of the riparian greenline. Inclusion of such factors would improve communication, study design, and application of research by fluvial geomorphologists, riparian ecologists, and resource managers utilizing the greenline methodology.

Hughes, M. L.; Leeseberg, C.

2009-12-01

129

Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: source water for the arid Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log D(OW) values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30ng/L to 2800ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10ng/L), but most were below detection limits. PMID:22684090

Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A; Wilson, Doyle C; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

2012-07-15

130

Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emergingcontaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the UnitedStates. The objective of this study was to evaluate pointsources of ECs along the ColoradoRiver, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the ColoradoRiver Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log Dow values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the ColoradoRiver) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

2012-01-01

131

The origin of groundwater in Zhangye Basin, northwestern China, using isotopic signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zhangye Basin, in arid northwestern China, has recently been repeatedly flooded by rising groundwater. Isotope signatures of sampled waters gained insight into the recharge source of the groundwater. The summer Heihe River water and most of the spring water in Zhangye and Yongchang basins plotted above the global meteoric water line (GMWL) on the ?18O-?D plot. The spring water had R/Ra ratio >1, low TDS and high tritium, which indicates origin from Qilian Mountain glacier meltwater. The groundwater of Qilian Mountains was transported to the Hexi Corridor (in which Zhangye Basin is located) through underground fault zones. Additionally, some of the groundwater in the alluvial plain, and all spring water surrounding Zhangye Basin, plotted below the GMWL on the ?18O-?D plot along an evaporation line, and had R/Ra ratio < 1 and high TDS. It is proposed that the Tibetan rivers or lakes source the Hexi Corridor groundwater through either the NE-trending or NW-trending buried fault zones. The isotopic signatures presented as part of this study rule out the conventional viewpoint that groundwater of the Zhangye Basin was recharged by local precipitation and infiltration of Heihe River water on the alluvial plain.

Chen, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Su, Zhiguo; Yong, Bin

2014-03-01

132

Application of a stochastic weather generator to assess climate change impacts in a semi-arid climate: The Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing local climate change impacts requires downscaling from Global Climate Model simulations. Here, a stochastic rainfall model (RainSim) combined with a rainfall conditioned weather generator (CRU WG) have been successfully applied in a semi-arid mountain climate, for part of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), for point stations at a daily time-step to explore climate change impacts. Validation of the simulated time-series against observations (1961-1990) demonstrated the models' skill in reproducing climatological means of core variables with monthly RMSE of <2.0 mm for precipitation and ?0.4 °C for mean temperature and daily temperature range. This level of performance is impressive given complexity of climate processes operating in this mountainous context at the boundary between monsoonal and mid-latitude (westerly) weather systems. Of equal importance the model captures well the observed interannual variability as quantified by the first and last decile of 30-year climatic periods. Differences between a control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) regional climate model (RCM) time-slice experiment were then used to provide change factors which could be applied within the rainfall and weather models to produce perturbed ‘future' weather time-series. These project year-round increases in precipitation (maximum seasonal mean change:+27%, annual mean change: +18%) with increased intensity in the wettest months (February, March, April) and year-round increases in mean temperature (annual mean +4.8 °C). Climatic constraints on the productivity of natural resource-dependent systems were also assessed using relevant indices from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) and indicate potential future risk to water resources and local agriculture. However, the uniformity of projected temperature increases is in stark contrast to recent seasonally asymmetrical trends in observations, so an alternative scenario of extrapolated trends was also explored. We conclude that interannual variability in climate will continue to have the dominant impact on water resources management whichever trajectory is followed. This demonstrates the need for sophisticated downscaling methods which can evaluate changes in variability and sequencing of events to explore climate change impacts in this region.

Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Burton, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Harpham, C.; Hashmi, M. Z.

2014-09-01

133

LANDSCAPE STATE CHANGE IN THE SEMI-ARID SABIE RIVER, KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, IN RESPONSE TO FLOOD AND DROUGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi arid rivers are subject to highly variable flow regimes as a result of strongly seasonal and unpredictable rainfall. Riparian landscape state changes resulting from a prolonged low flow period followed by a high magnitude flood were examined in the semi arid, mixed bedrock\\/alluvial Sabie River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Aerial photographs from 1986 and 1996 were

M. W. ROUNTREE; K. H. ROGERS

2000-01-01

134

Tuffaceous ephemeral lake deposits on an alluvial plain, Middle Tertiary of central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oligocene and Miocene Valley Springs Formation represents a large fluvial depositional system that extended westward from sediment-filled palaeovalleys in the high Sierra Nevada to a piedmont alluvial plain under the present Central Valley. The Valley Springs Formation consists largely of tuffaceous mudrocks, tuffaceous sandstone, polymict conglomerate and rhyodacitic tuff. The tuffaceous mudrock lithofacies probably represents a complex of ephemeral lake and marsh environments on a low gradient alluvial plain. The inferred abundance of shallow lakes, ponds and marshes implies a climate that was wetter than the semi-arid climate of the region today. -from Author

Bartow, J.A.

1994-01-01

135

Integration of channel and floodplain suites. I. Developmental sequence and lateral relations of alluvial paleosols.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, consists of about 770 m of alluvial rocks that exhibit extensive mechanical and geochemical modifications resulting from Eocene pedogenesis. Five arbitrary stages are proposed to distinguish these soils of different maturities in the Willwood Formation. An inverse relationship exists between soil maturity and short-term sediment accumulation rate. Illustrates several important principles of soil-sediment interrelationships in aggrading alluvial systems that have broad application to other deposits.-from Authors

Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

1987-01-01

136

Spatio-temporal variations of precipitation in arid and semiarid regions of China: The Yellow River basin as a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily precipitation data from 64 precipitation gauging stations within the Yellow River basin were analyzed by defining 17 precipitation indices with the aim to investigate space and time changes in precipitation characteristics. The modified Mann-Kendall trend test method was used to detect trends in the precipitation series. The influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) on the basin precipitation was also investigated. Results indicate that: (1) the Yellow River basin is dominated by decreasing precipitation and precipitation deficit may further deteriorate the shortage of water resources. The middle Yellow River basin may encounter increasingly serious shortage of water resources and higher risk of floods would be expected in the lower Yellow River basin; (2) a higher risk of droughts can be expected in spring and autumn and precipitation in winter is increasing, which imply evident seasonality and seasonal shifts of precipitation changes within the basin; (3) short-duration consecutive precipitation events are prevalent in the basin and frequency and amount of short-duration consecutive precipitation events are increasing; (4) precipitation extremes are not dominant in the Yellow River basin, except for some regions in the North China Plain and rainstorm events are generally decreasing; and (5) no evident impact of IPO on the precipitation in the Yellow River basin is found. In this case, precipitation deficit would be a major problem the basin-scale water resources management may face in the future.

Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Juntai; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Yongqin David

2014-03-01

137

Late Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine system in the Karacasu Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey): Depositional, paleogeographic and paleoclimatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary record of the late Cenozoic Karacasu Basin, a long-lived continental half-graben from southwestern Turkey, is characterized by siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Sedimentation was controlled by an active NW-SE trending major normal fault along the basin's southern margin and by climatically-induced lake-level changes. Detailed facies analysis subdivides the entire Neogene-Quaternary basin-fill into three distinct litostratigraphic units representing paleogeographic changes and sedimentation patterns throughout the basin evolution. Sedimentation commenced in the late Miocene with the deposition of proximal-medial alluvial fan and fluvial facies (Damdere Formation; FA1). At this stage, alluvial fans developed in elevated areas to the south, prograding towards the basin center. At the beginning of the Pliocene, fresh to slightly alkaline, shallow lake deposits (FA2a) of the Karacaören Formation formed. The lake became open and meromictic conditions developed (FA2b). Pollen data from the FA2b facies show that climate was arid to humid. Climate probably changed cyclically through time producing alternation of Artemisia steppe (cold and dry periods) and more forested vegetation (warm and wet). The open lake facies passes upwards into lake margin facies (FA2c), but it was still dominated by alkaline to slightly saline lake conditions. Sedimentation was almost continuous from the late Miocene to Pleistocene. In the early Quaternary, the basin was dissected by the re-activation of basin bounding faults. The unconformable base of the overlying Quaternary deposits (Karacasu Formation; FA3) reflected the basin's transformation from a half-graben into a full-graben system. Oxygen isotope data from carbonates show an alternation of humid climatic periods, when freshwater settings predominated, and semiarid/arid periods in which the basin hosted alkaline and saline water lakes. Neotectonic activity has rejuvenated many of the basin-bounding faults, causing development of talus aprons and local alluvial fans. The basin was progressively incised by modern rivers that have largely smoothed out the topographic relief of the graben margins. id="ab0010" The study highlights to the paleo-geography/-climatology in the east Mediterranean.

Alçiçek, Hülya; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo

2013-06-01

138

Aridity Modulates N Availability in Arid and Semiarid Mediterranean Grasslands  

PubMed Central

While much is known about the factors that control each component of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle, it is less clear how these factors affect total N availability, the sum of organic and inorganic forms potentially available to microorganisms and plants. This is particularly true for N-poor ecosystems such as drylands, which are highly sensitive to climate change and desertification processes that can lead to the loss of soil nutrients such as N. We evaluated how different climatic, abiotic, plant and nutrient related factors correlate with N availability in semiarid Stipa tenacissima grasslands along a broad aridity gradient from Spain to Tunisia. Aridity had the strongest relationship with N availability, suggesting the importance of abiotic controls on the N cycle in drylands. Aridity appeared to modulate the effects of pH, plant cover and organic C (OC) on N availability. Our results suggest that N transformation rates, which are largely driven by variations in soil moisture, are not the direct drivers of N availability in the studied grasslands. Rather, the strong relationship between aridity and N availability could be driven by indirect effects that operate over long time scales (decades to millennia), including both biotic (e.g. plant cover) and abiotic (e.g. soil OC and pH). If these factors are in fact more important than short-term effects of precipitation on N transformation rates, then we might expect to observe a lagged decrease in N availability in response to increasing aridity. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the increase in aridity predicted with ongoing climate change will reduce N availability in the Mediterranean basin, impacting plant nutrient uptake and net primary production in semiarid grasslands throughout this region. PMID:23565170

Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T.; Gallardo, Antonio; Quero, José L.; Ochoa, Victoria; García-Gómez, Miguel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Noumi, Zouhaier; Derak, Mchich; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

139

Taphonomy and paleoecology of nonmarine mollusca: indicators of alluvial plain lacustrine sedimentation, upper part of the Tongue River Member, Fort Union Formation ( Paleocene), Northern Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The composition, species abundances, and spatial and temporal distributions of mollusc assemblages were controlled by the environments in which they lived and the depositional processes that affected the molluscs after death and before final burial. Post-mortem transport, reworking and concentration of shells, and mixing of faunal elements from discrete habitats produced a taphonomic 'overprint' on assemblage characteristics that directly reflects the processes of alluvial plain and floodbasin lacustrine sedimentation. The 'overprint' can be interpreted from outcrop analysis of molluscan biofabric, which consists of: 1) orientation, fragmentation, size-sorting, abrasion, density, and dispersion of shells, 2) the nature and extent of shell-infilling, and 3) ratio of articulated to disarticulated bivalves. Taphonomic characteristics were used with sedimentological properties to differentiate in-place, reworked, transported, and ecologically mixed mollusc assemblages. This study also defines the paleoecology of habitat preferences of mollusc species as a basis for recognition of the environments in which these assemblages were deposited: 1) large floodbasin lakes, 2) small floodbasin lakes, and 3) crevasse deltas and splays. Integration of sedimentology and paleoecology provides an interdisciplinary approach to the interpretation of alluvial environments through time in the Tongue River Member. -Authors

Hanley, J.H.; Flores, R.M.

1987-01-01

140

Core, well log, and seismic integrated stratigraphic study of humid and arid climate lacustrine oil shales, Green River Formation: Washakie Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An integrated sequence-stratigraphic framework has been constructed for three lacustrine oil shale intervals in the Green River Formation of southwestern Wyoming. The framework was developed by integrating parasequences and parasequence stacking patterns identified in core and outcrop, with well logs, seismic geometries and seismic facies. Because base level in lacustrine environments is directly related to rainfall rather than eustasy, the development of facies assemblages within each systems tract of lacustrine depositional sequences, as well as the geometrices of stratal units, differ from the traditional marine model. Recognition of these differences resulted in the development of two idealized depositional sequence models, one each for arid and humid climates.

Glaser, K.S.; Miskell-Gerhardt, K.J.

1995-12-31

141

Artificial recharge in arid zone- Example from the Arava Valley- Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid zones direct recharge from rainfall is negligible. The indirect recharge like recharging of flood water is the principal source of water of the alluvial aquifers in arid environment. Flooding of ephemeral streams occur as a consequence of the rain intensity and its pattern, the basin size and the geomorphic settings as slops, vegetation and soil properties. In the Arava Valley there are several reservoirs that act as diversion levees. They were constructed on few ravines for two reasons. (1) to store large volumes of floodwater for direct use in nearby agricultural fields. (2) to enhance the recharge to the local alluvial aquifers. Since flood duration is relatively short compared to the infiltration (percolation) rate, it was assumed that by storing the water in the reservoirs it will increase the recharge volume because of higher water head, longer resistance time and larger surface area available for infiltration. Unfortunately, accumulation of silts and clays in the reservoirs clogged them to direct infiltration. The accumulation of silt and clay in the reservoirs is typically to arid zones where lack of vegetation cover creates a very high erosion rate and transportation of large amounts of sediment at the duration of the water flowing on the stream channel bed. To bypass the problem of reduction in the direct recharge inside the reservoirs because of clogging, and to continue the artificial recharge into the aquifer, two kinds of artificial recharge system are operating in the Arava Valley. In one site we use a system that is similar to the conventional spreading ponds system. The big reservoir is using to store the flood water and as a settling pond. The clean water is diverted to three infiltration ponds. In the rest five reservoirs we construct a drainage pipeline close to the bottom of the levee that allow us to release the clean water (after settling of the fine particles) downstream in a slow rate that is much more efficiency for artificial recharge than in high velocity. Monitoring after the recharge water is very important and in some cases very problematic. In cases where the groundwater is shallow (10-20 m' depth) the response to the recharge is quickly and takes few days (rising in water level and or decreasing in the salinity). But in cases where the water level is very deep (about 60-110 m' in most of the area) the response to the recharge can takes few months. At this condition, it is impossible to distinguish whether the rising in the water level and or decreasing in the salinity is a result of the artificial recharge or it is a result of natural lateral flow in the aquifer itself.

Guttman, Joseph

2010-05-01

142

Radiogenic 3He/4He Estimates and Their Effect on Calculating Plio-Pleistocene Cosmogenic 3He Ages of Alluvial-Fan Terraces in the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several alluvial-fan terraces near Topock, AZ were created by successive entrenchment of Pliocene and Pleistocene alluvial-fan gravels shed from the adjacent Black Mountains along the lower Colorado River corridor below Hoover Dam. These fans interfinger with and overlie main-stem Colorado River sands and gravels and grade to terrace levels that correspond with pre-existing elevations of the Colorado River. Absolute dates for the ages of Quaternary deposits on the lower Colorado River are rare and cosmogenic 3He age estimates of these surfaces would help constrain the timing of aggradation and incision in the lower Colorado River corridor. We analyzed individual basalt boulders from several terrace surfaces for total 3He/4He concentrations to calculate cosmogenic 3He ages of each fan terrace; 3He/4He values, expressed as R/Ra where Ra is the 3He/4He of air, range from 0.29 to 590. Black Mountain volcanic rocks have reported K-Ar ages between 15 and 30 Ma and basalt samples from adjacent alluvial fans contain 0.42 to 47× 1012 at/g of 4He, which has likely accumulated due to nuclear processes. The amount of radiogenic 3He/4He can be significant in old rocks with young exposure ages and can complicate determination of cosmogenic 3 He content. Alpha-decay of U, Th, and their daughter isotopes produces large amounts of 4He, whereas significant amounts of radiogenic 3He are only produced through the neutron bombardment of Li and subsequent beta-decay of tritium. We measured Li, U, Th, major and rare-earth element concentrations in whole-rock basalts and mineral separates. These concentrations are used to estimate the ratio of radiogenic helium contributed to the total helium system in our samples. Li concentrations typically range from 6 to 17 ppm, with one outlier of 62 ppm. U contents range from <0.1 to 2.7 ppm and Th contents range from 0.4 to 15.3 ppm. Based on these values, our calculations predict that the average radiogenic helium (R/Ra) contributed to the total helium in Black Mountain basalt samples is 0.011. Other noble gas studies have shown that radiogenic 3He/4He is independent of the U content, nearly independent of the Th content, and strongly influenced by the Li content of a rock; we find the same results. It is assumed that mantle gases are released when the sample is crushed into a fine powder before melting in a furnace under vacuum. To correct for the possible presence of mantle gases in our age-calculations, we crushed two samples under vacuum to measure the R/Ra value (7.9 and 16.03) of mantle helium trapped in fluid inclusions in olivines and pyroxenes. Based on our 3He corrections and calculations, boulders on these alluvial fans range in age from 10 ka to 2.7 Ma.

Fenton, C.; Pelletier, J.

2005-12-01

143

Nitrate in Arid Basin Groundwater: How Historical Trends in Water Quality, Pumping Practices, and Land Use Inform our Understanding of Flow in these Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 60 years, an overall increase in nitrate (NO3-) concentration has been observed in basinal groundwaters of the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas. In wells where data from multiple decades are available (n = 60), 75% had an increase in NO3- concentration of greater than 1mg/L that appears largely independent of changes in salinity; some wells experienced an increase in NO3- and TDS while others experienced an increase in NO3- with no change or a decrease in TDS. These changes in water quality are rapid in comparison to previously estimated rates of recharge to these basins (~10,000 yrs). We infer that changes in land use and pumping practices over the past 6 decades are partially responsible for the observed changes in water quality and water level in the basin aquifers. In the summer of 2011, we collected water quality information (including NO3 and TDS) from approximately 80 wells in five basins located in the Trans-Pecos Region of West Texas; Red Light Draw, Lobo and Ryan Flats, Eagle Flats, Wild Horse and Michigan Flats, and the Northern Salt Basin. We have combined these data with past water quality data, water level monitoring, pumping records, and historical land use data (including historical aerial photographs and historical land cover data sets) to examine how anthropogenic effects have altered recharge, flow systems, and water quality in these basins over the past 60 years. We observe that the largest historical users of water in the region have water with some of the highest NO3- concentrations and the largest increases in NO3- during the period of examination; this indicates a potential anthropogenic source for (at least some of) the NO3- in the basin aquifers. Water tables have rebounded and salinity has decreased in areas of some basins where irrigated agriculture has been curtailed, though the trends in NO3- concentrations are less clear. These observations point to flow systems that are more preferentially permeable and more complex than is reflected in current groundwater models.

Robertson, W. M.; Sharp, J. M., Jr.

2011-12-01

144

Anthropogenic driven modern recharge and solute flux to arid basin aquifers: Results and implications for sustainability based on field observations and computational modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of natural grass and scrubland for agricultural use (grazing and irrigated agriculture) has changed recharge mechanisms and raised questions about the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. When quantifying the availability of water in the region, previous research relied upon the ';classic' conceptual model; minimal modern recharge, no widespread recharge on basin floors, and no recharge from anthropogenic sources such as irrigation return flow. Increasing nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in basin groundwater from the 1950's to present (median increase of 3-4 mg/L (as NO3-) over approximately 40 years) belie the model of limited modern recharge and pose a risk to water quality throughout the basins. We posit that grazing practices and irrigated agriculture have affected hydrologic processes in the basins by altering 1) the vegetation regime on the basin floors and 2) the magnitude and spatial distribution of infiltrating water. These impacts have increased recharge and transported Cl- and mobile nitrogen (N) from the vadose zone to the underlying groundwater. Using a spatially distributed net infiltration model, we estimate that between 7-20% of recharge occurring in the basins results from widespread recharge on the basin floors and that between 1960 and 2000 an additional 8.5 x 10^3 to 1.2 x 10^6 cubic meters of irrigation water has potentially been returned through irrigation return flow. Vadose zone cores collected from beneath land used for agricultural purposes document changes in water content and pore water chemistry that imply an increase in downward flux of moisture and solute resulting from human alteration of the natural system; reservoirs of NO3- and Cl- typically observed beneath the rooting depth of un-impacted vegetation are either displaced downward or flushed beyond the core depth under land with historical or ongoing irrigated agriculture. There are significant implications for the sustainability of groundwater resources in this system based upon the trends in groundwater NO3- concentrations, vadose zone core data, and results of the net infiltration models: 1) there may be more recharge to the basins than previously estimated and 2) there is a potential long-term concern for water quality. Due to the thick unsaturated zone in much of the system, long travel times are expected between the base of the root zone and the water table. It is unclear if the flux of NO3- and Cl- to the groundwater has peaked or if effects from the alteration of the natural vegetation regime will continue for years to come.

Robertson, W. M.; Sharp, J. M.

2013-12-01

145

Using the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) for remotely mapping surface roughness on alluvial fans: A comparison of Death Valley, CA to Mojave Crater on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) describes how incoming light from a given direction is reflected from specific surfaces in response to different incoming solar radiation angles. The amount and directionality of reflected light is a function of surface roughness and orientation. The goal of this study is to assess whether a BRDF based approach may be applicable for creating surface roughness maps for Martian alluvial fans. Landsat 7 satellite imagery is used to make classifications of surfaces with different roughness and spectral properties for alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley, California. The resulting classes have been interpreted to represent surfaces of different ages and also different deposit types. In Death Valley, older surfaces are classified based on the amount of shadowing due to gully formation, differences in the amount of surface smoothness from desert pavement formation, and desert varnish color variations. In contrast, the most recently formed surfaces have an assemblage of classes that represent surface deposits of different grain size and sorting, as well as different landform types - incised channels and elevated bars. Many Death Valley fans have a telescoping morphology where progressively younger surfaces reach basin-ward. This is more evident on some fans using a BRDF classification. A similar map was made for depositional landforms within Mojave Crater on Mars, identified as sub-kilometer alluvial fans by Williams and Malin (2008). These alluvial fans are the youngest found on Mars (Amazonian age) and have topographic similarities to fans in the southwestern US. Any geomorphic similarities between Death Valley fans and those within Mojave Crater can be assessed using surface roughness. Imagery from both the High Resolution Imaging Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) were used to compare differences in spatial resolution on BRDF classifications. The resulting surface roughness maps are strikingly similar in classes and patterns to many fans within Death Valley. The surfaces interpreted by Williams and Malin (2008) to be evidence of multiple flow events are clearly classified using BRDF. In addition to age differences, possible locations of materials with different grain size and sorting are also identified. Since the BRDF classes of certain surface features on Earth and Mars fans largely overlap, field observations for each class type made for Death Valley fan surfaces may be useful for understanding the past fluvial processes on Mars and their similarities with fan forming processes in arid regions on Earth. This remote sensing approach has the potential to provide a tool for studying fans that may be inaccessible or too large for extensive fieldwork.

Doyle, S. L.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Scuderi, L. J.

2011-12-01

146

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

2007-01-01

147

Climatic controls on late Pleistocene alluvial fans, Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial fans are commonly associated with tectonically active mountain ranges and tectonism is frequently held responsible for abrupt coarsening and cyclical sedimentation of alluvial fan sequences. Whilst it is accepted that tectonism provides the opportunity for alluvial fan development through the creation of topography, increasing gradients of fluvial systems supplying sediments, and creating accommodation for the storage of sediment flux, the role of climate in fan development is frequently neglected. The hypothesis that climatically controlled events can produce recognisable sedimentary signatures in alluvial fan deposits is tested in the active supra-subduction zone setting of the late Pleistocene of southern Cyprus. This study demonstrates through architectural analysis and the reconstruction of palaeoflood hydrology a recorded pattern of increasing and decreasing palaeoflow dynamics, with switches from a wetter to drier mode, clearly exhibited by changes in the sedimentology of the fan. At the present day Cyprus has a semi-arid climate and is influenced by a strongly seasonal rainfall pattern, largely restricted to the winter months (plus rare occurrences of summer cyclones). However at precession minima increased activity of western Mediterranean depressions produces wetter summers. Using inference we propose that longer-term increases in rainfall increased river discharge as recorded in the fan palaeoflood hydrology and occurred at minima in the precession. These periods correlate with the deposition of conglomeratic channels and open framework gravels. Drier periods are exhibited by sandier braided fluvial deposits. Shorter term or seasonal change is recorded in the form of 2nd and 3rd low order bounding surfaces. This increased activity of Mediterranean summer depressions increased precipitation to the wider Levantine area and was coincident with increased intensity of the north African and Indian Ocean (SW) monsoons. The resultant increase in river discharges at precession minima from both the Nile (and the wider Levant) resulted in the formation of sapropels in the eastern Mediterranean and is recorded as wet periods in speleothem deposits in the Soreq and Peqiin Caves of Israel. The predominant control of sedimentation on the late Pleistocene alluvial fans of southern Cyprus was climate.

Waters, J. V.; Jones, S. J.; Armstrong, H. A.

2010-03-01

148

Late Quaternary Upper Mississippi River alluvial episodes and their significance to the Lower Mississippi River system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The period in the Upper Mississippi Valley (UMV) from about 25 000 years B.P. until the time of strong human influence on the landscape beginning about 150–200 years ago can be characterized by three distinctly different alluvial episodes. The first episode is dominated by the direct and indirect effects of Late Wisconsin glacial ice in the basin headwaters. This period,

James C. Knox

1996-01-01

149

Reestablishing a Keystone Species in an Arid Coastal Environment: Saltbush (Salsola nollothensis) in Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beach hummocks are important ecological components of coastal ecosystems. Although hummocks are naturally adapted to harsh conditions, reestablishing them in arid areas poses great challenges. During a collaborative project, researchers from Namdeb Diamond Corporation and the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership investigated practical methods to reestablish saltbush (Salsola nollothensis) beach hummocks to restore areas disturbed by alluvial diamond mining. With focus

David Boyce; Herta Kolberg; Isabelle Brunner; Rosemary Newton; Antje Burke

2011-01-01

150

Climatic changes and alluvial-sedimentation settings in southeastern Transbaikalia in the Middle-Late Holocene ( by the example of the Ilya floodplain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic changes in southeastern Transbaikalia in the Middle and Late Holocene and their influence on alluvial sedimentation environments are reconstructed from the results of study of the Ilya floodplain sediments (Alkhanai National Park). At the beginning of the Subboreal period, the regional climate became more arid, which led to a significant increase in steppe species communities in the landscapes. Intense

V. B. Bazarova; L. M. Mokhova; M. A. Klimin; L. A. Orlova; K. Yu. Bazarov

2008-01-01

151

Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.  

PubMed

A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The ?(2)H, ?(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of ?(2)H = 6.4 ?(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime. PMID:24737419

Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

2014-05-01

152

The origin and geologic evolution of the East Continent Rift Basin  

SciTech Connect

The East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB) is a newly recognized, dominantly sedimentary-volcanic Proterozoic rift basin that apparently represents the southern extension of the Keweenawan Midcontinent Rift. The ECRB extends from central Michigan at least as far south as south-central Kentucky. The inferred age of the rift fill is approximately 1,000 Ma. Evidence supporting a rift origin for the ECRB includes: interbedding of continental flood basalts and felsic volcanics with siliciclastics; sedimentary fill consisting of distal, arid-climate alluvial fan sediments that lack metamorphic lithologies; close proximity and similar lithologic succession to the Keweenawan rift-fill rocks of the Michigan Basin; and inferred marginal block faulting of Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks near the western edge of the ECRB. ECRB evolution is interpreted as follows: (1) formation of Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks (1,500--1,340 Ma); (2) Keweenawan crustal extension and rifting with development of central mafic complexes, emplacement of volcanic rocks, and deposition of siliciclastic fill from eroded marginal Granite-Rhyolite Province tilted fault blocks (ca 1,000 Ma); (3) overthrusting of the Grenville allochthon and associated foreland thrusting and folding of the rift sequence rocks together with deposition of foreland basin sediments (975---890 Ma); (4) Late Proterozoic erosional removal of the foreland basin sediments and interpreted wrench faulting along the Grenville Front (post-975 to pre-570 Ma); and (5) tectonic inversion, with the ECRB area remaining relatively high during major cambrian subsidence in central Kentucky (590--510 Ma).

Drahovzal, J.A. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Kentucky Geological Survey)

1992-01-01

153

Differentiating tectonic from climatic factors in the evolution of alluvial fans  

SciTech Connect

Alluvial fans are integral parts of landscapes of arid and semi-arid regions and are most commonly found along the flanks of tectonically active mountain ranges. Alluvial fans are sensitive indicators of tectonic and climatic activity through time. Three dimensional fan modelling has the potential to discriminate between these two forces and provide quantitative estimates of deformation of fan surfaces due to tilting, faulting, or folding. The model has tremendous potential for seismic hazard evaluation at both the reconnaissance and detailed level of investigation. The ability to recognize deformation of alluvial fans alleviates the need for postulation of complex interactions between climate and internal variables in the depositional system leading to present fan morphology. The greatest problems associated with fan modelling come from failure to identify individual segments. Inclusion of more than one segment can lead to poor model performance or, more likely, inaccurate results. The long term tectonic influence on a fan's evolution can be assessed from the differences in deformation of different segments. Reliable correlations of segments from different fans along the same mountain front can provide a means to asses regional deformation. Once tectonic effects are taken into account, then climatic effects can be evaluated. Previous fan models have failed to recognize areal limitations, failed to account for deformation, or assumed deformation geometry.

Wilson, D.S.; West, R.B. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

154

Sediment yield and runoff frequency of small drainage basins in the Mojave Desert, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment yield from small arid basins, particularly in the Mojave Desert, is largely unknown owing to the ephemeral nature of these fluvial systems and long recurrence interval of flow events. We examined 27 reservoirs in the northern and eastern Mojave Desert that trapped sediment from small (< 1 km 2) drainage basins on alluvial fans over the past 100 yr, calculated annual sediment yield, and estimated the average recurrence interval (RI) of sediment-depositing flow events. These reservoirs formed where railbeds crossed and blocked channels, causing sediment to be trapped and stored upslope. Deposits are temporally constrained by the date of railway construction (1906-1910), the presence of 137Cs in the reservoir profile (post-1952 sediment), and either 1993, when some basins breached during regional flooding, or 2000-2001, when stratigraphic analyses were performed. Reservoir deposits are well stratified at most sites and have distinct fining-upward couplets indicative of discrete episodes of sediment-bearing runoff. Average RI of runoff events for these basins ranges from 2.6 to 7.3 yr and reflects the incidence of either intense or prolonged rainfall; more than half the runoff events occurred before 1963. A period of above-normal precipitation, from 1905 to 1941, may have increased runoff frequency in these basins. Mean sediment yield (9 to 48 tons km - 2 yr - 1 ) is an order of magnitude smaller than sediment yields calculated elsewhere and may be limited by reduced storm intensity, the presence of desert pavement, and shallow gradient of fan surfaces. Sediment yield decreases as drainage area increases, a trend typical of much larger drainage basins where sediment-transport processes constrain sediment yield. Coarse substrate and low-angle slopes of these alluvial fan surfaces likely limit sediment transport capacity through transmission losses and channel storage.

Griffiths, Peter G.; Hereford, Richard; Webb, Robert H.

2006-03-01

155

Sediment yield and runoff frequency of small drainage basins in the Mojave Desert, U.S.A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment yield from small arid basins, particularly in the Mojave Desert, is largely unknown owing to the ephemeral nature of these fluvial systems and long recurrence interval of flow events. We examined 27 reservoirs in the northern and eastern Mojave Desert that trapped sediment from small (< 1 km2) drainage basins on alluvial fans over the past 100 yr, calculated annual sediment yield, and estimated the average recurrence interval (RI) of sediment-depositing flow events. These reservoirs formed where railbeds crossed and blocked channels, causing sediment to be trapped and stored upslope. Deposits are temporally constrained by the date of railway construction (1906-1910), the presence of 137Cs in the reservoir profile (post-1952 sediment), and either 1993, when some basins breached during regional flooding, or 2000-2001, when stratigraphic analyses were performed. Reservoir deposits are well stratified at most sites and have distinct fining-upward couplets indicative of discrete episodes of sediment-bearing runoff. Average RI of runoff events for these basins ranges from 2.6 to 7.3 yr and reflects the incidence of either intense or prolonged rainfall; more than half the runoff events occurred before 1963. A period of above-normal precipitation, from 1905 to 1941, may have increased runoff frequency in these basins. Mean sediment yield (9 to 48 tons km-2 yr-1) is an order of magnitude smaller than sediment yields calculated elsewhere and may be limited by reduced storm intensity, the presence of desert pavement, and shallow gradient of fan surfaces. Sediment yield decreases as drainage area increases, a trend typical of much larger drainage basins where sediment-transport processes constrain sediment yield. Coarse substrate and low-angle slopes of these alluvial fan surfaces likely limit sediment transport capacity through transmission losses and channel storage. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Griffiths, P.G.; Hereford, R.; Webb, R.H.

2006-01-01

156

Report from working group on alluvial pedogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These uses illustrate the complexity of alluvial pedogenesis as it relates to the analysis and interpretation of paleosols. Difficulties with interpretations of alluvial paleosols are probably greatest when applied to the preserved sedimentary record, where direct evidence of paleolandscape variability is scanty or lacking.

Autin, W.J.; Aslan, A.; Bettis, E.A.; Walthall, P.M.

1998-01-01

157

Avulsion processes at the terminus of low-gradient semi-arid fluvial systems: Lessons from the Río Colorado, Altiplano endorheic basin, Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Río Colorado dryland river system in the southeast of the endorheic Altiplano Basin (Bolivia) terminates on a very flat coastal plain at the edge of the Salar de Uyuni, the world's largest salt pan with an area of ca. 12,500 km2. Since the Pleistocene the basin has experienced several lake expansion and contraction cycles in response to wetter and drier climate periods, respectively. At present the basin is in a dry climate period which results in a lake level lowstand and progradation of fluvial systems such as the Río Colorado onto the former lake bottom. The present field study of the terminus of the Río Colorado shows that the river experiences a gradual downstream decrease of bankfull width and depth. This bankfull decrease is caused by the combined effects of: (1) extremely low gradient of the lake bottom and, hence, loss of flow energy, and (2) downstream transmission losses due to high evaporation potential and river water percolation through the channel floor. Peak water discharge in seasonal, short-duration rain periods causes massive overbank flooding and floodplain inundation. On satellite images the morphology of the river terminus has a divergent pattern and resembles a network of coeval sinuous distributary channels. However, field observations show that only one channel is active at low flow stage, and at high-flow stage an abandoned, partially infilled channel may be active as well. The active channel at its termination splits into narrow and shallow anastomosing streams before its demise on the lacustrine coastal plain. The rest of the channels which form the divergent network are older sediment-filled abandoned sinuous river courses with multiple random avulsion points. These channel deposits, together with extensive amalgamated crevasse-splay deposits, form an intricate network of fluvial sand deposits. Successive stages of progressively deeper crevasse-channel incision into the floodplain are the result of waning-stage return flow of floodwaters towards the main channel. This results in increased crevasse-channel width, depth and length, and redeposition of eroded lacustrine coastal-plain sediment at the junction of the crevasse channel with the present-day river. A sedimentary model is proposed in which deep river bank incision by return flow in crevasse-channels creates the preferential locus for river avulsion. In a Lowstand Systems Tract with little vertical accommodation increase, the recurring avulsed-river paths result in a thin but laterally extensive network of amalgamated channel-fill, point-bar, crevasse-channel and crevasse-splay deposits. The resulting sedimentary architecture could easily be mistaken as produced by a distributary system of simultaneously active fluvial channels.

Donselaar, M. E.; Cuevas Gozalo, M. C.; Moyano, S.

2013-01-01

158

Geophysical and Hydrological Characterization of Alluvial Fans in the Valle El Sauz Encinillas, Chihuahua, México.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Valle El Sauz Encinillas (VESE) is located 92 km north of Chihuahua City, México. Despite being the principal aquifer feeding Chihuahua City, and being flanked by two well studied geological features (Bloque Calera-Del Nido to the West, and the Sierra Peña Blanca to the East), a lack of available hydrogeological data prevails in the valley. The goals of this study are two: 1) geomorphometrical analysis of the sub-basins and alluvial fans, and 2) determination of the alluvial fan geoelectrical units via electrical-resistivity soundings. The Basin and Range system forms a closed sub-basin with a lacustrine basin system in extinction process. The aquifer is located in alluvial Quaternary sediments, with varying granulometry, reaching a thickness of 600 meters at the center of the valley. The biggest alluvial fan in the VESE is located at the Cañón de Santa Clara, and intersects the playa-lake deposits of the Laguna de Encinillas. This fan has a surface of 73.2 km2 and an average slope of 0.437°. The geomorphometrical analysis included the sub-basins, currents, and the fans in the area. These analyses allow a comparison between alluvial fans in the VESE and those in Death Valley, California, USA. The alluvial fans in both areas show a similar behavior in all plots. Twenty electrical resistivity soundings (Schlumberger array, AB/2 distance of 400 m) were performed in the alluvial fan. The basement and four other geoelectrical units were identified in the fan. The geophysical data, granulometric determinations, plus geochemical information of twelve wells in the area were analyzed. These data show how the decrease in granulometry, both frontally and laterally in the fan, results in a rise of the hydraulic conductivity and transmisivity values (water wells in Los Sauces and El Faro). However, both the permeability and the water quality in its distal portion, are affected by the playa lake deposits, the raising ratio of clay-size sediments (and evaporites) in the center of the valley, near to Laguna de Encinillas.

Villalobos-Aragón, A.; Chávez-Aguirre, R.; Osuna-Vizcarra, A.; Espejel-García, V. V.

2007-05-01

159

Miocene to Recent history of the western Altiplano in northern Chile revealed by lacustrine sediments of the Lauca Basin (18°15'-18°40'S/69°30'-69°05'W)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intramontane Lauca Basin at the western margin of the northern Chilean Altiplano lies to the west of and is topographically isolated from the well-known Plio-Pleistocene lake system of fluvio-lacustrine origin that covers the Bolivian Altiplano from Lake Titicaca to the north for more than 800km to the Salar de Uyuni in the south. The Lauca Basin is filled by a sequence of some 120m of mainly upper Miocene to Pliocene clastic and volcaniclastic sediments of lacustrine and alluvial origin. Volcanic rocks, partly pyroclastic, provide useful marker horizons. In the first period (6-4Ma) of its evolution, the 'Lago Lauca' was a shallow ephemeral lake. Evaporites indicate temporarily closed conditions. After 4Ma the lake changed to a perennial water body surrounded by alluvial plains. In the late Pleistocene and Holocene (2-0Ma) there was only marginal deposition of alluvial and glacial sediments. The basin formed as a half-graben or by pull-apart between 10 and 15Ma (tectonic displacement of the basal ignimbrite sequence during the 'Quechua Phase') and 6.2Ma (maximum K/Ar ages of biotites of tuff horizons in the deepest part of the basin). Apart from this early basin formation, there has been surprisingly little displacement during the past 6Ma close to the Western Cordillera of the Altiplano. Also, climate indicators (pollen, evaporites, sedimentary facies) suggest that an arid climate has existed for the past 6Ma on the Altiplano. Together, these pieces of evidence indicate the absence of large scale block-faulting, tilt and major uplift during the past 5-6Ma in this area.

Kött, A.; Gaupp, R.; Wörner, G.

160

Miocene to recent history of the western Altiplano in northern Chile revealed by lacustrine sediments of the Lauca basin (18°15' 18°40' S/69°30' 69°05'W)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intramontane Lauca Basin at the western margin of the northern Chilean Altiplano lies to the west of and is topographically isolated from the well-known Plio-Pleistocene lake system of fluvio-lacustrine origin that covers the Bolivian Altiplano from Lake Titicaca to the north for more than 800 km to the Salar de Uyuni in the south. The Lauca Basin is filled by a sequence of some 120 m of mainly upper Miocene to Pliocene elastic and volcaniclastic sediments of lacustrine and alluvial origin. Volcanic rocks, partly pyroelastic, provide useful marker horizons. In the first period (6 4 Ma) of its evolution, the ‘Lago Lauca’ was a shallow ephemeral lake. Evaporites indicate temporarily closed conditions. After 4 Ma the lake changed to a perennial water body surrounded by alluvial plains. In the late Pleistocene and Holocene (2-0 Ma) there was only marginal deposition of alluvial and glacial sediments. The basin formed as a half-graben or by pull-apart between 10 and 15 Ma (tectonic displacement of the basal ignimbrite sequence during the ‘Quechua Phase’) and 6.2 Ma (maximum K/Ar ages of biotites of tuff horizons in the deepest part of the basin). Apart from this early basin formation, there has been surprisingly little displacement during the past 6 Ma close to the Western Cordillera of the Altiplano. Also, climate indicators (pollen, evaporites, sedimentary facies) suggest that an arid climate has existed for the past 6 Ma on the Altiplano. Together, these pieces of evidence indicate the absence of large scale block-faulting, tilt and major uplift during the past 5 6 Ma in this area.

Kött, A.; Gaupp, R.; Wörner, G.

1995-12-01

161

Changing Nitrate Concentrations in Arid Basin Aquifers- How Anthropogenic and Natural Processes Affect Water Quality and Availability in Trans-Pecos, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past six decades nitrate concentrations in groundwater of the West Texas Bolson Aquifers have been increasing. Long-term records (from 1950 to present) indicate an average increase of 3-5 mg/L (as nitrate) with some wells increasing by over 40 mg/L within 1-2 decades. While irrigated agriculture is the second largest land use in the region (range land being the largest), isotopic analyses indicate that direct leaching of synthetic fertilizers is not a primary source of nitrate to the groundwater; the isotopic composition of the nitrate in the groundwater (delta 18-O of +2 to +10 per mil and delta 15-N of +6 to +13 per mil) is more similar to that of natural soil-derived nitrate in the region, or possibly manure-derived nitrate. Various anion ratios (chloride/bromide, nitrate/chloride, and nitrate/bromide) provide additional insight into the likely sources of groundwater nitrate and the mechanisms by which it is transported through the unsaturated zone; compared to atmospheric deposition, groundwater N/Cl and N/Br ratios appear to be relatively low, consistent with net N loss accompanied by relatively high delta 15-N of residual N. The observed decadal scale changes in groundwater nitrate concentration and presence of young (<70 year old) recharge (as measured using CFCs) are coincident with the growth of irrigated agriculture and intensive grazing within the basins. We hypothesize that past and present land use practices have contributed to the increase in nitrate in the groundwater in three ways; 1) plowing and grazing of previously undisturbed grasslands led to mobilization of soil nitrogen, 2) irrigation of crops has increased recharge beneath agricultural fields and mobilized naturally occurring nitrate from the unsaturated zone, and 3) deposition of manure by grazing animals may have contributed to high delta 15-N values, and in the case of now disused CAFO operations (confined feed lots) may have contributed locally to the total mass of reactive nitrogen. These effects are likely temporally and spatially variable, but have a substantial impact on strategies for addressing water quality and sustainability concerns in these basins and similar environments elsewhere.

Robertson, W. M.; Bohlke, J. K.; Sharp, J. M.

2012-12-01

162

Characterization of dust emission from alluvial sediments using aircraft observations and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies using satellite observations show that numerous dust sources are located in the foothills of arid and semi-arid mountain regions such as over North Africa. Alluvial sediments deposited on the valley bottoms and flood plains are very prone to wind erosion and frequently serve as dust source. High surface wind speeds related to the break-down of the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) during the morning hours are identified as a frequent driving mechanism for dust uplift. We investigate dust emission from alluvial dust sources located within the upland region in northern Mauritania and discuss the impact of valleys with regard to their role as dust source. Measures for local atmospheric dust burden were retrieved from airborne observations, MSG SEVIR dust AOD fields and MesoNH model simulations, and analyzed in order to provide complementary information on dust source activation and local dust transport at different horizontal scales. Vertical distribution of atmospheric mineral dust was obtained from the LNG backscatter lidar system flying aboard the French Falcon-20 aircraft. Lidar extinction coefficients were compared to topography, aerial photographs, and dust AOD fields to confirm the relevance of alluvial sediments at the valley bottoms as dust source. The observed dust emission event was further evaluated using the regional model MesoNH. A sensitivity study on the impact of the horizontal grid spacing highlights the importance of the spatial resolution on simulated dust loadings. The results further illustrate the importance of an explicit representation of alluvial dust sources in such models to better capture the spatial-temporal distribution of airborne dust concentrations.

Schepanski, K.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.; Kocha, C.; Banks, J.; Brindley, H. E.; Lavaysse, C.; Marnas, F.; Pelon, J.; Tulet, P.

2013-12-01

163

Geoenvironmental and structural studies for developing new water resources in arid and semi-arid regions using remote sensing and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water crises are rising with increasing world population and decreasing of freshwater resources. This problem is magnified in the arid and semi-arid regions because surface water resources are very limited and highly unreliable and therefore groundwater is the primary source of water supply in these regions. This study presents an integrated approach for the identification of groundwater occurrences using remote sensing, geological, and geophysical data, and establishing sustainable paths to groundwater management. The Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt was selected as a test site for this study because its climate is arid and there is an urgent need to identify potential areas for groundwater accumulations. Field investigations indicated that the CED has three types of aquifers; shallow alluvial (SA), and fracture zone (FZ) aquifers in the valley depressions, and deep aquifers in the sedimentary succession that range in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent in the marginal extensional sub-basins (ESB) along the Red Sea coast. I developed three models: (1) a Geographic Information System (GIS) model for groundwater potential in the SA and FZ shallow aquifers; (2) a kinematic model for the development of the ESB; and (3) a groundwater budget model for the ESB aquifers. The GIS model is based on the analysis of remote sensing data of the Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar, the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer digital elevation model. The model was evaluated and proven successful against the existing shallow water wells, and by geophysical surveys using Ground Penetrating Radar and Geoelectric methods. The kinematic model indicated that the ESB were formed in the orthogonal rifting phase in the late Oligocene that is followed by oblique rifting phase during the early Miocene which resulted to the en-echelon pattern of the inland ESB and nucleation of the rift depression into segments separated by oblique-slip accommodation zones. The groundwater budget model shows that the ESB aquifers have considerable amounts of paleowater that can be purified and used for drinking. The renewable groundwater of SA and FZ aquifers can be used for herding, irrigation, and ore dressing in the mining zones.

Amer, Reda Mohammed

2011-12-01

164

Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource-poor smallholder farmers in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge districts face food insecurity on an annual basis due to a combination of poor and erratic rainfall (average 500 mm/a and 345 mm/a, respectively, for the period 1970-2003) and technologies inappropriate to their resource status. This impacts on both household livelihoods and food security. In an attempt to improve food security in the catchment a number of drip kit distribution programmes have been initiated since 2003 as part of an on-going global initiative aimed at 2 million poor households per year. A number of recent studies have assessed the technical performance of the drip kits in-lab and in-field. In early 2005 a study was undertaken to assess the impacts and sustainability of the drip kit programme. Representatives of the NGOs, local government, traditional leadership and agricultural extension officers were interviewed. Focus group discussions with beneficiaries and other villagers were held at village level. A survey of 114 households was then conducted in two districts, using a questionnaire developed from the output of the interviews and focus group discussions. The results from the study showed that the NGOs did not specifically target the distribution of the drip kits to poor members of the community (defined for the purpose of the study as those not owning cattle). Poor households made up 54% of the beneficiaries. This poor targeting of vulnerable households could have been a result of conditions set by some implementing NGOs that beneficiaries must have an assured water source. On the other hand, only 2% of the beneficiaries had used the kit to produce the expected 5 harvests over the 2 years, owing to problems related to water shortage, access to water and also pests and diseases. About 51% of the respondents had produced at least 3 harvests and 86% produced at least 2 harvests. Due to water shortages during the dry season 61% of production with the drip kit occurred during the wet season. This suggests that most households use the drip kits as supplementary irrigation. Conflicts between beneficiaries and water point committees or other water users developed in some areas especially during the dry season. The main finding from this study was that low cost drip kit programs can only be a sustainable intervention if implemented as an integral part of a long-term development program, not short-term relief programs and the programme should involve a broad range of stakeholders. A first step in any such program, especially in water scarce areas such as Gwanda and Beitbridge, is a detailed analysis of the existing water resources to assess availability and potential conflicts, prior to distribution of drip kits.

Moyo, Richard; Love, David; Mul, Marloes; Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve

165

Improving assessment of groundwater-resource sustainability with deterministic modelling: a case study of the semi-arid Musi sub-basin, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1990s, Indian farmers, supported by the government, have partially shifted from surface-water to groundwater irrigation in response to the uncertainty in surface-water availability. Water-management authorities only slowly began to consider sustainable use of groundwater resources as a prime concern. Now, a reliable integration of groundwater resources for water-allocation planning is needed to prevent aquifer overexploitation. Within the 11,000-km2 Musi River sub-basin (South India), human interventions have dramatically impacted the hard-rock aquifers, with a water-table drop of 0.18 m/a over the period 1989-2004. A fully distributed numerical groundwater model was successfully implemented at catchment scale. The model allowed two distinct conceptualizations of groundwater availability to be quantified: one that was linked to easily quantified fluxes, and one that was more expressive of long-term sustainability by taking account of all sources and sinks. Simulations showed that the latter implied 13 % less available groundwater for exploitation than did the former. In turn, this has major implications for the existing water-allocation modelling framework used to guide decision makers and water-resources managers worldwide.

Massuel, S.; George, B. A.; Venot, J.-P.; Bharati, L.; Acharya, S.

2013-11-01

166

Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.  

PubMed

This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp. PMID:22981629

Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

2013-01-01

167

Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen capacities of Salix cheilophila Schneid along a revegetation chronosequence in semi-arid degraded sandy land of the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gonghe Basin is a sandified and desertified region of China, but the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) along the cultivation chronosequence across this ecologically fragile region is not well understood. This study was carried out to understand the effects of restoration with Salix cheilophila for different periods of time (6, 11, 16, 21 years) to test whether it enhanced C and N storage. Soil samples, in four replications from seven depth increments (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-100, 100-150 and 150-200 cm), were collected in each stand. Soil bulk density, SOC, TN, aboveground biomass and root biomass were measured. Results indicated that changes occurred in both the upper and deeper soil layers with an increase in revegetation time. The 0-200 cm soil showed that the 6-year stand gained 3.89 Mg C ha-1 and 1.00 Mg N ha-1, which accounted for 40.82% of the original SOC and 11.06% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 11-year stand gained 7.82 Mg C ha-1 and 1.98 Mg N ha-1 in the 0-200 cm soil layers, accounting for 58.06% of the SOC and 19.80% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 16-year stand gained 11.32 Mg C ha-1 and 3.30 Mg N ha-1 in the 0-200 cm soil layers, accounting for 66.71% of the SOC and 21.98% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 21-year stand gained 13.05 Mg C ha-1 and 5.45 Mg N ha-1 from the same soil depth, accounting for 69.79% of the SOC and 40.47% of the TN compared with the 0-year stand. The extent of these changes depended on soil depth and plantation age. The results demonstrated that, as stand age increased, the storage of SOC and TN increased. These results further indicated that restoration with S. cheilophila has positive impacts on the Gonghe Basin and has increased the capacity of SOC sequestration and N storage. The shrub's role as carbon sink is compatible with system management and persistence. The findings are significant for assessing C and N sequestration accurately in semi-arid degraded high, cold sandy regions in the future.

Yu, Y.; Jia, Z. Q.

2014-11-01

168

Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen capacities of Salix cheilophila Schneid along a revegetation chronosequence in semi-arid degraded sandy land of the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gonghe Basin is a sandified and desertified region of China, but the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) along the cultivation chronosequence across this ecologically fragile region is not well understood. This study was carried out to understand the effects of afforestation with Salix cheilophila for different periods of time (6, 11, 16, 21 years) to test whether it enhanced C and N storage. Soil samples, in four replications from seven depth increments (every 10 cm from 0 to 30 cm, every 20 cm from 30 to 50 cm and every 50 cm from 50 to 200 cm), were collected in each stand. Soil bulk density, SOC, TN, aboveground biomass and root biomass were measured. Results indicated that changes occurred in both the upper and deeper soil layers with an increase in revegetation time. The 0-200 cm soil showed that the 6-year stand gained 3.89 Mg C ha-1 and 1.00 Mg N ha-1, which accounted for 40.82% of the original SOC and 11.06% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 11-year stand gained 7.82 Mg C ha-1 and 1.98 Mg N ha-1 in the 0-200 cm soil layers, accounting for 58.06% of the SOC and 19.80% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 16-year stand gained 11.32 Mg C ha-1 and 3.30 Mg N ha-1 in the 0-200 cm soil layers, accounting for 66.71% of the SOC and 21.98% of the TN of the 0-year stand. The 21-year stand gained 13.05 Mg C ha-1 and 5.45 Mg N ha-1 from the same soil depth, accounting for 69.79% of the SOC and 40.47% of the TN compared with the 0-year stand. The extent of these changes depended on soil depth and plantation age. The results demonstrated that as stand age increased, the storage of SOC and TN increased. These results further indicated that afforestation with S. cheilophila has positive impacts on the Gonghe Basin and has increased the capacity of SOC sequestration and N storage. Shrub's role as carbon sink is compatible with system's management and persistence. The findings are significant for assessing C and N sequestration accurately in semi-arid degraded high-cold sandy regions in the future.

Yu, Y.; Jia, Q. Z.

2014-08-01

169

Arid, Semiarid, and Savanna  

E-print Network

and T is the mean annual tem perature in Celsius degrees. The truly arid (desert) climate was defined as oneCLIMATES Arid, Semiarid, and Savanna Landscapes The largest single identifiable morphogenetic empirical formulas to define dry climates in terms ofthe ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration

Lachniet, Matthew S.

170

Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of Kremna basin are represented with marly dolomite. Due to the swallowing of the basin sediments became relatively rich in predominantly land plant material. Tuffs and tuffaceous sediments were determined in both faciae.

Perunovi?, Tamara; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Br?eski, Ilija; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Stojanovi?, Ksenija; Simi?, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

2014-05-01

171

Dependable water supplies from valley alluvium in arid regions.  

PubMed

Reliable sources of high-quality water for domestic use are much needed in arid regions. Valley alluvium, coarse sand and gravel deposited by streams and rivers, provides an ideal storage medium for water in many regions of the world. However, river sediments will not accumulate in a valley without a natural or artificial barrier to slow the water. Sediments will deposit upstream of a barrier dam and form an alluvial deposit of relatively well-sorted material. The alluvium then acts as both an underground water-supply reservoir and a water filter, yielding a constant flow of high-quality water. Trap dams that store water in alluvial sediments and slowly release the filtered water represent an appropriate and inexpensive technology for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought at the community level. Small trap dams may be built as a community project using local materials and local labor. PMID:15641388

Van Haveren, Bruce P

2004-12-01

172

Use of morphometric analysis and self-organizing maps for alluvial fan classification: case study on Ostorankooh altitudes, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to classify alluvial fans formed by high-gradient braided streams and torrents that discharge into the Oshtorankook altitudes in the Lorestan province, Iran. The morphology of the fans and their watershed is quantitatively described through estimated morphometric parameters. For relationships between geomorphological features of the fans and their drainage basins, self-organizingmaps (SOM) were used. In SOM, according to both qualitative data and morphometric variables, the clustering tendency of alluvial fans was investigated using 15 alluvial fans parameters. The results of the analysis showed that several morphologically different fan types were recognizedbased on their geomorphological characteristics in the study area. A strong positive relationship was found between the drainage basin area and size of the fan with a simple power function. In addition, the relationship between fan slope and drainage area was found to be negative and moderately strong with a simple power function.

Mokarram, Marzieh; Seif, Abdollah; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

2014-06-01

173

Investigating Source to Sink Processes with Cosmogenic 10Be Concentrations in Multiple Alluvial Grain Sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies suggest that concentrations of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) in varying grain sizes can provide important information about sediment source to sink pathways. However, some basic questions remain regarding the role that geomorphic processes play in determining TCN concentrations in alluvial sediment. As a result, there exists a critical need for an increased understanding of how sediment transport histories effect the interpretation of TCN concentrations in alluvium, and hence, the denudation rates and surface exposure ages derived from these data sets. We are using 10Be TCN concentrations in various alluvial sediment grain sizes to investigate the geomorphic processes responsible for eroding and transporting sediments from hillslopes, through drainage networks, and ultimately to sedimentary depocenters in two contrasting tectonic and climatic environments. The first is Red Wall Canyon in northern Death Valley, California, an arid tectonically active region. The second is the Blue Ridge Escarpment in the southern Appalachian Mountains, a humid tectonically inactive region. We collected sand (0.025-0.050 cm) and gravel (3-6cm) from active channels within the study areas for analysis of 10Be concentrations in the two distinct grain sizes; 19 samples were collected from Red Wall Canyon and 16 samples from the Blue Ridge Escarpment. By analyzing TCN concentrations in multiple alluvial grain sizes this project will explore the geomorphic processes responsible for transporting sediments from source area to depocenter, determine the geomorphic controls on TCN concentrations among variable grain size fractions in alluvial sediment, and ultimately help establish the most appropriate sample material for dating alluvial fans and measuring catchment-wide denudation rates.

Marstellar, T. L.; Frankel, K. L.; Belmont, P.

2010-12-01

174

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States - Climatic and Geologic Framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly but irregularly control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Anthropogenically induced climate change likely will reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations, and perhaps through increased drought. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge directly through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area, and indirectly through climate change. High ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions.

Stonestrom, David A.; Harrill, James R.

2007-01-01

175

Geomorphological evidence of neotectonic deformation in the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines channel-scale morphodynamics of ephemeral streams in the onshore Carnarvon basin in arid west-central Western Australia. The rivers in this region have low gradients, the landscape has low relief, and the rates of climatically and tectonically driven geomorphic processes also are low. As a result, the rivers in the Carnarvon alluvial plain are highly sensitive to minor perturbations in base level, channel slope, and fluvial energy. We use channel planform adjustments, stream gradient changes, and floodplain profiles across multiple ephemeral streams within a variety of catchments and flow regimes to determine if tectonically driven land level changes are affecting channel form and fluvial processes. Growth of individual fold segments is shown to have altered stream and floodplain gradients and triggered repeated avulsions at structurally controlled nodes. Aligned perturbations in channel form across multiple channel-fold intersections provide systematic geomorphic evidence for the location and orientation of neotectonic structures in the region. These features occur as a belt of low relief anticlines in the Carnarvon alluvial plain.

Whitney, Beau B.; Hengesh, James V.

2015-01-01

176

SEDIMENTOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY OF QUATERNARY ALLUVIAL FANS WITH IMPLICATIONS TO GROWTH STRATA, LOST RIVER RANGE,  

E-print Network

SEDIMENTOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY OF QUATERNARY ALLUVIAL FANS WITH IMPLICATIONS TO GROWTH STRATA......................................................................................14 5. UPPER CEDAR CREEK ALLUVIAL FAN.............................................. 19 Surface 6. JONES CREEK ALLUVIAL FAN......................................................... 67 Surface

Lawrence, Rick L.

177

Late Quaternary Alluvial Fans of Southern Baja California, Mexico: Relation to Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the arid, non-glaciated regions of the Southwestern USA and Northwestern Mexico, aggradation in alluvial fan systems has been traditionally linked to cold and humid periods (e.g., Last Glacial Maximum) or to the transition to warm periods (e.g., the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, PHT). However, major intervals of sediment transport and aggradation have also occurred during climatically warm periods in these regions. These periods have also been identified as portraying enhanced humidity or “monsoonal’ conditions. Investigations on the weather systems able to perform geomorphic work during predominantly warm periods, i.e. the North American Monsoon (NAM) and Eastern Pacific (EP) Tropical Cyclones (TCs), have concentrated mainly in the USA. To understand the relative contribution of these systems to sediment transport over millennial timescales, we have mapped and characterized preliminarily the alluvial fans in four different areas of the Southern Baja California peninsula, Mexico. This region is dominated by EPTC precipitation, which in turn is driving the sediment transport along alluvial channels. Detailed geomorphologic mapping shows that a distinct Late Quaternary chronostratigraphy of alluvial fan units can be developed using geochronological and pedological tools. Specifically, a soil chronosequence can be compared to sequences in the SW USA, allowing a correlation to Late Pleistocene - Holocene events in the region. At least five alluvial units can be identified. Older units have well defined gravel pediments, Av and B horizons and pervasive pedogenic carbonate morphology, with alluvial terraces that rise tens of meters above the present channel. Intermediate age units have developed B horizons and carbonate morphology at different stages. The younger units have thin soil horizons, no carbonate morphology in the soil profile, and some of them are subject to episodic flooding during TC activity. The chronosequence developed is the first step towards establishing a linkage of the alluvial fan deposition in the area to the Late Pleistocene-Holocene changes in EPTC activity, which in turn is tied to changes in large scale climate systems like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Investigation of these linkages will provide insight into EPTC climatology, which is currently restricted due to a short record of direct observations.

Antinao, J.; McDonald, E.

2009-12-01

178

Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.  

PubMed

The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity. PMID:24068089

Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

2013-09-01

179

The association of land cover with aeolian sediment production at Jornada Basin, New Mexico, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated amounts and particle size distributions (PSDs) of aeolian sediments collected at five heights in five ecosystem types at the Jornada Basin, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. Particle size distributions, mass fluxes, and percent of dust-sized (?50 ?m) mass flux were determined for all heights and all ecosystem types. Differences between sites were determined using ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests to find groupings. For creosote shrublands, grasslands, and two tarbush-dominated alluvial flats, samples collected at 5, 10, and 20 cm had >80% sand-sized (>50 ?m) particles, while one playa and tarbush site yielded ˜45% dust-sized particles at 5 and 10 cm. The transition from saltation to suspension was ˜20 cm for most sites. Two mesquite dune sites and an anthropogenically devegetated site, all with high overall mass fluxes, shifted to suspension at ˜50 cm. Highest dust fluxes occurred at the devegetated site, followed by the playa, a mesquite site with unvegetated "streets," and tarbush sites. These field observations are consistent with laboratory-based dust emission experiments and remote sensing studies in the Chihuahuan Desert. Playas and tarbush sites are major dust producers due to high proportions of fines, whereas the mesquite site produces much dust because of greater overall mass flux. Mesquite dunes covering most of the basin likely produce the most dust overall, though playas and tarbush-dominated alluvial flats (which cover about 8%) can emit large amounts of dust. Continuing shrubland encroachment will likely increase dust emissions from the Jornada Basin, as well as in other arid regions.

Floyd, Kevin W.; Gill, Thomas E.

2011-06-01

180

Environmental management in the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

THe needs, conditions, and prospects for achieving a coordinated and basin-wide program of environmental management in the Colorado River Basin were explored. Analyses are presented. Political and institutional perspectives and the prospects of using environmental indices and the concept of carrying capacity in comprehensive planning are discussed. Since aridity and the limited assimilative capacity of the basin's environmental media place

A. B. Crawford; D. F. Peterson

1974-01-01

181

Extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of macro- and micromorphological and analytical studies of extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan, a comparative analysis of pedogenetic processes shaping these soils on piedmont plains of different ages and heights is performed. The types of soil horizons and their combinations are analyzed in the context opf modern Russian and international soil classification systems. The genesis of extremely arid soils is controlled by the climatic conditions and by their geomorphic position on alluvial fans of piedmont plains. The following processes are diagnosed in these soils: soil crusting with vesicular porosity, the development of desert pavements with rock varnish, rubification, surface salinization, and iron depletion around the pores. It is suggested that the initial factor-based name (extremely arid) of these soils can be replaced by the name vesicular-crusty soils with the corresponding AKL diagnostic horizon, which is more consistent with the principles of substantive-genetic classification systems. In order to determine the classification position of these soils in terms of the new Russian soil classification system, new diagnostic horizons—AKL and CS—have to be introduced in this system. According to the WRB classification, the studied soils belong to the group of Gypsisols; the soil with strong salinization fits the criteria of the group of Solonchaks. A qualifier [yermic] is to be added to reflect the development of desert pavement and vesicular layer under extreme arid conditions.

Lebedeva, M. P.; Gerasimova, M. I.; Golovanov, D. L.; Yamnova, I. A.

2015-01-01

182

Riparian ecosytems of semi-arid North America: Diversity and human impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian ecosystems in the semi-arid West of North America are diverse but have many similarities. The mountainous landscape\\u000a with wide range of latitude, longitude, and elevation offers diverse opportunities for streamside vegetation. All riparian\\u000a ecosystems in the region are dependent on supplemental water, usually from the shallow, valley alluvial aquifer. Western riparian\\u000a ecosystems provide several ecological services. They stabilize streambanks,

Duncan T. Patten

1998-01-01

183

Sediments in Semi-arid Wetlands: US Southern High Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Playas are ephemeral wetlands on the semi-arid U.S. Southern High Plains that serve as runoff catchment basins and are thought to be focal points of Ogallala aquifer recharge. Sediments in playas alter biodiversity and hydroperiods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of outerbas...

184

Hydrogenic heavy metal pollution of alluvial soils in the city of Perm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differences in the sources and compositions of the pollutants among the alluvial soils within the city of Perm were revealed. Heavy metal pollution of hydrogenic origin is caused by unpurified sewage water. The main source of pollution of the urbanozems and replantozems of the city is the aerial input of heavy metals. The lead content in the alluvial soils of the city was twice lower and the mean Zn and Ni contents were 1.5 and 4.0 times higher than in the urbanozems and replantozems, respectively. The concentrations of Sr, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cr did not correlate positively with the content of clay particles in the fine earth of the alluvial soils. The higher pollution of the light-textured soils showed that, nowadays, its main source was sewage water but not sludge. In the alluvial soils, small Fe-rohrensteins are formed. They serve as microgeochemical barriers for some part of the microelements. The Pb and Zn contents in the rohrensteins of the soils of the Las’va river basin reached 440 and 890 mg/kg, respectively. In the upper horizon of this soil, the contents of Pb and Zn in the rohrensteins were 42 and 17% of their concentration in the fine earth, respectively.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Vasil'Ev, A. A.; Vlasov, M. N.

2008-11-01

185

Aridity in Vojvodina, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For investigating aridity in Vojvodina, two parameters were used: the De Martonne aridity index and the Pinna combinative index. These indices were chosen as the most suitable for the analysis of climate in Vojvodina (a region in northern part of Serbia). Also, these indices were calculated from data obtained from 10 meteorological stations for the period from 1949 to 2006. The spatial distribution of the annual and seasonal De Martonne and the Pinna combinative indices as well as the mean monthly values of the De Martonne index and aridity trends of these indices are presented. There were two, four, and five types of climate on a yearly, seasonal, and monthly basis in Vojvodina, according to the De Martonne climate classification which consists of a total of seven types. In addition, semi-humid and humid climate types were represented in the region, on a yearly basis. The winter season was dominated by wetter types of climate, while the summer season was characterized by drier ones. During the spring and autumn seasons, there were types of climate which range between both aforementioned types. Two out of three climate types, which can be identified using the Pinna combinative index, were registered in Vojvodina region. The most dominant climate type was the semidry Mediterranean with formal Mediterranean vegetation, while the humid type was only identified in one small part of southwestern Vojvodina. The calculated values of both aridity indices showed that there were no annual trends. Therefore, it can be considered that there were no recent aridity changes during the observed period. For paleoclimate, the general story is more complex. The lack of aridity trends in the recent period from 1949 to 2006 supports the fact that Vojvodina has very well preserved loess-palaeosol sequences from the Middle and Late Pleistocene, which indicates that crucial point for their preservation was caused by the weak aridity variability in the region.

Hrnjak, Ivana; Luki?, Tin; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Markovi?, Slobodan B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

2014-01-01

186

Alluvial-fan and lacustrine fan-delta sedimentation in west-central California during the Middle Tertiary transition from subduction to transform tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The Plush Ranch (PR) Formation was deposited in one of several sedimentary basins in west-central California. The PR consists of more than 1,800 m of nonmarine sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic volcanic rocks that together record a complicated history of synsedimentary faulting, volcanism, and deposition in alluvial-fan, fan-delta, and lacustrine depositional settings. The sedimentological analysis indicates that both the northern and southern margins of the PR basin apparently were controlled ENE-trending normal faults, but that the two margins are characterized from each other by distinctive depositional facies, provenance, and sediment transport directions. The northern basin margin is recorded by sandstone-dominated braidplain deposits, with interbedded lenses of boulder-rich breccia derived by landsliding from a nearby granitic provenance. The southern basin margin is represented by matrix- and clast-supported boulder- to pebble-conglomerate with interbedded trough-crossbedded sandstones; these represent debris-flow and stream-flow alluvial-fan deposits. The alluvial-fan deposits grade northward into lacustrine fan-delta facies and provide an excellent detailed record of interfingering between alluvial-fan and lacustrine fan-delta deposits on a bed-by-bed scale. Basalt are interbedded with turbidite sandstones and evaporite/carbonate-rich intervals, but not with alluvial-fan deposits. The analysis of the sedimentary record of the PR Formation permits documentation of detailed facies relations that are useful in understanding alluvial-fan and fan-delta transitions in fault-bounded lacustrine basins. In addition, results support the conclusion of earlier workers that the Big Pine fault was a down-to-the-north, normal-slip fault along the southern margin of the PR basin during late Oligocene-early Miocene time, and then became a predominantly left-slip fault during the Quaternary.

Cole, R.B. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Science); Stanley, R.G. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

187

Luminescence ages for alluvial-fan deposits in Southern Death Valley: Implications for climate-driven sedimentation along a tectonically active mountain front  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Controversy exists over whether alluvial-fan sedimentation along tectonically active mountain fronts is driven by climatic changes or tectonics. Knowing the age of sedimentation is the key to understanding the relationship between sedimentation and its cause. Alluvial-fan deposits in Death Valley and throughout the arid southwestern United States have long been the subjects of study, but their ages have generally eluded researchers until recently. Most mapping efforts have recognized at least four major relative-age groupings (Q1 (oldest), Q2, Q3, and Q4 (youngest)), using observed changes in surface soils and morphology, relation to the drainage net, and development of desert pavement. Obtaining numerical age determinations for these morphologic stages has proven challenging. We report the first optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages for three of these four stages deposited within alluvial-fans along the tectonically active Black Mountains of Death Valley. Deposits showing distinct, remnant bar and swale topography (Q3b) have OSL ages from 7 to 4 ka., whereas those with moderate to poorly developed desert pavement and located farther above the active channel (Q3a) have OSL ages from 17 to 11 ka. Geomorphically older deposits with well-developed desert pavement (Q2d) have OSL ages ???25 ka. Using this OSL-based chronology, we note that alluvial-fan deposition along this tectonically active mountain front corresponds to both wet-to-dry and dry-to-wet climate changes recorded globally and regionally. These findings underscore the influence of climate change on alluvial fan deposition in arid and semi-arid regions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Sohn, M.F.; Mahan, S.A.; Knott, J.R.; Bowman, D.D.

2007-01-01

188

Morphodynamic equilibrium of alluvial estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the longitudinal bed profile of an estuary, with given plan-form configuration, subject to given tidal forcing at the mouth and prescribed values of water and sediment supply from the river is investigated numerically. Our main goal is to ascertain whether, starting from some initial condition, the bed evolution tends to reach a unique equilibrium configuration asymptotically in time. Also, we investigate the morphological response of an alluvial estuary to changes in the tidal range and hydrologic forcing (flow and sediment supply). Finally, the solution helps characterizing the transition between the fluvially dominated region and the tidally dominated region of the estuary. All these issues play an important role also in interpreting how the facies changes along the estuary, thus helping to make correct paleo-environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of sedimentary successions (Dalrymple and Choi, 2007). Results show that the model is able to describe a wide class of settings ranging from tidally dominated estuaries to fluvially dominated estuaries. In the latter case, the solution is found to compare satisfactory with the analytical asymptotic solution recently derived by Seminara et al. (2012), under the hypothesis of fairly 'small' tidal oscillations. Simulations indicate that the system always moves toward an equilibrium configuration in which the net sediment flux in a tidal cycle is constant throughout the estuary and equal to the constant sediment flux discharged from the river. For constant width, the bed equilibrium profile of the estuarine channel is characterized by two distinct regions: a steeper reach seaward, dominated by the tide, and a less steep upstream reach, dominated by the river and characterized by the undisturbed bed slope. Although the latter reach, at equilibrium, is not directly affected by the tidal wave, however starting from an initial uniform stream with the constant 'fluvial' slope, the final equilibrium state is reached through an erosional wave, which leads to bed degradation of the upstream 'fluvial reach'. For a given river discharge, the length of the tidal reach increases quite rapidly with tidal amplitude, up to some threshold value of the tidal amplitude above which the length of the estuary becomes comparable with the length of the tidal wave. When the channel plan-form is convergent, deposition of sediments of fluvial origin in the funnel-shaped region drastically changes the equilibrium configuration. The effect of an increasing channel convergence is thus to induce bed aggradation close to the inlet. Nevertheless, tidal forcing only slightly changes the non-tidal profile. The effect of increasing tidal oscillations again leads to an increase of the bed slope at the inlet and to a general bed degradation upstream. The effects of varying sediment supply, flow discharge and river width in the upstream reach have also been investigated and play an important role. Further geomorphological implications of these results will be discussed at the meeting. References Dalrymple, R. W., and K. Choi (2007), Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvialmarine transition in tide-dominated depositional systems: A schematic framework for environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation, Earth-Science Reviews, 81(3-4), 135-174, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.10.002. Seminara, G., M. Bolla Pittaluga, and N. Tambroni (2012), Morphodynamic equilibrium of tidal channels, Environmental Fluid Mechanics: Memorial Volume in Honour of Prof. Gerhard H. Jirka, 153-174

Tambroni, Nicoletta; Bolla Pittaluga, Michele; Canestrelli, Alberto; Lanzoni, Stefano; Seminara, Giovanni

2014-05-01

189

Large alluvial fans on Mars Jeffrey M. Moore  

E-print Network

Large alluvial fans on Mars Jeffrey M. Moore Space Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center; published 7 April 2005. [1] Several dozen distinct alluvial fans, 10 to $40 km long downslope, have been observed in highlands craters. Within a search region between 0° and 30°S, alluvial fan-containing craters

Howard, Alan D.

190

Geospatial Data to Support Analysis of Water-Quality Conditions in Basin-Fill Aquifers in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

2009-01-01

191

Arsenate adsorption by unsaturated alluvial sediments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arsenate adsorption as a function of solution arsenic concentration and solution pH was investigated on five alluvial sediments from the Antelope Valley, Western Mojave Desert, California. Arsenate adsorption increased with increasing solution pH, exhibited a maximum around pH 4 to 5, and then decr...

192

Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...

193

INTRODUCTION River courses, alluvial fans, shorelines, and  

E-print Network

of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In the Golden Triangle region, these rivers (Mekong and Salween RiversINTRODUCTION River courses, alluvial fans, shorelines, and glacial valleys are geomorphological markers that can record offset along active strike-slip faults. Of these markers, rivers are the most

Lacassin, Robin

194

Arsenic Levels in Groundwater from Quaternary Alluvium in the Ganga Plain and the Bengal Basin, Indian Subcontinent: Insights into Influence of Stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Ganga Alluvial Plain and the Bengal Basin have influenced arsenic contamination of groundwater. Arsenic contaminated aquifers are pervasive within lowland organic rich, clayey deltaic sediments in the Bengal Basin and locally within similar facies in narrow, entrenched river valleys within the Ganga Alluvial Plain. These were mainly deposited during early-mid Holocene sea level

S. K. Acharyya

2005-01-01

195

Soil Carbonate Dynamics on Arid Cropland in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedogenic carbonate (PIC) is an important element for carbon sequestration. However, field data necessary to quantify carbon sequestration as carbonate have been lacking. Here, we report recent studies of carbonate accumulation in soils of the arid and semi-arid regions of north China. First study was carried out in southern Xinjiang, the Yanqi Basin, where more than 100 soil samples were collected from desert land, shrub land and cropland, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC) and their stable 13C compositions were determined. This study showed that both SOC and SIC stocks were significantly higher on the cropland than on the desert land and shrub land. Our analyses suggested that cropping might have led to large PIC accumulation (24-116 g C m-2 year-1) in the Yanqi Basin. Second study was to evaluate carbon sequestration on cropland using archived soil samples from three long-term experiment (LTE) sites in north China: Urumqi, Yangling and Zhengzhou. SOC and SIC, and their stable 13C compositions were determined in two sets of soil samples (130 samples in total) collected in the early and late 2000's under various fertilization treatments. Our study showed an overall increase of SIC content in soil profiles over time, particularly under fertilizations. Accumulation rate of SIC stock over the 0-100 cm ranged from ~100 to 200 g C m-2 year-1, with the greatest rate found under the highest fertilization rate. Our analyses indicated that fertilization might have led to an average accumulation rate of > 60 g C m-2 year-1 for PIC on these arid croplands. Our studies showed that more carbon sequestrated in the form of carbonate than as SOC on arid and semi-arid lands, and suggests that increasing SOC stock through straw incorporation and manure application in the arid and semi-arid regions would also enhance carbonate accumulation in soil profiles over long-term.

Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X.; Huang, S.; Liu, H.

2013-12-01

196

Simplified process modeling of river avulsion and alluvial architecture: Connecting models and field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling is an invaluable tool for studying sedimentary basin filling and for understanding depositional processes with long recurrence intervals, including channel avulsion. Simplified modeling approaches, such as cellular models and process-analogue experiments, are particularly useful for efficiently exploring alternative hypotheses and evaluating first-order controls on river avulsion and alluvial architecture. Here we review the history and current state of the art in simplified avulsion and alluvial architecture models, with a particular focus on how results and insights from these models can be incorporated into field and subsurface studies, and vice versa. Simplified avulsion and alluvial architecture models have proliferated in the past decade, providing a wide variety of models to serve as a basis for future coupled field-modeling studies. We compare features of leading models and discuss avenues for effectively pairing model capabilities with hypotheses and field data. Outstanding questions highlighted by recent modeling efforts include 1) What thresholds control avulsion initiation in different systems? 2) How do floodplain processes and topography influence avulsion dynamics and alluvial architecture? 3) What factors determine where avulsion channels stabilize? Answering these questions will require targeted modeling efforts coupled to data from ancient systems. Hence our model comparison emphasizes features that can be used to choose or design fit-for-purpose models, and we outline how quantitative data useful for model selection and validation can be obtained from modern systems and ancient deposits. Matching model goals with targeted questions, and model parameters and predictions with quantitative field data, will help tighten communication between field- and model-oriented sedimentary geologists, facilitating advances in our understanding of river avulsion and alluvial architecture.

Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Wolinsky, Matthew A.

2012-06-01

197

Tectonic controls on the morphometry of alluvial fans around Danehkhoshk anticline, Zagros, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial fans are important landforms where their morphology and morphometry reflect changes in tectonic, climate, base level, and drainage basin characteristics. Along the margins of tectonically active mountain ranges like the Zagros Mountains, alluvial fans are generally assumed to act as useful landforms for identifying the level of tectonic activity. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between active tectonics and morphometric characteristics of alluvial fans around Danehkhoshk anticline in the Simply Folded Belt of Zagros. Morphometric characteristics of alluvial fans, such as area (FA), slope (SF) length of base (BF), width/length ratio (W/L), radius (R), sweep angle (SA) and entrenchment (E) as well as valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) and strata dips of anticline limbs (DAL), were measured. The study area was sub-divided into eight tectonic zones and then the mean values of the above-mentioned parameters were calculated in each zone. Result reveals that values of SA, BF and E are directly proportional to DAL. The poor relationships between catchment characteristics (slope and area) and fan parameters are probably due to extensive karstic landforms of catchments having complex hydrologic systems and, hence, result in complex catchment/fan relations. The highly entrenched fans with high sweep angles and long bases are characteristic of tectonically active fronts of Danehkhoshk anticline, having V-shaped valleys (higher Vf values), steep triangular facets and more rotated limbs (higher DAL values). Apart from the tectonic control on fan development, the fan head entrenchment and negative accumulation spaces on most alluvial fans can be attributed to decreased sediment load and discharge the drier the present-day climate regime.

Bahrami, Shahram

2013-01-01

198

Alluvial evidence for major climate and flow regime changes during the middle and late Quaternary in eastern central Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a low-gradient arid region spanning the tropics to the temperate zone, the Lake Eyre basin has undergone gentle late Cenozoic crustal warping leading to substantial alluvial deposition, thereby forming repositories of evidence for palaeoclimatic and palaeohydrological changes from the Late Tertiary to the Holocene. Auger holes and bank exposures at five locations along the lower 500 km of Cooper Creek, a major contributor to Lake Eyre in the eastern part of the basin, yielded 85 luminescence dates (TL and OSL) that, combined wit a further 142 luminescence dates from northeastern Australia, have established a chronology of multiple episodes of enhanced flow regime from about 750 ka to the Holocene. Mean bankfull discharges on Cooper Creek upstream of the Innamincka Dome at 250-230 ka or oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 7-6 are estimated to have been 5 to 7 times larger than those of today, however, substantially less reworking has occurred during and after OIS 5 than before. Lower Cooper Creek appears to have similarly declined. In the Tirari Desert adjacent to Lake Eyre there is evidence of widespread alluvial activity, perhaps during but certainly before the Middle Pleistocene, yet the river became laterally restricted in OIS 7 to 5. While the Quaternary has been characterised by a dramatically oscillating wet-dry climate, since oxygen isotope stage OIS 7 or 6 there has been a general decline in the magnitude of the episodes of wetness to which the eastern part of central Australia has periodically returned. During the last full glacial cycle, Cooper Creek's periods of greatest runoff and sand transport were not during the last interglacial maximum of OIS 5e (132-122 ka) but later in OIS 5 when sea levels and global temperatures were substantially below those of 5e or today. Fluvial activity returned in OIS 4 and 3, but not to the extent of mid and late OIS 5; strongly seasonal but still powerful flows transported sand and fed source-bordering dunes in OIS 5 and 3. This chronology of fluvial activity in the late Quaternary broadly coincides with that for rivers of southeastern Australia and suggests that the wet phases in eastern central Australia have not been governed as much by the northern monsoon as by conditions in the western Pacific close to the east coast both north and south. Flow confinement within the Innamincka Dome has locally amplified Cooper Creek's energy, and here evidence exists for short but high-magnitude episodes of flow during the Last Glacial Maximum and in the early to middle Holocene, conditions that were capable of forming large palaeochannels but that were not long-lived enough to rework the river's extensive floodplains elsewhere along its length.

Nanson, Gerald C.; Price, David M.; Jones, Brian G.; Maroulis, Jerry C.; Coleman, Maria; Bowman, Hugo; Cohen, Timothy J.; Pietsch, Timothy J.; Larsen, Joshua R.

2008-10-01

199

Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the south where coal beds are preserved, and more arid in the north where evaporites and eolian deposits are common. Fluctuations in paleoclimate that caused lake levels to rise and fall in hydrologically closed basins are preserved as lacustrine cycles of various scales, including major shifts in the Late Triassic from a wet Carnian to an arid Norian. In contrast, fluvial deposits were mainly formed in response to the tectonic evolution of the basins, but to some extent also reflect climatic changes. The Newark Supergroup illustrates the complexity of rift-basin sedimentation and the problems that may arise from using a single modern analog for sedimentary deposition spanning millions of years. It also shows that a tremendous wealth of depositional, climatic, and tectonic information is preserved in ancient rift-basin deposits which can be recovered if the depositional processes of modern rift-basin deposits are understood. ?? 1991.

Smoot, J.P.

1991-01-01

200

Fire, Holocene Climate Change, and Geomorphic Response Recorded in Alluvial Fan Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial fan stratigraphic sequences record fire history in charcoal-rich deposits and buried burned soil surfaces. Deposit characteristics provide information about the magnitude of fire-related sedimentation events and severity of associated fires, and radiocarbon-dating of charcoal establishes the timing of fires. Unlike lakes, alluvial fans are ubiquitous in mountain environments. Although alluvial-fan fire records lack the annual resolution of tree-ring records, compilation of data from many alluvial fan sites provides a statistical sample of fire timing and approximate severity that can be related to climate variations over centennial to millennial timescales. We examine alluvial fan records from xeric Pinus ponderosa-dominated forests of central Idaho, and compare them with similar records from cooler, high-elevation Pinus contorta-dominated forests of Yellowstone National Park. Identification of charcoal macrofossils from Idaho fan deposits limits inbuilt age errors in radiocarbon dating, and shows that similar forest compositions have existed over the last ca. 4000 years in the fan drainage basins. Limited data from ca. 4000-7000 yr ago suggest that Pinus ponderosa was either sparse or absent in the 4 basins represented. Large fire-related debris flows in both Idaho and Yellowstone indicate severe fires during the ca. 1050-750 cal yr BP Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA), which included widespread and severe western US droughts. Another such episode 2700-1600 cal yr BP is less prominent in the Idaho record. Numerous small, fire-induced sedimentation events in Idaho ca. 350-500 (Little Ice Age), 1200-1400, and 2800-3000 cal yr BP likely indicate frequent low- to mixed-severity fires, and coincide with indicators of generally cool, moist conditions in the western USA and North Atlantic, and with minimal fire activity in Yellowstone. We infer that these effectively wetter periods allow greater grass growth, fueling frequent surface fires in ponderosa forests, but limiting fires in general in the effectively wetter forests of Yellowstone. Maxima in dated small events may relate to significant droughts within these intervals, e.g. in the late AD 1500s, but widespread severe fires are not indicated. Alluvial-fan records add to data from other charcoal-based proxy records of fire that indicate the importance of centennial- to millennial-scale climate change in modulating fire activity and geomorphic response in conifer forests over the Holocene.

Pierce, J. L.; Meyer, G. A.

2004-12-01

201

Sources and controls for the mobility of arsenic in oxidizing groundwaters from loess-type sediments in arid/semi-arid dry climates - evidence from the Chaco-Pampean plain (Argentina).  

PubMed

In oxidizing aquifers, arsenic (As) mobilization from sediments into groundwater is controlled by pH-dependent As desorption from and dissolution of mineral phases. If climate is dry, then the process of evaporative concentration contributes further to the total concentration of dissolved As. In this paper the principal As mobility controls under these conditions have been demonstrated for Salí River alluvial basin in NW Argentina (Tucumán Province; 7000 km(2)), which is representative for other basins or areas of the predominantly semi-arid Chaco-Pampean plain (1,000,000 km(2)) which is one of the world's largest regions affected by high As concentrations in groundwater. Detailed hydrogeochemical studies have been performed in the Salí River basin where 85 groundwater samples from shallow aquifers (42 samples), deep samples (26 samples) and artesian aquifers (17 samples) have been collected. Arsenic concentrations range from 11.4 to 1660 ?g L(-1) leaving 100% of the investigated waters above the provisional WHO guideline value of 10 ?g L(-1). A strong positive correlation among As, F, and V in shallow groundwaters was found. The correlations among those trace elements and U, B and Mo have less significance. High pH (up to 9.2) and high bicarbonate (HCO(3)) concentrations favour leaching from pyroclastic materials, including volcanic glass which is present to 20-25% in the loess-type aquifer sediments and yield higher trace element concentrations in groundwater from shallow aquifers compared to deep and artesian aquifers. The significant increase in minor and trace element concentrations and salinity in shallow aquifers is related to strong evaporation under semi-arid climatic conditions. Sorption of As and associated minor and trace elements (F, U, B, Mo and V) onto the surface of Fe-, Al- and Mn-oxides and oxi-hydroxides, restricts the mobilization of these elements into groundwater. Nevertheless, this does not hold in the case of the shallow unconfined groundwaters with high pH and high concentrations of potential competitors for adsorption sites (HCO(3), V, P, etc.). Under these geochemical conditions, desorption of the above mentioned anions and oxyanions occurs as a key process for As mobilization, resulting in an increase of minor and trace element concentrations. These geochemical processes that control the concentrations of dissolved As and other trace elements and which determine the groundwater quality especially in the shallow aquifers, are comparable to other areas with high As concentrations in groundwater of oxidizing aquifers and semi-arid or arid climate, which are found in many parts of the world, such as the western sectors of the USA, Mexico, northern Chile, Turkey, Mongolia, central and northern China, and central and northwestern Argentina. PMID:21035830

Nicolli, Hugo B; Bundschuh, Jochen; García, Jorge W; Falcón, Carlos M; Jean, Jiin-Shuh

2010-11-01

202

UNESCO's G-WADI Program - Developing and Delivering Tools for Improved Water Management in Semi-arid and Arid Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNESCO's Water and Development Information for Arid Lands - A Global Network (G-WADI) aims to strengthen the capacity to manage the water resources of arid and semi-arid areas around the globe through a network of international and regional cooperation. Six centers, including SAHRA headquartered at the University of Arizona and CHRS at UC-Irvine, are cooperating to improve water resource management by sharing knowledge and tools. Specific objectives include: improved understanding of the special characteristics of hydrological systems and water management needs in arid areas, through shared data and experiences; capacity building of individuals and institutions; raising awareness of advanced technologies for data provision, data assimilation, and system analysis; and promoting integrated basin management and the use of appropriate decision support tools. SAHRA coordinates G-WADI's information dissemination via G-WADI's web site and publications. Web-based resources include Global Water News Watch and the subscription service, Water News Tracker, plus access to remotely sensed precipitation data from HyDIS. Information on use of isotopes and chemical tracers is also featured. Materials and outcomes from various workshops and short courses on modeling, water harvesting, and impacts of climate change also are provided. While the intent is to benefit water resource managers in semi- arid and arid developing countries, the collaboration among international water centers, and perspectives and traditional knowledge gained from users, has benefitted U.S. researchers in many ways.

Woodard, G. C.; Imam, B.; Sorooshian, S.

2007-12-01

203

Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of increasing climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P/PET) as an aridity index, we used observed meteorological records at 83 stations in the TP to calculate PET using the Penman–Monteith algorithm and the ratio. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979–2011 were analyzed. Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter, and half of the stations in the semi-humid eastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with the change patterns of precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range. Temporal correlations between the annual P/PET ratio and other meteorological variables confirm the significant correlation between aridity and the three variables, with precipitation being the dominant driver of P/PET changes at the interannual time scale. Annual PET are insignificantly but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, the correlation between PET and P/PET is significant at the confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere near the surface melts. Significant correlation between annual wind speed and aridity occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.

Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, L. Ruby; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

2015-03-01

204

Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension.  

PubMed

When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported. PMID:25215729

Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L

2014-08-01

205

Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

Guerit, L.; Métivier, F.; Devauchelle, O.; Lajeunesse, E.; Barrier, L.

2014-08-01

206

The application of remotely sensed data to pedologic and geomorphic mapping on alluvial fan and playa surfaces in Saline Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arid and semiarid regions yield excellent opportunities for the study of pedologic and geomorphic processes. The dominance of rock and soil exposure over vegetation not only provides the ground observer with observational possibilities but also affords good opportunities for measurement by aircraft and satellite remote sensor devices. Previous studies conducted in the area of pedologic and geomorphic mapping in arid regions with remotely sensed data have utilized information obtained in the visible to near-infrared portion of the spectrum. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) and Thematic Mapping (TM) data collected in 1984 are being used in comjunction with maps compiled during a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) soil survey to aid in a detailed mapping of alluvial fan and playa surfaces within the valley. The results from this study may yield valuable information concerning the application of thermal data and thermal/visible data combinations to the problem of dating pedologic and geomorphic features in arid regions.

Miller, D. A.; Petersen, G. W.; Kahle, A. B.

1986-01-01

207

Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. -from Authors

Jobson, H.E.; Carey, W.P.

1989-01-01

208

The volcano-sedimentary evolution of a post-Variscan intramontane basin in the Swiss Alps (Glarus Verrucano) as revealed by zircon U-Pb age dating and Hf isotope geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Palaeozoic Glarus Verrucano basin (GVB, Glarus Alps, eastern Switzerland) formed as an intramontane graben in the aftermath of the Variscan orogeny. Its fill, the Glarus Verrucano, consists of immature alluvial fan and playa lake deposits with intercalated bimodal volcanics (basalts and rhyolites). Despite its importance for local and regional geology, no modern sedimentologic or stratigraphic studies on the GVB exist. By means of sedimentologic and geochronologic studies, we reconstruct the volcano-sedimentary evolution of the GVB: it developed at the Carboniferous/Permian boundary and experienced a first (bimodal) volcanic phase around 285 Ma. For the same time, indications for temporarily humid climate in the otherwise rather arid Early Permian are demonstrated (e.g. pyrite-bearing sandstones). During the Middle and Early Late Permian, increasing aridity is indicated by playa deposits, fanglomerates and subaerial ignimbrites, which mark a second (silicic) volcanic phase at 268 Ma. The detrital zircon age spectra are dominated by Late Variscan ages and thus demonstrate that older sedimentary and metamorphic rocks once forming the Variscan nappe edifice were already mostly eroded at that time. Finally, some larger-scale speculations are given which could indicate a causal connection between the widespread tectono-magmatic Mid-Permian Episode and the local development of the Glarus Verrucano basin.

Letsch, Dominik; Winkler, Wilfried; von Quadt, Albrecht; Gallhofer, Daniela

2015-01-01

209

Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)  

SciTech Connect

An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100{sup 0}C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

1983-05-01

210

Deserts and Arid Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential growth of global population and often concomitant degradation of the environment has forced human expansion into the more hostile and less well-known terrains of arid lands and deserts. Drought in the African Sahel, with recent wholesale movement of tribes seeking survival, has focused interest in such regions. However, geologic and geomorphic knowledge of deserts has expanded slowly until the last few decades. For instance, the arid cycle of erosion, as conceived by William Morse Davis (now deceased; formerly, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.), with modifications by W. Penck (now deceased; formerly, Leipzig University, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic), and L. C. King (University of Natal and Durban, South Africa), has dominated desert geomorphological deductions until recently. Since World War II and the verification of plate tectonics, the knowledge of arid lands has increased dramatically, especially in synoptic mapping from remote sensing data and space photography, which transcends political boundaries, thanks to the open skies policy of the U.S. space pioneers.

Brown, Glen F.

211

Development and lithogenesis of the palustrine and calcrete deposits of the Dibdibba Alluvial Fan, Kuwait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is proposed for the development of the Quaternary palustrine carbonate-calcrete association, which occurs as hard crust capping low hills at a distal flood plain of Al Dibdibba alluvial fan located at southwestern Kuwait. Field occurrence, detailed petrographic investigation and geochemical analysis revealed that a single cycle of groundwater calcrete with vertical gradational maturity pattern was developed. This represents a continuous sedimentological cycle during which flood sheet conditions prevailed with intermittent periods of humid and arid conditions. Subsequently, calcitic micrite was continuously precipitated from small, shallow, local, isolated and short lived ponds fringed by freshwater marshes with abundant charophyte meadows. The latter were developed as a result of flooding scattered depressions by groundwater supersaturated with respect to calcite due to rise of groundwater table. The deposition of two facies of carbonate muds, namely; biomicrite and pelintraclasts skeletal micrites was followed by a drought phase which witnessed desiccation of the fresh water ponds and significant drop in groundwater level. A sequence of pedogenic and diagenetic processes acted on the deposited carbonate muds are manifested by: (a) desiccation cracks, (b) micrite neomorphism, (c) infilling of root burrows and some cracks by aeolian siliciclastics, (d) karstification, (e) marmorization, (f) calcretization of root burrow infill and development of pseudo-rhizocrete, (g) calcite cementation and mineral authigenesis, and (h) silcretization. These processes are responsible for the development of hard palustrine carbonate crust. At the advent of aridity, the whole system of Al Dibdibba alluvial fan was subjected to deflation. This resulted in reversing the paleotopography of the hard crusted palustrine depressions into carbonate capped domal hills.

AlShuaibi, Arafat A.; Khalaf, Fikry I.

2011-08-01

212

Correlation and dating of Quaternary alluvial-fan surfaces using scarp diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great interest has recently been focused on dating and interpreting alluvial-fan surfaces. As a complement to the radiometric methods often used for surface-exposure dating, this paper illustrates a rapid method for correlating and dating fan surfaces using the cross-sectional shape of gullies incised into fan surfaces. The method applies a linear hillslope-diffusion model to invert for the diffusivity age, ?t (m 2), using an elevation profile or gradient (slope) profile. Gullies near the distal end of fan surfaces are assumed to form quickly following fan entrenchment. Scarps adjacent to these gullies provide a measure of age. The method is illustrated on fan surfaces with ages of approximately 10 ka to 1.2 Ma in the arid southwestern United States. Two areas of focus are Death Valley, California, and the Ajo Mountains piedmont, Arizona. Gully-profile morphology is measured in two ways: by photometrically derived gradient (slope) profiles and by ground-surveyed elevation profiles. The ?t values determined using ground-surveyed profiles are more consistent than those determined using photo-derived ?t values. However, the mean ?t values of both methods are comparable. The photometric method provides an efficient way to quantitatively and objectively correlate and relatively-date alluvial-fan surfaces. The ?t values for each surface are determined to approximately 30-50% accuracy.

Hsu, Leslie; Pelletier, Jon D.

2004-06-01

213

Late Quaternary eolian and alluvial response to paleoclimate, Canyonlands, southeastern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In upland areas of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, thin deposits and paleosols show late Quaternary episodes of eolian sedimentation, pedogenesis, and climate change. Interpretation of the stratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence ages of eolian and nearby alluvial deposits, their pollen, and intercalated paleosols yields the following history: (1) Eolian deposition at ca. 46 ka, followed by several episodes of alluviation from some time before ca. 40 ka until after 16 ka (calibrated). (2) Eolian deposition from ca. 17 ka to 12 ka, interrupted by periods of pedogenesis, coinciding with late Pleistocene alluviation as local climate became warmer and wetter. (3) A wetter period from 12 to 8.5 ka corresponding to the peak of summer monsoon influence, during which soils formed relatively quickly by infiltration of eolian silt and clay, and trees and grasses were more abundant. (4) A drier period between ca. 8.5 and 6 ka during which sheetwash deposits accumulated and more desertlike vegetation was dominant; some dunes were reactivated at ca. 8 ka. (5) Episodic eolian and fluvial deposition during a wetter, cooler period that began at ca. 6 ka and ended by ca. 3-2 ka, followed by a shift to drier modern conditions; localized mobilization of dune sand has persisted to the present. These interpretations are similar to those of studies at the Chaco dune field, New Mexico, and the Tusayan dune field, Arizona, and are consistent with paleoclimate interpretations of pollen and packrat middens in the region. A period of rapid deposition and infiltration of eolian dust derived from distant igneous source terranes occurred between ca. 12 and 8 ka. Before ca. 17 ka, and apparently back to at least 45 ka, paleosols contain little or no such infiltrated dust. After ca. 8 ka, either the supply of dust was reduced or the more arid climate inhibited translocation of dust into the soils. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

Reheis, M.C.; Reynolds, R.L.; Goldstein, H.; Roberts, H.M.; Yount, J.C.; Axford, Y.; Cummings, L.S.; Shearin, N.

2005-01-01

214

Differential features of alluvial fans controlled by tectonic or eustatic accommodation space. Examples from the Betic Cordillera, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of accommodation space in subaerial sedimentary environments is closely linked to uplift the source area (along basin-margin faults) or to a rise in base level. Depending (amongst others) on the relative importance of these two factors, the margins of terrestrial sedimentary basins (where alluvial fans develop) produce aggradational, progradational or retrogradational stratigraphic architecture. We studied a total of 43 Quaternary alluvial fans in the Granada and Bajo Segura basins (Betic Cordillera, Spain). The analysis of their stratigraphic architecture and sedimentary facies has revealed the existence of three groups characterised by distinct stratal stacking patterns, which is the result of differences in eustasy and tectonics. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of these alluvial fans and their drainage basins has allowed us to define certain characteristic geomorphological patterns related, in each case, to the main mechanism operative in the creation of accommodation space. These patterns are described as follows. (1) Alluvial aggradation is the main result of high tectonic subsidence with the development of quite open, but small fans with a constant steep slope lacking incised channels and headward-eroding gullies. (2) In contrast, when the principal mechanism in creating accommodation space is low tectonic subsidence, progradation occurs and the fans are narrower and larger. Moreover, the slopes of such fans are less steep in relation to the drainage area than in the above case, being constant or even concave in longitudinal profile. They also have short, deep incised channels, culminating downfan in a depositional lobe. In inactive zones, long, deep headward-eroding gullies develop. (3) Areas of extremely low tectonic subsidence and base level rise produce very open fans in the sedimentary basin, although with a pronounced mountain embayment, which gives them a characteristic "mushroom" shape in plan view. In the latter case, retrogradation is the typical stratigraphic stacking pattern and the fans are quite extensive with respect to their drainage areas, usually showing a segmented longitudinal profile with a low gradient. The feeder channels do not surpass stream order 3, and various extremely long and shallow incised channels can appear. (4) Contrary to the case of fans developing under a regime of subsidence, when the accommodation is due to base level rise, the fan slopes bear no relation to the extent of the catchment basins. In such a case, the overall fan slope is strongly influenced by the extent of the mountain embayment because it determines the distributions of debris and sheet-flows over the alluvial surface.

Viseras, César; Calvache, María. L.; Soria, Jesús M.; Fernández, Juan

2003-02-01

215

First Paleomagnetic Results from Holocene Alluvial Sediments in the Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first paleomagnetic results from Holocene alluvial sediments that crop out in the western sector of the Ebro basin at the Bardenas Reales de Navarra natural park (N Spain). The Holocene alluvial record in this area is characterized by a sequence of four morphopedosedimentary units arranged in a cut-and- fill and nested fill terrace system. We have sampled the lowermost two units in order to test the reliability of these sediments for secular variation studies. Unit 1, which is 17 meters thick and ranges between 7150-5300 BC in age, has been sampled with a mean resolution of 25 cm. The lowermost 6 meters of Unit 2, with ages between 1700-1000 BC, have been sampled with a mean resolution of 50 cm. Thermal demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization has enabled identification of a low-temperature component carried by magnetite. In most of the samples, an additional high-temperature component carried by hematite has been identified. Although both components are affected by inclination shallowing, they give similar secular variation trends. A comparison of these results with secular variation data derived from European lacustrine sediments and with available global geomagnetic models is presented. Our results suggest that the studied alluvial sediments might provide secular variation data of comparable quality to those of lacustrine sediments. Although these results are preliminary, they constitute the first step towards the extension of the Holocene secular variation curve for the Iberian Peninsula beyond archeomagnetic data.

Gomez-Paccard, M.; Larrasoana, J. C.; Sancho, C.; Munoz, A.; Costa, E.; Beamud, E.

2009-05-01

216

Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program is "a multi-agency, multi-national global-change research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced changes in semi-arid environments." Current research efforts focus on the upper San Pedro River basin, encompassing southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora (Mexico). At the site, users will find summaries of current research in the Research section, including study area maps and project summaries for the Transborder Watershed Research Program, Ecosystem Fragmentation and Restoration Study, the 1998 Mexico Campaign (an intensive field campaign "to measure upland water and energy fluxes during August and September 1998"), and Riparian Ecophysiology (coming soon). Also available are numerous archived summaries from research conducted before 1998. An excellent collection of links on global change research and "other information sources related to the hydrology and ecology of the Upper San Pedro River Basin" rounds out the site.

217

Characteristics of the gravel size and potassium in the Ejin Alluvial Fan from remote sensing images and stratigraphic section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ejin Alluvial Fan (EAF), located in the north-west of China, is an important recorder of both paleoclimatic and tectonic information of the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Remote sensing technics, including optical and microwave sensors, have been the key spatial observation tools to extract the surface information related to the paleoenvironment. In this paper, the gravel size and chemical element potassium K distributions of the EAF were obtained from RadarSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and LandSat TM optical data, respectively. In addition, the stratigraphic section of the EAF was established and the corresponding geological information in the vertical direction with different periods was obtained. Combining the geological survey information and surface distribution information, it can be concluded as follows. 1) The EAF covers an area of above 30,000 km2 and may be the largest arid and semi-arid alluvial fan in the world based on the remote sensing survey. 2) Some surface parameters which are related to the paleoenvironmental change can be obtained from remote sensing data, such as the gravel size and potassium K parameters. 3) The forming process of the EAF and the corresponding environments will be understood deeply, combining the paleoenvironmental related parameters derived from remote sensing data and the geologic survey data.

Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Qinjun

2014-03-01

218

Turkana Grits - a Cretaceous braided alluvial system in northern Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Rather spotty but excellent exposures of the Cretaceous-age Turkana Grits occur near the western shore of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. These very coarse to pebbly arkosic sandstones and sandy conglomerates were derived from and rest unconformably upon Precambrian metamorphic basement; they are overlain by late Tertiary basaltic flows that comprise much of the volcanics in the East African Rift Zone. The formation ranges up to 2000 ft thick in the Laburr Range. Several outcrops contain sauropod, crocodile, and tortoise remains as well as abundant trunks of petrified wood (Dryoxylon). Five major facies make up the Turkana Grits and record a major episode of continental fluvial deposition in basins flanked by Precambrian basement. Facies 1 is crudely stratified, cobble and boulder conglomerate (clast-supported); Facies 2 is crudely stratified pebble-cobble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone; Facies 3 is trough cross-bedded, very coarse sandstones containing fossils wood and vertebrate remains; Facies 4 is crudely stratified to massive sandstones with ironstone nodules; and Facies 5 is red, purple, and gray mudstone and mud shale with carbonate nodules. Facies 1 through 3 record deposition in proximal to medial braided-stream channel, longitudinal bar and dune complexes. Facies 4 is a lowland, hydromorphic paleosol, and Facies 5 represents overbank and abandoned channel-fill sedimentation in an alluvial plain.

Handford, C.R.

1987-05-01

219

Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from mixture of ambient sources, including direct percolation of precipitation and irrigation waters, infiltration of runoff from surrounding hills/areas, seepage from rivers and creeks, and subsurface inflow (from non-alluvial geologic units that bound the alluvial basins). The primary sources of discharge are evaporation, discharge to streams, and water pumped for municipal supply and irrigation.

Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

2015-01-01

220

Quantitative mapping of arid alluvial fan surfaces using field spectrometer and hyperspectral remote sensing  

E-print Network

the gravel coverage (%) in each pixel of the hyperspectral image. The prediction of gravel coverage (%) is with accuracy of ±15% (e.g. gravel coverage of 50% can be predicted to be 35% to 65%). Using extensive accuracy assessment data, we show that the spectral based mapping maintained high accuracy degree (R2 =0.57 to 0

Dov, Avigad

221

Marsh development after large floods in an alluvial, arid-land river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large expanses of riverine marsh are rare in the desert Southwest, given the dry surface of many floodplain soils. Along the\\u000a Hassayampa River, riverine marsh underwent a 5-fold increase (from 2% to 9% of the floodplain-channel area) after a large\\u000a winter flood in 1993. Flood waters eroded terraces that had aggraded during frequent, smaller floods, widened the channel\\u000a from about

Juliet C. Stromberg; Jana Fry; Duncan T. Patten

1997-01-01

222

Modelling the response of an alluvial aquifer to anthropogenic and recharge stresses in the United States Southern Great Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses Visual MODFLOW to simulate potential impacts of anthropogenic pumping and recharge variability on an alluvial aquifer in semi-arid northwestern Oklahoma. Groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer is projected to increase by more than 50% (relative to 1990) by the year 2050. In contrast, climate projections indicate declining regional precipitation over the next several decades, creating a potential problem of demand and supply. The following scenarios were simulated: (1) projected groundwater withdrawal, (2) a severe drought, (3) a prolonged wet period, and (4) a human adjustment scenario, which assumes future improvements in water conservation measures. Results indicate that the combined impacts of anthropogenic pumping and droughts would create drawdown of greater than 12 m in the aquifer. Spatially, however, areas of severe drawdown will be localized around large-capacity well clusters. The worst impacts of both pumping and droughts will be on stream-aquifer interaction. For example, the projected aquifer pumpage would lead to a total streamflow loss of 40%, creating losing stream system regionally. Similarly, a severe drought would lead to a total streamflow loss of >80%. A post-audit of the model was also carried out to evaluate model performance. By simulating various stress scenarios on the alluvial aquifer, this study provides important information for evaluating management options for alluvial aquifers.

Zume, Joseph T.; Tarhule, Aondover A.

2011-08-01

223

Fire, climate, and alluvial system dynamics: A Holocene record from Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Many large debris-flow, hyperconcentrated-flow, and flood-streamflow sediment transport events have been produced in steep basins that were burned in the 1988 fires in northeaster Yellowstone National Park. The charcoal- and fines-rich character of fire-related debris-flow deposits and the abundance of similar facies in Holocene fan sections have allowed them to construct a [sup 14]C-dated chronology of fire-related sedimentation in the Soda Butte and Slough Creek drainages for the last 3500 years. Major periods of fire-related alluvial fan aggradation are interpreted as drought-dominated with the support of local paleoenvironmental data and statistical analyses of historical climate-fire relations; however, some fire-related events may occur due to high climatic variability and severe short-term drought within generally moist intervals. The last major episode of fire-related debris-flow activity encompasses the Medieval Warm Period of 900--1300 AD and peaks ca. 1150 AD; a prior episode culminates ca. 350--100 BC. Wetter periods contain minimal fire-related fan sedimentation; however, floodplain broadening and aggradation occurs along axial streams. Higher average snowmelt runoff discharges are probably involved, such that the dominant alluvial activity shifts to removal of sediment from alluvial fan storage and transport to downstream floodplains. The Little Ice Age (ca. 1300--1900 AD) contains minimal fire-related debris0flow activity and is associated with floodplain aggradation of the T4 terrace, and independent evidence suggests substantially wetter conditions during T3 aggradation ca. 350--650 AD. Thus, small-scale climate changes of the late Holocene effectively control the dominant mode of alluvial activity.

Meyer, G.A. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology); Wells, S.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Jull, A.J. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). NSF-Arizona Accelerator Facility For Isotope Dating)

1992-01-01

224

CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN MODIFIED ALLUVIAL STREAMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study (a) assesses the channel changes and network trends of bed level response after modifications between 1959 and 1972 of alluvial channels in western Tennessee and (b) develops a conceptual model of bank slope development to qualitatively assess bank stability and potential channel widening. A six-step, semiquantitative model of channel evolution in disturbed channels was developed by quantifying bed level trends and recognizing qualitative stages of bank slope development. Development of the bank profile is defined in terms of three dynamic and observable surfaces: (a) vertical face (70 to 90 degrees), (b) upper bank (25 to 50 degrees), and (c) slough line (20 to 25 degrees).

Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R.

1987-01-01

225

Controls on alluvial fan long-profiles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and debris flows exiting confined valleys have a tendency to deposit sediment on steep fans. On alluvial fans where water transport of gravel predominates, channel slopes tend to decrease downfan from ???0.10-0.04 to ???0.01 across wide ranges of climate and tectonism. Some have argued that this pattern reflects grain-size fining downfan such that higher threshold slopes are required just to entrain coarser particles in the waters of the upper fan, whereas lower slopes are required to entrain finer grains downfan (threshold hypothesis). An older hypothesis is that slope is adjusted to transport the supplied sediment load, which decreases downfan as deposition occurs (transport hypothesis). We have begun to test these hypotheses for alluvial fan long-profiles using detailed hydraulic and particle-size data in sediment transport models. On four alluvial fans in the western U.S., we find that channel hydraulic radiiare largely 0.5-0.9 m at fan heads, decreasing to 0.1-0.2 m at distal margins. We find that median gravel diameter does not change systematically along the upper 60%-80% of active fan channels as slope declines, so downstream gravel fining cannot explain most of the observed channel slope reduction. However, as slope declines, channel-bed sand cover increases systematically downfan from areal fractions of <20% above fan heads to distal fan values in excess of 70%. As a result, entrainment thresholds for bed material might decrease systematically downfan, leading to lower slopes. However, current models of this effect alone tend to underpredict downfan slope changes. This is likely due to off-channel gravel deposition. Calculations that match observed fan long-profiles require an exponential decline in gravel transport rate, so that on some fans approximately half of the load must be deposited off channel every -0.20-1.4 km downfan. This leads us to hypothesize that some alluvial fan long-proffies are statements about the rate of overbank deposition of coarse particles downfan, a process for which there is currently no mechanistic theory. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

Stock, J.D.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.

2008-01-01

226

Macro-roughness model of bedrock-alluvial river morphodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1-D saltation-abrasion model of channel bedrock incision of Sklar and Dietrich, in which the erosion rate is buffered by the surface area fraction of bedrock covered by alluvium, was a major advance over models that treat river erosion as a function of bed slope and drainage area. Their model is, however, limited because it calculates bed cover in terms of bedload sediment supply rather than local bedload transport. It implicitly assumes that as sediment supply from upstream changes, the transport rate adjusts instantaneously everywhere downstream to match. This assumption is not valid in general, and thus can give rise unphysical consequences. Here we present a unified morphodynamic formulation of both channel incision and alluviation which specifically tracks the spatiotemporal variation of both bedload transport and alluvial thickness. It does so by relating the cover fraction not to a ratio of bedload supply rate to capacity bedload transport, but rather to the ratio of alluvium thickness to a macro-roughness characterizing the bedrock surface. The new formulation predicts waves of alluviation and rarification, in addition to bedrock erosion. Embedded in it are three physical processes: alluvial diffusion, fast downstream advection of alluvial disturbances and slow upstream migration of incisional disturbances. Solutions of this formulation over a fixed bed are used to demonstrate the stripping of an initial alluvial cover, the emplacement of alluvial cover over an initially bare bed and the advection-diffusion of a sediment pulse over an alluvial bed. A solution for alluvial-incisional interaction in a channel with a basement undergoing net rock uplift shows how an impulsive increase in sediment supply can quickly and completely bury the bedrock under thick alluvium, so blocking bedrock erosion. As the river responds to rock uplift or base level fall, the transition point separating an alluvial reach upstream from an alluvial-bedrock reach downstream migrates upstream in the form of a "hidden knickpoint". A solution for the case of a zone of rock subsidence (graben) bounded upstream and downstream by zones of rock uplift (horsts) yields a steady-state solution that is unattainable with the original saltation-abrasion model. A solution for the case of bedrock-alluvial coevolution upstream of an alluviated river mouth illustrates how the bedrock surface can be progressive buried not far below the alluvium. Because the model tracks the spatiotemporal variation of both bedload transport and alluvial thickness, it is applicable to the study of the incisional response of a river subject to temporally varying sediment supply. It thus has the potential to capture the response of an alluvial-bedrock river to massive impulsive sediment inputs associated with landslides or debris flows.

Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Stark, C. P.; Inoue, T.; Viparelli, E.; Fu, X.; Izumi, N.

2014-05-01

227

Macro-roughness model of bedrock-alluvial river morphodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1-D saltation-abrasion model of channel bedrock incision of Sklar and Dietrich (2004), in which the erosion rate is buffered by the surface area fraction of bedrock covered by alluvium, was a major advance over models that treat river erosion as a function of bed slope and drainage area. Their model is, however, limited because it calculates bed cover in terms of bedload sediment supply rather than local bedload transport. It implicitly assumes that as sediment supply from upstream changes, the transport rate adjusts instantaneously everywhere downstream to match. This assumption is not valid in general, and thus can give rise to unphysical consequences. Here we present a unified morphodynamic formulation of both channel incision and alluviation that specifically tracks the spatiotemporal variation in both bedload transport and alluvial thickness. It does so by relating the bedrock cover fraction to the ratio of alluvium thickness to bedrock macro-roughness, rather than to the ratio of bedload supply rate to capacity bedload transport. The new formulation (MRSAA) predicts waves of alluviation and rarification, in addition to bedrock erosion. Embedded in it are three physical processes: alluvial diffusion, fast downstream advection of alluvial disturbances, and slow upstream migration of incisional disturbances. Solutions of this formulation over a fixed bed are used to demonstrate the stripping of an initial alluvial cover, the emplacement of alluvial cover over an initially bare bed and the advection-diffusion of a sediment pulse over an alluvial bed. A solution for alluvial-incisional interaction in a channel with a basement undergoing net rock uplift shows how an impulsive increase in sediment supply can quickly and completely bury the bedrock under thick alluvium, thus blocking bedrock erosion. As the river responds to rock uplift or base level fall, the transition point separating an alluvial reach upstream from an alluvial-bedrock reach downstream migrates upstream in the form of a "hidden knickpoint". A tectonically more complex case of rock uplift subject to a localized zone of subsidence (graben) yields a steady-state solution that is not attainable with the original saltation-abrasion model. A solution for the case of bedrock-alluvial coevolution upstream of an alluviated river mouth illustrates how the bedrock surface can be progressively buried not far below the alluvium. Because the model tracks the spatiotemporal variation in both bedload transport and alluvial thickness, it is applicable to the study of the incisional response of a river subject to temporally varying sediment supply. It thus has the potential to capture the response of an alluvial-bedrock river to massive impulsive sediment inputs associated with landslides or debris flows.

Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Stark, C. P.; Inoue, T.; Viparelli, E.; Fu, X.; Izumi, N.

2015-02-01

228

A Feasibility Study of Geologic Water Storage in Arid Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important control on the carrying capacity of arid and semi-arid regions is the ability to develop and maintain a reliable water supply for domestic and agricultural use. In the semi-arid highlands of southern Peru, the pre-Columbian Incas developed a technique of collecting and storing basin yields by controlling the discharge boundary of an existing aquifer. This water resource management strategy has been dubbed "Geologic Water Storage" (Fairley, in review). Yield from at least one such system near Cuzco, Peru, has provided a reliable source of irrigation water for rural farmers to the present day. The geologic water storage systems of southern Peru suggested the possibility of developing a similar system to water stock in rural Idaho. Annual precipitation in Idaho is about one-third that of southern Peru, and obtaining an adequate stock water supply is often problematic. The application of a simple lumped capacitance model to a selected basin in central Idaho showed that it may be physically and economically feasible to modify the basin characteristics to prolong water availability at the site. A more detailed study of this problem, that includes field characterization of the site, is necessary to substantiate the model results. If further studies and field trials confirm the viability of geologic water storage, this approach may find applications in many rural and developing areas, both nationally and internationally.

Fairley, J. P.; Preuit, T.

2001-05-01

229

Assessment of global aridity change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing demand for water and the anticipated impacts of climate change necessitate a more reliable assessment of water availability for proper planning and management. Adequate understanding of the past changes in water resources availability can offer crucial information about potential changes in the future. Aridity is a reliable representation of potential water availability, especially at large scales. The present study investigates the changes in global aridity since 1960. The study considers the UNESCO aridity index, with aridity being represented as a function of its two key drivers: precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET). First, published literature on changes in trends of P, PET, and aridity across the world is surveyed. This is followed by the analysis of trends in the aridity observations over the period 1960-2009. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test is performed for trend analysis and outcomes investigated for the presence of clusters of trend across different grid cells the analysis is conducted over. The results suggest that arid zones are becoming slightly more humid and vice versa. They also indicate that the trend in aridity changed, or even reversed, around 1980 in most parts of the world. We speculate that the reason for this was the dramatic change (rise) in global temperature around 1980 as per both published literature and the present analysis, which, in turn, caused similar trends for global PET. We also call for additional research to verify, and possibly confirm, the present results.

Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Sharma, Ashish

2015-01-01

230

Simulating Fine grained Alluvial Fan Sedimentation on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alluvial fans on Mars date to as late as the Hesperian Period and may be representative of the last major episode of widespread fluvial modification to the red planet's surface. These fans lie within enclosed crater basins, and are characterized by their large size (tens of km in length) and gentle gradient (less than 1-3°). The fans generally feature a network of channel distributaries floored with coarser sediment and what we have interpreted to be fine grained overbank deposits that comprise the bulk of the fan material [1]. We have developed a landform evolution model based on the approach of [2] to simulate the growth of these fans in order to answer several questions about their formation, including: (1) what are the characteristics of water discharge (flow magnitude and duration) and sediment supply (quantity and grain size); and (2) what are the associated implications for the responsible climatic environment (e.g. amount and frequency of precipitation sourcing the fans). The model combines discharge and sediment deposition with channel avulsion and abandonment, allowing for an analysis of both the micro and macro scale processes concerning fan formation. Water and sediment is routed through a distributary network that can branch, recombine, and avulse. The model simulates deposition of both coarse-grained bedload and a fine-grained suspended load material that can be deposited overbank during flood events. The model records the stratigraphy of the deposited material in terms of the relative proportions of coarse and fine-grained sediment. Using measures such as channel width, relative proportions of channel versus overbank deposited sediment, and frequency of channel branching, output is statistically compared with digital elevation models that have been produced from high-resolution CTX and HiRISE stereo pairs. Initial results suggest fans formed from hundreds of flow events over many thousands of years. Fan formation processes appear to be similar to those active in terrestrial fans in northern Chile's Atacama Desert. Additional model runs will simulate fan development under different patterns of precipitation (uniform over the fan versus an orographic pattern of greater precipitation on upper crater walls) and variations in sediment size distribution. References: [1] Morgan, A. M., Howard, A. D., Hobley, D. E. J., Moore, J. M., Dietrich, W. E., Williams, R. M. E., Burr, D. M., Grant, J. A., Wilson, S. A., and Matsubara, Y. (in review) Sedimentology and Climatic Environment of Alluvial Fans in the Martian Saheki Crater and a Comparison with Terrestrial Fans in the Atacama Desert [2] Sun, T., C. Paola, G. Parker, and P. Meakin (2002), Water Resour. Res., 38, no.8, 10.

Morgan, A. M.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Beyer, R. A.

2013-12-01

231

Combining point and distributed snowpack data with landscape-based discretization for hydrologic modeling of the snow-dominated Maipo River basin, in the semi-arid Andes of Central Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 5000-km2 upper Maipo River Basin, in central Chile's Andes, has an adequate streamgage network but almost no meteorological or snow accumulation data. Therefore, hydrologic model parameterization is strongly subject to model errors stemming from input and model-state uncertainty. In this research, we apply the Cold Regions Hydrologic Model (CRHM) to the basin, force it with reanalysis data downscaled to an appropriate resolution, and inform a parsimonious basin discretization, based on the hydrologic response unit concept, with distributed data on snowpack properties obtained through snow surveys for two seasons. With minimal calibration the model is able to reproduce the seasonal accumulation and melt cycle as recorded in the one snow pillow available for the basin, and although a bias in maximum accumulation persists, snowpack persistence in time is appropriately simulated based on snow water equivalent and snow covered area observations. Blowing snow events were simulated by the model whenever daily wind speed surpassed 8 m/s, although the use of daily instead of hourly data to force the model suggests that this phenomenon could be underestimated. We investigate the representation of snow redistribution by the model, and compare it with small-scale observations of wintertime snow accumulation on glaciers, in a first step towards characterizing ice distribution within a HRU spatial discretization. Although built at a different spatial scale, we present a comparison of simulated results with distributed snow depth data obtained within a 40 km2 sub-basin of the main Maipo watershed in two snow surveys carried out at the end of winter seasons 2011 and 2012, and compare basin-wide SWE estimates with a regression tree extrapolation of the observed data.

McPhee, James; Videla, Yohann

2014-05-01

232

Debris-flow dominance of alluvial fans masked by runoff reworking and weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid alluvial fan aggradation is highly episodic and fans often comprise active and inactive sectors. Hence the morphology and texture of fan surfaces are partly determined by secondary processes of weathering and erosion in addition to primary processes of aggradation. This introduces considerable uncertainty in the identification of formative processes of terrestrial and Martian fans from aerial and satellite imagery. The objectives of this study are (i) to develop a model to describe the sedimentological and morphological evolution of inactive fan surfaces in arid settings, and (ii) to assess the relative importance of primary processes of aggradation and secondary processes of weathering and reworking for surface morphology and sedimentology and for the stratigraphic record. We studied an alluvial fan characterized by a recently active sector and a long-abandoned, inactive sector along the coast of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. Here, rates of primary geomorphic activity are exceptionally low because of extreme aridity, while weathering rates are relatively high because of the effects of coastal fogs. Long-term processes of fan aggradation and reworking were determined through sedimentological facies analysis of stratigraphic sections. Ground surveys for textural and morphological patterns at the fan surface were integrated with remote-sensing by an Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). Discharges and sediment-transport capacities were calculated to estimate the efficiency of secondary runoff in reshaping the inactive fan sector. Stratigraphic sections reveal that the fan was dominantly aggraded by debris flows, whereas surface morphology is dominated by debris-flow signatures in the active sector and by weathering and runoff on the inactive sector. On the latter, rapid particle breakdown prevents the formation of a coarse desert pavement. Furthermore, relatively frequent local runoff events erode proximal debris-flow channels on the inactive sector to form local lag deposits and accumulate fine sediment in low-gradient distal channels, forming a well-developed drainage pattern that would suggest a runoff origin from aerial images. Nevertheless, reworking is very superficial and barely preserved in the stratigraphic record. This implies that fans on Earth and Mars that formed dominantly by sporadic mass flows may be masked by a surface morphology related to other processes.

de Haas, Tjalling; Ventra, Dario; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

2014-07-01

233

Causes of farmland salinization and remedial measures in the Aral Sea basin—Research on water management to prevent secondary salinization in rice-based cropping system in arid land  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Lower Syr Darya region of the Aral Sea basin, secondary salinization of irrigated lands has been a crucial problem. To clarify the mechanism of secondary salinization, studies on water and salt behavior were conducted in an irrigation block where a rice-based cropping system has been practiced. Results of on-site studies are summarized as follows: (1) since the performance

Yoshinobu Kitamura; Tomohisa Yano; Toshimasa Honna; Sadahiro Yamamoto; Koji Inosako

2006-01-01

234

Chloride mass-balance method for estimating ground water recharge in arid areas: Examples from western Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chloride mass-balance method, which integrates time and aerial distribution of ground water recharge, was applied to small alluvial aquifers in the wadi systems of the Asir and Hijaz mountains in western Saudi Arabia. This application is an extension of the method shown to be suitable for estimating recharge in regional aquifers in semi-arid areas. Because the method integrates recharge in time and space it appears to be, with certain assumptions, particularly well suited for and areas with large temporal and spatial variation in recharge. In general, recharge was found to be between 3 to 4% of precipitation - a range consistent with recharge rates found in other arid and semi-arid areas of the earth.

Bazuhair, A.S.; Wood, W.W.

1996-01-01

235

Modeling the Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Impacted by Agricultural Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semi-arid and arid regions, interaction between surface water and groundwater plays an important role in the eco-hydrological system. The interaction is often complicated by agricultural activities such as surface water diversion, groundwater pumping, and irrigation. In existing surface water-groundwater integrated models, simulation of the interaction is often simplified, which could introduce significant simulation uncertainty under certain circumstance. In this study, GSFLOW, a USGS model coupling PRMS and MODFLOW, was improved to better characterize the surface water-groundwater interaction. The practices of water diversion from rivers, groundwater pumping and irrigation are explicitly simulated. In addition, the original kinematic wave routing method was replaced by a dynamic wave routing method. The improved model was then applied in Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe River Baisn), China, where the famous 'Silk Road' came through. It is a typical semi-arid region of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis. The model was established and calibrated using the data in 2000-2008. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of those improvements. It has been demonstrated that with the improvements, the observed streamflow and groundwater level were better reproduced by the model. The improvements have a significant impact on the simulation of multiple fluxes associated with the interaction, such as groundwater discharge, riverbed seepage, infiltration, etc. Human activities were proved to be key elements of the water cycle in the study area. The study results have important implications to the water resources modeling and management in semi-arid and arid basins.

Tian, Y.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Y.

2013-12-01

236

Downstream hydraulic geometry of alluvial rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a three-level approach to the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry. First, empirical concepts based on field observations of "poised" conditions in irrigation canals are examined. Second, theoretical developments have been made possible by combining basic relationships for the description of flow and sediment transport in alluvial rivers. Third, a relatively new concept of equivalent channel widths is presented. The assumption of equilibrium may describe a perpetual state of change and adjustments. The new concepts define the trade-offs between some hydraulic geometry parameters such as width and slope. The adjustment of river widths and slope typically follows a decreasing exponential function and recent developments indicate how the adjustment time scale can be quantified. Some examples are also presented to illustrate the new concepts presented and the realm of complex river systems.

Julien, P. Y.

2015-03-01

237

Geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of a catastrophic flash flood in the Arás drainage basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On August 7th, 1996, an intense and short-duration convective storm occurred over the 18.6-km2 Arás drainage basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain). This high relief basin is composed of three subbasins, Aso, Betés and La Selva, and feeds the Arás alluvial fan, in the Gállego river valley. This alluvial fan had been drained by an artificial channel (about 125 m3\\/s at bank-full

Francisco Gutiérrez; Mateo Gutiérrez; Carlos Sancho

1998-01-01

238

From source to sink in the sediment cascade of the Hei-River Basin: Implications for late Quaternary landscape dynamics in the Gobi Desert, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hei River Basin with a catchment size of ~130,000 km² is host to one of the largest continental alluvial fans in the world. The basin comprises: (1) its high-elevated river sources in the glacier and the permafrost zone of the Qilian Mountains, (2) the semi-arid foreland of the Hexi Corridor in the middle reaches and (3) the endorheic Ejina Basin (Gaxun Nur Basin) as its recent sink. The river basin is characterized by small subcatchments of hyper-arid mountain ranges of the Gobi-Tienshan and Beishan as well as of smooth and fuzzy water divides of the Hexi-Corridor and the Badain Jaran Sand Sea. Up to 300 m of Quaternary sediments establish the large Ejina Basin, with a size of 28,000 km², as an excellent archive for environmental reconstructions located at the recent intersection of westerly and monsoonal air masses. Three sediment cores (up to 230 m long) provide evidence of sedimentation dynamics over the last 250,000 years, and cover at least two terminations since OIS 6. The sediments have to be regarded as a result of the interplay between tectonic activity and climate dynamics, accompanied by a related eolian and hydrological response of the catchment. Thus, it is crucial to understand and reconstruct the sedimentary processes along the huge sediment cascades, and to identify the most important sediment sources. Here we present a provenance analysis from mineralogical fingerprints of modern sediments that have been deposited along recent pathways from the sources to the Ejina Basin. The methodical approach combines the analysis of clay minerals, bulk mineralogy, and bulk geochemistry. Furthermore, we use heavy mineral data obtained from automated particle-analysis via a computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM) and XRD measurements. We analyzed ~200 surface samples from the whole catchment as reference material, as well as the upper 19 m of cored sediments, to gain insight into temporal changes of depositional processes and provenance. Geostatistical analyses of the compositional data reveal a clear discrimination between sediments from the Qilian Shan in the south and from local basin sediments in the north. Moreover the mineralogical fingerprints allow the differentiation of sources from intrusive rocks that are dominant in the Bei Shan mountain sub-catchment, and from greenschist-bearing metamorphic rocks, that are widespread in the Qilian Mountain catchment. Finally, we draw conclusions about the main transport processes and pathways from assumed source regions to the sink (Ejina Basin). The provenance analysis of the sediment core reveals strong changes from local (Bei Shan) to long-distant (Qilian Shan) sources. The Late Pleistocene record reveals frequently changing sediment supply between periodic high mountain runoff and local episodic runoff. We assume that these variations are related to basin internal processes (e.g. fan dynamics, tectonics) and changing environmental conditions that are linked with variations in meltwater runoff and precipitation in the upper reaches of the southern catchment. These conclusions are supported by grain size characteristics that indicate phases of predominant alluvial activity and limnic deposition around the Late Glacial to Holocene transition and enhanced pre-Holocene eolian activity.

Schimpf, Stefan; Nottebaum, Veit; Diekmann, Bernhard; Hartmann, Kai; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Wünnemann, Bernd; Zhang, Chi

2014-05-01

239

Assessing an Alluvial Channel Behavioral Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern alluvial rivers appear to be highly organized physical systems. Although empirical relations provide much insight into the fundamental organizing principles of rivers across multiple scales, current theory does not fully explain these relations. In particular the bankfull Shields stress and particle Reynolds number characterize mutual adjustments of basal shear stress and median grain size of the sediment load within a channel, and it has been derived that the bankfull Shields stress should scale with the particle Reynolds number to the -2/3 power. However, empirical results do not support this. In order to explore this discrepancy we develop theory and add new data to existing datasets of alluvial bankfull properties. We compiled a dataset of 641 bankfull measurements from previous compilations and new, previously un-compiled studies. Using Bayesian linear regression, we find a relation between the logarithms of bankfull Shields stress and particle Reynolds number with a slope that has a 95% high posterior probability density interval probability of (-0.499, -0.463). Either a parameter is missing or one of the current parameters is incorrectly formulated. We propose that the particle Reynolds number is nondimensionalized in a way that, although is correctly unitless, is not the scaled internally in the most advantageously for this application. Unfortunately, without measured variability of kinematic viscosity, fluid density, or sediment density, the data is confounded and a new, more correct formulation of the particle Reynolds number cannot be proposed. A future work could resolve this issue with variation of any one of these parameters. Results from that dataset will have application to a wide range of modern and ancient planetary environments.

Trampush, S.; McElroy, B. J.; Huzurbazar, S. V.

2012-12-01

240

Alluvial Bars of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed Wild and Scenic River (Obed WSR), in Cumberland and Morgan Counties, Tennessee. The study was partly driven by concern that trapping of sand by upstream impoundments might threaten rare, threatened, or endangered plant habitat by reducing the supply of sediment to the alluvial bars. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a preliminary understanding of the distribution, morphology, composition, stability, and vegetation structure of alluvial bars along the Obed WSR, and (2) determine whether evidence of human alteration of sediment dynamics in the Obed WSR warrants further, more detailed examination. This report presents the results of the reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed River, Clear Creek, and Daddys Creek in the Obed WSR. The report is based on: (1) field-reconnaissance visits by boat to 56 alluvial bars along selected reaches of the Obed River and Clear Creek; (2) analysis of aerial photographs, topographic and geologic maps, and other geographic data to assess the distribution of alluvial bars in the Obed WSR; (3) surveys of topography, surface particle size, vegetation structure, and ground cover on three selected alluvial bars; and (4) analysis of hydrologic records.

Wolfe, W.J.; Fitch, K.C.; Ladd, D.E.

2007-01-01

241

Long-term interactions between man and the fluvial environment - case of the Diyala alluvial fan, Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mesopotamian alluvial plain is dominated by large aggradading river systems (the Euphrates, Tigris and their tributaries), which are prone to avulsions. An avulsion can be defined as the diversion of flow from an existing channel onto the floodplain, eventually resulting in a new channel belt. Early civilizations depended on the position of rivers for their economic survival and hence the impact of channel shifts could be devastating (Wilkinson 2003; Morozova 2005; Heyvaert & Baeteman 2008). Research in the Iranian deltaic part of the Mesopotamian plain has demonstrated that deliberate human action (such as the construction of irrigation canals and dams) triggered or obstructed the alluvial processes leading to an avulsion on fluvial megafans (during preconditioning, triggering and post-triggering stages) (Walstra et al. 2010; Heyvaert et al. 2012, Heyvaert et al.2013). Thus, there is ample evidence that the present-day alluvial landscapes in the region are the result of complex interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes. Here we present a reconstruction of the Late Holocene evolution of the Diyala alluvial fan (one of the main tributaries of the Tigris in Iraq), with particular attention to the relations between alluvial fan development, changes in channel pattern, the construction of irrigation networks and the rise and collapse of societies through historic times. The work largely draws on the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques for geomorphological mapping, and previously published archaeological field data (Adams 1965). By linking archaeological sites of known age with traces of ancient irrigation networks we were able to establish a chronological framework of alluvial activity of the Diyala alluvial fan. Our results demonstrate that centralized and technologically advanced societies were able to maintain a rapidly aggradading distibutary channel system, supplying water and sediment across the entire alluvial fan. As a consequence, during these periods (Parthian, Sasanian and again in modern times), significant human modification of the landscape took place. Periods of societal decline are associated with reduced human impact and the development of a single-threaded incising river system. Adams, R.M. (1965). Land behind Baghdad: A history of settlement on the Diyala plains. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Heyvaert, V.M.A. & Baeteman, C. (2008). A Middle to Late Holocene avulsion history of the Euphrates river: a case study from Tell ed-D-er, Iraq, Lower Mesopotamia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2401-2410. Heyvaert, V. M. A., Walstra, J., Verkinderen, P., Weerts, H. J. T. & Ooghe, B. (2012). The role of human interference on the channel shifting of the river Karkheh in the Lower Khuzestan plain (Mesopotamia, SW Iran). Quaternary International, 251, 52-63. Heyvaert, V.M.A., Walstra, J., Weerts, H.J.T. (2013). Human impact on avulsion and fan development in a semi-arid region: examples from SW Iran. Abstractbook of the 10th International Fluvial Sedimentology Conference, July 2013,Leeds, United Kingdom. Morozova, G.S. (2005). A review of Holocene avulsions of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and possible effects on the evolution of civilizations in lower Mesopotamia. Geoarchaeology, 20, 401-423. Walstra, J., Heyvaert, V. M. A. & Verkinderen, P. (2010). Assessing human impact on alluvial fan development: a multidisciplinary case-study from Lower Khuzestan (SW Iran). Geodinamica Acta, 23, 267-285. Wilkinson, T.J. (2003). Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Walstra, Jan; Mortier, Clément

2014-05-01

242

Distribution and Orientation of Alluvial Fans in Martian Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of the complete survey of Martian alluvial fans from 0-30 S, initiated by Moore and Howard. Nineteen impact craters contain alluvial fans. They are regionally grouped into three distinct areas. We present our initial results regarding their distribution and orientation in order to understand what controls their formation. Since alluvial fans are formed by water transport of sediment, these features record wetter episodes of Martian climate. In addition, their enigmatic distribution (in regional groups and in some craters, but not similar adjacent ones) needs to be understood, to see how regional geology, topographic characteristics, and/or climate influence their formation and distribution.

Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. I.

2005-01-01

243

A review of stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo Basin of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karoo Supergroup covers almost two thirds of the present land surface of southern Africa. Its strata record an almost continuous sequence of continental sedimentation that began in the Permo-Carboniferous (280 Ma) and terminated in the early Jurassic 100 million years later. The glacio-marine to terrestrial sequence accumulated in a variety of tectonically controlled depositories under progressively more arid climatic conditions. Numerous vertebrate fossils are preserved in these rocks, including fish, amphibians, primitive aquatic reptiles, primitive land reptiles, more advanced mammal-like reptiles, dinosaurs and even the earliest mammals. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the major stratigraphic units of the Karoo sequence demonstrates the effects of more localised tectonic basins in influencing depositional style. These are superimposed on a basinwide trend of progressive aridification attributed to the gradual northward migration of southwestern Gondwanaland out of polar climes and accentuated by the meteoric drying effect of the surrounding land masses. Combined with progressive climatic drying was a gradual shrinking of the basin brought about by the northward migration of the subducting palaeo-Pacific margin to the south. Following deposition of the Cape Supergroup in the pre-Karoo basin there was a period of uplift and erosion. At the same time the southern part of Gondwana migrated over the South Pole resulting in a major ice-sheet over the early Karoo basin and surrounding highlands. Glacial sedimentation in both upland valley and shelf depositories resulted in the basal Karoo Dwyka Formation. After glaciation, an extensive shallow sea remained over the gently subsiding shelf fed by large volumes of meltwater. Black clays and muds accumulated under relatively cool climatic conditions (Lower Ecca) with perhaps a warmer "interglacial" during which the distinctive Mesosaurus-bearing, carbonaceous shales of the Whitehill Formation were deposited. Deformation of the southern rim of the basin, caused by the subducting palaeo-Pacific plate, resulted in mountain ranges far to the south. Material derived from this source, as well as granitic uplands to the west and morth-east, was deposited on large deltas that built out into the Ecca sea (Upper Ecca). The relatively cool climate and lowland setting promoted thick accumulations of peat on the coastal and delta plains and which now constitute the major coal reserves of southern Africa. Later the prograding deltas coalesced to fill most of the basin after which fluvial sedimentation of the Beaufort Group dominated. The climate by this time (Late Permian) had warmed to become semi-arid with highly seasonal rainfall. The central parts of the basin were for the most part drained by fine-grained meanderbelts and semi-permanent lakes. Significant stratabound uranium reserves have been delimited in the channel sandstones of the Beaufort Group in the southwestern parts of the basin. Pulses of uplift in the southern source areas combined with a possible orogenic effect resulted in two coarser-grained alluvial fans prograding into the more central parts of the basin (Katberg Sandstone Member and Molteno Formation). In the upper Karoo sequence progressive aridification dominated depositional style with playa lake and wadi-type environments (Elliot Formation) that finally gave way to a dune sand dominated system (Clarens Formation). Basinwide volcanic activity of the early Jurassic Drakensberg Group brought deposition in the Karoo Basin to a close.

Smith, R. M. H.

244

The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.

1986-01-01

245

Environmental impacts on the hydrology of ephemeral streams and alluvial aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid and semi-arid regions alluvial groundwater resources of ephemeral streams are highly important for water supplies and ecosystems. Recent projects have studied processes of indirect recharge in situ and in detail (Dahan et al., 2008; Klaus et al., 2008). Still, little is known about the vulnerability of these aquifers to environmental impacts like surface dam constructions, land-use changes and climatic conditions as well as the time and type of response to such external impacts. With a catchment size of about 30.000 km² the Swakop River in Namibia is the largest of the country's twelve major ephemeral streams draining westwards into the Atlantic Ocean. The alluvial groundwater resources have been affected by the construction of two major surface water dams in the upper catchment as well as by abstractions for rural water supply, farming and mining downstream of the constructed dams (referred to as lower catchment). The determination of environmental impacts in the Swakop River catchment is difficult due to scarce hydrometric and water quality data. In order to obtain a better understanding of the hydrological system under changing environmental conditions a spatially distributed environmental tracer approach was applied. A longitudinal profile of groundwater samples was taken within a field study along the alluvial aquifer of the Swakop River. The samples were analysed for stable isotopes (18O, 2H), major ions and trace elements as well as for the residence time indicators CFC and SF6. The combined application of groundwater residence time analysis, stable isotope measurements and hydrochemical characterisation was used in order to associate a time scale with groundwater quality data. This method provides dated information on recharge and water quality before and after dam construction and can be used to detect environmental impacts on the hydrological system. CFC-12 analysis resulted in recharge years ranging from 1950 (0.01 pmol/l) to 1992 (1.4 pmol/l). Seven of 14 groundwater samples represent mainly groundwater recharged before or between the construction of surface water dams (1970 and 1978), the remaining samples represent groundwater recharge after dam construction. The groundwater residence time is generally short (recharge mainly after 1980) in the upper catchment and much higher (recharge mainly before 1980 and before dam construction) in the lower part of the catchment. Combining the age and isotope information shows how the surface water dams modified the pattern of groundwater recharge. The lower catchment has been partly cut off from the upper part in terms of indirect groundwater recharge by floods which means that most large floods originating in the headwaters of the Swakop River do not reach the lower alluvial aquifer anymore. The relationship between groundwater age and groundwater constituents helped to define baselines of hydrological properties (origin of water, recharge altitude) and of hydrochemical composition prior to the construction of dams (and other anthropogenic impacts). The well defined relationship between groundwater age and altitude of the river further helps to assess how fast different segments will be affected by these environmental impacts. References Dahan, O., Tatarsky, B., Enzel, Y., Kuells, C., Seely, M., Benito, G. (2008) Dynamics of Flood Water Infiltration and Ground Water Recharge in Hyperarid Desert. Ground Water, Vol. 46, 3. (6-2008), pp. 450-461. Klaus, J., Kuells, C., Dahan, O. (2008): Evaluating the recharge mechanism of the Lower Kuiseb Dune Area using mixing cell modeling and residence time data. Journal of Hydrology, v. 358, p. 304-316.

Kuells, C.; Marx, V.; Bittner, A.; Ellmies, R.; Seely, M.

2009-04-01

246

Does Pinus halepensis facilitate the establishment of shrubs in Mediterranean semi-arid afforestations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) dominates forest ecosystems in dry and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin. In addition to its natural distribution, this species has been used extensively in afforestation projects during this century. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by the P. halepensis canopy is known to facilitate the establishment of perennial grasses, but little is known

Fernando T Maestre; Jordi Cortina; Susana Bautista; Juan Bellot

2003-01-01

247

Aerodynamic roughness parameters for semi-arid natural shrub communities of Wyoming, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of aerodynamic roughness length (z0) were calculated at nine sites for natural sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.), saltbush (Atriplex nuttallii) and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) plant communities in two semi-arid basins in Wyoming, USA. Estimates were based on wind and temperature profiles measured above the plant canopies during summer (August) of 1994 and fall (September and October) of 1995. Values of

Kenneth L. Driese; William A. Reiners

1997-01-01

248

Sensitivity of riparian ecosystems in arid and semiarid environments to moisture pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and functional dynamics of riparian vegetation in arid and semiarid basins are controlled by hydrological processes operating at local, landscape and catchment scales. However, the importance of growing-season precipitation as a control on evapotranspiration (ET) and carbon cycling in these ecosystems varies considerably across the riparian landscape, depending largely on access to the near-surface water table. Here we describe

D. G. Williams; R. L. Scott; T. E. Huxman; D. C. Goodrich; G. Lin

2006-01-01

249

Late alluvial fan formation in southern Margaritifer Terra, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crater statistics show alluvial fans are much younger than previously thoughtFans formed in the Amazonian to near the Hesperian-Amazonian boundaryFan distribution requires a late period of regional water-driven degradation

John A. Grant; Sharon A. Wilson

2011-01-01

250

The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

1993-01-01

251

Empirical assessment of theory for bankfull characteristics of alluvial channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled a data set of 541 bankfull measurements of alluvial rivers (see supporting information) and used Bayesian linear regression to examine empirical and theoretical support for the hypothesis that alluvial channels adjust to a predictable condition of basal shear stress as a function of sediment transport mode. An empirical closure based on channel slope, bankfull channel depth, and median grain size is proposed and results in the scaling of bankfull Shields stress with the inverse square root of particle Reynolds number. The empirical relationship is sufficient for purposes of quantifying paleohydraulic conditions in ancient alluvial channels. However, it is not currently appropriate for application to alluvial channels on extraterrestrial bodies because it depends on constant-valued, Earth-based coefficients.

Trampush, S. M.; Huzurbazar, S.; McElroy, B.

2014-12-01

252

Cosmogenic 10Be in the Alluvial Sediments of the San Bernardino Mountains, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved knowledge of bedrock erosion rates in actively uplifting orogens is needed to clarify relationships between erosion and uplift, and to better constrain numerical models of long-term landscape evolution. Concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in alluvial sediments can be used to derive basin-averaged rates of erosion over thousand to million year timescales provided that sediments are well mixed. In this study we use cosmogenic 10Be in thirteen alluvial sediment samples to determine rates of bedrock erosion across a 17 km2 catchment of the southern San Bernardino Mountains. This catchment has homogeneous quartz monzonite lithology and drains the western face of San Bernardino Peak, providing around 2 km of relief. By sampling upstream and downstream of tributaries in the catchment we have obtained erosion rates for a suite of nested sub-basins. Three of the samples were collected from the same location and agree well with each other showing the consistency of the technique. Uplift of this region is the result of transpression across the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault over the last several million years. The majority of our cosmogenic erosion rates cluster around 0.2 mm/a, close to the 0.26 mm/a value determined for the uplift of this area from published U-Th/He thermochronometric data [Spotila et al., 1998], suggesting steady-state landscape evolution. The rate of nuclide production, required to derive cosmogenic erosion rates, was determined over the catchment using air pressure and latitudinal scaling factors which were incorporated into a DEM (Digital Elevation Model). This allows rapid extraction of production rates for selected sub-basins. Our nested sampling strategy permits the degree of sediment mixing to be assessed. Inconsistencies in the nuclide concentrations are present that are explained using a simple sediment mixing model which proposes that the rates of sediment transport in this region are nonuniform over short, annual to hundred year, timescales. The model also shows how this effect of nonuniform sediment transport can go unnoticed unless the sediments being mixed at tributaries contain significantly different nuclide concentrations. This result has implications for using cosmogenic nuclides from alluvial sediment to derive erosion rates in settings where nonuniform transport may confound results. In addition, it highlights a possible application of cosmogenic nuclides in investigating sediment transport and mixing. References: Spotila, J.A., K.A. Farley, and K. Sieh (1998) Tectonics, 17 (3), 360-378.

Binnie, S. A.; Phillips, W. M.; Summerfield, M. A.; Fifield, K.

2002-12-01

253

The “Alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum”, a New Subterranean Habitat  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe a new type of subterranean habitat associated with dry watercourses in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula, the “Alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum” (alluvial MSS). Historical observations and data from field sampling specially designed to study MSS fauna in the streambeds of temporary watercourses support the description of this new habitat. To conduct the sampling, 16 subterranean sampling devices were placed in a region of Eastern Spain. The traps were operated for 12 months and temperature and relative humidity data were recorded to characterise the habitat. A large number of species was captured, many of which belonged to the arthropod group, with marked hygrophilous, geophilic, lucifugous and mesothermal habits. In addition, there was also a substantial number of species showing markedly ripicolous traits. The results confirm that the network of spaces which forms in alluvial deposits of temporary watercourses merits the category of habitat, and here we propose the name of “alluvial MSS”. The “alluvial MSS” may be covered or not by a layer of soil, is extremely damp, provides a buffer against above ground temperatures and is aphotic. In addition, compared to other types of MSS, it is a very unstable habitat. It is possible that the “alluvial MSS” may be found in other areas of the world with strongly seasonal climatic regimes, and could play an important role as a biogeographic corridor and as a refuge from climatic changes. PMID:24124544

Ortuño, Vicente M.; Gilgado, José D.; Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Sendra, Alberto; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; Herrero-Borgoñón, Juan J.

2013-01-01

254

Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

1997-01-01

255

Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin  

SciTech Connect

The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1991-03-01

256

Loess is the accumulation of dust, not evidence for aridity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are valuable terrestrial archives for Quaternary climate and environmental changes. The famous sections on the Chinese Loess Plateau, for example, document the alternation of warm and humid interglacials (paleosols) and cold and more arid glacials (loess). This, at least partly, reflects the weakening of the monsoonal circulation during glacials and has led to the notion that loess in general documents more arid conditions. Paleosols, on the other hand, are often interpreted to document more humid conditions. We studied the LPS Crvenka in the Carpathian Basin, southeast Europe, which spans the full last glacial cycle, and obtained results that do not fit the above concept: (i) The analysis of plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes indicates the presence of deciduous trees and shrubs during glacials, i.e. sufficient precipitation for tree growth, whereas tree-less grass steppes seem to have prevailed during the Eemian, the last interglacial. (ii) Compound-specific deuterium analyses on the alkanes show only little changes on glacial-interglacial timescale. When compared with the isotopic enrichment of the Mediterranean Sea during the last glacial, this likely documents a combination of increased rainfall, reduced evapo-transpiration and reduced temperatures. (iii) Novel lipid biomarkers derived from soil bacteria (GDGTs, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers) also indicate humid glacials (BIT index close to 1) and more arid interglacials (BIT<0.8). Our results are in good agreement with modelling studies suggesting a southward shift of the westerlies during glacials, and aridization in the Mediterranean area in response to man-made global warming. More importantly, they remind us of an important fact: Loess is the accumulation of dust, but not (necessarily) evidence for aridity. Pedogenesis may simply not have been able to keep pace with high glacial dust accumulation rates related to intense glacial, periglacial and fluvial activity. Proxies independent of accumulation rates should be further developed and applied in LPS.

Zech, Roland

2013-04-01

257

Accelerated Alluviation, Legacy Sediments the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will present the case that geomorphology must be an integral part of any attempt to define the Anthropocene as a geological period or any particular rank. It is postulated that there is a clear lithostratigraphic boundary which can easily identified in the field and which represents a fundamental change in sediment transfer processes, and rates, caused by human activity and particularly agriculture. Two case studies in England (central & southwest) show how a 6-10 fold increase in floodplain sedimentation resulted from the erosion of arable fields but over very different time periods. This highlights the constrained diachrony of alluviation in Europe as compared to other areas where the conversion of land to large-scale intensive cultivation was more synchronous. There are good reasons to believe that these legacy sediments, and this near-global lithostratigraphic boundary, will persist into the future geological record. Lastly the implications of this for any demarcation of the Anthropocene will be discussed. This paper is a contribution by the British Geomorphological Society Working Group on the Anthropocene.

Brown, Tony; Toms, Phillip; Carey, Chris

2013-04-01

258

Effects of the Biofuels Initiative on Water Quality and Quantity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The manifestation of the Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta was a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288 percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation, this crop type change has implications for water quantity and quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged due to concerns about sustainability. A mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta shows that increased fertilizer applications on corn will increase the extent of nitrate movement into the alluvial aquifer. Estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen from increased corn production increases the amount of nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River basin to the Gulf of Mexico by about 7 percent; increasing the Delta’s contribution to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

Welch, H. L.; Green, C. T.; Coupe, R. H.

2010-12-01

259

Occurrence of arsenic in ground water in the Choushui River alluvial fan, Taiwan.  

PubMed

An investigation of shallow ground water quality revealed that high arsenic (As) concentrations were found in both aquifers and aquitards in the southern Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan. A total of 655 geological core samples from 13 drilling wells were collected and analyzed. High As contents were found primarily in aquitards, to a maximum of 590 mg/kg. The contents were correlated with the locations of the marine sequences. Additionally, strong correlations among the As concentrations of core samples, the clay, and the geological age of the Holocene transgression were identified. Most of the As in ground water originated from the aquitard of the marine sequence. The high As content in marine formations with high clay contents may be attributable to the bioaccumulation of As in the sea organisms, which accrued and were deposited in the formation. A preliminary geogenic model of the origin of the high As concentration in the shallow sedimentary basin of the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan is proposed. PMID:16391278

Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Lin, Kao-Hong

2006-01-01

260

Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition, because precipitation patterns in this semi-arid region tend to be temporally distributed, storage and global climate change issues are significant.

Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

2004-12-01

261

Rapid post-Pliocene crustal shortening in northern Tibet: Evidence from the Kumkuli Basin, Xinjiang Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altyn Tagh and Kunlun strike-slip faults dominate the modern deformation of northern Tibetan Plateau. We present shortening magnitudes and rates from the deformed Kumkuli Basin (~4000 m a.s.l.), located near the intersection of these faults ~80 km south of the Altyn Tagh and ~200 km northwest of the termination of the Kunlun fault. Quaternary vertical uplift rates of ~2.5-3 mm/yr occur beneath range front faults and folding of Eocene - Pliocene sediments record a total of >26% of post-Pliocene shortening. Basin infilling initiated in Eocene time and continued through Pliocene time with deposition of conglomerates to fluvial and lacustrine sediments. Notable Miocene gypsum beds indicate an arid environment and likely act as a zone of structural weakness in ongoing deformation. Paleocurrent directions indicate northward paleo-flow that sourced material from the Hoh Xil Basin located 150 km to the south of the Kumkuli Basin depocenter. Subsequent basin closure in Miocene time resulted from the uplift of the Quimen Tagh range to the north. Post-Pliocene deformation of basin sediments form a ~ 1 km high mountain range where a net of >12 km shortening is estimated from balanced cross sections. Folded Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces indicate that crustal shortening is ongoing. We combine new 36Cl cosmogenic radionuclide dating of depth profiles at the peaks of two folds with geomorphic reconstructions to estimate ~550 m of vertical fault motion since ~200 ka on subsurface thrust faults. We relate upper crustal shortening of the Kumkuli Bsain with left-lateral slip along the nearby Altyn Tagh fault and continued upward growth of the plateau in a region between major strike-slip faults and the rigid basement material of the Qaidam Basin. Although localized, Quaternary rates presented here are among the highest shortening rates documented in northern Tibet. Rapid upper crustal shortening at high elevations compounded with an addition of lower crustal material at depth may provide a mechanism by which northern Tibet reached elevations of >5000 m.

Yakovlev, P. V.; Clark, M. K.; Niemi, N. A.; Chang, H.; Yi, J.

2013-12-01

262

Conduits to Catchments: Deformation Band Faults in Arid and Semi-Arid Vadose Zone Sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where fault movement intercepts sandy sediments, deformational processes create narrow, tabular zones of reduced pore and grain sizes, called deformation band faults, which possess markedly different hydraulic properties than the parent sands. These faults are commonly found where tectonic extension and erosion have combined to create basins containing variably lithified, heterolithic sediments, which in turn form thick vadose and saturated zones. Under arid or semi-arid conditions the unsaturated property differences between these faults and their poorly lithified parent sands appear to be large enough that the faults can potentially act as paths for preferential flow and transport, or as liquid phase catchments, depending on the conditions. We measured the unsaturated hydraulic properties of three small-displacement normal faults and adjacent sands found in the Bosque del Apache Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico, USA using UFA centrifuge systems. Fits to commonly used unsaturated property models revealed consistent differences between sands and faults. Analytical one-dimensional models of steady infiltration, exfiltration, and solute transport confirm that faults can become paths for preferential flow and transport. Under dry conditions and observed fault spatial densities, faulted sands can infiltrate and exfiltrate orders of magnitude more liquid phase water than unfaulted sands. Solute residence times are two to four orders of magnitude shorter through faulted than unfaulted sand beds and diagenetic alteration is far more likely to occur in faults than sands because faults are predicted to transmit as many as 10 4 pore volumes in the time needed to transmit a single pore volume through the sand. Numerical modeling of steady two dimensional downwards flow near a dipping fault suggests that, under relatively wet conditions, faults with sufficiently low dip angles can intercept enough water to form sizeable zones of increased water content in the hanging wall. These wetter zones can act as fast paths for subsequent water or solute pulses. Deformation band faults can thus act as catchments under relatively wet vadose zone conditions and as conduits under much drier conditions. In either case, faults can significantly increase water and solute transport through sandy beds in arid and semi-arid vadose zones.

Sigda, J. M.; Wilson, J. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Conca, J. L.

2002-12-01

263

BIOGEOCHEMICAL FLUXES ACROSS PIEDMONT SLOPES OF THE JORNADA BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter is an overview of recent studies of the movement of water, sediment, and nutrients across a principle piedmont slope, or bajada, of the Jornada Basin. Bajadas are extensive, gently sloping surfaces formed by the coalescence of alluvial fans and are a major landscape component of the bas...

264

Hydrological Responses to Climate Change and to LUCC in Asian Arid Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid Asian zone is one of the most sensitive areas to the global climate change. For instance, the temperature has been rising at a rate of 0.39K/10yrs in the arid northwestern China during the past an half of century, being 2.78 times of the global average. In the arid Asian zone, water resource is a key factor restricting the socio-economic development and threatening the ecological security. Under the global warming conditions, water resource systems of the arid Asian zone are most likely becoming increasingly vulnerable, especially under the projected increasing population and expanding economy in arid Asian zone. Hydrological data from glacier-supplied rivers in the Tian Shan Mountains for example show that the runoff has been increasing primarily as a result of rising temperature that caused increases in ice melting. But, the decreasing trend of surface runoff in low-elevation basins is undeniable and the decreasing trend is attributable to the increasingly intensified human activities. Specifically, increasingly intensified water consumption for irrigation and the associated massive constructions of water conservancy projects were responsible for the decreasing trend of runoff. And, the decreasing trend has been severely jeopardizing the ecological security in the lower reaches of the arid river basins. In arid northwestern China, about 85% of the water resources are formed in high elevations and the glacier-melting contribution to runoff has been doubled since 1980's. Approaching to the turning point of glacier-melting supplies to runoff will pose a great threat to socio-economic sustainability and to ecological security. The turning point refers to the transition from increasing runoff to decreasing runoff within glacier-melting supplied watersheds under warming climate.

Feng, Zhaodong

2013-04-01

265

ARID1B is a specific vulnerability in ARID1A-mutant cancers  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent studies have revealed that ARID1A is frequently mutated across a wide variety of human cancers and also has bona fide tumor suppressor properties. Consequently, identification of vulnerabilities conferred by ARID1A mutation would have major relevance for human cancer. Here, using a broad screening approach, we identify ARID1B, a related but mutually exclusive homolog of ARID1A in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, as the number one gene preferentially required for the survival of ARID1A-mutant cancer cell lines. We show that loss of ARID1B in ARID1A-deficient backgrounds destabilizes SWI/SNF and impairs proliferation. Intriguingly, we also find that ARID1A and ARID1B are frequently co-mutated in cancer, but that ARID1A-deficient cancers retain at least one ARID1B allele. These results suggest that loss of ARID1A and ARID1B alleles cooperatively promotes cancer formation but also results in a unique functional dependence. The results further identify ARID1B as a potential therapeutic target for ARID1A-mutant cancers. PMID:24562383

Helming, Katherine C.; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wilson, Boris G.; Vazquez, Francisca; Haswell, Jeffrey R.; Manchester, Haley E.; Kim, Youngha; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Aguirre, Andrew J.; Jagani, Zainab; Wang, Zhong; Garraway, Levi A.; Hahn, William C.; Roberts, Charles W. M.

2014-01-01

266

Increased storminess during MIS3 altered the late Quaternary basin-scale weathering, erosion, and deposition in Nahal Yael, hyperarid Negev, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual model for geomorphic response to Pleistocene to Holocene climate change (Bull and Schick, 1979, Quat. Res. 11: 153-171) was probably based on earlier observations in the southwestern US, but first applied to the hyperarid (<30 mm yr-1) Nahal Yael watershed, southern Negev desert. This influential model includes a chain of events following a climate change from semiarid late Pleistocene to hyperarid Holocene: reduced vegetation cover, increased yield of sediments from slopes, and accelerated aggradation of terraces and export of sediment from the basin to deposit an alluvial fan. The model is now >30 years old and during this time chronologic, paleoenvironmental and hydrogeomorphic research have all advanced but the discussions are still within the framework put forward then. The model is revaluated here by using data acquired in Nahal Yael over the 30 years since the original model was proposed. Recent studies indicate late Pleistocene climate was hyperarid and the transition from semiarid to hyperarid climates did not occur. The revised chronology reveals a 35-20 ka episode (probably already beginning at ~50 ka with lower rates) of accelerated weathering and sediment production and distinct talus accretion on slopes. Coeval with accretion on slopes, sediments were also transported and aggraded in fluvial terraces and alluvial fans, without noticeable lag time or a chain of discernable events. This intensified sediment production and delivery phase is unrelated to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The depositional landforms were rapidly incised during 20-18 ka; since this approximately LGM incision, sediment yield is from the storage in these depositional landforms and is not produced from bedrock in significant quantities. We propose that in such hyperarid environment, the main operators are individual extreme storms, and in this case specifically an episode of frequent storms and floods is the driver of change regardless the mean climatic conditions. It created a pulse of intense weathering due to numerous cycles of wetting and drying on slopes and sediment transport to fluvial terraces and alluvial fans; its impact continues all the way to the present. We suggest that even if aspects of the original conceptual model of Bull and Schick (1979) are correct, it has been applied too frequently, too generally, across very diverse arid climates and settings, and for too long in lieu of collecting new data at a full basin scale and testing the model.

Enzel, Y.; Amit, R.; Grodek, T.; Ayalon, A.; Lekach, J.; Porat, N.; Bierman, P. R.; Blum, J. D.; Erel, Y.

2012-12-01

267

A GIS-based Estimate of Net Erosion Rate for Semi-arid Watersheds in New Mexico Richardson, C.P.1  

E-print Network

A GIS-based Estimate of Net Erosion Rate for Semi-arid Watersheds in New Mexico Richardson, C.P.1 subsequent management for beneficial use. GIS-based modeling and evaluation is another tool to evaluate-basin of the Rio Puerco basin to the Rio Grande. Objective The objective of this work is to utilize a GIS platform

Cal, Mark P.

268

Vegetation responses to precipitation and temperature: a spatiotemporal analysis of ecoregions in the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting vegetation response to precipitation and temperature anomalies, particularly during droughts, is of great importance in semi-arid regions, because ecosystem and hydrologic processes depend on vegetation conditions. This article studies vegetation responses to precipitation and temperature in 10 ecological regions within the semi-arid Colorado River Basin (CRB). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies

Julio Cañón; Francina Domínguez; Juan B. Valdes

2011-01-01

269

A noncalibrated rainfall-runoff model for large, arid catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed, field-based rainfall-runoff model was developed for the 1400-km2 arid catchment of Nahal Zin, Israel. No calibration with measured flow data was performed. The model used rainfall radar input applied over a catchment that was spatially disaggregated into different terrain types according to hydrologically relevant surface characteristics. Hortonian overland flow generation on each type was parameterized independently using values of initial loss and temporal decay of infiltration determined from existing field experiments. Delimited by topography, this catchment wide pattern of rainfall excess was distributed over 850 tributary catchments (model elements). Runoff delivery from the model elements to the adjoining channel segments was timed by applying a mean response function determined in an environmentally similar experimental catchment. Inside the channel network the MVPMC3 method of the Muskingum-Cunge technique was used for streamflow routing, accounting for channel dimensions and roughness. For each channel segment a constant infiltration rate was applied to account for transmission losses and discontinued when the wetting front reached the bottom of the available alluvial storage. Within two model tests, one separate for the routing component (October 1979) and one for the complete model (October 1991), observed hydrographs and reconstructed peak discharges were successfully simulated. The spatially distributed model output showed that during the October 1991 test, tributaries produced preceding peaks that wetted the channel alluvium before the main flood had arrived and transmission losses lost their significance downstream. Total maximum model uncertainty was estimated including the uncertainty ranges of each model parameter. In general, this study shows that field-based data on generation and losses of runoff may be incorporated into a distributed hydrologic model to overcome calibration with the poor data records of arid high-magnitude events.

Lange, J.; Leibundgut, C.; Greenbaum, N.; Schick, A. P.

1999-07-01

270

Soil water balance of annual cropnative shrub systems in Senegal's Peanut Basin: The missing link  

E-print Network

Soil water balance of annual crop­native shrub systems in Senegal's Peanut Basin: The missing link agroecosystems Intercropping Semi-arid landscapes Groundwater uptake a b s t r a c t Shrubs in the Senegal Peanut

Selker, John

271

Aridity threshold in controlling ecosystem nitrogen cycling in arid and semi-arid grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher aridity and more extreme rainfall events in drylands are predicted due to climate change. Yet, it is unclear how changing precipitation regimes may affect nitrogen (N) cycling, especially in areas with extremely high aridity. Here we investigate soil N isotopic values (?15N) along a 3,200?km aridity gradient and reveal a hump-shaped relationship between soil ?15N and aridity index (AI) with a threshold at AI=0.32. Variations of foliar ?15N, the abundance of nitrification and denitrification genes, and metabolic quotient along the gradient provide further evidence for the existence of this threshold. Data support the hypothesis that the increase of gaseous N loss is higher than the increase of net plant N accumulation with increasing AI below AI=0.32, while the opposite is favoured above this threshold. Our results highlight the importance of N-cycling microbes in extremely dry areas and suggest different controlling factors of N-cycling on either side of the threshold.

Wang, Chao; Wang, Xiaobo; Liu, Dongwei; Wu, Honghui; Lü, Xiaotao; Fang, Yunting; Cheng, Weixin; Luo, Wentao; Jiang, Ping; Shi, Jason; Yin, Huaqun; Zhou, Jizhong; Han, Xingguo; Bai, Edith

2014-09-01

272

75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors; Montana...to consider a proposal to exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and...

2010-10-07

273

30 CFR 947.822 - Special performance standards-operations on alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01...standards-operations on alluvial valley floors. 947.822 Section 947.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations on alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2011-07-01

274

30 CFR 903.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 903.822 Section 903.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2014-07-01

275

30 CFR 903.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 903.822 Section 903.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2013-07-01

276

30 CFR 905.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 905.822 Section 905.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2011-07-01

277

30 CFR 903.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 903.822 Section 903.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2012-07-01

278

30 CFR 941.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 941.822 Section 941.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2010-07-01

279

30 CFR 947.822 - Special performance standards-operations on alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...standards-operations on alluvial valley floors. 947.822 Section 947.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations on alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2012-07-01

280

30 CFR 941.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 941.822 Section 941.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2011-07-01

281

30 CFR 941.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 941.822 Section 941.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2014-07-01

282

30 CFR 912.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 912.822 Section 912.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2013-07-01

283

30 CFR 947.822 - Special performance standards-operations on alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01...standards-operations on alluvial valley floors. 947.822 Section 947.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations on alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2014-07-01

284

30 CFR 903.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 903.822 Section 903.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2011-07-01

285

30 CFR 905.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 905.822 Section 905.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2014-07-01

286

30 CFR 912.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 912.822 Section 912.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2012-07-01

287

30 CFR 947.822 - Special performance standards-operations on alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...standards-operations on alluvial valley floors. 947.822 Section 947.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations on alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2010-07-01

288

30 CFR 941.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 941.822 Section 941.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2012-07-01

289

30 CFR 912.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 912.822 Section 912.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2010-07-01

290

30 CFR 905.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 905.822 Section 905.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2010-07-01

291

30 CFR 941.822 - Special performance standards-operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...standards-operations in alluvial valley floors. 941.822 Section 941.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2013-07-01

292

30 CFR 905.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 905.822 Section 905.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2012-07-01

293

30 CFR 903.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 903.822 Section 903.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2010-07-01

294

30 CFR 905.822 - Special performance standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...standards-Operations in alluvial valley floors. 905.822 Section 905.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—Operations in alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2013-07-01

295

30 CFR 947.822 - Special performance standards-operations on alluvial valley floors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...standards-operations on alluvial valley floors. 947.822 Section 947.822 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...standards—operations on alluvial valley floors. Part 822 of this...

2013-07-01

296

Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations based on aerial photos and Digital Elevation Models (a 28x28 m DEM and high-resolution LIDAR dataset in key sites), and iii) geophysical investigations (high resolution reflection seismic profiling combined with refraction seismic tomography). The main outputs of this research are as follows: i) the Charco basin master-faults and their conjugate extensional system were geometrically characterized and their main associated landforms mapped and described; ii) the morphostratigraphic correlations amongst both deformed and tectonically unaffected Quaternary deposits revealed that the Charco basin master fault has been inactive over the Holocene; iii) the main extensional fault system is associated with conjugate faults, oriented approximately SSW-NNE, that segmented the Charco basin master faults and favored the deposition of the most recent piedmont fans along the eastern margin of the basin; iv) the local morphostructures had played a dominant influence on the Quaternary evolution of both drainage network and relief landforms.

Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

2014-05-01

297

An investigation into variable recharge behaviors among eight alluvial observation wells in Pajarito Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pajarito Canyon in Los Alamos, New Mexico trends west to east through the Pajarito Plateau from the headwaters in the Jemez Mountains, thirteen miles to the Rio Grande. In summer 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory installed eight shallow wells, numbered PCAO-5, 6, 7a, 7b1, 7b2, 7c, 8 and 9, in the middle four miles of this canyon. Among these wells, five distinct recharge behaviors have been observed. PCAO-5 demonstrates seasonal recharge in response to annual snowmelt. PCAO-6, while just 400 feet further downstream, is considerably flashier and the well is often dry for months at a time. In PCAO-7a, 7b2 and 7c, another two miles downstream, the water level declined steadily since installation, with no recharge until spring 2010. PCAO-7b1 has not contained water since drilling. Downstream a further two miles, PCAO-8 and PCAO-9 were dry for the majority of 2009 and their hydrographs are more attenuated. This investigation was undertaken to explain the recharge behaviors of the wells, with the goal of improving site selection and design of alluvial wells to provide better representation of the alluvial aquifer. Water level data collected since July 2008 were used to compare the water columns of each well. Well construction diagrams were utilized to construct stratigraphic maps in order to compare well construction and lithology. Results indicate that PCAO-5 consistently contains water due to its location above a flood retention structure (FRS) and the placement of its screened interval immediately above the tuff layer, forcing water to travel through the screened interval. PCAO-6’s flashy, intermittent hydrograph is due to its location downstream of the FRS, and because the bottom of the screened interval rests 2.5 feet above the alluvium-tuff interface, providing a conduit below the screen of the well. The similar behaviors of PCAO-7a, 7b2 and 7c result from their near-identical construction, lithology and location. The general decline of water level until spring 2010 was due to near-drought conditions in 2009. PCAO-7a retained more water more consistently through 2009 because its screened interval rests on the alluvium-tuff interface, whereas PCAO-7b2 and 7c are both screened similarly to PCAO-6. PCAO-7b1, which has not contained water since drilling, has its screened interval within the tuff later, preventing alluvial groundwater from reaching the screen. The attenuated hydrographs of PCAO-8 and 9 are possibly due to their downstream location; in the semi-arid study area, much of the alluvial groundwater sourced in the mountains may already have infiltrated towards the deeper aquifers before reaching the lower portion of the canyon. These results indicate that shallow wells in areas with a lithology similar to the study area should be constructed with a screened interval that rests directly on the alluvium-tuff interface, thereby forcing flow through the screen. Additionally, deep barriers such as the FRS will greatly inhibit consistent flow of alluvial groundwater into shallow wells built immediately downstream of the barrier. Finally, shallow wells in the lower portions of semi-arid canyons may not consistently contain water because source water from the mountains may infiltrate too deep before reaching the wells.

Schmeer, S. R.

2010-12-01

298

Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

299

Lessons from Australian Water Reform for the Colorado River Basin (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murray Darling Basin in Australia (MDB) and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) share many geographical, climatic, and legal similarities. Both are predominantly arid, approximately the same size, occupy similar latitudes, have major snowmelt tributaries as well as very arid tributaries, were allocated by interstate agreements early in the 20th century, have multi-year carryover storage, are threatened by mid-latitude climate

B. Udall

2010-01-01

300

Spatial assessment of salinity and nitrate pollution in Amman Zarqa Basin: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive use of land resources in arid and semi-arid regions exert serious pressures on groundwater resources and jeopardize\\u000a further socio-economical developments. The Amman-Zarqa Basin (AZB), the most vital basin in Jordan, is facing recent groundwater\\u000a deterioration due to a very large increase in water demands for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. The objectives\\u000a of this paper were to quantify the

Mustafa Al Kuisi; Mohammed Al-Qinna; Armin Margane; Taiseer Aljazzar

2009-01-01

301

Delineation of regional arid karstic aquifers: an integrative data approach.  

PubMed

This research integrates data procedures for the delineation of regional ground water flow systems in arid karstic basins with sparse hydrogeologic data using surface topography data, geologic mapping, permeability data, chloride concentrations of ground water and precipitation, and measured discharge data. This integrative data analysis framework can be applied to evaluate arid karstic aquifer systems globally. The accurate delineation of ground water recharge areas in developing aquifer systems with sparse hydrogeologic data is essential for their effective long-term development and management. We illustrate the use of this approach in the Cuatrociénegas Basin (CCB) of Mexico. Aquifers are characterized using geographic information systems for ground water catchment delineation, an analytical model for interbasin flow evaluation, a chloride balance approach for recharge estimation, and a water budget for mapping contributing catchments over a large region. The test study area includes the CCB of Coahuila, Mexico, a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve containing more than 500 springs that support ground water-dependent ecosystems with more than 70 endemic organisms and irrigated agriculture. We define recharge areas that contribute local and regional ground water discharge to springs and the regional flow system. Results show that the regional aquifer system follows a topographic gradient that during past pluvial periods may have linked the Río Nazas and the Río Aguanaval of the Sierra Madre Occidental to the Río Grande via the CCB and other large, currently dry, upgradient lakes. PMID:18194323

Wolaver, Brad D; Sharp, John M; Rodriguez, Juan M; Flores, Juan Carlos Ibarra

2008-01-01

302

Occurrence of oil and gas fields and source rock transformation in the west Siberian basin and Barents Sea platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Siberian and Barents Sea basins contain the largest demonstrated reserves of gas in the world (more than 33 trilion m[sup 3]) and very large recoverable reserves of oil (about 19 billion tons). The main productive reservoirs are of the Jurassic and Cretaceous and are composed of marine and alluvial sandstones. Major gas fields of the West Siberian basin

1993-01-01

303

Characterizing avulsion stratigraphy in ancient alluvial deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guidelines for identifying ancient avulsion deposits were set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268], building on the study by Smith et al. [Smith, N.D., Cross, T.A., Dufficy, J.P., Clough, S.R., 1989. Anatomy of an avulsion. Sedimentology 36, 1-23] of the modern Saskatchewan River system (Cumberland Marshes, central Canada), and serve to characterize avulsion depositional sequences in the ancient Willwood and Fort Union Formations (Paleogene, Bighorn Basin, NW Wyoming, USA). We recognize, however, that the model is not universally applicable to avulsion-dominated successions, specifically systems which lack defining "heterolithic avulsion deposits", set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268]. Observations in several fluvial intervals suggest that the avulsion stratigraphy outlined by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268] represents one category of avulsion stratigraphy found in the rock record, but does not capture the nature of avulsion deposits everywhere. Based on observations (using measured sections, outcrop photo-panels, and aerial photographs) in the Willwood Formation (Eocene, Wyoming) and Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming), we present two end-member categories of avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits; stratigraphically abrupt, when a main paleochannel is stratigraphically juxtaposed directly atop floodplain/overbank deposits, and stratigraphically transitional, where crevasse splays and other non-floodplain/-overbank deposits stratigraphically precede a main paleochannel. This characterization provides a broader, more inclusive way to recognize and describe avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits and may be an important factor to consider when modeling connectivity in fluvial reservoirs. Furthermore, our observations show that one type of avulsion channel stratigraphy may prevail over another within an ancient basin, suggesting that system-wide factors such as splay-proneness or avulsion style (i.e. aggradational, incisional, etc.; [Slingerland, R., Smith, N.D., 2004. River avulsions and their deposits. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 32, 257-285]) may be primary controls on the type of avulsion stratigraphy deposited and preserved in ancient basin-fills.

Jones, H. L.; Hajek, E. A.

2007-11-01

304

Channel Dynamics, Sediment Transport, and the Slope of Alluvial Fans: Experimental Study1  

E-print Network

Channel Dynamics, Sediment Transport, and the Slope of Alluvial Fans: Experimental Study1 Kelin X the results of an experimental study of alluvial fan sedimentation under conditions of constant inflow water a recently formulated model of alluvial fan sedimentation and to emphasize the interactions between

305

Landform map of the Kaiparowits Coal-Basin area, Utah  

SciTech Connect

A 1:125,000 scale map of the Kaiparowits Coal-Basin area of Utah is presented. The map portrays the shape and erosional resistance of and features, and it is intended to be a modified slope-analysis map for use by planners in their identification of areas suitable for transportation routes and construction sites. Depositional landforms such as alluvial flats, stream courses, dune fields, and alluviated pediments are shown, and a stratigraphic section of the rocks in the area is provided. (JMT)

Sargent, K.A.; Hansen, D.E.

1980-01-01

306

Late Quaternary alluvial fans at the eastern end of the San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial fans at the eastern end of the San Bernardino Mountains in Southern California provide a record of climate modulated sediment transfer and erosion, and are deformed and displaced in places by active faults. Alluvial fans within two study areas, the Mission Creek and the Whitewater River drainages, were examined using geomorphic, sedimentological, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure methods to define the timing of alluvial fan formation and erosion, and to examine the role of climatic, tectonic and autocyclic processes. These alluvial fan complexes were studied because they are amongst the best-preserved successions of alluvial fans in southern California and they are located at the mouths of two of the largest drainages, Whitewater River and Mission Creek, in the San Bernardino Mountains and traverse major faults, the Mission Creek and Banning. The alluvial fans comprise bouldery debris deposits that represent deposition dominated by flash flood and debris flow events. TCN surface exposure dating indicates that abandonment/incision of alluvial fan surfaces date to early in the Last Glacial or more likely the penultimate glacial cycle, to marine isotope stage (MIS) 4, and to the Holocene. The lack of alluvial fan ages during the latter part of the Last Glacial (MIS 2 and 3) suggests that there has been little alluvial fan lobe deposition/incision during that time. This is similar to findings for many other alluvial fans throughout the American Southwest, and supports the view that there is a strong climatic control on alluvial fan formation throughout this region. Furthermore, the oldest alluvial fan surfaces in the Mission Creek region are beheaded by the Whitewater River drainage, showing that the oldest alluvial fans in the Mission Creek region underwent significant capture by the Whitewater River drainage. This shows the autocyclic controls are also important on alluvial fan evolution in this region; but the importance of these processes to alluvial fan development in other regions of the American Southwest needs to be more fully assessed. The alluvial fans in the Mission Creek area traverse the Mission Creek fault, but are not deformed by it, which suggests that there may have been little if any movement along this fault since at least MIS 4. In contrast, alluvial fans in the Whitewater River study are displaced by active faults highlighting the influence of tectonism on alluvial fan development in this region. In addition to illustrating the importance of climatic controls on the development of alluvial fans in the American Southwest, a classic region for alluvial fan studies, this study illustrates the complex mixture of autocyclic and allocyclic factors that force alluvial fan development in tectonically active settings.

Owen, Lewis A.; Clemmens, Samuel J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Gray, Harrison

2014-03-01

307

Delineating Alluvial Aquifer Heterogeneity Using Resistivity and GPR Data  

E-print Network

Delineating Alluvial Aquifer Heterogeneity Using Resistivity and GPR Data by Jerry C. Bowling1- dimensional ground penetrating radar (GPR) and direct current (DC) resistivity data were collected, inferred by other authors to affect flow, was mapped in the MFS with both DC resistivity and GPR data

Sailhac, Pascal

308

Volcaniclastic alluvial fan sedimentation, northern Rio Grande rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pliocene Puye Formation is a well-exposed, volcanogenic, alluvial fan sequence 150+ m thick, representing a range of volcaniclastic deposits (proximal, medial, and distal) that may be generated in response to long-lived, multicompositional (basaltic to rhyolitic) volcanism in a rift setting. The deposits are a composite of eruptives (effusives and pyroclastics) and epiclastics (reworked primary volcanics). An almost complete record

J. G. McPherson; D. B. Waresback; S. Self

1986-01-01

309

Fluvial geomorphic features of the Lower Mississippi alluvial valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has been one of the most intensively studied alluvial valleys in the world in terms of it's geological and geomorphic framework and history. A brief outline of the history of the major geological and geomorphological investigations of the LMV is provided. The results of these investigations are discussed in terms of the fluvial geomorphic framework

Lawson M. Smith

1996-01-01

310

INTRODUCTION One of the attributes of a natural alluvial river  

E-print Network

and Descamps 1997). In natural river systems, physical forces such as flooding, erosion, and sediment of the MercedRiver corridor, riparian vegetation conditions, spatial patterns, and successional processes were302 INTRODUCTION One of the attributes of a natural alluvial river system is a self

Stella, John C.

311

Bed Material Transport and the Morphology of Alluvial River  

E-print Network

Bed Material Transport and the Morphology of Alluvial River Channels Michael Church DepartmentSimonFraserUniversityon08/10/06.Forpersonaluseonly. #12;Bed material: material that forms the bed and lower banks of the river and chiefly determines the morphology of the channel Wash material: material that, once entrained

Venditti, Jeremy G.

312

Bed Material Transport and the Morphology of Alluvial River  

E-print Network

Bed Material Transport and the Morphology of Alluvial River Channels Michael Church DepartmentUniversityofBritishColumbiaLibraryon12/27/06.Forpersonaluseonly. #12;Bed material: material that forms the bed and lower banks of the river and chiefly determines the morphology of the channel Wash material: material that, once entrained

Jellinek, Mark

313

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF BASEFLOW AND BANK STORAGE IN ALLUVIAL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents analytical solutions, which describe the effect of time-variable net recharge (net accretion to water table) and bank storage in alluvial aquifers on the sustenance of stream flows during storm and inter-storm events. The solutions relate the stream discharge,...

314

MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF THE MISSISSIPPI ALLUVIAL PLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecoregions of The Mississippi Alluvial Plain (73) have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a ...

315

On Earthquake Ground Motion and Structural Response in Alluvial Valleys  

E-print Network

On Earthquake Ground Motion and Structural Response in Alluvial Valleys By Jacobo Bielak 1 , Member amplification and structural dam­ age due to local site conditions in sedimentary valleys during earthquakes the 1988 Armenia Earthquake. A more realistic two­dimensional finite element analysis is performed herein

Shewchuk, Jonathan

316

Climate change impact on water resource extremes in a headwater region of the Tarim basin in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tarim river basin in China is a huge inland arid basin, which is expected to be highly vulnerable to climatic changes, given that most water resources originate from the upper mountainous headwater regions. This paper focuses on one of these headwaters: the Kaidu river subbasin. The climate change impact on the surface and ground water resources of that basin

T. Liu; P. Willems; X. L. Pan; An. M. Bao; X. Chen; F. Veroustraete; Q. H. Dong

2011-01-01

317

Regional variation of As concentration in alluvial plain: An insight obtained from Mankyeong River plain, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arsenic (As) concentrations in the groundwater of alluvial plains generally show high spatial variability. We geochemically explored the regional variation of As concentration from Mankyeong River floodplain. Even though its watershed is very small, it shows a close similarity to the Ganger-Megna-Bramaputra Plain of Bengal Basin in the occurrence of As-rich groundwater. Therefore, a precise investigation of the study area can provide important clues for the mechanisms causing the spatial variation of As concentrations in Bangladesh. We collected 163 groundwater samples from 122 shallow wells placed into the alluvial aquifer and analyzed for pH, Eh, alkalinity, DOC, As, Fe, Mn, Cl, SO4, NO3, NH4, PO4-P. 42 wells out of the investigated wells show As concentrations exceeding the drinking water limit (10 ug/L) and they are mostly distributed as a zone apart from the coast likely to those in Bangladesh. The As-rich groundwaters show high alkalinity, Fe, Mn, PO4, NH4, and DOC levels and very low NO3 and SO4 levels, indicating that the reductive dissolution of iron oxide is the main mechanism mobilizing As. In contrast, groundwater generally shows very low As and Fe concentrations in the coastal zone even though the waters are under much stronger reducing condition. Our results show that the limited supply of SO4 caused the high As concentration in the inland. But As concentrations were low in the coastal zone due to SO4 supplied by seawater intrusion. Very high alkalinity was observed in the coastal zone due to sulfate reduction, and which also plays a role decreasing As concentration by precipitating carbonate minerals such as siderite and rhodocrosite.

Kim, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Zhu, W.; Lee, E.; Ko, K.; Lee, K.

2010-12-01

318

Rainbow Basin, CA mapping project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rainbow Basin is just north of Barstow, CA, and is an excellent badlands-style exposure of the Barstow syncline in the Miocene Barstow Formation. In the first mapping class, their assignment is to map the basic geology of the basin, using a couple of distinctive marker beds within the Barstow Formation. Several faults postdate the fold, and three different ages of alluvial deposits occur within the basin. We camp in the nearby Owl Canyon campground, and spend three days in the field. More time could be spent with an introductory class, but three suffices to get most of the basin on the map. They are charged with writing up descriptions of the rock units they encounter. From the field map, students transfer information to an office copy, add a map explanation, and draw a cross-section through the map area. Mapping is done on a topographic map, specifically developed for the basin, with 10-foot contour intervals. This is a proprietary map, so permission is needed for its use.

Joan Fryxell

319

A conjunctive use hydrologic model for a semi-arid region with irrigated agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GIS-based sub-basin scale conjunctive use (CU) model is developed for a semi-arid agricultural area in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. The study area is 2230 square kilometers, and consists of 9114 individual landuse units and 26 water service districts. The CU model consists of three sub-models: 1) a surface water supply (SWS) model, 2) an unsaturated zone water

N. C. Ruud; T. Harter

2003-01-01

320

Late Eocene sea retreat from the Tarim Basin (West China) linked to Asian aridification and Mediterranean Tethys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleogene sediments of the southwest Tarim Basin along the West Kunlun Shan in western China include the latest remnants of the easternmost extent of an epicontinental sea. It has been suggested that this sea used to extend across the Paleogene Eurasian continent and may have been linked to the Mediterranean Tethys before it separated as the Paratethys. However, the cause and paleoenvironmental impacts of this sea retreat remain elusive because of its still loosely constrained age. The regression has been associated to regional tectonics of the Indo-Asia collision or to global eustatic lowering during the initiation of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) 34 million years ago. Also, paleoenvironmental data is lacking to test climate model suggesting that the contribution of the sea retreat to aridification of Asian continental interiors and monsoon intensification is potentially as important as Tibetan plateau uplift. In this study, bio- and magnetostratigraphic results from two sections recording the final marine regression out of the Tarim Basin are presented, providing a framework to reconstruct the role of the sea retreat with respect to global and regional climate. The regression is expressed by a transition from marine greenish clastic limestones to continental alluvial red beds. A rich biostratigraphic assemblage is recovered from the marine sediments including calcareous nannofossils, bivalves, dinoflagellate cysts, benthic foraminifera and ostracods. The microfossil associations indicate a shallow, saline, eutrophic and proximal depositional environment near a strongly arid continental catchment area. The last marine sediments are not younger than mid-Priabonian, whereas polarity pattern recognition in the directly overlying continental red-beds indicate a late Priabonian to Rupelian correlation. Chronostratigraphic synthesis of the bio- and magnetostratigraphic results thus reveal a major hiatus and indicate the long-term eustatic sea-level fall of the late Eocene led to the final retreat of the sea. As suggested by climate models, a late Eocene sea retreat may be linked to coeval aridification of the Asian interior expressed by other regional paleoenvironental records. Additionally, the strong correspondence of the dinoflagellate cysts recovered from the Paleogene sections of the Tarim Basin with records from the Western Tethys shows well-established connections existed between the Mediterranean Tethys and the basins of the Eurasian platform, which confirms the sea that covered the Tarim Basin during the Paleogene did belong to the Tethyan realm and the Paratethys had not yet separated in late Eocene time.

Bosboom, Roderic; Houben, Sander; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Brinkhuis, Henk; Villa, Giuliana; Mandic, Oleg; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout; Zhaojie, Guo; Chuanxin, Li

2010-05-01

321

Climatically driven changes in erosion rates recorded in alluvial fan sediments, Providence Mountains, eastern Mojave Desert, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosional response of semi-arid landscapes to climate change, specifically the mode of precipitation, is poorly understood. Some have argued that hillslope erosion and sediment transport rates are greater when precipitation is dominated by long-duration, low-intensity events, due to higher rates of sediment production on hillslopes and sustained stream discharge. Others have suggested that hillslope erosion rates are greater when precipitation is dominated by short-duration, high-intensity events that generate intense overland flow, especially on low-vegetation hillslopes. These models suggest that hillslope erosion rates will vary as a function of the relative balance of low-intensity, long-duration (e.g. winter frontal storms) to high-intensity, short-duration (e.g. monsoon) style precipitation. Variations in hillslope erosion rates would affect sediment supply to alluvial fan heads, and so the timing and magnitude of fan head depositional events may provide a record of changes in the mode of precipitation. We present new soil chronosequence, OSL ages, and cosmogenic 10Be erosion and paleoerosion rate data from an alluvial fan head in the semi-arid Providence Mountains, eastern Mojave Desert, CA, in order to test this hypothesis. The Providence Mountains expose Proterozoic gneisses and Mesozoic granites and show no evidence of Quaternary faulting, indicating that Pleistocene fan complexes exposed at the mountain front are primarily climatically driven. We selected a 6.2 m thick alluvial terrace at the head of Globe fan. Soil stratigraphic observations include a ~70 cm thick stage IV calcic horizon that is cross cut by a ~1.75 m thick paleochannel, which contains at least 3 three separate buried soils. The paleochannel is overlain by a laterally continuous deposit possessing a 54-cm-thick Bt horizon, a capping Av, and moderately developed pavement that, based on microlamination stratigraphy, is at least 56 ky old. These observations, combined with preliminary OSL ages, indicate that the top of the older alluvial sediment sequence, immediately beneath the stage IV calcic horizon, is at least 300 to 800 ka. Given this age range, and using a range of surface erosion rates, concentrations of 10Be in sediment collected from just below the calcic horizon indicate paleoerosion rates between ~730 and 1690 mm/ky. These paleoerosion rates are an order of magnitude higher than rates derived from 10Be concentrations in active wash sediment, which are between 33 and 63 mm/ky. Although the lack of tighter age control does not allow us to establish whether faster paleoerosion rates are the result of periods of dominantly more or less intense precipitation, our results do demonstrate that erosion rates have varied by an order of magnitude through time, likely due to climatic fluctuations.

Cyr, A. J.; Miller, D. M.; Reheis, M. C.; Mahan, S. A.; Stock, J. D.; Schmidt, K. M.

2010-12-01

322

Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the Leo Pargil range dominates the detrital zircon signal. Finally, there is a shift in the sandstone composition from unmetamorphosed sedimentary lithic fragments and extrusive felsic volcanic fragments in the lower part of the Zhada formation to metasedimentary and metaigneous fragments in the upper part of the Zhada formation. This is likely linked either to unroofing of the source terrain or a change to another source terrain. Based on the palaeocurrent and detrital zircon data, a change to another source terrain is favoured. This combination of evidence suggests that the Zhada basin evolved from a through-going fluvial plain to a dammed lake primarily due to uplift of the Leo Pargil range. This uplift would have dammed and ponded the river, and exposed higher grade metamorphic rocks at the surface for incorporation into Zhada formation sandstones. It also would have introduced a new source for detrital zircons. Uplift of the Leo Pargil range along a low angle normal fault would also have evacuated portions of the mid-crust, providing a mechanism for subsidence in the Zhada region. Lacustrine sedimentation would have coincided with progradation of marginal alluvial fans and would have continued until the basin was filled in to the level of a new spill point. At this time incision and re- establishment of the Sutlej River would have occurred.

Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

2007-12-01

323

GEOG 400 Spring 2013 ARID LANDS GEOMORPHOLOGY  

E-print Network

GEOG 400 ­ Spring 2013 ARID LANDS GEOMORPHOLOGY Dr. Vatche P. Tchakerian Office: O&M 810 Time: TR, geomorphology and the physical environment, but also the major environmental issues in the global arid lands. Since this is foremost a course on the geomorphology of deserts, special emphasis will be placed

324

RIVERBANK FILTRATION EFFECTIVENESS IN AN ARID ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This experiment is a field test of bank filtration at a site where water level and salinity vary on an annual basis, as they do in many arid and semi-arid streams. No other studies of bank filtration have been performed in this kind of setting. Along the border with Mexico, shall...

325

Sedimentology and hydrocarbon habitat of the submarine-fan deposits of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (NE Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin accommodates a subsiding area of the destructive plate-margin. The basin history comprises marginal faulting and alluvial fan accumulation (E2); transgressive onlap by shoreface sediments and carbonate platform deposits (E2); glacio-eustatic regression induced by cooling (Terminal Eocene Event); forced regression, tectonic subsidence and growth-fault accumulation of basin-floor and slope fans (E3); decelerating subsidence, aggradation and sea-level

J. Sotak; M. Pereszlenyi; R. Marschalko; J. Milicka; D. Starek

2001-01-01

326

Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams and playas within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins. The Tucson basin of southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (ca. 700mm/year) as does the basin itself (ca. 300mm/year). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through shallow joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs and runoff in the Santa Catalina Mountains and from wells in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes (?D and ?18O) and thermonuclear-bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterization of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable-isotope measurements show no direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs and wells discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960s or later. Résumé La recharge des aquifères des bassins alluviaux arides du sud-ouest des États-Unis est assurée surtout à partir des lits des cours d'eau et des playas dans les bassins, ainsi que par l'eau entrant à la bordure de ces bassins. Le bassin du Tucson, dans le sud-est de l'Arizona, est l'un de ceux-ci. La chaîne montagneuse de Santa Catalina constitue la limite nord de ce bassin et reçoit plus de deux fois plus de précipitations (environ 700mm/an) que le bassin (environ 300mm/an). Dans cette étude, les isotopes du milieu ont été utilisés pour analyser le déplacement de l'eau de pluie vers le bassin au travers des fissures et des fractures proches de la surface. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés dans les sources et dans l'écoulement de surface de la chaîne montagneuse et dans des puits au pied de la chaîne. Les isotopes stables (?D et ?18O) et le tritium d'origine thermonucléaire permettent de caractériser qualitativement les cheminements de l'eau et leurs vitesses. Les isotopes stables ne mettent pas en évidence un effet d'altitude. Les teneurs en tritium indiquent que quelques sources et certains puits fournissent une eau ancienne, alors que l'eau de la plupart des sources date des années soixante ou est plus récente. Resumen Los acuíferos en las cuencas aluviales áridas del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América se recargan principalmente por la infiltración procedentes de los arroyos y playas de las propias cuencas y por entradas a lo largo de los límites de las mismas. La cuenca de Tucson, en el sudeste de Arizona es una de ellas. Las Montañas de Santa Catalina forman el contorno septentrional de esta cuenca y reciben una precipitación de más del doble (700mm/año) que la media de la propia cuenca (unos 300mm/año). En este estudio, se utilizaron isótopos ambientales para investigar la infiltración a través de fracturas y juntas superficiales. Se obtuvieron muestras de manantiales y de la escorrentía en las Montañas de Santa Catalina, así como de pozos ubicados al pie de las mismas. Los isótopos estables (Deuterio y Oxígeno-18) y el Tritio procedente de las bombas termonucleares permitieron la caracterización cualitativa de las líneas de flujo y de las velocidades. Los datos procedentes de la medida de isótopos estables no parecen presentar un efecto de altitud. Los valores de Tritio indican que aunque algunos pozos y manantiales descargan agua previa a los ensayos termonucleares, la mayoría descargan aguas de fecha posterior a 1960.

Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.

327

A model of channel response in disturbed alluvial channels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dredging and straightening of alluvial channels between 1959 and 1978 in West Tennessee caused a series of morphologic changes along modified reaches and tributary streams. Degradation occurred for 10 to 15 years at sites upstream of the area of maximum disturbance and lowered bed-levels by as much as 6.1 m. Following degradation, reaches upstream of the area of maximum disturbance experienced a secondary aggradation phase in response to excessive incision and gradient reduction. -from Author

Simon, A.

1989-01-01

328

GENERALIZED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODELS FOR ALLUVIAL RIVERS AND RESERVOIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has developed a series of computer models (GSTAR) for the simulation and prediction of sediment transport, scour, and deposition processes in alluvial rivers and reservoirs. GSTARS, GSTARS 2.0\\/2.1 and GSTARS3 are based on the stream tube concept using one-dimensional approach along stream tubes to obtain a semi-two-dimensional variation of the hydraulic conditions in rivers and

Chih Ted Yang; Francisco J. M. Simões; Jianchun Huang; Blair Greimann

329

Uranium in framboidal pyrite from a naturally bioreduced alluvial sediment.  

PubMed

Samples of a naturally bioreduced, U-contaminated alluvial sediment were characterized with various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques and wet chemical extraction methods. The objective was to investigate U association and interaction with minerals of the sediment. Bioreduced sediment comprises approximately 10% of an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, in Rifle, CO, that was the site of a former U milling operation. Past and ongoing research has demonstrated that bioreduced sediment is elevated in solid-associated U, total organic carbon, and acid-volatile sulfide, and depleted in bioavailable Fe(III) confirming that sulfate and Fe(III) reduction have occurred naturally in the sediment. SEM/EDS analyses demonstrated that framboidal pyrites (FeS(2)) of different sizes ( approximately 10-20 microm in diameter), and of various microcrystal morphology, degree of surface weathering, and internal porosity were abundant in the <53 microm fraction (silt + clay) of the sediment and absent in adjacent sediments that were not bioreduced. SEM-EMPA, XRF, EXAFS, and XANES measurements showed elevated U was present in framboidal pyrite as both U(VI) and U(IV). This result indicates that U may be sequestered in situ under conditions of microbially driven sulfate reduction and pyrite formation. Conversely, such pyrites in alluvial sediments provide a long-term source of U under conditions of slow oxidation, contributing to the persistence of U of some U plumes. These results may also help in developing remedial measures for U-contaminated aquifers. PMID:20028047

Qafoku, Nikolla P; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; McKinley, James P; Arey, Bruce W; Kelly, Shelly D; Wang, Chongmin; Resch, Charles T; Long, Philip E

2009-11-15

330

Semi-Arid Landscapes: The Canary in the Climate-Change Coalmine (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The balance between precipitation as a driving force of sediment transport (via hillslope erosional processes) or a resisting force (via increases in vegetation cover) is reflected by the landforms and denudation rates in semi-arid landscapes. While exact values vary, studies examining the relationship between land surface lowering and mean annual precipitation show a ';sweet spot' of peak denudation rates for semi-arid landscapes receiving ~300-500 mm precipitation/year. Ongoing and future climate change necessitates the investigation of how landscapes may respond as they move towards or away from this erosional threshold; semi-arid landscapes on the edge of ecohydrologic thresholds (e.g. treelines) may experience dramatic environmental changes as ongoing and future climate change alters ecosystems. Semi-arid landscapes are the equivalent to canaries in a coal-mine, and studying them advances understanding of how other sensitive landscapes may respond to climate change. Landforms, however, are a product of thousands to millions of years of climatic forcing. Direct measurement of both short and long-term erosion rates is complicated, and observations of modern erosional processes may not reflect the past. Over 10 years of environmental data collected in the heavily instrumented Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) outside Boise, Idaho facilitates 2nd order analysis of climate-driven environmental variability across a large area (27 km2). Multi-scaled analyses relate runoff production from pedons to catchments, and erosion rates and processes from hillslopes to landforms, while prior mapping results (Poulos et al, 2012) allow application of results to similar semi-arid montane landscapes. Preliminary data reveal intriguing, but counterintuitive, feedbacks among soil properties, hillslope hydrology, ecology, and drainage development. Despite steeper slope angles, north-facing slopes have thicker soils than south-facing slopes, suggesting slower erosion rates. This conflicts with theories of hillslope processes which predict that erosion rates increase and soil thicknesses decrease with increasing slope angles. Could future increases in temperatures and decreased vegetation push north-facing slopes beyond a geomorphic tipping point, where their soils and drainages erode like south-facing slopes? Also, shallower soils and reduced plant cover on south-facing slopes appear to limit soil water storage and evapotranspiration, culminating in increased runoff and streamflow from these relatively drier ecosystems. What impact do these pedon- and hillslope-scale differences in runoff have on catchment-scale drainage erosion, incision and expansion? Finally, while landforms and erosion rates reflect, to some degree, the annual to centennial-scale climate conditions and precipitation events, episodic events such as wildfires exert a major control on erosion rates. Alluvial fans act as natural (albeit a bit leaky) sediment traps for hillslope erosion from 1st order drainage systems, while charcoal fragments in alluvial fan stratigraphic sequences provide both evidence of fire, and (through 14C dating) a means to estimate erosion rates. Ongoing fire studies in the DCEW, combined with surveys of alluvial fan sediment volumes, will reveal 1) the contribution of fire events to overall erosion rates, 2) variability in erosion rates between north and south facing slopes and 3) changes in Holocene fire activity with changes in climate.

Pierce, J. L.; Poulos, M. J.

2013-12-01

331

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Integration of hydrologic and water allocation models in basin-  

E-print Network

of the world. This is particularly relevant in arid and semiarid regions where water scarcity poses a severeORIGINAL ARTICLE Integration of hydrologic and water allocation models in basin- scale water water resources management requires coupled analysis of hydrology and water resources in a river basin

332

The Late Quaternary biogeographic histories of some Great Basin mammals (western USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Basin of arid western North America provides one of the most detailed late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal records available for any part of the world, though the record is by far strongest for small mammals. Of the 35 genera of now-extinct North American Pleistocene mammals, 19 are known to have occurred in the Great Basin, a list that

Donald K. Grayson

2006-01-01

333

Study on ecological environment evolution law in Junggar basin based on RS and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junggar basin, located in the northwest arid areas of China, has vulnerable supeUgene ecological environment because of natural and anthropic factors. In this paper, based on the relationship between groundwater and ecological environment and combined with natural and geographical conditions, Junggar basin is divided into five ecosystem types: mountain, natural oasis, artificial oasis, natural water and desert. According to the

Jing Zhang; Wen-ke Wang; Ze-yuan Yang; Hai-min Shang; Xue-jun Liu

2011-01-01

334

Water and the arid lands of the western United States  

SciTech Connect

The United States is water-rich, but conflicts over water development and use are increasing. Today, economic scarcity - not absolute physical scarcity - is the key issue in many places. In the arid American West, traditionally over 90 percent of the water consumed has been used to irrigate agriculture. But as cities grow and the states's economies diversify, municipal, commercial, and industrial uses exert more pressure. At the same time, groundwater mining and water quality degradation are becoming commonplace. The challenge is to increase productivity while equitably distributing the costs and benefits of water use. This book includes three case studies that cover primarily agricultural areas (the Central Valley of California, the High Plains of Texas, and the upper Colorado River basin) and three on the problems of metropolitan areas (Denver, Tucson, and the southern California megalopolis). The authors also identify policies that could help the West sustain economic growth without destroying or undervaluing its natural resources.

El-Ashry, M.T.; Gibbons, D.C.

1988-01-01

335

How does sediment mixing affect 10Be concentrations in alluvial sediments? A case study from a small catchment of the Alps, Zielbach, Alto Adige, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basin-wide erosion rates can be determined through the analysis of in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides based on the idea that samples taken at the outlet of a catchment are representative of the entire upstream basin. However, this is only true when a certain number of assumptions are verified. Among the most important assumptions is that denudation rates are uniform through space and time; i.e. the catchment is in cosmogenic steady-state. If this is the case, then the in-going nuclide flux through production is equal to the out-going flux through decay and erosion, and the system is in isotopic equilibrium. When this condition is not matched, the calculation of basin-wide erosion rates through cosmogenic nuclides is subject to the well-mixing conditions of the alluvial sediment in the rivers. Here, we bring a new contribution towards the understanding of sediment mixing effects on in-situ cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in alluvial sediment. We proceed by following the methodology proposed by Binnie et al. (2006), and present the results from a sediment mixing model for a small (~42 km2) catchment in the Alps. The model results show the importance of the sampling location and of the catchment's size to have reliable erosion rates. However, the models also highlight the importance of knowing the sediment transfer mechanisms and the processes magnitude. When the transport of sediment mainly occurs through soil creep and shallow landslides, high concentration material is supplied into the fluvial system, increasing the 10Be concentration in the alluvial sediment. Likewise, the high-frequency of mass-wasting processes or the occurrence of sporadic but large-magnitude events, allow the supply of low-concentration sediment that result in a lower cosmogenic nuclide signal in the channels., A strong bias arises for the calculation of basin-wide erosion rates if mass-wasting processes dominate the mechanisms of sediment transfer in the catchment. In this situation the use of cosmogenic nuclides signal results in an over- or underestimation of the erosion rates. Therefore, our results suggest that when using cosmogenic nuclides, the achievement of mixing conditions in alluvial sediment is of primary importance for the correct estimation of the erosion rates and that this latter has to be accurately interpreted when the mixing conditions are unknown or not achieved.

Savi, S.; Norton, K.; Schlunegger, F.; Picotti, V.; Brardinoni, F.; Akçar, N.; Kubik, P. W.

2012-04-01

336

Using major ions and ?15N-NO3(-) to identify nitrate sources and fate in an alluvial aquifer of the Baiyangdian lake watershed, North China Plain.  

PubMed

In semi-arid regions, most human activities occur in alluvial fan areas; however, NO3(-) pollution has greatly threatened the shallow groundwater quality. In this paper, ?(15)N-NO3(-) and multi-tracers were used to identify the origin and fate of NO3(-) in groundwater of the Baiyangdian lake watershed, North China Plain. The investigation was conducted in two typical regions: one is the agricultural area located in the upstream of the watershed and another is the region influenced by urban wastewater in the downstream of the watershed. Results indicate that the high NO3(-) concentrations of the upstream shallow groundwater were sourced from fertilizer and manure or sewage leakage, whilst the mixture and denitrification caused the decrease in the NO3(-) concentration along the flow path of the groundwater. In the downstream, industrial and domestic effluent has a great impact on groundwater quality. The contaminated rivers contributed from 45% to 76% of the total recharge to the groundwater within a distance of 40 m from the river. The mixture fraction of the wastewater declined with the increasing distance away from the river. However, groundwater with NO3(-) concentrations larger than 20 mg l(-1) was only distributed in areas near to the polluted river or the sewage irrigation area. It is revealed that the frontier and depression regions of an alluvial fan in a lake watershed with abundant organics, silt and clay sediments have suitable conditions for denitrification in the downstream. PMID:23743546

Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Yuan, Ruiqiang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua

2013-07-01

337

Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.Mexico Border Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering

R. G. Varady; M. Wilder; B. J. Morehouse; G. M. Garfin

2007-01-01

338

Quaternary Faults and Basin-fill Sediments of the Las Vegas Basin, Southern Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-S elongated extensional Las Vegas basin, southern Nevada, contains 100's of meters of Cenozoic basin-fill sediments that are cut by several Quaternary (Q) faults. These faults define or influence the basin geometry. The basin is generally an asymmetrical half graben defined by the W-dipping, Q Frenchman Mountain fault (FMF) along its E side and a series of smaller offset E-dipping faults to the W. The N terminus of the basin is controlled by the Las Vegas Valley shear zone, along which the majority of the offset occurred prior to the Q. Here, we asses the influence of the Q faults on the distribution of the sedimentary units. Well, exposure, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data show that sedimentary units of different grain sizes or seismic velocity dominate different parts of the basin. Sections dominated by coarse clastic deposits occupy a narrow area along the E side of the basin. Coarse clastic sediments are mixed with finer grained sediments in a broader area along the W side of the basin. Based on provenance and alluvial fan distribution, the coarse deposits along the E side of the basin appear to be trapped in close proximity to the W-dipping FMF. The coarse-grained deposits along the opposite, W side of the basin, are sourced from the nearby Spring Mountains. Because of the structural asymmetry of the basin, these sediments traveled farther from their source area than those on the E side. Some of these E-dipping faults influence the depth to Paleozoic bedrock and some faults form small sub-basins filled with finer grained sediments. Along a WNW trend near the center of the basin and near the present-day Las Vegas Wash, a change in the grain size distribution occurs up stratgraphic section: continuous clay layers are less common and coarse-grained deposits are more common. This difference may reflect a change from internal drainage early in the basin history to external drainage through the Las Vegas Wash in the latter history of the basin-fill sedimentation. This interpretation implies that the FMF was breached by a wash connected to the Colorado River drainage system during basin development. The basin fill deposits suggest an early history of alluvial fan dominated deposits showing internal drainage. That depositional system was followed by E- and W-sloping alluvial fans cut by a NW-trending external drainage system that probably flowed to the Colorado River. The greatest structural influence on sediment distribution was from the Q FMF on the E side of the basin and the dominantly Miocene Las Vegas Valley shear zone on the north, but the structural influence is reduced as Colorado River system and base level imposes on the basin up section.

Taylor, W. J.; Fossett, E.; Luke, B.; Snelson, C.; Rasmussen, T.; McCallen, D.; Rodgers, A.; Louie, J.

2003-12-01

339

Debris Basin and Deflection Berm Design for Fire-Related Debris-Flow Mitigation  

E-print Network

Debris Basin and Deflection Berm Design for Fire-Related Debris-Flow Mitigation ADAM B. PROCHASKA1 Engineering, 1516 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 Key Terms: Debris Flow, Fire-Related, Mitigation, Design the risk to developments on alluvial fans, debris-flow mitigation structures may be required. This study

340

Reliability of pollen concentration as the indicator of effective moisture in arid and semi-arid regions of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen concentration has been commonly used to indicate vegetation cover and moisture change. However, this practice may not always be justified in arid and semi-arid regions. This paper investigates potential problems with the approach based on modern pollen assemblages and fossil pollen data from arid and semi-arid China. The results show that pollen concentration has no direct relationship with vegetation

Y. Zhao; Q. F. Sun

2010-01-01

341

Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur-Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width-depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE-SW direction.

Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar

2014-08-01

342

Hydrocarbon potential of early mesozoic basins of eastern United States  

SciTech Connect

The exposed Triassic-Liassic rift basins in the eastern United States are half-grabens filled with up to 7 km of continental sediments. The location and sense of asymmetry of the half-grabens are closely tied to the structural grain of the Appalachian crystalline terranes on which they have formed. In many instances, the faulted margins of the basins are older thrusts or terrane boundaries reactivated as listric normal faults. The sediment fill of the basins reflects their structural asymmetry. Coarse alluvial fan deposits along the main border faults pass basinward into a complex assemblage of fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine facies. The oldest sediment fill in the rift basins is dated palynologically as late Ladinian to late Carnian. Perhaps reflecting the northward opening of the central Atlantic, the youngest rift-fill sediments are older in the southern basins than in the northern-Carnian in the Righmond basin vs. Toarcian in the Hartford-Deerfield basin. Floral evidence points to a tropical to near-tropical environment, with severe oscillations between xerophytic (dry) and hydrophytic (wet) conditions. The degree of thermal maturation, as estimated from vitrinite reflectance and clay mineralogy, varies widely from basin to basin; however, most of the basins are within the oil to dry gas generative window. The basins with highest thermal maturities are those having large volumes of diabase intrusives and presumed higher paleogeothermal gradients. The peak of thermal maturation/migration may have occurred as early as the Jurassic.

Schlamel, S.

1988-01-01

343

Investigating the use of alluvial fan volume to represent fan size in morphometric studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the morphometric properties of alluvial fans have predominantly used a two-dimensional planimetric area to represent fan size even though fans are three-dimensional sediment deposits, but the validity of this substitution has been questioned. Volumes of fans in nonsubsiding settings were estimated with the objective of investigating the relationship between fan volume and fan area. A simple geometric approach was developed so that volumes of noncoalescent fans could be estimated with measurements from topographic maps. Data were collected from two study areas with humid, temperate climates: the Bow Valley in Alberta, Canada, and the Absaroka Range in Wyoming, USA. Because these landscapes were glaciated, the fans are of paraglacial origin and are not related to contemporaneous tectonic subsidence. Using functional relation analysis, results indicate that the proportional power-law relationship between fan volume and fan area is not significantly different from 1:1 in both study areas. Morphometric relationships between fans and drainage basins are also examined, with fan volume and cumulative sediment yield employed as variables.

Giles, Philip T.

2010-09-01

344

A comparison of Nannochloropsis salina growth performance in two outdoor pond designs: conventional raceways versus the ARID pond with superior temperature management  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8 to 20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9 °C, the water temperature was 18 °C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 - 25 % and 5 - 15 %, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acid comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 vs 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.34 vs. 3.47 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

Crowe, Braden J.; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Chavis, Aaron R.; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Huesemann, Michael H.

2012-10-01

345

Elevated Mercury Concentrations in Alluvial Deposits of the Humid Tropics of South America: Natural vs. Anthropogenic Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) amalgamation is extensively used throughout the humid tropics of South America for the extraction of fine-gold particles from secondary ore deposits. Early studies of water, sediments and fish generally concluded that these gold mining operations have extensively contaminated the aquatic environment. However, investigations along a 900-km reach of the Maderia River, Brazil suggest that while Hg values in sediments and water are above global averages, the high mercury levels are largely due to natural sources. Of primary significance is the inability to distinguish between Hg concentrations in upland soils (oxisols) and modern channel and floodplain deposits. Spatial trends in the data suggest that the impact of anthropogenically released Hg from mine sites is relatively localized. This conclusion is supported by other, independent studies in the Rio Negro basin where elevated Hg values were found in terrace deposits in spite of the fact that no modern mining activities are known to occur within the watershed. Moreover, Roulet and his colleagues have demonstrated using mass balance calculations that within the Tapajos River basin as much as 97 percent of Hg in the alluvial deposits is derived from Hg enriched oxisols eroded during deforestation. In a regional examination of Hg levels within alluvial deposits of Essequibo and Mazaruni Rivers of Guyana, we again found that Hg levels were above both regional background values (10 to 80 ppb) and global averages. However, deforestation within these watersheds is limited, reducing the influx of Hg from eroded upland soils. In addition, the spatial trends in Hg concentrations suggest a closer link between mining activities and Hg values than is found in Maderia River of Brazil. It is unclear at this time, however, whether the primary Hg source in Guyana is the direct input of Hg to the river during amalgamation, or to the influx of Hg enriched soils eroded during the dredging of channel bed sediments and hydraulic mining of floodplain materials.

Miller, J. R.; Lechler, P. J.

2001-12-01

346

Mixed-Layer Illite\\/Smectite Minerals in Tertiary Sandstones and Shales, San Joaquin Basin, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern San Joaquin Valley contains more than 7 km of sedimentary fili, largely Miocene and younger in age. Ancient depositional environments ranged from alluvial fans at the basin margins to turbidite fans toward the basin center. Mixed-layer illite\\/smectite (I\\/S) dominates the < 2-gm fraction of Miocene Shales, and kaolinite is abundant in Miocene sandstones. I\\/S from carbonate-cemented sand- stones

Karl Ramseyer; J. R. BOLES

1986-01-01

347

Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals\\u000a worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain,\\u000a which is formed by the Ganga–Padma–Meghna–Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh\\u000a is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The

Mridul Chetia; Soumya Chatterjee; Saumen Banerjee; Manash J. Nath; Lokendra Singh; Ravi B. Srivastava; Hari P. Sarma

2011-01-01

348

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships  

E-print Network

) incorporating adaptive time steps to correct for streamflow measurement errors improves the coefficient-arid basins [Wilson and Guan, 2004], and it includes infiltration of mountain stream runoff in alluvial fan

Troch, Peter

349

Global and continental changes of arid areas using the FAO Aridity Index over the periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in arid areas and progressing land degradation are two of the main consequences of global climate change. In the 2nd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD), published by the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) in 1997, a global aridity map was presented. This map was based on the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Aridity Index (AI) that takes into account the annual ratio between precipitation (RR) and Potential Evapo-Transpiration (PET). According to the long-term mean value of this ratio, climate is therefore classified in hyper-arid (<0.05), arid (0.05-0.2), semi-arid (0.2-0.5), dry sub-humid (0.5-0.65), and humid (>0.65); a special case are cold climates, which occur if the mean annual PET is below 400 mm. In the framework of the 3rd edition of the WAD, we computed new global aridity maps to improve and update the old version that was based on a single dataset (CRU dataset, Climate Research Unit of University of East Anglia) related to the 1951-80 period only. We computed the AI on two different time intervals (1951-80 and 1981-2010) in order to account for shifts in classes between the two periods and we used two different datasets: PET from CRU (version 3.2), and precipitation from the global 0.5?x0.5? gridded monthly precipitation of the Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). We used the GPCC Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0, which showed a high reliability during many quality checks and is based on more stations than the CRU's precipitation counterpart. The results show that the "arid areas" (i.e. AI <0.5) globally increased from 28.4% to 29.6% and in Northern Hemisphere the cold climate areas decreased from 26.6% to 25.4%. Comparing the aridity maps of the two periods, the areas which most remarkably moved to lower AI values ("more arid" conditions) are: Canada, Brazil, the Mediterranean Region, Eastern Europe, almost all of Africa, the Middle East, Eastern China, Borneo, and Australia. At regional or country level, a shift of one class towards a "more arid" class can be found in Alaska (U.S.), Alberta (Canada), Patagonia (Argentina), Pernambuco (Brazil), Western Peru, Spain, the Southern Sahara and North-Eastern Kalahari deserts, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (India), Mongolia, the Yang-Tze Basin (China), and the North-Eastern and South-Western Australian coasts. On the other hand, Central U.S., Paraguay and Northern Argentina, Scandinavia, Northern Australia, and Western China moved to a wetter climate in the last period. Due to the low data availability, we assumed that no changes took place in Antarctica, which is meant to be under a permanent ice cap, excluding the northernmost Graham Land.

Spinoni, Jonathan; Micale, Fabio; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

2013-04-01

350

The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de solvants chlorés piégés. Malgré leur faible solubilité dans l'eau, ces solvants denses sont suffisamment mobiles et solubles pour avoir produit, dans le sud-ouest des vallées alluviales, des panaches aqueux qui ont migré de plusieurs kilomètres dans les alluvions plus profondes et ont contaminé des champs captants pour l'eau potable en Californie, en Arizona et au Nouveau-Mexique. La longueur de ces panaches et la présence d'eau souterraine en conditions oxiques indiquent qu'il est peu probable que la décroissance naturelle soit un recours pratique de décontamination dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest ou dans d'autres systèmes alluviaux dans lesquels existent des conditions hydrogéologiques et géochimiques semblables. Resumen La migración, disolución y transporte de compuestos clorados en valles aluviales urbanos del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de América parecen estar gobernados por un conjunto único de procesos hidrogeológicos y geoquímicos que tienen lugar en los depósitos clásticos. El relleno aluvial y lacustre de las cuencas, la inmovilización de los solutos en sedimentos de grano fino bajo las zonas urbanizadas, los condiciones óxicas típicas del aluvial profundo y las direcciones de transporte regidas por los fuertes bombeos en las cuencas se combinan para producir grandes penachos en fase acuosa procedentes de la disolución de los compuestos clorados atrapados en el medio. Aunque la solubilidad de estos compuestos clorados densos es pequeña, es suficiente para producir penachos que en algunos casos se han desplazado varios kilómetros a través del aluvial profundo y han llegado a contaminar zonas de extracción muy productivas en California, Arizona y Nuevo México. La longitud de estos penachos y la presencia de agua subterránea oxidante indican que es improbable que la degradación natural sea un buen método de limpieza de estos acuíferos o de otros sistemas aluviales que presenten características hidrogeológicas y geoquímicas semejantes.

Jackson, R. E.

351

Study on the polarimetric characteristics of the Lop Nur arid area using PolSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative study of the arid Lop Nur lake basin is significant to investigate the environmental changes in the arid area of northwestern China and extremely arid areas of Eurasia in general. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, with its penetration capability and advantages for studying geological phenomena on a large spatial scale, is very suitable for analyzing the subsurface of the Lop Nur area. Based on the full polarimetric ALOS PALSAR data and field investigation, it was found that the two-layer scattering mechanism of the dry sediments is very special and complex. The scattering mechanism in the bright strips is more complex than that in the gray strips according to the co-polarization correlation analysis. The experimental results show that the Cloude-Pottier decomposition method is more appropriate for this area. Moreover, the polarimetric characteristics and Cloude-Pottier decomposition results are very important for the study of the past climatic change in Lop Nur area. In conclusion, full polarimetric SAR data and target decomposition theory provide a new technique for obtaining information and quantitatively studying the subsurface characteristics of arid areas.

Gao, Zhihong; Gong, Huaze; Zhou, Xu; Shao, Yun; Yuan, Minghuan; Wang, Longfei

2014-01-01

352

Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

2000-01-01

353

Depositional character of a dry-climate alluvial fan system from Palaeoproterozoic rift setting using facies architecture and palaeohydraulics: Example from the Par Formation, Gwalior Group, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?20 m thick coarse-grained clastic succession in the basal part of Palaeoproterozoic Par Formation, Gwalior Group has been investigated using process-based sedimentology and deductive palaeohydraulics. Bounded between granitic basement at its base and shallow marine succession at the top, the studied stratigraphic interval represents products of an alluvial fan and its strike-wise co-existent braided river system that possibly acted as a tributary for the fan. Detailed facies, facies association analysis allowed identification of two anatomical parts for the fan system viz. proximal and mid fan. While thin proximal fan is represented by products of rock avalanche and hyperconcentrated flows with widely varying rheology, the mid fan is represented by products of sheet floods and flows within streamlets. The interpretation found support from palaeoslope estimation carried out on the fluvial part of the mid fan that plot dominantly within the alluvial fan field demarcated by Blair and McPherson (1994). Dry climatic condition suggested from dominance of stream flow over mass flow deposition within the Par alluvial fan. Strike-wise, the fan is discontinuous and juxtaposed with a braid plain system. In contrast to the fluvial part of fan system, the palaeoslope data from the braid plain system dominantly plot within the ‘natural depositional gap' defined by Blair and McPherson. A raised palaeoslope for the river systems, as suggested from Proterozoic braid plain deposits around the Globe, is found valid for the Par braid plain system as well. From preponderance of granular and sandy sediments within the alluvial fan and braid plain systems and a pervasive north-westward palaeocurrent pattern within the fluvial systems the present study infers a gently sloping bevelled source area in the south-southeast of the basin with occurrence of steep cliffs only locally.

Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Paul, Pritam

2014-09-01

354

Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and environmental conditions, which influence seasonal farming.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

2010-01-01

355

Arid Lands Green Infrastructure Regional Examples + Tour  

E-print Network

Arid Lands Green Infrastructure Regional Examples + Tour Green Infrastructure and Low-Impact Design · Irrigates 400 trees #12;New Belgium/Odell's Breweries (CO) #12;#12;#12;Las Vegas Springs Preserve, NV #12

356

Are North Slope surface alluvial fans pre-Holocene relicts?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface morphology of the northern slope of the Brooks Range (North Slope) from the Canning River, Alaska, eastward is dominated by a series of large alluvial fans and braided streams floored by coarse alluvium. On the basis of our studies, we conclude that the fans are not prograding now nor have they been prograding at any time during the Holocene. During the latest transgression and the following sea-level highstand, the North Slope depositional environment and climate probably differed greatly from the present ones.

Reimnitz, Erk; Wolf, Stephen C.

1998-01-01

357

Miocene fluvial-tidal sedimentation in a residual forearc basin of the Northeastern Pacific Rim: Cook Inlet, Alaska case study  

SciTech Connect

Cook Inlet in southern Alaska represents a Cenozoic residual forearc basin in a convergent continental margin, where the Pacific Plate is being subducted beneath the North American Plate. This basin accumulated the >6,700-m-thick, mainly nonmarine, Eocene-Pliocene Kenai Group. These rocks contain biogenic coal-bed methane estimated to be as high as 245 TCF. Lignites to subbituminous coals with subsurface R[sub o] ranging from 0.38 to 0.73 percent and the stage of clay-mineral diagenesis and expandibility indicate a thermally [open quotes]cool[close quotes] basin. Miocene Tyonek and Beluga Formations compose 65 percent (>4,300 m thick) of the Kenai Group. The Tyonek includes conglomeratic sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, coals, and carbonaceous shales, interpreted as braided- stream deposits. These fluvial deposits are interbecided with burrowed, lenticular, and flaser-bedded sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones, interpreted as tidal deposits. Tyonek framework conglomerates formed in wet alluvial fans incised on paleovalleys of the Chugach terrane. Coal-forming mires are well developed on abandoned braided-stream deposits. Tyonek drainages formed in high-gradient alluvial plains inundated by tides similar to environments in the modern upper Cook Inlet. The upper Miocene Beluga consists of sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, carbonaceous shales, and coals deposited in meandering (low sinuosity) and anastomosed fluvial systems. These fluvial deposits alternated vertically with deposits of coal-forming mires. The Beluga drainages formed in low-gradient alluvial plains. The high-gradient Tyonek alluvial plain was probably controlled by provenance uplift and eustatic change, whereas the low-gradient Beluga alluvial plain was influenced by subdued provenance uplift and rapid basin subsidence. Rapid sedimentation on both these low- and high-gradient alluvial plains, which kept up with subsidence, produced a thermally [open quotes]cool[close quotes] basin.

Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01

358

Sedimentology and depositional environments of the Red Sandstone Group, Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania: New insight into Cretaceous and Paleogene terrestrial ecosystems and tectonics in sub-equatorial Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sandstone Group (RSG) in the Rukwa Rift Basin of southwestern Tanzania represents one of the only well-exposed, fossiliferous Cretaceous-Paleogene continental sedimentary sequences in sub-equatorial Africa. The significance of the RSG for reconstructing the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic history of African ecosystems during these critical time periods has been obfuscated by long-standing confusion and debate over the age of the deposits. Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic investigations of the RSG conducted between 2002 and 2008 have produced a wealth of new fossil discoveries and data on lithofacies, alluvial architecture, sedimentary provenance, clay mineralogy and geochronology that resolve the long-standing debate over the age of these deposits. This study confirms the existence of an extensive middle Cretaceous sequence, herein named the Galula Formation, and subdivided into the Mtuka and Namba members. Moreover, we document the existence of a previously unrecognized late Paleogene continental sequence termed the Nsungwe Formation, which is divided into the Utengule and Songwe members. The Galula Formation represents a 600-3000 m thick sequence of amalgamated, braided fluvial deposits that were deposited across a large braidplain system via multiple parallel channels that had their source in the highlands of Malawi and Zambia. The middle Cretaceous Dinosaur Beds of Malawi are hypothesized to be at least partially correlative with the Galula Formation, and represent proximal deposits of this large, northwest flowing, trunk stream system. A moderately diverse terrestrial vertebrate fauna, including multiple species of dinosaurs, crocodyliforms, turtles, fishes and mammals have been recovered, along with a sparse aquatic molluscan fauna. Lithofacies and clay mineralogy indicate that Cretaceous paleoclimate ameliorated during deposition of the Galula Formation, transitioning from tropical semi-arid to tropical humid conditions. The 400+ m-thick late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation is temporally constrained by concordant mammalian biostratigraphy, detrital zircon geochronology and a radiometrically dated volcanic tuff capping the sequence (˜24.9 Ma). A significant change in depositional environments occurs between the lower alluvial fan-dominated Utengule Member and the upper fluvial and lacustrine-dominated Songwe Member. The Songwe Member preserves a diverse terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, with abundant ashfall and ashflow volcanic tuffs that were deposited in a semi-arid wetland landscape during the late Oligocene. The Nsungwe Formation provides a new window into the early tectonics and faunal transitions associated with initiation of the "modern" East African Rift System.

Roberts, Eric M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Jinnah, Zubair A.; Ngasala, Sifael; Choh, Adeline M.; Armstrong, Richard A.

2010-05-01

359

Photodegradation Pathways in Arid Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest in improving our understanding of decomposition patterns in arid and semi-arid ecosystems and under potentially drier future conditions has led to a flurry of research related to abiotic degradation processes. Oxidation of organic matter by solar radiation (photodegradation) is one abiotic degradation process that contributes significantly to litter decomposition rates. Our meta-analysis results show that increasing solar radiation exposure corresponds to an average increase of 23% in litter mass loss rate with large variation among studies associated primarily with environmental and litter chemistry characteristics. Laboratory studies demonstrate that photodegradation results in CO2 emissions. Indirect estimates suggest that photodegradation could account for as much as 60% of ecosystem CO2 emissions from dry ecosystems, but these CO2 fluxes have not been measured in intact ecosystems. The current data suggest that photodegradation is important, not only for understanding decomposition patterns, but also for modeling organic matter turnover and ecosystem C cycling. However, the mechanisms by which photodegradation operates, along with their environmental and litter chemistry controls, are still poorly understood. Photodegradation can directly influence decomposition rates and ecosystem CO2 flux via photochemical mineralization. It can also indirectly influence biotic decomposition rates by facilitating microbial degradation through breakdown of more recalcitrant compounds into simpler substrates or by suppressing microbial activity directly. All of these pathways influence the decomposition process, but the relative importance of each is uncertain. Furthermore, a specific suite of controls regulates each of these pathways (e.g., environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity; physical environment such as canopy architecture and contact with soil; and litter chemistry characteristics such as lignin and cellulose content), and these controls have not yet been identified or quantified. To advance our understanding of photodegradation and its role in decomposition and in ecosystem C cycling, we must characterize its mechanisms and their associated controls and incorporate this understanding into biogeochemical models. Our objective is to summarize the current state of understanding of photodegradation and discuss some paths forward to address remaining critical gaps in knowledge about its mechanisms and influence on ecosystem C balance.

King, J. Y.; Lin, Y.; Adair, E. C.; Brandt, L.; Carbone, M. S.

2013-12-01

360

Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

1994-01-01

361

A. Reservoir Effects of Stream Channels DAM IMPACTS ON AND RESTORATION OF AN ALLUVIAL RIVER  

E-print Network

A. Reservoir Effects of Stream Channels DAM IMPACTS ON AND RESTORATION OF AN ALLUVIAL RIVER ­ RIO GRANDE, NEW MEXICO Gigi RICHARD1 and Pierre JULIEN2 ABSTRACT The impact of construction of dams and reservoirs on alluvial rivers extends both upstream and downstream of the dam. Downstream of dams, both

Julien, Pierre Y.

362

Interpreting alluvial archives: sedimentological factors in the British Holocene fluvial record  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Holocene alluvial archive of 506 dated units for Great Britain is analysed in terms of the sedimentation styles involved. The database is classified by sedimentation unit (channel sediments, palaeochannel fills, floodplain surface sediments, floodbasins and colluvial deposits) and alluvial ensemble (fans and cones, upland gullies and streams, braided systems and active\\/inactive meandering and anastomosing systems).Floodplain, palaeochannel and floodbasin sediments

J. Lewin; M. G. Macklin; E. Johnstone

2005-01-01

363

Metamodel-based design of alluvial channels at incipient motion subjected to seepage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an alluvial channel affected by seepage requires information about five basic parameters: particle size, water depth, energy slope, seepage velocity, and average velocity. The conventional approach to predicting the incipient motion in an alluvial channel cannot be applied in the case of a channel affected by seepage. Metamodelling techniques are nowadays widely used in engineering design to

Bimlesh Kumar; Gopu Sreenivasulu; Achanta Ramakrishna Rao

2010-01-01

364

44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial...SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.13 Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial...information FEMA needs to recognize on a NFIP map that a structural flood control...

2010-10-01

365

Hydrogeochemistry of alluvial groundwaters in an agricultural area: an implication for groundwater contamination susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alluvial groundwaters in the area where intensive agricultural activity takes place were geochemically investigated to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality of alluvial aquifers. For this study, 55 groundwater samples were taken from the uniformly distributed irrigation wells and were classified into three distinct groups according to their geochemical characteristics. This study reveals that the groundwater quality and the geochemical characteristics

Gi-Tak Chae; Kangjoo Kim; Seong-Taek Yun; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Soon-Oh Kim; Byoung-Young Choi; Hyoung-Soo Kim; Chul Woo Rhee

2004-01-01

366

Discharge and sediment supply controls on erosion and deposition in a dynamic alluvial channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on dynamic alluvial channels has recognised the influence on river channel change of both discharge and sediment supply, although it has proved difficult to measure the latter. This paper presents the first accurate data from a dynamic alluvial channel that describe the interrelated effect on channel morphological change of both discharge and sediment supply variations over different timescales. Reliable

K. S. Richards; J. H. Chandler

1996-01-01

367

Influence of some physicochemical and biological parameters on soil structure formation in alluvial soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of abiotic (texture, calcium carbonates or iron) and biotic parameters (earthworm and enchytraeid activities) on the initial phases of soil aggregation. Our research focused on humus forms in alluvial soils, which are considered as young and heterogeneous environments. We hypothesized that the soil structure formation is determined by both the nature of the recent alluvial

Géraldine Bullinger-Weber; Renée-Claire Le Bayon; Claire Guenat; Jean-Michel Gobat

2007-01-01

368

NATURAL HAZARDS ON ALLUVIAL FANS: THE VENEZUELA DEBRIS FLOW AND FLASH FLOOD DISASTER  

E-print Network

NATURAL HAZARDS ON ALLUVIAL FANS: THE VENEZUELA DEBRIS FLOW AND FLASH FLOOD DISASTER In December fans inundated coastal communities, caused severe property destruction, and resulted in a death toll that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans are the only areas where slopes are not too

Eaton, L. Scott

369

Processes and Forms of Alluvial Fans Terence C. Blair and John G. McPherson  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Processes and Forms of Alluvial Fans Terence C. Blair and John G. McPherson Introduction Alluvial fans are a conspicuous conical landform commonly developed where a channel emerges from climates, fans in deserts have been the most studied due to their excellent exposure and ease of access

370

ALLUVIAL FANS FORMED BY CHANNELIZED FLUVIAL AND SHEET FLOW. I: THEORY  

E-print Network

ALLUVIAL FANS FORMED BY CHANNELIZED FLUVIAL AND SHEET FLOW. I: THEORY By Gary Parker/ Member, ASCE, Chris Paola,:1 Kelin X. Whipple/ and David Mohrig4 ABSTRACT: Alluvial fans and fan-deltas are of three many avulsions) bed slope and elevation in an axially symmetric fan. An example of a fan formed

371

Resource pulses, species interactions, and diversity maintenance in arid and semi-arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid environments are characterized by limited and variable rainfall that supplies resources in pulses. Resource pulsing is a special form of environmental variation, and the general theory of coexistence in variable environments suggests specific mechanisms by which rainfall variability might contribute to the maintenance of high species diversity in arid ecosystems. In this review, we discuss physiological, morphological, and life-history

Peter Chesson; Renate L. E. Gebauer; Susan Schwinning; Nancy Huntly; Kerstin Wiegand; Morgan S. K. Ernest; Anna Sher; Ariel Novoplansky; Jake F. Weltzin

2004-01-01

372

1 INTRODUCTION Especially in arid or semi-arid areas, such as Central  

E-print Network

, glaciers retreat and permafrost degradation in Central Asia, the ground ice could increase future water1 INTRODUCTION Especially in arid or semi-arid areas, such as Central Asia, the mountains have to the water/ice content of permafrost and glaciers. Therefore it is important to study their reaction

Bolch, Tobias

373

Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.  

PubMed

Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described. PMID:11700659

Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

2001-01-01

374

Hydrogeology, model description, and flow analysis of the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer in northwestern Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi River alluvial aquifer underlies a 7,000-square-mile area of the Mississippi River alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi, an area locally known as the Delta. The alluvial aquifer is the most heavily pumped aquifer in Mississippi, and wells yielding more than 2,000 gallons per minute are common. About 98 percent of the pumpage from the alluvial aquifer is for agriculture. The sand and gravel that form the alluvial aquifer averages about 110 feet in thickness. The aquifer is confined over most of the Delta, and the upper confining unit averages about 25 feet in thickness. The average depth to water in the alluvial aquifer during fall 1999 was about 25 feet. The alluvial aquifer receives lateral recharge at the western boundary from the Mississippi River and at the eastern boundary from aquifers that directly underlie the Bluff Hills. The alluvial aquifer receives water vertically from precipitation, internal streams and lakes, and locally from the Cockfield and Sparta aquifers where they directly underlie the alluvial aquifer. The alluvial aquifer also discharges water to the underlying aquifers, and during extended periods with no surface runoff, to the Mississippi River and to the internal streams and lakes. The magnitude of recharge from the Mississippi River, precipitation, and internal lakes and streams can vary greatly depending upon hydrologic and climatic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey modular threedimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW, was used to simulate the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer flow system in northwestern Mississippi. The model uses one layer with a rectangular-grid and 1-mile square cells to represent the alluvial aquifer. The model was calibrated and verified by using spring and fall water-level measurements from January 1988 through December 1996. The values of selected model calibration-derived parameters for the alluvial aquifer are hydraulic conductivity, 425 feet per day; specific yield, 0.32; and storage coefficient, 0.016. The model showed that the aquifer lost water from storage at an average rate of 404 cubic feet per second during the 9-year simulation period. During this period, the average pumpage rate was 1,270 million gallons per day (1,980 cubic feet per second). Simulated areal recharge from precipitation averaged 2.6 inches per year (1,360 cubic feet per second). Vertical recharge from the internal streams and lakes and lateral recharge from aquifers underlying the Bluff Hills averaged 113 and 108 cubic feet per second, respectively. Model results indicated that net recharge from the Mississippi River and from aquifers directly underlying the alluvial aquifer was small.

Arthur, J.K.

2001-01-01

375

Sedimentology and climatic environment of alluvial fans in the martian Saheki crater and a comparison with terrestrial fans in the Atacama Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deflated surfaces of the alluvial fans in Saheki crater reveal the most detailed record of fan stratigraphy and evolution found, to date, on Mars. During deposition of at least the uppermost 100 m of fan deposits, discharges from the source basin consisted of channelized flows transporting sediment (which we infer to be primarily sand- and gravel-sized) as bedload coupled with extensive overbank mud-rich flows d