Science.gov

Sample records for arizona astronomers discover

  1. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  2. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  3. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  4. Cosmic Blasts Much More Common, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A cosmic explosion seen last February may have been the "tip of an iceberg," showing that powerful, distant gamma ray bursts are outnumbered ten-to-one by less-energetic cousins, according to an international team of astronomers. A study of the explosion with X-ray and radio telescopes showed that it is "100 times less energetic than gamma ray bursts seen in the distant universe. We were able to see it because it's relatively nearby," said Alicia Soderberg, of Caltech, leader of the research team. The scientists reported their findings in the August 31 issue of the journal Nature. The explosion is called an X-ray flash, and was detected by the Swift satellite on February 18. The astronomers subsequently studied the object using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Ryle radio telescope in the UK. "This object tells us that there probably is a rich diversity of cosmic explosions in our local Universe that we only now are starting to detect. These explosions aren't playing by the rules that we thought we understood," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Illustration of a Magnetar Illustration of a Magnetar The February blast seems to fill a gap between ordinary supernova explosions, which leave behind a dense neutron star, and gamma ray bursts, which leave behind a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape it. Some X-ray flashes, the new research suggests, leave behind a magnetar, a neutron star with a magnetic field 100-1000 times stronger than that of an ordinary neutron star. "This explosion occurred in a galaxy about 470 million light-years away. If it had been at the distances of gamma ray bursts, as much as billions of light-years away, we would not have been able to see it," Frail said. "We think that the principal difference between gamma ray bursts and X-ray flashes and ordinary supernova explosions is that the blasts that

  5. Cosmic Blasts Much More Common, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A cosmic explosion seen last February may have been the "tip of an iceberg," showing that powerful, distant gamma ray bursts are outnumbered ten-to-one by less-energetic cousins, according to an international team of astronomers. The VLA The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for VLA gallery) A study of the explosion with X-ray and radio telescopes showed that it is "100 times less energetic than gamma ray bursts seen in the distant universe. We were able to see it because it's relatively nearby," said Alicia Soderberg, of Caltech, leader of the research team. The scientists reported their findings in the August 31 issue of the journal Nature. The explosion is called an X-ray flash, and was detected by the Swift satellite on February 18. The astronomers subsequently studied the object using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Ryle radio telescope in the UK. "This object tells us that there probably is a rich diversity of cosmic explosions in our local Universe that we only now are starting to detect. These explosions aren't playing by the rules that we thought we understood," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The February blast seems to fill a gap between ordinary supernova explosions, which leave behind a dense neutron star, and gamma ray bursts, which leave behind a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape it. Some X-ray flashes, the new research suggests, leave behind a magnetar, a neutron star with a magnetic field 100-1000 times stronger than that of an ordinary neutron star. "This explosion occurred in a galaxy about 470 million light-years away. If it had been at the distances of gamma ray bursts, as much as billions of light-years away, we would not have been able to see it," Frail said. "We think that the principal difference between gamma ray bursts and X-ray flashes and ordinary supernova

  6. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of

  7. Recent astronomical detector development at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The University of Arizona Imaging Technology Laboratory (ITL) has been developing back illuminated detectors and detector technologies for several astronomical projects in recent years. These projects include the WIYN telescope One Degree Imager (ODI) mosaic of Orthogonal Transfer Array CCDs, the VIRUS detectors for the University of Texas' Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), detector and packaging development for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and 10kx10k and 4kx4k CCDs for several instruments. In this paper we discuss these projects with an emphasis on backside processing issues and detector characterization results which may be relevant to other groups. We will also focus packaging techniques and metrology for achieving very flat and stable focal planes. Results will include device flatness at cryogenic temperatures, process yield, photo-response non-uniformity and cosmetics, quantum efficiency, read noise, linearity, charge transfer efficiency, and photon transfer data.

  8. Astronomers Discover New Star-Forming Regions in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Astronomers studying the Milky Way have discovered a large number of previously-unknown regions where massive stars are being formed. Their discovery provides important new information about the structure of our home Galaxy and promises to yield new clues about the chemical composition of the Galaxy. "We can clearly relate the locations of these star-forming sites to the overall structure of the Galaxy. Further studies will allow us to better understand the process of star formation and to compare the chemical composition of such sites at widely different distances from the Galaxy's center," said Thomas Bania, of Boston University. Bania worked with Loren Anderson of the Astrophysical Laboratory of Marseille in France, Dana Balser of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The star-forming regions the astronomers sought, called H II regions, are sites where hydrogen atoms are ionized, or stripped of their electrons, by the intense radiation of the massive, young stars. To find these regions hidden from visible-light detection by the Milky Way's gas and dust, the researchers used infrared and radio telescopes. "We found our targets by using the results of infrared surveys done with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and of surveys done with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope," Anderson said. "Objects that appear bright in both the Spitzer and VLA images we studied are good candidates for H II regions," he explained. The astronomers then used the NSF's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, an extremely sensitive radio telescope. With the GBT, they were able to detect specific radio frequencies emitted by electrons as they recombined with protons to form hydrogen. This evidence of recombination confirmed that the regions contained ionized

  9. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  10. Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using radio telescopes in New Mexico and California have discovered a giant, rotating disk of material around a young, massive star, indicating that very massive stars as well as those closer to the size of the Sun may be circled by disks from which planets are thought to form. This is the most massive young star for which such a disk has yet been found. Debra Shepherd of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Stan Kurtz of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope and telescopes of Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) to make a detailed study of an object called G192.16-3.82, in the constellation Orion. They announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. What astronomers call Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) -- stars still in the process of formation -- are enigmatic objects, both drawing in material from their surroundings and expelling material outward at the same time. "The details of the interaction between these two processes are poorly understood," Shepherd said. "In addition, most theories are based on observing low-mass stars, and we don't know if things work the same way with higher-mass stars." "We now have the first unambiguous evidence for a rotating disk around a high-mass star that also is powering an outflow," Shepherd said. "We need to make more observations to confirm the finding, but this information will help test theories of how such young stellar objects operate." It has been difficult to study massive star formation, because massive stars are rarer than smaller ones, they tend to form in clusters, making observations more difficult, and there are few of them forming relatively nearby. The object that Shepherd and Kurtz chose is reasonably isolated. "We think it provides us with a good laboratory for studying the process," Kurtz said. The young star at the core of G192.16-3.82 is

  11. Astronomers Discover First Negatively-charged Molecule in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Cambridge, MA - Astronomers have discovered the first negatively charged molecule in space, identifying it from radio signals that were a mystery until now. While about 130 neutral and 14 positively charged molecules are known to exist in interstellar space, this is the first negative molecule, or anion, to be found. "We've spotted a rare and exotic species, like the white tiger of space," said astronomer Michael McCarthy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). By learning more about the rich broth of chemicals found in interstellar space, astronomers hope to explain how the young Earth converted these basic ingredients into the essential chemicals for life. This new finding helps to advance scientists' understanding of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, and hence the birthplaces of planets. McCarthy worked with CfA colleagues Carl Gottlieb, Harshal Gupta (also from the Univ. of Texas), and Patrick Thaddeus to identify the molecular anion known as C6H-: a linear chain of six carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom at the end and an "extra" electron. Such molecules were thought to be extremely rare because ultraviolet light that suffuses space easily knocks electrons off molecules. The large size of C6H-, larger than most neutral and all positive molecules known in space, may increase its stability in the harsh cosmic environment. "The discovery of C6H- resolves a long-standing enigma in astrochemistry: the apparent lack of negatively charged molecules in space," stated Thaddeus. The team first conducted laboratory experiments to determine exactly what radio frequencies to use in their search. Then, they used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to hunt for C6H- in celestial objects. In particular, they targeted locations in which previous searches had spotted unidentified radio signals at the appropriate frequencies. They found C6H- in two very different locations-a shell of gas surrounding the evolved red giant

  12. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  13. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  14. Scallopleaf sage (salvia vaseyi: Lamiaceae) discovered in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, J.W., III; Felger, R.S.; Jansen, B.D.; Krausman, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    During the course of field work in Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Arizona, in 2003, James Cain and Brian Jansen collected Salvia vaseyi, previously known only from the western edge of the Sonoran Desert in California and Baja California. Our findings indicate this shrub might be more widespread in southwestern Arizona mountains. Salvia vaseyi in Arizona seems to represent a relict population. There are other shrubby Salvia in Arizona, but S. vaseyi is the most xeric-mhabiting species and has the narrowest ecological and geographical range.

  15. Astronomers Discover Clue to Origin of Milky Way Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A surprising discovery that hydrogen gas clouds found in abundance in and above our Milky Way Galaxy have preferred locations has given astronomers a key clue about the origin of such clouds, which play an important part in galaxy evolution. We've concluded that these clouds are gas that has been blown away from the Galaxy's plane by supernova explosions and the fierce winds from young stars in areas of intense star formation," said H. Alyson Ford of the University of Michigan, whose Ph.D thesis research from Swinburne University formed the basis for this result. The team, consisting of Ford and collaborators Felix J. Lockman, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Naomi Mclure-Griffiths of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The astronomers studied gas clouds in two distinct regions of the Galaxy. The clouds they studied are between 400 and 15,000 light-years outside the disk-like plane of the Galaxy. The disk contains most of the Galaxy's stars and gas, and is surrounded by a "halo" of gas more distant than the clouds the astronomers studied. "These clouds were first detected with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and are quite puzzling. They are in a transitional area between the disk and the halo, and their origin has been uncertain," Lockman explained. The research team used data from the Galactic All-Sky Survey, made with CSIRO's Parkes radio telescope in Australia. When the astronomers compared the observations of the two regions, they saw that one region contained three times as many hydrogen clouds as the other. In addition, that region's clouds are, on average, twice as far above the Galaxy's plane. The dramatic difference, they believe, is because the region with more clouds lies near the tip of the Galaxy's central "bar," where the bar merges with a major spiral arm. This is an area of intense star formation

  16. Fastest Pulsar Speeding Out of Galaxy, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    A speeding, superdense neutron star somehow got a powerful "kick" that is propelling it completely out of our Milky Way Galaxy into the cold vastness of intergalactic space. Its discovery is puzzling astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to directly measure the fastest speed yet found in a neutron star. Pulsar's Path Across Sky Over about 2.5 million years, Pulsar B1508+55 has moved across about a third of the night sky as seen from Earth. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version 67 KB) The neutron star is the remnant of a massive star born in the constellation Cygnus that exploded about two and a half million years ago in a titanic explosion known as a supernova. Ultra-precise VLBA measurements of its distance and motion show that it is on course to inevitably leave our Galaxy. "We know that supernova explosions can give a kick to the resulting neutron star, but the tremendous speed of this object pushes the limits of our current understanding," said Shami Chatterjee, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "This discovery is very difficult for the latest models of supernova core collapse to explain," he added. Chatterjee and his colleagues used the VLBA to study the pulsar B1508+55, about 7700 light-years from Earth. With the ultrasharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, they were able to precisely measure both the distance and the speed of the pulsar, a spinning neutron star emitting powerful beams of radio waves. Plotting its motion backward pointed to a birthplace among groups of giant stars in the constellation Cygnus -- stars so massive that they inevitably explode as supernovae. "This is the first direct measurement of a neutron star's speed that exceeds 1,000 kilometers per second," said Walter Brisken, an NRAO astronomer. "Most earlier estimates of neutron-star speeds depended on educated

  17. Fastest Pulsar Speeding Out of Galaxy, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    A speeding, superdense neutron star somehow got a powerful "kick" that is propelling it completely out of our Milky Way Galaxy into the cold vastness of intergalactic space. Its discovery is puzzling astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to directly measure the fastest speed yet found in a neutron star. Pulsar's Path Across Sky Over about 2.5 million years, Pulsar B1508+55 has moved across about a third of the night sky as seen from Earth. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version 67 KB) The neutron star is the remnant of a massive star born in the constellation Cygnus that exploded about two and a half million years ago in a titanic explosion known as a supernova. Ultra-precise VLBA measurements of its distance and motion show that it is on course to inevitably leave our Galaxy. "We know that supernova explosions can give a kick to the resulting neutron star, but the tremendous speed of this object pushes the limits of our current understanding," said Shami Chatterjee, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "This discovery is very difficult for the latest models of supernova core collapse to explain," he added. Chatterjee and his colleagues used the VLBA to study the pulsar B1508+55, about 7700 light-years from Earth. With the ultrasharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, they were able to precisely measure both the distance and the speed of the pulsar, a spinning neutron star emitting powerful beams of radio waves. Plotting its motion backward pointed to a birthplace among groups of giant stars in the constellation Cygnus -- stars so massive that they inevitably explode as supernovae. "This is the first direct measurement of a neutron star's speed that exceeds 1,000 kilometers per second," said Walter Brisken, an NRAO astronomer. "Most earlier estimates of neutron-star speeds depended on educated

  18. Planet from another galaxy discovered - Galactic cannibalism brings an exoplanet of extragalactic origin within astronomers' reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    An exoplanet orbiting a star that entered our Milky Way from another galaxy has been detected by a European team of astronomers using the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The Jupiter-like planet is particularly unusual, as it is orbiting a star nearing the end of its life and could be about to be engulfed by it, giving tantalising clues about the fate of our own planetary system in the distant future. Over the last 15 years, astronomers have detected nearly 500 planets orbiting stars in our cosmic neighbourhood, but none outside our Milky Way has been confirmed [1]. Now, however, a planet with a minimum mass 1.25 times that of Jupiter [2] has been discovered orbiting a star of extragalactic origin, even though the star now finds itself within our own galaxy. It is part of the so-called Helmi stream [3] - a group of stars that originally belonged to a dwarf galaxy that was devoured by our galaxy, the Milky Way, in an act of galactic cannibalism about six to nine billion years ago. The results are published today in Science Express. "This discovery is very exciting," says Rainer Klement of the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), who was responsible for the selection of the target stars for this study. "For the first time, astronomers have detected a planetary system in a stellar stream of extragalactic origin. Because of the great distances involved, there are no confirmed detections of planets in other galaxies. But this cosmic merger has brought an extragalactic planet within our reach." The star is known as HIP 13044, and it lies about 2000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation of Fornax (the Furnace). The astronomers detected the planet, called HIP 13044 b, by looking for the tiny telltale wobbles of the star caused by the gravitational tug of an orbiting companion. For these precise observations, the team used the high-resolution spectrograph FEROS [4] attached to the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope [5] at

  19. Astronomers Discover Most Distant Galaxy Showing Key Evidence For Furious Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    Astronomers have discovered a key signpost of rapid star formation in a galaxy 11 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was when the Universe was only 20 percent of its current age. Using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, the scientists found a huge quantity of dense interstellar gas -- the environment required for active star formation -- at the greatest distance yet detected. A furious spawning of the equivalent of 1,000 Suns per year in a distant galaxy dubbed the Cloverleaf may be typical of galaxies in the early Universe, the scientists say. Cloverleaf galaxy VLA image (green) of radio emission from HCN gas, superimposed on Hubble Space Telescope image of the Cloverleaf galaxy. The four images of the Cloverleaf are the result of gravitational lensing. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, STScI (Click on Image for Larger Version) "This is a rate of star formation more than 300 times greater than that in our own Milky Way and similar spiral galaxies, and our discovery may provide important information about the formation and evolution of galaxies throughout the Universe," said Philip Solomon, of Stony Brook University in New York. While the raw material for star formation has been found in galaxies at even greater distances, the Cloverleaf is by far the most distant galaxy showing this essential signature of star formation. That essential signature comes in the form of a specific frequency of radio waves emitted by molecules of the gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN). "If you see HCN, you are seeing gas with the high density required to form stars," said Paul Vanden Bout of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Solomon and Vanden Bout worked with Chris Carilli of NRAO and Michel Guelin of the Institute for Millimeter Astronomy in France. They reported their results in the December 11 issue of the scientific journal Nature. In galaxies like the Milky Way, dense gas traced by HCN but composed mainly of hydrogen molecules is always

  20. Planet from another galaxy discovered - Galactic cannibalism brings an exoplanet of extragalactic origin within astronomers' reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    An exoplanet orbiting a star that entered our Milky Way from another galaxy has been detected by a European team of astronomers using the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The Jupiter-like planet is particularly unusual, as it is orbiting a star nearing the end of its life and could be about to be engulfed by it, giving tantalising clues about the fate of our own planetary system in the distant future. Over the last 15 years, astronomers have detected nearly 500 planets orbiting stars in our cosmic neighbourhood, but none outside our Milky Way has been confirmed [1]. Now, however, a planet with a minimum mass 1.25 times that of Jupiter [2] has been discovered orbiting a star of extragalactic origin, even though the star now finds itself within our own galaxy. It is part of the so-called Helmi stream [3] - a group of stars that originally belonged to a dwarf galaxy that was devoured by our galaxy, the Milky Way, in an act of galactic cannibalism about six to nine billion years ago. The results are published today in Science Express. "This discovery is very exciting," says Rainer Klement of the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), who was responsible for the selection of the target stars for this study. "For the first time, astronomers have detected a planetary system in a stellar stream of extragalactic origin. Because of the great distances involved, there are no confirmed detections of planets in other galaxies. But this cosmic merger has brought an extragalactic planet within our reach." The star is known as HIP 13044, and it lies about 2000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation of Fornax (the Furnace). The astronomers detected the planet, called HIP 13044 b, by looking for the tiny telltale wobbles of the star caused by the gravitational tug of an orbiting companion. For these precise observations, the team used the high-resolution spectrograph FEROS [4] attached to the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope [5] at

  1. A Strategy for Urban Astronomical Observatory Site Preservation: The Southern Arizona Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Patrick R.; Craine, Erin M.; Fouts, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Urbanized observatories are under financial pressures for numerous and complex reasons, including concerns that increasing sky brightness will continue to erode their scientific viability. The history of urbanized observatories is one of steady decline and divestiture. We argue that light at night (LAN) impacts of urban growth are inadequately understood, that current measurement techniques are incomplete in scope, and that both limit the effectiveness of mitigation programs. We give examples of these factors for Pima County, Arizona, and propose techniques and a program that could provide focus and power to mitigation efforts, and could extend the longevity of southern Arizona observatories.

  2. A Strategy for Urban Astronomical Observatory Site Preservation: The Southern Arizona Example (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, E. R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, P. R.; Craine, E. M.; Fouts, S.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Urbanized observatories are under financial pressures for numerous and complex reasons, including concerns that increasing sky brightness will continue to erode their scientific viability. The history of urbanized observatories is one of steady decline and divestiture. We argue that light at night (LAN) impacts of urban growth are inadequately understood, that current measurement techniques are incomplete in scope, and that both limit the effectiveness of mitigation programs. We give examples of these factors for Pima County, Arizona, and propose techniques and a program that could provide focus and power to mitigation efforts, and could extend the longevity of southern Arizona observatories.

  3. How Do Astronomers Know That? Educating Teachers, Students & the Public on HOW You Discover Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadurer, Robert; Piper, M.; French, D.; Barge, J.; Novatne, L. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Ali, B.; Laher, R.; Armstrong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Every day amazing astronomical facts are taught to thousands of curious people. Students learn them in the classroom. Museum visitors hear them in a Planetarium show or lecture. When it’s time for questions, many intuitively ask, “how do you know that?” NITARP helps close this gap in astronomy education. NITARP stands for NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program. NITARP brings together an astronomer with a small group of teachers and students to do real astronomical research. After the year long program is completed, the education and experiences gained the teachers are brought back to their classrooms and museums across America. Our NITARP group researched apparent infrared (IR) excesses to identify Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Our science results are presented in a companion paper, Novatne et al, at this AAS conference. We concentrated our search in the Bright Rimmed Cloud (BRC) 27, located in the constellation Canis Major. Our main focus was to use data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), along with other archived infrared data such as Spitzer and 2MASS. Thus, our NITARP group was called C-WAYS—standing for Cool, WISE and Young Stars. In this poster, we present our educational plan to connect real science by astronomers to educators, students, and ultimately our communities.

  4. Tranistsearch: A Collaboration with Amateur Astronomers to Discover Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2004-05-01

    The discovery of more than 100 planets around nearby solar-like stars that surpass Jupiter in size yet orbit their stars more quickly than Mercury has heralded a new era in astronomy. These enigmatic ``Hot-Jupiters" are large enough and close enough to their parent stars that their ``transits" can be captured by astronomers equipped with a small computer controlled telescope and a quality electronic CCD camera. The first known transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b, in the constellation Pegasus, has been the subject of hundreds of scientific papers since its discovery in 1999. The transit of 8th magnitude HD 209458 has been observed by at least a dozen non-professional astronomers using telescopes as small as 4 inches in aperture. Using equipment already in hand, and armed with target lists, transit time predictions, observing techniques and software procedures developed by the transitsearch, collaboration non-professional astronomers can contribute significantly to the study of extrasolar planets by carefully measuring the brightness of stars with known Hot-Jupiters. In this way, amateur astronomers may resume, after a two century interruption, the tradition of planetary discoveries begun with William Herschel's 1787 discovery of the ``solar" planet Uranus. To date, transitsearch has amassed more than 50 interested observers in 10 states and 12 countries and provided research experience for undergraduate and graduate students from California, Washington, Michigan and North Carolina. A status report on the successes and challenges of a highly collaborative yet widely distributed project with participants of varying background and equipment levels will be discussed. Exciting upcoming opportunities for transitsearch observers to compete for time on NASA's SOFIA aircraft as outreach partners will be discussed and plans for this summer's observing campaign to expand our network of qualified observers through additional measurements of HD 209458b and hands-on workshops

  5. Astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

  6. Blind Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  7. The Knorre astronomers' dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinigin, G.

    2009-06-01

    We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

  8. Women Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Deborah Jean

    1979-01-01

    Traces the role of women in the scientific community in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century. Specific concern is directed towards the education and career opportunities of female astronomers. (MA)

  9. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  10. Astronomical kaleidoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2005-10-01

    The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

  11. Astronomical Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  12. The League of Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Brandel, A.; Paat, A. M.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The League of Astronomers is committed to engaging the University of Washington (UW) and the greater Seattle communities through outreach, research, and events. Since its re-founding two years ago, the LOA has provided a clear connection between the UW Astronomy Department, undergraduate students, and members of the public. Weekly outreach activities such as public star parties and planetarium talks in both the UW Planetarium and the Mobile Planetarium have connected enthusiastic LOA volunteers with hundreds of public observers. In addition, collaboration with organizations like the Seattle Astronomical Society and the UW Society of Physics Students has allowed the LOA to reach an even greater audience. The club also provides opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research projects. The UW Student Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) both allow students to practice collecting their own data and turning it into a completed project. Students have presented many of these research projects at venues like the UW Undergraduate Research Symposium and meetings of the American Astronomical Society. For example, the LOA will be observing newly discovered globular clusters at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, B.C. and constructing color-magnitude diagrams. The LOA also helps engage students with the Astronomy major through a variety of events. Bimonthly seminars led by graduate students on their research and personal experiences in the field showcase the variety of options available for students in astronomy. Social events hosted by the club encourage peer mentoring and a sense of community among the Astronomy Department’s undergraduate and graduate students. As a part of one of the nation’s largest undergraduate astronomy programs, members of the League of Astronomers have a unique opportunity to connect and interact with not only the Seattle public but also the greater astronomical community.

  13. John Couch Adams, the astronomer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, N.

    1989-03-01

    The planet Neptune was discovered more than 140 years ago. The circumstances of the discovery gave rise to great controversy, and very nearly led to an international incident between Britain and France, but this was only one of John Couch Adams' many contributions to astronomical science.

  14. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  15. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  16. Astronomical superhighways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, D. C.

    1995-08-01

    The expansion of data supply has been prolific over the past decade. Publishers of text are only just beginning to consider what the aim of their publications should be in the light of competition from computer databases. Increasingly sources of data are becoming linked into a global network. The modem has revolutionised the way many astronomers interact with the outside world and each other. Access to data sources world wide can now be undertaken with a simple telephone call and a desktop computer.

  17. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  18. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being driven by high winds and ... bright desert background. The areas with no data (shown in black and present at the oblique angles) are locations where the variable ...

  19. NRAO Astronomer Honored by American Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), received the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) Helen B. Warner Prize on January 11, at the society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. The prize is awarded annually for "a significant contribution to observational or theoretical astronomy during the five years preceding the award." Presented by AAS President Debra Elmegreen, the prize recognized Ransom "for his astrophysical insight and innovative technical leadership enabling the discovery of exotic, millisecond and young pulsars and their application for tests of fundamental physics." "Scott has made landmark contributions to our understanding of pulsars and to using them as elegant tools for investigating important areas of fundamental physics. We are very proud that his scientific colleagues have recognized his efforts with this prize," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. A staff astronomer at the NRAO since 2004, Ransom has led efforts using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope and other facilities to study pulsars and use them to make advances in areas of frontier astrophysics such as gravitational waves and particle physics. In 2010, he was on a team that discovered the most massive pulsar yet known, a finding that had implications for the composition of pulsars and details of nuclear physics, gravitational waves, and gamma-ray bursts. Ransom also is a leader in efforts to find and analyze rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsars to make the first direct detection of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein. In other work, he has advanced observational capabilities for finding millisecond pulsars in globular clusters of stars and investigated how millisecond pulsars are formed. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, Ransom served as an artillery officer in the U.S. Army. After leaving the Army, he earned a Ph.D. at Harvard University in 2001, and was a postdoctoral fellow

  20. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  1. Discovering Deserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Discovering Deserts." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

  2. Astronomy for Astronomical Numbers: A Worldwide Massive Open Online Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impey, Chris D.; Wenger, Matthew C.; Austin, Carmen L.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy: State of the Art is a massive, open, online class (MOOC) offered through Udemy by an instructional team at the University of Arizona. With nearly 24,000 enrolled as of early 2015, it is the largest astronomy MOOC available. The astronomical numbers enrolled do not translate into a similar level of engagement. The content consists of 14…

  3. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  4. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1996-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  5. Discovering the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  6. Astronomical Institute of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Astronomical Institute of Athens is the oldest research institute of modern Greece (it faces the Parthenon). The Astronomical Institute (AI) of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) started its observational projects in 1847. The modern computer and research center are housed at the Penteli Astronomical Station with major projects and international collaborations focused on extragalactic ...

  7. Discovering Technicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. R.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.; Del Debbio, L.; Del Nobile, E.; Di Chiara, S.; Hapola, T.; Järvinen, M.; Lowdon, P. J.; Maravin, Y.; Masina, I.; Nardecchia, M.; Pica, C.; Sannino, F.

    2011-09-01

    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low-energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider.

  8. Reporting Astronomical Discoveries: Past, Now, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Green, Daniel W. E.; Samus, Nikolai N.; West, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Many new astronomical objects have been discovered over the years by amateur astronomers, and this continues to be the case. They have traditionally reported them (as have professional astronomers) to the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), which was established in the 19th century. This procedure has worked very well throughout the 20th century, moving under the umbrella of the newly established IAU in 1920. The discoverers have been honored by the formal announcement of their discoveries in the publications of the CBAT.In recent years, some professional research groups have established other ways of announcing their discoveries of explosive objects such as novae and supernovae; some do not now report their discoveries or spectroscopic confirmations of the transients to the CBAT, including often spectroscopic reports of objects posted to the CBAT "Transient Objects Confirmation Page" -- the highly successful TOCP webpage, which assigns official positional designations to new transients posted there by approved, registered users. This leads to a delay in formal announcements of discoveries by amateur astronomers in many cases, as well as inconsistent designations being put into use by individual groups. Amateur astronomers are feeling frustrated about this situation, and they hope that the IAU will help to settle the situation.We have proposed the new IAU commission NC-52, which will treat these phenomena in a continuation of Commission 6, through the CBAT. We hope to continuously support the reporting of the discoveries by amateur astronomers, as well as professional astronomers, who all deserve and desire proper recognition. Our strategy will maintain the firm trust between the amateur and professional astronomers, which is necessary for true collaboration. The plan is for the CBAT to work with collaborators to assure that discoveries posted on the TOCP are promptly designated and announced by the CBAT, even when confirmations are made elsewhere

  9. Amateur and Professional Astronomer Collaboration Exoplanet Research Programs and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissinger, R.

    2007-05-01

    In 1995 the breakthrough announcement was made that a planet had been discovered orbiting a star in the constellation Pegasus. Prior to that time, for decades astronomers had searched in vain to confirm that planets existed around any other star besides our own Sun. Yet it was a mere five years after the first exoplanet discovery that the first amateur astronomers observed a transit of an exoplanet using a 16-inch (40 cm) telescope in Finland. The realization that amateur astronomers could in fact detect exoplanets lead to the formation of transitsearch. org, the first amateur/ professional collaboration to discover exoplanets. In the ensuing years numerous other such collaborations have been formed and dozens of amateur astronomers around the world now regularly observe stars identified by professional astronomers as possibly harboring exoplanets. This paper summarizes the more notable amateur and professional collaborations now ongoing to discover and characterize exoplanets. Tools and techniques used by amateur astronomers in such research are reviewed with an eye towards how amateur astronomers may soon help discover the first earth-sized exoplanet capable of supporting life as we know it.

  10. Armenian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

  11. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  12. European astronomers observe first evaporating planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    planet’s upper atmosphere under the searing heat from the star. "The atmosphere is heated, the hydrogen escapes the planet's gravitational pull and is pushed away by the starlight, fanning out in a large tail behind the planet - like that of a comet," says Alain Lecavelier des Etangs, of the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris. Astronomers estimate the amount of hydrogen gas escaping from HD 209458b to be at least 10 000 tonnes per second, but possibly much more. The planet may therefore already have lost quite a lot of its mass. HD 209458b belongs to a type of extrasolar planet known as ‘hot Jupiters’. These planets orbit precariously close to their stars. They are giant gaseous planets that must have formed in the cold outer reaches of the star system and then spiralled into their close orbits. This new discovery might help explain why ‘hot Jupiters’ so often orbit a few million kilometres from their parent stars. They are not usually found much closer than 7 million kilometres, the distance in the case of HD 209458b. Currently, the closest is 5.7 million kilometres. Hot Jupiters have orbits as brief as 3 days, but no less. Perhaps the evaporation of the atmosphere plays a role in setting an inner boundary for orbits of hot Jupiters. Notes for editors HD 209458b has a diameter 1.3 times that of Jupiter, and two-thirds the mass. Its orbit is one-eighth the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun. The parent star is similar to our Sun and lies 150 light-years from Earth. It is visible with binoculars as a seventh magnitude star in the constellation of Pegasus. In 1999, this star suddenly entered the astronomical Hall of Fame when the extrasolar planet HD 209458b passed in front of it and partly eclipsed it. This was the first confirmed transiting extrasolar planet ever discovered. In 2001, Hubble detected the element sodium in the lower part of HD 209458b’s atmosphere, the first signature of an atmosphere on any extrasolar planet. The team is composed of A

  13. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  14. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center is the largest astronomical institution in Poland, located in Warsaw and founded in 1956. At present it is a government-funded research institute supervised by the Polish Academy of Sciences and licensed by the government of Poland to award PhD and doctor habilitatus degrees in astronomy and astrophysics. In September 1999 staff included 21 senior scientist...

  15. Astronomers Working in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bless, Robert C.; King, Ivan R.

    1981-01-01

    Four scientists, trained as astronomers, describe their astronomical training and present careers in non-astronomy, industrial jobs. They recount some of the differences, positive and negative, between industrial and academic employment, and comment on some of the attitudes they perceive academic and industrial scientists hold toward each other.…

  16. American Astronomical Society (AAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Founded in 1899, the AAS is a non-profit scientific society created to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science. Its membership consists primarily of professional researchers in the astronomical sciences, but also includes educators, students and others interested in the advancement of astronomical research. About 85% of the membership is drawn from North Ame...

  17. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

  18. The Astronomical League

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. A.; Stevens, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    Founded over fifty years ago, the League is the largest general astronomy society in the world. It is a recognized non-profit, educational organization, promoting the science of astronomy. This includes astronomical education, research, individual observing of the heavens and coordination between the amateur and professional astronomy communities. The Astronomical League publishes a quarterly newsletter, the "Reflector", which details amateur activities and amateur collaboration with professional astronomers. The League's Observing Clubs hone the skills of the amateur astronomer in using their telescopes. These clubs provide awards to encourge observing and learning the sky. More general awards are presented to encourage amateur astronomy and the science of astronomy. These include the National Young Astronomer Award, amd the Horkheimer Planetary Imaging Award. They also sponsor conventions on both the National and Regional levels. This year's national is in Ventura, California, next year, near Washington, D.C.

  19. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  20. Odessa Astronomical Calendar-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karetnikov, V. G.; Mihalchuk, V. V.; Bazey, A. A.; Andronov, I. L.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.; Garbuzov, G. A.; Komarov, N. S.; Koshkin, N. I.; Pozigun, V. A.; Ryabov, M. I.

    2002-10-01

    The Odessa Astronomical Calendar is intended for a wide range of readers, who are interested in the problems of astronomy and in the applications of the astronomical data. The items, of information, assembled in the Calendar may be useful to professional workers requiring a definition of time of sets and rises of the Sun and the Moon and approach of twilights, as well as to the amateurs astronomers and other citizens. The Calendar may be used for astronomical education at schools, hymnasia, lycea, colleges and institutes. In this issue of the Calendar, besides a description of the main astronomical events of the year and the tables of the positions of celestial bodies and time of observations of astronomical events on the celestial sphere, there are also included sketches on interesting problems of astronomy and, as the appendix, the instruction on observations of comets. The Odessa Astronomical Calendar is published in Russian and is intended for the inhabitants of southern region of Ukraine. The Calendar is published every year with a constant part and series of articles, which change every year.

  1. The Astronomers' Data Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. P.

    2006-08-01

    A draft manifesto is presented for discussion. The manifesto sets out guidelines to which the astronomical community should aspire to maximise the rate and cost-effectiveness of scientific discovery. The challenges are not underestimated, but can still be overcome if astronomers, observatories, journals, data centres, and the Virtual Observatory Alliance work together to overcome the hurdles. The key points of the manifesto are: 1. All major tables, images, and spectra published in journals should appear in the astronomical data centres. 2. All data obtained with publicly-funded observatories should, after appropriate proprietary periods, be placed in the public domain. 3. In any new major astronomical construction project, the data processing, storage, migration, and management requirements should be built in at an early stage of the project plan, and costed along with other parts of the project. 4. Astronomers in all countries should have the same access to astronomical data and information. 5. Legacy astronomical data can be valuable, and high-priority legacy data should be preserved and stored in digital form in the data centres. 6. The IAU should work with other international organisations to achieve our common goals and learn from our colleagues in other fields.

  2. The Lifetimes of Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2015-08-01

    For members of the American Astronomical Society, I collected data on their lifetimes from (1) 489 obituaries published in 1991-2015, (2) about 127 members listed as deceased but without published obituaries, and (3) a sample of AAS members without obituaries or not known to the AAS as being deceased. These show that the most frequent lifetimes is 85 years. Of 674 deceased members with known lifetimes, 11.0 ± 1.3% lived to be 90 or more years. In comparison to the astronomers, the most frequent lifetime for the general population is 77 years, showing that astronomers live an average of 8 years longer than the general population.

  3. Astronomical Video Suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco Salgado, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Astronomer and visual artist Jose Francisco Salgado has directed two astronomical video suites to accompany live performances of classical music works. The suites feature awe-inspiring images, historical illustrations, and visualizations produced by NASA, ESA, and the Adler Planetarium. By the end of 2009, his video suites Gustav Holst's The Planets and Astronomical Pictures at an Exhibition will have been presented more than 40 times in over 10 countries. Lately Salgado, an avid photographer, has been experimenting with high dynamic range imaging, time-lapse, infrared, and fisheye photography, as well as with stereoscopic photography and video to enhance his multimedia works.

  4. America's foremost early astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-05-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and patriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  5. Arizona Adult Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

  6. Arizona Charter Schools Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This handbook provides information and materials to assist applicants in preparing an application to establish a charter school in Arizona. The topics discussed reflect the technical requirements of Arizona's charter-school legislation. It does not necessarily reflect the selection requirements or the policies of the State Board of Education, the…

  7. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. An astronomical murder?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenkiy, Ari

    2010-04-01

    Ari Belenkiy examines the murder of Hypatia of Alexandria, wondering whether problems with astronomical observations and the date of Easter led to her becoming a casualty of fifth-century political intrigue.

  9. TMT in the Astronomical Landscape of the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae

    2014-07-01

    Thirty Meter Telescope Observatory and NOAO will host the second TMT Science Forum at Loews Ventana Canyon Resort in Tucson, Arizona. The TMT Science Forum is an an annual gathering of astronomers, educators, and observatory staff, who meet to explore TMT science, instrumentation, observatory operations, archiving and data processing, astronomy education, and science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) issues. It is an opportunity for astronomers from the international TMT partners and from the US-at-large community to learn about the observatory status, discuss and plan cutting-edge science, establish collaborations, and to help shape the future of TMT. One important theme for this year's Forum will be the synergy between TMT and other facilities in the post-2020 astronomical landscape. There will be plenary sessions, an instrumentation workshop, topical science sessions and meetings of the TMT International Science Development Teams (ISDTs).

  10. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  11. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  12. Discovering the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1997-01-01

    An astronomer gives teachers tips on learning how to look at the night sky then on passing along personal instruction to students. Presents ideas for finding information through astronomers at colleges, science museums, planetariums, research observatories, and on the World Wide Web. Contains a resource list and foldout poster of galaxies with…

  13. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  14. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  15. Replacing Arizona's Roofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Arizona statewide mandate to spend $500 million to repair or replace roofs in its public school system. Data from the state's evaluation process are provided, including how the state will fund the project. (GR)

  16. Clayheads in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Thorne Erwin

    1990-01-01

    Describes how junior high school students in Arizona combine what they have learned in ceramic history class with ceramic production skills to create their own personal ceramic heads in their images. (KM)

  17. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    at ESO's La Silla Observatory and announced two years ago -- this star was known to harbour a system with a Neptune-sized planet (ESO 30/05) and two super-Earths (ESO 22/07). With the discovery of Gliese 581 e, the planetary system now has four known planets, with masses of about 1.9 (planet e), 16 (planet b), 5 (planet c), and 7 Earth-masses (planet d). The planet furthest out, Gliese 581 d, orbits its host star in 66.8 days. "Gliese 581 d is probably too massive to be made only of rocky material, but we can speculate that it is an icy planet that has migrated closer to the star," says team member Stephane Udry. The new observations have revealed that this planet is in the habitable zone, where liquid water could exist. "‘d' could even be covered by a large and deep ocean -- it is the first serious 'water world' candidate," continued Udry. The gentle pull of an exoplanet as it orbits the host star introduces a tiny wobble in the star's motion -- only about 7 km/hour, corresponding to brisk walking speed -- that can just be detected on Earth with today's most sophisticated technology. Low-mass red dwarf stars such as Gliese 581 are potentially fruitful hunting grounds for low-mass exoplanets in the habitable zone. Such cool stars are relatively faint and their habitable zones lie close in, where the gravitational tug of any orbiting planet found there would be stronger, making the telltale wobble more pronounced. Even so, detecting these tiny signals is still a challenge, and the discovery of Gliese 581 e and the refinement of Gliese 581 d's orbit were only possible due to HARPS's unique precision and stability. "It is amazing to see how far we have come since we discovered the first exoplanet around a normal star in 1995 -- the one around 51 Pegasi," says Mayor. "The mass of Gliese 581 e is 80 times less than that of 51 Pegasi b. This is tremendous progress in just 14 years." The astronomers are confident that they can still do better. "With similar observing

  18. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory Users Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August A.; Emery Bunn, S.; Astronomical Observatory, Virtual

    2013-01-01

    We present the online forum astrobabel.com, which has the goal of being a gathering place for the collective community intelligence about astronomical computing. The audience for this forum is anyone engaged in the analysis of astronomical or planetary data, whether that data be observational or theoretical. It is a free, community driven site where discussions are formulated primarily around the "question and answer" format. Current topics on the forum range from “Is there a photometry package in Python?” to “Where are the support forums for astronomy software packages?” and “Why is my SDSS SkyQuery query missing galaxies?” The poster will detail the full scope of discussions in the forum, and provide some basic guidelines for ensuring high quality forum posts. We will highlight the ways astronomers can discover and participate in discussions. Further, we view this as an excellent opportunity to gather feedback and feature requests from AAS221 attendees. Acknowledgement: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  20. Astronomical education in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulmaa, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Lkhagvajav, Ch.; Jargalsuren, Sh.; Bayartungalag, B.; Zaya, M.

    2011-06-01

    The history, current situation, education and future directions of modern Mongolian space science and astronomy is reviewed. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop astronomy education and research capacity in Mongolia with cooperation of the International Astronomical Union. Various capacity-building initiatives in space science including remote sensing in Mongolia are discussed.

  1. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  2. Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

  3. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  4. Astronomical Microdensitometry Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinglesmith, D. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The status of the current microdensitometers used for digitizing astronomical imagery is discussed. The tests and improvements that have and can be made to the Photometric Data System PDS microdensitometer are examined. The various types of microdensitometers that currently exist in the world are investigated. Papers are presented on the future needs and the data processing problems associated with digitizing large images.

  5. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  6. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  7. Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Hee

    In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong 世宗 (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming 明 China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon 朝鮮 (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon 七政算內篇 and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon 七政算外篇, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (假令) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: The Wandering Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    2000-09-01

    Fans of Patrick Moore will like this book. I enjoyed it more than I expected, having anticipated a collection of personal anecdotes of the type favoured by certain tedious after-dinner speakers. Some of the 41 short items it contains do tend towards that category, but there are also some nuggets which might enliven your physics teaching. For example, did you know that, in a murder trial in 1787, the defendant's belief that the Sun was inhabited was cited as evidence of his insanity? This was despite his views being shared by many astronomers of the day including William Herschel. Or that Clyde Tombaugh had a cat called Pluto after the planet he discovered, which was itself named by an eleven-year-old girl? Another gem concerns a brief flurry, in the early 1990s, over a suspected planet orbiting a pulsar; variations in the arrival time of its radio pulses indicated the presence of an orbiting body. These shifts were later found to arise from an error in a computer program that corrected for the Earth's motion. The programmer had assumed a circular orbit for the Earth whereas it is actually elliptical. The book is clearly intended for amateur astronomers and followers of Patrick Moore's TV programmes. There is plenty of astronomy, with an emphasis on the solar system, but very little astrophysics. The author's metricophobia means that quantities are given in imperial units throughout, with metric equivalents added in brackets (by an editor, I suspect) which can get irritating, particularly as powers-of-ten notation is avoided. It is quite a novelty to see the temperature for hydrogen fusion quoted as 18 000 000 °F (10 000 000 °C). By way of contrast, astronomical terms are used freely - ecliptic, first-magnitude star, and so on. Such terms are defined in a glossary at the end, but attention is not drawn to this and I only stumbled across it by chance. Patrick Moore obviously knows his public, and this book will serve them well. For physics teachers and students

  9. Images of Assimilation: Photographs of Indian Schools in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Eric; Rowe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines recently discovered photographs of Arizona Indian schools. The amateur snapshots were drawn from a personal album of about 150 photographs collected by a woman who apparently worked at the Pima Indian school in Sacaton. The name of the woman who made the album and sketchy captions is unknown, handwritten on the front or back…

  10. Thomas Kuhn's Influence on Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Harry L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the astronomical community on their familiarity with the work of Thomas Kuhn. Finds that for some astronomers, Kuhn's thought resonated well with their picture of how science is done and provided perspectives on their scientific careers. (Author/CCM)

  11. High School Teachers as Astronomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sather, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a joint research program between several high school teachers and solar system astronomers in which data were collected on photoelectric observations of asteroids and minor planets via astronomical telescopes. (MLH)

  12. Community College Class Devoted to Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, R. M.; Genet, C. L.

    2002-05-01

    A class at a small community college, Central Arizona College, was dedicated to astronomical research. Although hands-on research is usually reserved for professionals or graduate students, and occasionally individual undergraduate seniors, we decided to introduce community college students to science by devoting an entire class to research. Nine students were formed into three closely cooperating teams. The class as a whole decided that all three teams would observe Cepheid stars photometrically using a robotic telescope at the Fairborn Observatory. Speaker-phone conference calls were made to Kenneth E. Kissell for help on Cepheid selection, Michael A. Seeds for instructions on the use of the Phoenix-10 robotic telescope, and Douglas S. Hall for assitance in selecting appropriate comparison and check stars. The students obtained critical references on past observations from Konkoly Observatory via airmail. They spent several long night sessions at our apartment compiling the data, making phase calculations, and creating graphs. Finally, the students wrote up their results for publication in a forthcoming special issue of the international journal on stellar photometry, the IAPPP Communication. We concluded that conducting team research is an excellent way to introduce community college students to science, that a class devoted to cooperation as opposed to competition was refreshing, and that group student conference calls with working astronomers were inspiring. A semester, however, is a rather short time to initiate and complete research projects. The students were Sally Baldwin, Cory Bushnell, Bryan Dehart, Pamela Frantz, Carl Fugate, Mike Grill, Jessica Harger, Klay Lapa, and Diane Wiseman. We are pleased to acknowledge the assistance provided by the astronomers mentioned above, James Stuckey (Campus Dean), and our Union Institute and University doctoral committee members Florence Pittman Matusky, Donald S. Hayes, and Karen S. Grove.

  13. DISCOVER-AQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-07

    ... of satellites to monitor air quality for public health and environmental benefit. Through targeted airborne and ground-based observations, ... Relevant Documents:  DISCOVER-AQ - Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth ...

  14. Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

    1997-10-01

    The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

  15. Astronomers without borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2011-06-01

    ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is a new global organisational dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy and space science. A growing network of affiliate organisations brings together clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy and space science. Forums, galleries, video conferences and other interactive technologies are used to connect participants around the world. Sharing of resources and direct connections through travel programs are also planned. One project, ``The World at Night'' (TWAN), has become an Special Project of IYA2009. TWAN creates wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world, dramatically demonstrating the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is also a leader of the 100 Hours of Astronomy IYA2009 Global Cornerstone Project.

  16. Astronomers as Software Developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pildis, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomers know that their research requires writing, adapting, and documenting computer software. Furthermore, they often have to learn new computer languages and figure out how existing programs work without much documentation or guidance and with extreme time pressure. These are all skills that can lead to a software development job, but recruiters and employers probably won't know that. I will discuss all the highly useful experience that astronomers may not know that they already have, and how to explain that knowledge to others when looking for non-academic software positions. I will also talk about some of the pitfalls I have run into while interviewing for jobs and working as a developer, and encourage you to embrace the curiosity employers might have about your non-standard background.

  17. Astronomical Fourier spectropolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, F. F.; Fymat, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectra of the Stokes polarization parameters of Venus (resolution 0.5 per cm) are presented. They were obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 154-cm telescope of the National Mexican Observatory, Baja California, Mexico, July 12 and 13, 1972, with the Fourier Interferometer Polarimeter (FIP). A preliminary, limited analysis of four spectral features and of the CO2 rotational band structures at 6080 and 6200 per cm has demonstrated that spectral polarization is indeed present. These experimental results, confirmed by two series of observations, provide substantiation for this theoretically predicted phenomenon. They also tend to show that the FIP represents a novel astronomical tool for variable spectral resolution studies of both the intensity and the state of polarization of astronomical light sources.

  18. In Brief: Astronomer honored with a mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-06-01

    ``I have always been very intrigued by minerals, so it is great to be one,'' commented NASA Stardust mission principal investigator and University of Washington astronomer Donald Brownlee, AGU member, after learning the International Mineralogical Association had named a new mineral in his honor. Brownleeite, a combination of manganese and silicon, is the first mineral discovered in a particle from a comet. The mineral was found inside a particle collected by a high-altitude NASA aircraft from a dust stream that entered Earth's atmosphere in 2003. A team led by NASA scientist Keiko Nakamura-Messenger found the particle and had requested that it be named for Brownlee.

  19. Microcomputers and astronomical navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin-Jouan, Y.

    1996-04-01

    Experienced navigators remember ancient astronomical navigation and its limitations. Using microcomputers in small packages and selecting up-to-date efficient methods will overcome many of these limitations. Both features lead to focus on observations, and encourage an increase in their numbers. With no intention of competing with satellite navigation, sextant navigation in the open sea can then be accessed again by anybody. It can be considered for demonstrative use or as a complement to the GPS.

  20. Astrobiology: An astronomer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-08

    In this review we explore aspects of the field of astrobiology from an astronomical viewpoint. We therefore focus on the origin of life in the context of planetary formation, with additional emphasis on tracing the most abundant volatile elements, C, H, O, and N that are used by life on Earth. We first explore the history of life on our planet and outline the current state of our knowledge regarding the delivery of the C, H, O, N elements to the Earth. We then discuss how astronomers track the gaseous and solid molecular carriers of these volatiles throughout the process of star and planet formation. It is now clear that the early stages of star formation fosters the creation of water and simple organic molecules with enrichments of heavy isotopes. These molecules are found as ice coatings on the solid materials that represent microscopic beginnings of terrestrial worlds. Based on the meteoritic and cometary record, the process of planet formation, and the local environment, lead to additional increases in organic complexity. The astronomical connections towards this stage are only now being directly made. Although the exact details are uncertain, it is likely that the birth process of star and planets likely leads to terrestrial worlds being born with abundant water and organics on the surface.

  1. Arizona's Community Colleges in 2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don

    This report provides a vision of what community colleges in Arizona, and elsewhere, may look like in 2010. The observations are based on the results of a meeting held by the Committee on the Future of Arizona Community Colleges, on reading and conversations related to the work of Arizona Learning Systems, and the paper's general observations of…

  2. On Tokugawa Bakufu's astronomical officials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keiji

    2005-06-01

    Tokugawa Bakufu's astronomical office, established in 1684, is the post for calendar reform. The reform was conducted when the calendar did not predict peculiar celestial phenomena, such as solar or lunar eclipses. It was, so to speak, the theme of the ancient astronomy. From removal of the embargo on importing western science books in 1720, Japanese astronomers studied European astronomy and attempted to apply its knowledge to calendar making. Moreover, they knew the Copernican system and also faced several modern astronomical subjects. The French astronomer Lalande's work "ASTRONOMY" exerted particularly strong influence on astronomers. This paper overviews the activities of Paris observatory and French astronomers in the 17th and 18th centuries, and survey what modern astronomical subjects were. Finally, it sketches a role of the Edo observatory played in the Japanese cultural history.

  3. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as

  4. Arizona's Application Service Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Darla

    2002-01-01

    Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service provider (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, provides access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home. (EV)

  5. Arizona State University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory R.

    This report discusses how the Arizona Board of Regents, which has governing authority over the state's three public universities, dealt with the inability of the universities to respond to new societal needs in a timely manner; a major impediment was felt to be tenure. After a series of meetings of administrators and faculty leaders, the Board…

  6. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  7. Workforce Brief: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In Arizona, one of the country's fastest growing states, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2013, healthcare occupations will see growth of 50 percent. Almost 1,800 dentists will need to be hired to fill new posts and to cover retirement, for example. Teachers will be…

  8. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  9. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  10. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  11. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  12. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  13. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  14. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth ? approximately 21 million light-years away ? than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  15. On astronomical drawing [1846

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Charles Piazzi

    Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the

  16. Astronomical Fourier spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Connes, P; Michel, G

    1975-09-01

    A high resolution near ir Fourier spectrometer with the same general design as previously described laboratory instruments has been built for astronomical observations at a coudé focus. Present spectral range is 0.8-3.5 microm with PbS and Ge detectors and maximum path difference 1 m. The servo system can accommodate various recording modes: stepping or continuous scan, path difference modulation, sky chopping. A real time computer is incorporated into the system, which has been set up at the Hale 500-cm telescope on Mount Palomar. Samples of the results are given. PMID:20154966

  17. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  18. The Virtual Arizona Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

    2012-12-01

    To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and

  19. A website for astronomical news in Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2008-06-01

    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  20. XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Bejger, Michał

    2014-12-01

    XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

  1. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  2. Really Bad Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    What happens when even Percival Lowell stops believing in your Mars observations? History can be troubling. This I learned while editing the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (Springer, 2007). There have been astronomers who do not fit our commonly held, and clung to, conceptual model: a sociological system that sifts out generally like-minded and sensible colleagues. I refer to those individuals who (for at least a time) successfully entered the mainstream profession, but now disturb our worldview that says prosperity as a scientist usually is achieved by a rational being holding certain common values. My List of Shame includes examples from each of the last four centuries. Not "crack pot” cosmologists, these were hard-working observers for whom the end justified the means. And they all got away with it. Each person I discuss was vetted by the professional establishment of the day. Yet you will learn how to be fired from a major observatory, banned from prominent journals. But only after damage to the science is done. Be afraid.

  3. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  4. Astronomer's Proposal Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) is a computer program that assists astronomers in preparing their Phase 1 and Phase 2 Hubble Space Telescope science programs. APT is a successor to the Remote Proposal Submission System 2 (RPS2) program, which has been rendered obsolete by more recent advances in computer software and hardware. APT exploits advances associated with widespread use of the Internet, multiplatform visual development software tools, and overall increases in the power of desktop computer hardware, all in such a way as to make the preparation and submission of proposals more intuitive and make observatory operations less cumbersome. APT provides documentation and help that are friendly, up to date, and easily accessible to users of varying levels of expertise, while defining an extensible framework that is responsive to changes in both technology and observatory operations. APT consists of two major components: (1) a set of software tools that are intuitive, visual, and responsive and (2) an integrated software environment that unifies all the tools and makes them interoperable. The APT tools include the Visual Target Tuner, Proposal Editor, Exposure Planner, Bright Object Checker, and Visit Planner.

  5. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  6. Getting Astronomers Involved in the IYA: Astronomer in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Kris

    2008-05-01

    The Astronomer in the Classroom program provides professional astronomers the opportunity to engage with 3rd-12th grade students across the nation in grade appropriate discussions of their recent research, and provides students with rich STEM content in a personalized forum, bringing greater access to scientific knowledge for underserved populations. 21st Century Learning and Interstellar Studios, the producer of the 400 Years of the Telescope documentary along with their educational partners, will provide the resources necessary to facilitate the Astronomer in the Classroom program, allowing students to interact with astronomers throughout the IYA2009. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION One of hundreds of astronomers will be available to interact with students via live webcast daily during Spring/Fall 2009. The astronomer for the day will conduct three 20-minute discussions (Grades 3-5 /6-8/9-12), beginning with a five-minute PowerPoint on their research or area of interest. The discussion will be followed by a question and answer period. The students will participate in real-time from their school computer(s) with the technology provided by 21st Century Learning. They will see and hear the astronomer on their screen, and pose questions from their keyboard. Teachers will choose from three daily sessions; 11:30 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 12:30 p.m. Eastern Time. This schedule overlaps all US time zones, and marginalizes bandwidth usage, preventing technological barriers to web access. The educational partners and astronomers will post materials online, providing easy access to information that will prepare teachers and students for the chosen discussion. The astronomers, invited to participate from the AAS and IAU, will receive a web cam shipment with instructions, a brief training and conductivity test, and prepaid postage for shipment of the web cam to the next astronomer on the list. The anticipated astronomer time required is 3-hours, not including the time to develop the PowerPoint.

  7. PUSCH RIDGE WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Pusch Ridge Wilderness, located at the northern boundary of the city of Tucson, Arizona, offers little or no promise for the occurrence of energy resources. Only one area contains a probable potential for small, isolated contact-metamorphic deposits containing copper, molybdenum, tungsten, lead, and zinc. This area is located around the southwestern end of Pusch Ridge, adjacent to a residential area.

  8. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Thor N.V.; McColly, Robert

    1984-01-01

    There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Arizona, as judged from field studies. Significant concentrations of minerals within the roadless area are not indicated by geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or aeromagnetic studies. Basalt, volcanic cinders, sand and gravel, and sandstone that may be suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but are more readily accessible outside the roadless area boundary.

  9. Immanuel Halton, the astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, P. M.

    1996-02-01

    Immanuel Halton was born in Cumberland, studied at Grays Inn, London during the later stages of the English Civil War and, during the Commonwealth, entered the service of Henry Howard, later 6th Duke of Norfolk. He pursued his mathematical and astronomical interests while auditor to the Duke of Norfolk. He met with John Flamsteed, encouraged the latter's interest in mathematics and astronomy and became his first patron, as well as contributing observations to Flamsteed's published works. Immanuel ended his days at Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire. A short biographical piece on Immanuel Halton appeared in the Journal in the early 1950s, consisting mostly of quotations from Flamsteed's 'Self Inspections' and Baily's 'Life of Flamsteed'. 1996 is the 350th anniversary of Flamsteed's birth, and it is hoped that this fuller account will flesh out the bones of his first patron.

  10. Astronomers against Newton.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah

    2004-03-01

    Francis Baily's publication of the manuscripts of John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, provoked a furious response. Flamsteed had quarrelled with Isaac Newton, and described him in terms unforgivable to those who claimed him as a paragon of all virtues, both moral and scientific. Baily was condemned for putting Flamsteed's complaints in the public sphere. However, his supporters saw his work as a critique of the excessive hero-worship accorded to Newton. Written when the word 'scientist' had been newly coined, this work and the debates it provoked gives us an insight into contemporary views of the role of the man of science and of the use of science to back political, religious and moral positions. PMID:15036924

  11. Astronomical tides and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Mao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2001-03-01

    A review on the studies of correlation between astronomical tides and earthquakes is given in three categories, including (1) earthquakes and the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth, (2) earthquakes and the periods and phases of tides and (3) earthquakes and the tidal stress. The first two categories mainly investigate whether or not there exist any dominant pattern of the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth during earthquakes, whether or not the occurrences of earthquakes are clustered in any special phase during a tidal period, whether or not there exists any tidal periodic phenomenon in seismic activities, By empasizing the tidal stress in seismic focus, the third category investigates the relationship between various seismic faults and the triggering effects of tidal stress, which reaches the crux of the issue. Possible reasons to various inconsistent investigation results by using various methods and samples are analyzed and further investigations are proposed.

  12. The Amateur Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick

    This 2000 Edition of Sir Patrick Moore’s classic book has been completely revised in the light of changes in technology. Not only do these changes include commercially available astronomical telescopes and software, but also what we know and understand about the universe. There are many new photographs and illustrations. Writing in the easy-going style that made him famous as a writer and broadcaster, Sir Patrick introduced astronomy and amateur observing together, so that his reader gets an idea of what he is observing at the same time as how to observe. Almost half the book is Appendices. These are hugely comprehensive and provide hints and tips, as well as data (year 2000 onwards) for pretty well every aspect of amateur astronomy. This is probably the only book in which all this information is collected in one place.

  13. East Asian astronomical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    Chinese, Japanese and Korean celestial observations have made major contributions to Applied Historical Astronomy, especially in the study of supernovae, comets, Earth's rotation (using eclipses) and solar variability (via sunspots and aurorae). Few original texts now survive; almost all extant records exist only in printed versions, often with the loss of much detail. The earliest Chinese astronomical observations extend back to before 1000 BC. However, fairly systematic records are only available since 200 BC - and even these have suffered losses through wars, etc. By around AD 800, many independent observations are available from Japan and Korea and these provide a valuable supplement to the Chinese data. Throughout East Asia dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar and conversion to the Julian or Gregorian calendar can be readily effected.

  14. Discovering Pluto's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, J.K.; Killian, A.

    1988-12-01

    Observations of the occultation of an obscure 12th-magnitude star in eastern Virgo by Pluto on June 9, 1988 are discussed. The occultation was observed by astronomers aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory flying over the Pacific. The prediction of the occultation and the results of the observations are examined. The study demonstrated that Pluto has a thin atmosphere and that its diameter is about two-thirds that of the moon.

  15. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2013-06-01

    Astronomical data take on a multitude of forms—catalogs, data cubes, images, and simulations. The availability of software for rendering high-quality three-dimensional graphics lends itself to the paradigm of exploring the incredible parameter space afforded by the astronomical sciences. The software program Blender gives astronomers a useful tool for displaying data in a manner used by three-dimensional (3D) graphics specialists and animators. The interface to this popular software package is introduced with attention to features of interest in astronomy. An overview of the steps for generating models, textures, animations, camera work, and renders is outlined. An introduction is presented on the methodology for producing animations and graphics with a variety of astronomical data. Examples from subfields of astronomy with different kinds of data are shown with resources provided to members of the astronomical community. An example video showcasing the outlined principles and features is provided along with scripts and files for sample visualizations.

  16. Undergraduate Research in the University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Ian; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Turner, J.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Pearson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in research as an undergraduate is an invaluable learning experience that leads to successful post-undergrad studies. Because of this, the University of Arizona Astronomy Club strives to provide multiple opportunities for its members to get involved in research as early as possible. Areas of research covered by our projects include exoplanet research, stellar cycles, and radio observations. These projects cover exoplanet parameterization, the utilization of Kepler data, and various star-formation studies, respectively. Participation in our projects builds stronger data-collecting and reduction skills, while also leading to tangible achievements such poster presentations at AAS, ASP, and DPS, and published papers in astronomical journals.

  17. Shaping Arizona's Future: Head Start in Arizona. Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami; Walker, Laura

    The Arizona Head Start Association is a federation of public and private organizations that provide Head Start programs and work to improve the conditions of children in the state. This annual report describes the operation of the Head Start program in Arizona for 2000-2001. Beginning with an introductory letter from the president of the Arizona…

  18. XEphem: Interactive Astronomical Ephemeris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Elwood Charles

    2011-12-01

    XEphem is a scientific-grade interactive astronomical ephemeris package for UNIX-like systems. Written in C, X11 and Motif, it is easily ported to systems. Among other things, XEphem: computes heliocentric, geocentric and topocentric information for all objects; has built-in support for all planets; the moons of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Earth; central meridian longitude of Mars and Jupiter; Saturn's rings; and Jupiter's Great Red Spot; allows user-defined objects including stars, deepsky objects, asteroids, comets and Earth satellites; provides special efficient handling of large catalogs including Tycho, Hipparcos, GSC; displays data in configurable tabular formats in conjunction with several interactive graphical views; displays a night-at-a-glance 24 hour graphic showing when any selected objects are up; displays 3-D stereo Solar System views that are particularly well suited for visualizing comet trajectories; quickly finds all close pairs of objects in the sky; and sorts and prints all catalogs with very flexible criteria for creating custom observing lists. Its capabilities are listed more fully in the user manual introduction.

  19. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  20. Arizona in Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choncoff, Mary, Comp.

    The bibliography of approximately 550 entries is a sample of those available on Arizona for elementary school students. Topics include Arizona history and culture, Mexican lore, and information about Navajo Indians. Although some of the titles are too difficult for the reading level of elementary school students, they are included because no other…

  1. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  2. Tuition in Arizona Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don

    This document's purpose was to provide a broader context for State Board members as they considered the tuition rate requests for Arizona community college in April of 1997. Arizona's State Constitution calls for public higher education to be as nearly free as possible, yet tuition has become an increasingly important source of revenue for the…

  3. Computer version of astronomical ephemerides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choliy, V. Ya.

    A computer version of astronomical ephemerides for bodies of the Solar System, stars, and astronomical phenomena was created at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Astronomy and Cosmic Physics Department of the Taras Shevchenko National University. The ephemerides will be distributed via INTERNET or in the file form. This information is accessible via the web servers space.ups.kiev.ua and alfven.ups.kiev.ua or the address choliy@astrophys.ups.kiev.ua.

  4. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  5. Arizona land use experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Schumann, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Utilization of new sources of statewide remote sensing data, taken from high-altitude aircraft and from spacecraft is discussed along with incorporation of information extracted from these sources into on-going land and resources management programs in Arizona. Statewide cartographic applications of remote sensor data taken by NASA high-altitude aircraft include the development of a statewide semi-analytic control network, the production of nearly 1900 orthophotoquads (image maps) that are coincident in scale and area with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7. 5 minute topographic quadrangle map series, and satellite image maps of Arizona produced from LANDSAt multispectral scanner imagery. These cartographic products are utilized for a wide variety of experimental and operational earth resources applications. Applications of the imagery, image maps, and derived information discussed include: soils and geologic mapping projects, water resources investigations, land use inventories, environmental impact studies, highway route locations and mapping, vegetation cover mapping, wildlife habitat studies, power plant siting studies, statewide delineation of irrigation cropland, position determination of drilling sites, pictorial geographic bases for thematic mapping, and court exhibits.

  6. Evaluation of the Sky Brightness at Two Argentinian Astronomical Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, M.; Fortin, N.; Turcotte, S.; García, B.; Mancilla, A.; Maya, J.

    2014-11-01

    Light pollution is a growing concern at many levels, especially for the astronomical community. Indeed, not only does artificial lighting veil celestial objects, it disturbs the measurement of many atmospheric phenomena. The sky brightness is one of the most relevant parameters for astronomical site selection. Our goal is to evaluate the sky brightness of two Argentinian observation sites: LEO ++ and El Leoncito. Both sites were preselected to host the Cherenkov Telescope Array. This project consists of an arrangement of many telescopes that can measure high-energy gamma ray emissions via their Cherenkov radiation produced when entering the earth's atmosphere. In this paper, we describe the measurement methods used to determine whether those sites are valuable or not. We compared our results with the sky radiance of different renowned astronomical sites (Kitt Peak, Arizona, and Mont-Mégantic, Québec, Canada). Among our results, we found that LEO ++ is a good site, however the presence of a low layer of local aerosol can introduce uncertainties in the measurements. Consequently, El Leoncito would be a better option for such an installation. This latter site shows very low sky brightness levels, which are optimal for low light detection.

  7. Ecoregions of Arizona (poster)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Johnson, Colleen Burch; Turner, Dale S.

    2014-01-01

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The Arizona ecoregion map was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000. It revises and subdivides an earlier national ecoregion map that was originally compiled at a smaller scale. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity. These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions. Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Arizona contains arid deserts and canyonlands, semiarid shrub- and grass-covered plains, woodland- and shrubland-covered hills, lava fields and volcanic plateaus, forested mountains, glaciated

  8. Arizona's Youth--Arizona's Jobs. An Introduction to School-to-Work Transitions in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Judith A.; And Others

    This report provides a formative analysis of youth demographics and employment and training issues in the state of Arizona. The report clarifies issues of workforce supply and demand--as they pertain specifically to Arizona's youth--and explores the match between work force demand and training programs. It is based on information gathered and…

  9. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  10. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  11. Annotations of a Public Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Angelo Adamo is an Italian astronomer and artist interested in inspiring people with scientifically-based tales. He has recently published two illustrated books exploring the relationships between mankind and cosmos through physics, art, literature, music, cartoons, and movies.

  12. Discovering Teenage Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Staring for the equivalent of every night for two weeks at the same little patch of sky with ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has found the extremely faint light from teenage galaxies billions of light years away. These galaxies, which the research team believes are the building blocks of normal galaxies like our Milky Way, had eluded detection for three decades, despite intensive searches. ESO PR Photo 52/07 ESO PR Photo 52/07 A 92-hour long spectrum Two-dimensional spectrum obtained in 92 hours of exposure time, showing the line emitter candidates. The quasar absorption lines are visible close to the centre of the image. The team, led by Martin Haehnelt of the University of Cambridge, UK, Michael Rauch and George Becker of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, USA, and Andy Bunker of the Anglo-Australian Observatory, reports their results in the 1 March 2008 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. "This is the first time that the sky has been searched to this depth and the unrivalled sensitivity of the picture taken with the VLT was key to succeeding," says Haehnelt. Experts have long speculated that galaxies like ours were created by the amalgamation of proto-galaxies early in the history of the Universe, but the light from these fragments was so faint that astronomers had struggled to prove they were there at all. Astronomers thought that the teenage galaxies must be out there because they were blocking part of the light from objects even further away in space. "Previous attempts have usually been frustrated by the difficulty of detecting extremely faint objects: the amount of time required even with an 8-metre class telescope like the VLT considerably exceeds typical observing time awards. We have thus exploited the periods of less good weather with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT, taking advantage of the service observing mode," says Becker. In service mode, ESO staff astronomers at Paranal are responsible for carrying

  13. Technology Transfer and Economic Development in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, James

    The status of Arizona's effort to encourage the creation and expansion of high technology based on the discoveries and new knowledge developed at its research universities is discussed. The study of the University of Arizona and Arizona State University was recommended by the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and…

  14. Distribution of desert varnish in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1989-01-01

    Desert varnish is the dark coat of clay and ferromanganese oxides developed on exposed rock surfaces in arid regions. It forms from the accretion of material from windblown dust. The distribution of desert varnish was mapped in Arizona. It was discovered that desert varnish could be mapped on a regional scale. Well developed desert varnish is common on stable rock surfaces in areas having alkaline soils and less than about 25 cm of annual precipitation. Rock surfaces in areas having more than 40 cm of annual precipitation are generally devoid of desert varnish. An experiment was conducted with varnished desert pavement stone. The stones were broken in half and half was set on a roof in central Illinois from April until October. Removed from the alkaline desert environment, it only took seven months for the varnish to develop an eroded appearance. This experiment graphically illustrates the dependency of desert varnish on alkalinity. In this context, the zones of eroded desert varnish in Arizona indicate that the area of active desert varnish formation has fluctuated, expanding in drier times and contracting/eroding in wetter times.

  15. Discovering Mendeleev's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that introduces the historical developments in science that led to the discovery of the periodic table and lets students experience scientific discovery firsthand. Enables students to learn about patterns among the elements and experience how scientists analyze data to discover patterns and build models. (JRH)

  16. Helping Your Children Discover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Dorothy; Yeaton, Charles

    Children discover many things about themselves, about the world around them, and about words and language, before they go to school. This booklet was prepared to guide parents in helping their children make such discoveries in preparation for the demands of learning in school. Activities are suggested for developing children's self-confidence,…

  17. Discovering Hidden Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Working with teachers and artists from Florida to Maine, a drama educator has discovered that creative power and insight can emerge when using drama in the language arts classroom. One seventh-grade class began with simple warm-ups to loosen inhibitions and then moved into a unit that dealt with improvising using movement. A student who had hardly…

  18. Discovering the Artist Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Describes a personal artistic struggle against heroin addiction, advising teachers of the difficulty of working to discover and express one's developing self. Considers the effect of poetry and philosophy on the developing creative process. Provides samples of the author's own poetry to demonstrate creative development, as an example to Montessori…

  19. Enthusiastic Little Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Younger primary school students often show great interest in the vast Universe hiding behind the starry night's sky, but don't have a way of learning about it and exploring it in regular classes. Some of them would search children's books, Internet or encyclopedias for information or facts they are interested in, but there are those whose hunger for knowledge would go unfulfilled. Such students were the real initiators of our extracurricular activity called Little Astronomers. With great enthusiasm they would name everything that interests them about the Universe that we live in and I would provide the information in a fun and interactive yet acceptable way for their level of understanding. In our class we learn about Earth and its place in the Solar System, we learn about the planets and other objects of our Solar System and about the Sun itself. We also explore the night sky using programs such as Stellarium, learning to recognize constellations and name them. Most of our activities are done using a PowerPoint presentation, YouTube videos, and Internet simulations followed by some practical work the students do themselves. Because of the lack of available materials and funds, most of materials are hand made by the teacher leading the class. We also use the school's galileoscope as often as possible. Every year the students are given the opportunity to go to an observatory in a town 90 km away so that they could gaze at the sky through the real telescope for the first time. Our goal is to start stepping into the world of astronomy by exploring the secrets of the Universe and understanding the process of rotation and revolution of our planet and its effects on our everyday lives and also to become more aware of our own role in our part of the Universe. The hunger for knowledge and enthusiasm these students have is contagious. They are becoming more aware of their surroundings and also understanding their place in the Universe that helps them remain humble and helps

  20. The New Amateur Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, Martin

    Amateur astronomy has changed beyond recognition in less than two decades. The reason is, of course, technology. Affordable high-quality telescopes, computer-controlled 'go to' mountings, autoguiders, CCD cameras, video, and (as always) computers and the Internet, are just a few of the advances that have revolutionized astronomy for the twenty-first century. Martin Mobberley first looks at the basics before going into an in-depth study of what’s available commercially. He then moves on to the revolutionary possibilities that are open to amateurs, from imaging, through spectroscopy and photometry, to patrolling for near-earth objects - the search for comets and asteroids that may come close to, or even hit, the earth. The New Amateur Astronomer is a road map of the new astronomy, equally suitable for newcomers who want an introduction, or old hands who need to keep abreast of innovations. From the reviews: "This is one of several dozen books in Patrick Moore's "Practical Astronomy" series. Amid this large family, Mobberley finds his niche: the beginning high-tech amateur. The book's first half discusses equipment: computer-driven telescopes, CCD cameras, imaging processing software, etc. This market is changing every bit as rapidly as the computer world, so these details will be current for only a year or two. The rest of the book offers an overview of scientific projects that serious amateurs are carrying out these days. Throughout, basic formulas and technical terms are provided as needed, without formal derivations. An appendix with useful references and Web sites is also included. Readers will need more than this book if they are considering a plunge into high-tech amateur astronomy, but it certainly will whet their appetites. Mobberley's most valuable advice will save the book's owner many times its cover price: buy a quality telescope from a reputable dealer and install it in a simple shelter so it can be used with as little set-up time as

  1. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  2. SUPERSTITION WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Donald W.; Jinks, Jimmie E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with aligned magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  3. Superstition Wilderness, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.W.; Jinks, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations made between 1973 and 1977, most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with alined magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  4. Arizona Forest Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These ASTER images cover an area of 11 x 14 km on the north rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and were acquired May 12, 2000. The left image displays bands 3,2,1 in RGB, displaying vegetation as red. The large dark area is burned forest, and small smoke plumes can be seen at the edges where active fires are burning. The right display substitutes SWIR band 8 for band 3. The bright red spots are the active fires, visible because the SWIR wavelength region has the capability to penetrate through the smoke. This image is located at 35.9 degrees north latitude and 113.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Professional Development Through The University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Nieberding, Megan N.; Austin, Carmen; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club creates a unique environment for undergraduates to accomplish goals early in their academic career. The club provides research opportunities with advisors, graduate students, and projects organized by fellow undergraduates. Undergraduates that work side-by-side develop strong working relationships which keeps students interested in astronomy and enables them to thrive in their studies and research. Club members are encouraged to attend and present their research at professional conferences where they are exposed early to the scientific research community, learn about internship and REU opportunities, and get information about graduate programs. In addition to preparing undergraduates to thrive in their academic career, the club also offers outreach opportunities for members to actively educate the southern Arizona community. Members of the club design and create many of their outreach materials including 3D models of our local stellar neighborhood and astronomical objects. Astronomy Club has had a positive impact on its members, the Department of Astronomy, and the southern Arizona community for the past seven years. The club continues to strive to improve undergraduate retention and prepare students for their future careers.

  6. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) is a federal interagency research effort coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development (ORD). The objective of the NHEXAS Phase I Arizona study was to determine the distribution...

  7. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  8. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  9. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  10. Interference in astronomical speckle patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Astronomical speckle patterns are examined in an atmospheric-optics context in order to determine what kind of image quality is to be expected from several different imaging techniques. The model used to describe the instantaneous complex field distribution across the pupil of a large telescope regards the pupil as a deep phase grating with a periodicity given by the size of the cell of uniform phase or the refractive index structure function. This model is used along with an empirical formula derived purely from the physical appearance of the speckle patterns to discuss the orders of interference in astronomical speckle patterns.

  11. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  12. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  13. Unconventional adaptive mirrors at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Michael; Ammons, S. Mark; Coughenour, Blake; Romeo, Robert

    2012-06-01

    We describe the construction and application of innovative deformable mirrors for adaptive optics (AO) being developed at the University of Arizona's Center for Astronomical Adaptive Optics. The mirrors are up to 1 m in diameter, with high actuator stroke, and are optically powered. Scientific motivations for the work include the detection of earthlike planets around other nearby stars, as well as non-astronomical applications such as directed energy and horizontal imaging for defense and security. We describe how high resolution imaging is delivered over an unusually wide field of view by ground-layer AO. This technique employs multiple laser guide stars to sense the instantaneous three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric turbulence. Imaging with high signal-to-noise ratio in the thermal infrared is enabled by embedding the deformable mirror directly in the telescope. We also describe recent work to develop a new generation of these mirrors with lighter weight and improved robustness by use of replicated composite materials which shows promise for greatly reducing the cost of AO and broadening its appeal, particularly for non-astronomical applications as well as for a new generation of extremely large ground-based telescopes of 30 m diameter now under construction.

  14. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  15. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  16. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory: Re-engineering access to astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Emery Bunn, S.; Evans, J.; McGlynn, T. A.; Plante, R.

    2015-06-01

    The US Virtual Astronomical Observatory was a software infrastructure and development project designed both to begin the establishment of an operational Virtual Observatory (VO) and to provide the US coordination with the international VO effort. The concept of the VO is to provide the means by which an astronomer is able to discover, access, and process data seamlessly, regardless of its physical location. This paper describes the origins of the VAO, including the predecessor efforts within the US National Virtual Observatory, and summarizes its main accomplishments. These accomplishments include the development of both scripting toolkits that allow scientists to incorporate VO data directly into their reduction and analysis environments and high-level science applications for data discovery, integration, analysis, and catalog cross-comparison. Working with the international community, and based on the experience from the software development, the VAO was a major contributor to international standards within the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The VAO also demonstrated how an operational virtual observatory could be deployed, providing a robust operational environment in which VO services worldwide were routinely checked for aliveness and compliance with international standards. Finally, the VAO engaged in community outreach, developing a comprehensive web site with on-line tutorials, announcements, links to both US and internationally developed tools and services, and exhibits and hands-on training at annual meetings of the American Astronomical Society and through summer schools and community days. All digital products of the VAO Project, including software, documentation, and tutorials, are stored in a repository for community access. The enduring legacy of the VAO is an increasing expectation that new telescopes and facilities incorporate VO capabilities during the design of their data management systems.

  17. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

  18. Simple Astronomical Theory of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1979-01-01

    The author derives, applying perturbation theory, from a simple astronomical model the approximate periods of secular variation of some of the parameters of the Earth's orbit and relates these periods to the past climate of the Earth, indicating the difficulties in predicting the climate of the future. (GA)

  19. An Astronomical Data Analyzing Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    ThP need for exchange of programmes and data between astronomical facilities is generally recognized, but practicable concepts concerning its realization are rare. Standardization of data formats through FITS is widely accepted; for (interactive) programs, however, identical hardware configurations seem to be the favoured solution. As an alternative, a software approach to the problem is presented.

  20. Astronomical searches for nitrogen heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, Steven B.; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Huang, Hui-Chun; Botta, Oliver; Butner, Harold M.; Cox, Nick; Despois, Didier; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Lee, Ying-Ying; Markwick, Andrew J.; Peeters, Zan; Rodgers, Steven D.

    We have conducted extensive astronomical searches for the N-bearing ring molecules pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline towards the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich stars, and for interstellar pyrimidine in hot molecular cores. Here we report the derived upper limits on the column densities of these molecules, and summarize the current status of these observations.

  1. Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Kenneth S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

  2. Australian sites of astronomical heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.; Lomb, N.

    2015-03-01

    The heritage of astronomy in Australia has proven an effective communication medium. By interpreting science as a social and cultural phenomenon new light is thrown on challenges, such as the dispersal of instruments and problems identifying contemporary astronomy heritage. Astronomers are asked to take note and to consider the communication of astronomy now and in the future through a tangible heritage legacy.

  3. Chandra Discovers Eruption and Pulsation in Nova Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered a giant outburst of X-rays and unusual cyclical pulsing from a white dwarf star that is closely orbiting another star -- the first time either of these phenomena has been seen in X-rays. The observations are helping scientists better understand the thermonuclear explosions that occur in certain binary star systems. The observations of Nova Aquilae were reported today at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium by an international team led by Sumner Starrfield of Arizona State University. "We found two important results in our Chandra observations. The first was an underlying pulsation every 40 minutes in the X-ray brightness, which we believe comes from the cyclical expansion and contraction of the outer layers of the white dwarf," said Starrfield. "The other result was an enormous flare of X-rays that lasted for 15 minutes. Nothing like this has been seen before from a nova, and we don't know how to explain it." Novas occur on a white dwarf (a star which used up all its nuclear fuel and shrank to roughly the size of the Earth) that is orbiting a normal size star. Strong gravity tides drag hydrogen gas off the normal star and onto the white dwarf, where it can take more than 100,000 years for enough hydrogen to accumulate to ignite nuclear fusion reactions. Gradually, these reactions intensify until a cosmic-sized hydrogen bomb blast results. The outer layers of the white dwarf are then blown away, producing a nova outburst that can be observed for a period of months to years as the material expands into space. "Chandra has allowed us to see deep into the gases ejected by this giant explosion and extract unparalleled information on the evolution of the white dwarf whose surface is exploding," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The brightening of Nova Aquilae was first detected by optical astronomers in December 1999. "Although this star is at a distance of more than 6

  4. Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2006 [and] Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.; Molnar, Alex; Merrill, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    "Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2006" is the third-annual study of the opinion of Arizona parents on the issues facing public schools. The study is conducted by the Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), a collaboration of Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, and the University of Arizona, and it is a…

  5. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  6. Articulation: Arizona Guidebook Can Lick Transfer "Sting."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Arizona "Course Equivalency Guide," a combined listing of courses at Arizona community colleges and universities, which enables students to evaluate whether and in what way each course is accepted for transfer at the universities.

  7. Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Parsamian, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The book contains Proceedings of the Archaeoastronomical Meeting "Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture" Dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi's 1400th Anniversary and XI Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society. It consists of 3 main sections: "Astronomical Heritage", "Anania Shirakatsi" and "Modern Astronomy", as well as Literature about Anania Shirakatsi is included. The book may be interesting for astronomers, historians, archaeologists, linguists, students and other readers.

  8. Early Proterozoic geology of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Clay M.; Karlstrom, Karl E.

    The Early Proterozoic geology of Arizona and adjoining regions was the topic of a workshop convened by Clay M. Conway (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Flagstaff, Ariz.), Karl E. Karlstrom (Northern Arizona University (NAU), Flagstaff), and Leon T. Silver (California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena) in Flagstaff, October 3-5, 1985. The meeting, sponsored by USGS, NAU, Caltech, and the Arizona Geological Survey, was attended by 73 geologists from industry, academia, and governmental agencies. The workshop brought together for the first time workers in a variety of disciplines who have been studying facets of Early Proterozoic crustal evolution in the southwest. From responses during and following the workshop, we judge that the meeting successfully accomplished its objective of furthering communication, cooperation, and collaboration. The meeting encouraged contributions, including progress reports, from all participants and concentrated on specific problems of stratigraphy, structure, petrology, geochemistry, and ore formation, with a view toward understanding overall orogenic evolution and continental accretion.

  9. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Kristen L; Pena, Sandra A; Yaglom, Hayley D; Layton, Brent J; Moors, Amanda; Loftis, Amanda D; Condit, Marah E; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia Y; Denison, Amy M; Ng, Dianna; Mertins, James W; Paddock, Christopher D

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, all previously reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis have been linked to transmission by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). Here we describe 1 confirmed and 1 probable case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis acquired in a mountainous region of southern Arizona, well beyond the recognized geographic range of A. maculatum ticks. The likely vector for these 2 infections was identified as the Amblyomma triste tick, a Neotropical species only recently recognized in the United States. Identification of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in southern Arizona demonstrates a need for local ecologic and epidemiologic assessments to better understand geographic distribution and define public health risk. Education and outreach aimed at persons recreating or working in this region of southern Arizona would improve awareness and promote prevention of tickborne rickettsioses. PMID:27089251

  10. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kristen L.; Pena, Sandra A.; Yaglom, Hayley D.; Layton, Brent J.; Moors, Amanda; Loftis, Amanda D.; Condit, Marah E.; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia Y.; Denison, Amy M.; Ng, Dianna; Mertins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, all previously reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis have been linked to transmission by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). Here we describe 1 confirmed and 1 probable case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis acquired in a mountainous region of southern Arizona, well beyond the recognized geographic range of A. maculatum ticks. The likely vector for these 2 infections was identified as the Amblyomma triste tick, a Neotropical species only recently recognized in the United States. Identification of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in southern Arizona demonstrates a need for local ecologic and epidemiologic assessments to better understand geographic distribution and define public health risk. Education and outreach aimed at persons recreating or working in this region of southern Arizona would improve awareness and promote prevention of tickborne rickettsioses. PMID:27089251

  11. The Universe for all to discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  12. Arizona Minority Student Success Report, Spring 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Tonya M.; Forester, Christine A.

    The Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC) is a policy center of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education. AMEPAC's mission is to stimulate, through studies, statewide discussion, and debate, constructive improvement of Arizona minority students' early awareness, access, and achievement throughout all sectors of…

  13. The Uneven Performance of Arizona's Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Arizona enrolls a larger share of its students in charter schools than any other state in the country, but no comprehensive examination exists of the impact of those schools on student achievement. Using student-level data covering all Arizona students from 2006 to 2012, we find that the performance of charter schools in Arizona in improving…

  14. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  15. The Effect of Arizona Language Policies on Arizona Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Mary Carol; Nicholas, Sheilah E.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of Arizona's language policies on school districts serving Native American students. Although these policies were designed to restrict the access of Spanish-speaking immigrant and citizen students to bilingual education programs, their reach has extended into schools and school districts serving Native Americans.…

  16. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  17. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  18. The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, J. Donald

    2015-01-01

    The path of the total solar eclipse across the United States on August 21, 2017 crosses the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) located in western North Carolina. The partial eclipse begins at about 17:08 UT, followed by the nearly 2 minute total eclipse which begins at about 18:37 UT. The PARI campus includes radio and optical telescopes, as well as earth science instruments that include a seismometer, geomagnetometer, EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, time standards, and several weather stations. The instruments stream data to the PARI website and will be available for the eclipse. In anticipation of the 2017 solar eclipse, we present the instruments and infrastructure of the PARI campus. We invite astronomers to explore the use of the PARI campus as a site for their own instruments and/or the use of instruments already located at PARI.

  19. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  20. 22 GHz Water Maser Survey of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-jun; Esimbek, Jarken; Wu, Gang

    2012-07-01

    Water masers are good tracers of high-mass star-forming regions. Water maser VLBI observations provide a good probe for studying high-mass star formation and galactic structure. We plan to make a blind survey toward the northern Galactic plane in future years using the 25 m radio telescope of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. We will select some water maser sources discovered in the survey and perform high resolution observations to study the gas kinematics close to high-mass protostars.

  1. Directory of astronomical data files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This Directory of Astronomical Data Files was prepared by the Data Task Force of the Interagency Coordination Committee for Astronomy (ICCA) in cooperation with the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The purpose of the Directory is to provide a listing which will enable a user to locate stellar and extragalactic data sources keyed along with sufficient descriptive information to permit him to assess the value of the files for his use as well as the status and availability of the compilations.

  2. Armenian Astronomical Society Annual Activities in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    A report is given on the achievements of the Armenian astronomy during the last year and on the present activities of the Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS). ArAS membership, ArAS electronic newsletters (ArASNews), ArAS webpage, annual meetings, Annual Prize for Young Astronomers (Yervant Terzian Prize) and other awards, international relations, presence in international organizations, summer schools, astronomical Olympiads and other events, matters related to astronomical education, astronomical heritage, astronomy outreach and ArAS further projects are discussed. The present meeting, BAO Science Camp, ArAS School lectures are among 2014 events as well.

  3. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  4. Conceptual approach to astronomical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, N. A.; Avvakumova, E. A.; Bryukhov, D. O.; Vovchenko, A. E.; Vol'nova, A. A.; Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Kalinichenko, L. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Stupnikov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technical capabilities have brought about the sweeping growth of the amount of data acquired by the astronomers from observations with different instruments in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. We consider conceptual approach to be a promising tool to efficiently deal with these data. It uses problem domain knowledge to formulate the tasks and develop problem-solving algorithms and data analysis methods in terms of domain concepts without reference to particular data sources, and thereby allows solving certain problems in general form. We demonstrate the benefits of conceptual approach by using it to solve problems related to search for secondary photometric standard candidates, determination of galaxy redshifts, creation of a binary and multiple star repository based on inhomogeneous databases, and classification of eclipsing binaries.We formulate and solve these problems over specifications of astronomical knowledge units such as photometric systems, astronomical objects, multiple stars, etc., and define them in terms of the corresponding problem domains independently of the existing data resources.

  5. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  6. Leslie Peltier, Amateur Astronomer and Observer Extraordinaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Leslie Copus Peltier, (Jan. 2, 1900-May 10, 1980) was called "the world's greatest non-professional astronomer" by none other than Harlow Shapley, and also referred to as the "the world's greatest living amateur astronomer". He began observing variable stars on March 1, 1918 with an observation of R. Leonis and at the time of his death had made a total of 132,123 observations of variable stars. These were reported to the AAVSO on a consecutive monthly basis stretching from 1918 to his death in 1980. As of October 2003, he was still on AAVSO's list of the top 25 observers in its history. Born on a farm near Delphos, Ohio, his parents were well read and their home was filled with books on different subjects, including nature guides. As a young man he studied the flora and fauna of the area and in 1915 began his study of the heavens with Vega being the first star he identified. After the purchase of a 2-inch spyglass, his observations of variable stars began to be noticed by professional astronomers and the AAVSO loaned him a 4-inch Mogey refractor; shortly thereafter Henry Norris Russell of Princeton loaned him via the AAVSO a 6-inch refractor, a comet seeker of short focus. He discovered 12 comets, 10 of which carry his name, and 6 novae or recurring novae. His design of the "Merry-Go-Round Observatory" was a novel approach with the whole observatory revolving around the observer while seated in his observing chair. Miami University (Ohio) later donated to him their 12-inch Clark refractor with its dome. His first book, Starlight Nights: The Adventures of a Star-Gazer, appeared in 1965. This autobiography, an ode to the joys of observing both the night sky and nature, was written in beautifully descriptive language that helped lead countless readers into astronomy. Departing from astronomy, in 1977 he published The Place on Jennings Creek. Written in the style of the 19th century naturalist, the book was devoted to his family's home, Brookhaven, and its natural

  7. Event Discovery in Astronomical Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, D.; Protopapas, P.; Brodley, C.

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of events in astronomical time series data is a non-trival problem. Existing methods address the problem by requiring a fixed-sized sliding window which, given the varying lengths of events and sampling rates, could overlook important events. In this work, we develop probability models for finding the significance of an arbitrary-sized sliding window, and use these probabilities to find areas of significance. In addition, we present our analyses of major surveys archived at the Time Series Center, part of the Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard University. We applied our method to the time series data in order to discover events such as microlensing or any non-periodic events in the MACHO, OGLE and TAOS surveys. The analysis shows that the method is an effective tool for filtering out nearly 99% of noisy and uninteresting time series from a large set of data, but still provides full recovery of all known variable events (microlensing, blue star events, supernovae etc.). Furthermore, due to its efficiency, this method can be performed on-the-fly and will be used to analyze upcoming surveys, such as Pan-STARRS.

  8. An Early Astronomical Observation by John Goodricke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2009-12-01

    John Goodricke (1764-1786) is one of the most intriguing and enigmatic figures in the history of astronomy. Deaf from the age of five, his observations of the light variation of Algol brought him acclaim and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society by the age of nineteen. Together with his neighbor, mentor, and distant relative Edward Pigott, he went on to discover and quantify the light variations of other stars, including Delta Cephei. Goodricke's careful accounts of his observations, and their accuracy, remain a model of clear scientific thinking and reporting. His final derived value for the time between eclipse minima for Algol, for example, is within eight seconds of the modern value. Goodricke's astronomical observing career is generally thought to have begun with his return to his family home in York in 1781 at the age of seventeen. His school mathematics notebook and workbook from the Warrington Academy, however, contains a detailed drawing of the sky which suggest that he was already a knowledgable observer by the age of fifteen. This drawing is presented and interpreted.

  9. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  10. CE Footprints on Arizona Highways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Dorothy J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A statewide mobilized continuing education effort for hospital nurses in rural Arizona was intended to upgrade emergency care knowledge and skills. Instructors travelled to rural sites in a specially equipped van to teach a 36-hour course and work with emergency room staff. (SK)

  11. Arizona TeleMedicine Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Coll. of Medicine.

    Designed to provide health services for American Indians living on rurally isolated reservations, the Arizona TeleMedicine Project proposes to link Phoenix and Tucson medical centers, via a statewide telecommunications system, with the Hopi, San Carlos Apache, Papago, Navajo, and White Mountain Apache reservations. Advisory boards are being…

  12. Argumentation in Miranda v. Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the argumentation advanced in briefs, oral arguments, and the Supreme Court's opinion in the case of Miranda versus Arizona. Considers the background of the case, analyzes the argumentation and its influences on the court, and stresses the importance of viewing the Supreme Court as an active participant in the decision-making process.…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading…

  14. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 1. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  18. Turbidity trends at tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Heidel, K

    1972-09-01

    Variations in atmospheric turbidity at Tucson, Arizona, since 1956 are similar to those at Mauna Loa in Hawaii, especially before January 1970. The turbidity at both locations increased markedly in 1963 after the Bali eruption. Since January 1970, the turbidity has returned to its pre-1963 level at Mauna Loa, but has remained relatively high at Tucson. PMID:17780987

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  1. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  2. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  3. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);(3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  9. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  11. Promoting undergraduate involvement through the University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Austin, Carmen; Noyes, Matthew; Calahan, Jenny; Lautenbach, Jennifer; Henrici, Andrew; Ryleigh Fitzpatrick, M.; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2016-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is devoted to undergraduate success in astronomy, physics, planetary sciences and many other related fields. The club promotes many undergraduate opportunities; research projects, participating in telescope observational runs, sponsoring conference attendance as well as several public outreach opportunities. Research projects involving exoplanet transit observations and radio observations of cold molecular clouds allow undergraduates to experience data collection, telescope operations, data reduction and research presentation. The club hosts many star parties and various other public outreach events for the Tucson, Arizona location. The club often constructs their own outreach materials and structures. The club is currently working on creating a portable planetarium to teach about the night sky on the go even on the cloudiest of nights. The club is also working on creating a binocular telescope with two 10" mirrors as a recreation of the local Large Binocular Telescope for outreach purposes as well. This is a club that strives for undergraduate activity and involvement in a range of academic and extracurricular activates, and is welcoming to all majors of all levels in hopes to spark astronomical interest.

  12. Research Projects and Undergraduate Retention at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker-LaFollette, Amanda; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Towner, A. P.; McGraw, A. M.; Biddle, L. I.; Robertson, A.; Turner, J.; Smith, C.

    2013-06-01

    The University of Arizona’s Astronomy Club utilizes its access to the many telescopes in and around Tucson, Arizona, to allow students to fully participate in a variety of research projects. Three current projects - the exoplanet project, the radio astronomy project, and the Kepler project - all work to give undergraduates who are interested in astronomy the opportunity to explore practical astronomy outside the classroom and in a peer-supported environment. The exoplanet project strives to teach students about the research process, including observing exoplanet transits on the Steward Observatory 61” Kuiper telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Tucson, AZ, reducing the data into lightcurves with the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), modeling the lightcurves using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and writing and publishing a professional paper, and does it all with no faculty involvement. The radio astronomy project is designed to provide students with an opportunity to work with a professor on a radio astronomy research project, and to learn about the research process, including observing molecules in molecular clouds using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12-meter radio telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. The Kepler project is a new project designed in part to facilitate graduate-undergraduate interaction in the Astronomy Department, and in part to allow students (both graduate and undergraduate) to participate in star-spot cycle research using data from the Kepler Mission. All of these research projects and structures provide students with unique access to telescopes, peer mentoring, networking, and understanding the entire process of astronomical research.

  13. Scientists Discover Antifreeze in Space, Warming Theories on How and Where Life Begins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    interstellar clouds," Hollis said. Ribose sugar is required for the backbone structure of RNA; a less complex form, deoxyribose sugar, is required for the backbone structure of DNA. The 12-Meter Telescope The 12-Meter Telescope "This discovery further demonstrates how important interstellar chemistry may be to understanding the creation of biological molecules on the early Earth," said Jewell. "Some scientists have even speculated that the Earth could have been 'seeded' with complex molecules from passing comets, which were formed from the condensing gas nebula that produced our Solar System." Astronomers on Earth are able to detect and identify the faint radio emission of molecules in space as they tumble and vibrate within interstellar clouds, emitting radio waves at precise frequencies. These frequencies are unique to each molecule, and provide a "fingerprint" in the electromagnetic spectrum. Signals from other molecules can sometimes fall at nearby frequencies, in effect smudging the ethylene glycol fingerprint. The scientists used four different signals from ethylene glycol to secure its detection. The researchers made their discovery with data taken in May 2000 with the 12 Meter Radio Telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona, which has been a pioneering instrument in detecting molecules in space. Though operated by NRAO at the time, this telescope now is operated by the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona. The research team plans future work on interstellar biomolecules using the new NRAO Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, which promises to be the most sensitive telescope yet for such work. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  14. Astronomers Find Enormous Hole in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    Astronomers have found an enormous hole in the Universe, nearly a billion light-years across, empty of both normal matter such as stars, galaxies, and gas, and the mysterious, unseen "dark matter." While earlier studies have shown holes, or voids, in the large-scale structure of the Universe, this new discovery dwarfs them all. Void Illustration Hole in Universe revealed by its effect on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA Click on image for page of graphics and detailed information "Not only has no one ever found a void this big, but we never even expected to find one this size," said Lawrence Rudnick of the University of Minnesota. Rudnick, along with Shea Brown and Liliya R. Williams, also of the University of Minnesota, reported their findings in a paper accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. Astronomers have known for years that, on large scales, the Universe has voids largely empty of matter. However, most of these voids are much smaller than the one found by Rudnick and his colleagues. In addition, the number of discovered voids decreases as the size increases. "What we've found is not normal, based on either observational studies or on computer simulations of the large-scale evolution of the Universe," Williams said. The astronomers drew their conclusion by studying data from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), a project that imaged the entire sky visible to the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, part of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Their careful study of the NVSS data showed a remarkable drop in the number of galaxies in a region of sky in the constellation Eridanus. "We already knew there was something different about this spot in the sky," Rudnick said. The region had been dubbed the "WMAP Cold Spot," because it stood out in a map of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotopy Probe (WMAP) satellite

  15. How Jupiter's Ring Was Discovered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, James; Kerr, Richard

    1985-01-01

    "Rings" (by astronomer James Elliot and science writer Richard Kerr) is a nontechnical book about the discovery and exploration of ring systems from the time of Galileo to the era of the Voyager spacecraft. One of this book's chapters is presented. (JN)

  16. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; MacDonald, G.J.

    1997-07-11

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  17. How I Became an Astronomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2001-01-01

    Life as an astronomer has taken me to view eclipses of the Sun from the Gaspe' Peninsula to the Pacific Ocean and the China and Coral Seas, and to observe the stars at observatories across the USA and as far south as Chile. I've also enjoyed working with NASA's telescopes in space, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. It seems funny to reflect that it all began in the Sixth Grade by a fluke - the consequence of a hoax letter whose author I never identified.

  18. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett

    2016-03-01

    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  19. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

  20. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  1. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    superstring theory and extra dimensions in spacetime calling for the "constants" to change over time, he said. The astronomers used the GBT to detect and study radio emissions at four specific frequencies between 1612 MHz and 1720 MHz coming from hydroxyl (OH) molecules in a galaxy more than 6 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was at roughly half the Universe's current age. Each of the four frequencies represents a specific change in the energy level of the molecule. The exact frequency emitted or absorbed when the molecule undergoes a transition from one energy level to another depends on the values of the fundamental physical constants. However, each of the four frequencies studied in the OH molecule will react differently to a change in the constants. That difference is what the astronomers sought to detect using the GBT, which, Kanekar explained, is the ideal telescope for this work because of its technical capabilities and its location in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where radio interference is at a minimum. "We can place very tight limits on changes in the physical constants by studying the behavior of these OH molecules at a time when the Universe was only about half its current age, and comparing this result to how the molecules behave today in the laboratory," said Karl Menten of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany. Wetterich, a theorist, welcomes the new capability, saying the observational method "seems very promising to obtain perhaps the most accurate values for such possible time changes of the constants." He pointed out that, while some theoretical models call for the constants to change only in the early moments after the Big Bang, models of the recently-discovered, mysterious "dark energy" that seems to be accelerating the Universe's expansion call for changes "even in the last couple of billion years." "Only observations can tell," he said. This research ties together the theoretical and observational work of Wetterich and

  2. Automatic classification of spectra from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Self, Matthew; Taylor, William; Goebel, John; Volk, Kevin; Walker, Helen

    1989-01-01

    A new classification of Infrared spectra collected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is presented. The spectral classes were discovered automatically by a program called Auto Class 2. This program is a method for discovering (inducing) classes from a data base, utilizing a Bayesian probability approach. These classes can be used to give insight into the patterns that occur in the particular domain, in this case, infrared astronomical spectroscopy. The classified spectra are the entire Low Resolution Spectra (LRS) Atlas of 5,425 sources. There are seventy-seven classes in this classification and these in turn were meta-classified to produce nine meta-classes. The classification is presented as spectral plots, IRAS color-color plots, galactic distribution plots and class commentaries. Cross-reference tables, listing the sources by IRAS name and by Auto Class class, are also given. These classes show some of the well known classes, such as the black-body class, and silicate emission classes, but many other classes were unsuspected, while others show important subtle differences within the well known classes.

  3. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  4. Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2004 [and] Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Merrill, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), a collaboration of Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, and the University of Arizona, conducted a statewide telephone survey to get parents' perspectives on the condition of education in the state. From March 17 to March 27, 2004, a statewide random sample of 400 Arizona parents…

  5. A Mythological, Philosophical and Astronomical approach of our solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivas, Sotirios; Kastanidou, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Geography in the first Class of Gymnasium - secondary education we will focus in Solar System: Astronomical approach: Students will look and find the astronomical data of the planets, they will make comparisons between the sizes of their radius, they will find the distance from the Sun, they will search the relative motion, they will calculate the gravity on each planet, etc. Mythological approach: We will search the names and meanings of the planets based on Greek mythological origin. Philosophical approach: Regarding the philosophical approach of the "solar system" we will look and find: • Why planets are called so? • How did planets get their names? • What are the periods of Greek astronomy? • What were the astronomical instruments of ancient Greeks and who did built them? • What were the Greek philosophers and astronomers? When did they live and what did they discover? • Which method did Eratosthenes of Cyrene apply about 206B.C. to serve a real measurement of the earth's radius? • What was the relationship between science and religion in ancient Greece? Literature approach: At the end of the program students will write their opinion in subject "Having a friend from another planet" based on the book of Antoine de Saint - Exupéry "The little prince". Law approach: A jurist working in Secondary Education will visits our school and engages students in the Space Law. Artistic approach: Students will create their own posters of our planetary system. The best posters will be posted on the school bulletin board to display their work. Visit: Students and teachers will visit the Observatory of Larissa where they will see how observatory works and talk with scientists about their job. They will look through telescopes and observe the sun.

  6. Citizen Astronomers... Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiIulio, Ron

    2015-05-01

    While our understanding of the Universe seems to be expanding much like the Big Bang, there seem to be fewer and fewer new people dedicated to gathering, interpreting, and disseminating scientific astronomical data. In this paper I present a plan to create "Certified Citizen Astronomers", i.e., the development of a curriculum where people of all ages and backgrounds can develop robust photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic techniques so that they can participate more fully in the astronomical adventure.

  7. Topics in Machine Learning for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisewski, Jessi

    2016-01-01

    As astronomical datasets continue to increase in size and complexity, innovative statistical and machine learning tools are required to address the scientific questions of interest in a computationally efficient manner. I will introduce some tools that astronomers can employ for such problems with a focus on clustering and classification techniques. I will introduce standard methods, but also get into more recent developments that may be of use to the astronomical community.

  8. LGBT Workplace Issues for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Laura E.; Danner, R.; Sellgren, K.; Dixon, V.; GLBTQastro

    2011-01-01

    Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws and regulations do not provide protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity or gender expression. Sexual minority astronomers (including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; LGBT) can face additional challenges at school and work. Studies show that LGBT students on many campuses report experiences of harassment. Cities, counties, and states may or may not have statutes to protect against such discrimination. There is wide variation in how states and insurance plans handle legal and medical issues for transgender people. Federal law does not acknowledge same-sex partners, including those legally married in the U.S. or in other countries. Immigration rules in the U.S. (and many other, but not all) countries do not recognize same-sex partners for visas, employment, etc. State `defense of marriage act' laws have been used to remove existing domestic partner benefits at some institutions, or benefits can disappear with a change in governor. LGBT astronomers who change schools, institutions, or countries during their career may experience significant differences in their legal, medical, and marital status.

  9. The League of Astronomers: Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paat, Anthony; Brandel, A.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Thomas, N. H.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.; Astronomers, League of

    2014-01-01

    The University of Washington League of Astronomers (LOA) is an organization comprised of University of Washington (UW) undergraduate students. Our main goal is to share our interest in astronomy with the UW community and with the general public. The LOA hosts star parties on the UW campus and collaborates with the Seattle Astronomical Society (SAS) on larger Seattle-area star parties. At the star parties, we strive to teach our local community about what they can view in our night sky. LOA members share knowledge of how to locate constellations and use a star wheel. The relationship the LOA has with members of SAS increases both the number of events and people we are able to reach. Since the cloudy skies of the Northwest prevent winter star parties, we therefore focus our outreach on the UW Mobile Planetarium, an inflatable dome system utilizing Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software. The mobile planetarium brings astronomy into the classrooms of schools unable to travel to the UW on-campus planetarium. Members of the LOA volunteer their time towards this project and we make up the majority of the Mobile Planetarium volunteers. Our outreach efforts allow us to connect with the community and enhance our own knowledge of astronomy.

  10. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  11. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  12. Geothermal resource data base: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in Arizona up to 1993. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction. In recent years, the primary growth in geothermal use in Arizona has occurred in aquaculture. Other uses include minor space heating and supply of warm mineral waters for health spas.

  13. Two Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Two transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  14. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  15. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  16. Combined ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Baliunas, S. L.; Blair, W. P.; Hartmann, L. W.; Huchra, J. P.; Raymond, J. C.; Smith, G. H.; Sonderblom, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet studies of various astronomical entities are reported. Among the specific phenomena examined were supernova remnants, dwarf novae, red giant stars, stellar winds, binary stars, and galaxies.

  17. San Marcos Astronomical Project and Doctoral Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM, in Lima, Perú, is the only Peruvian institution working for the peruvian astronomical development as a career since 1970. We are conforming a network with international friend astronomers to invite them as Visiting Lectures to assure the academic level for the future doctoral studies in the UNMSM. The Chancellor of UNMSM has decided that the Astronomical Project is a UNMSM Project, to encourage and advance in this scientific and strategical area, to impulse the modernity of Peru, the major effort will be the building of the San Marcos Astronomical Observatory, with a telescope of 1 meter aperture.

  18. Amateur Astronomers: Secret Agents of EPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, M.; White, V.; Devore, E.; Reynolds, M.

    2008-06-01

    Amateur astronomers prime the public to be more interested, receptive, and excited about space science, missions, and programs. Through recent research and targeted programs, amateur astronomy outreach is being increasingly recognized by professional astronomers, educators, and other amateurs as a valued and important service. The Night Sky Network program, administered by the ASP, is the first nationwide research-based program specifically targeted to support outreach by amateur astronomers. This Network of trained and informed amateur astronomers can provide a stimulating introduction to your EPO programs as Network members share the night sky with families, students, and youth groups.

  19. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  20. WET BEAVER ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of field studies there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Wet Beaver Roadless Area, Arizona. No significant concentrations of metals were indicated by geochemical sampling or aeromagnetic data within the area. Basaltic cinders and sandstone have been quarried for construction materials near the area but are readily available and more accessible outside the precipitous canyons of Wet Beaver Creek and its tributaries.

  1. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Gabriela E.; Eckenrode, J.; McCarthy, D. W.; Wallace, C. S.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2013-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) is an NSF-funded network of research opportunities for students at Cal Poly Pomona, CSU Fullerton, and other CSU campuses and Southern California community colleges at four world-class research institutions: the University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, and Caltech. CAMPARE students interested in astronomy education or public outreach are given the opportunity to work with the acclaimed Astronomy Camp and Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), both in Steward Observatory at the University of Arizona. On this 25th anniversary of Astronomy Camp, we involved children in real astronomical observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory, in Arizona. At CAE, we analyzed answers to Lecture-Tutorials (an interactive instructional strategy) from students in an introductory astronomy (Astro 101) mega-course taught at a large open-enrollment, research institution. We investigated whether there is a correlation between coherency and correctness in their answers to Lecture-Tutorial questions, and how well they understand the material based on course assessment, such as exams. We will present the results of the Lecture-Tutorial analysis and of the educational experience at the Astronomy Camp.

  2. Astronomy for Astronomical Numbers: a Worldwide Massive Open Online Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy: State of the Art is a massive, open, online class (MOOC) offered through Udemy by an instructional team at the University of Arizona. With over 18,000 enrolled, it is the largest astronomy MOOC available. The astronomical numbers enrolled do not translate into a similar level of engagement. The content consists of 14 hours of video lecture, nearly 1000 PowerPoint slides, 250 pages of background readings, and 20 podcast interviews with leading researchers. Perhaps in part because of the large amount of course content, the overall completion rate is low, about 3%. However, this number was four times higher for an early cohort of learners who were selected to have a prior interest in astronomy and who took the class in synchronous mode, with new content being added every week. Completion correlates with engagement as measured by posts to the online discussion board. For a subset of learners, social media like Facebook and Twitter provide an additional, important mode of engagement. For the asynchronous learners who have continuously enrolled for the past 15 months, those who complete the course do so quickly, with few persisting longer than two months. The availability of a completion certificate had no impact of completion rates. This experiment informs a future offering of this MOOC via Coursera, along with a co-convened 'flipped' introductory astronomy class at the University of Arizona, where the video lectures will be online and class time will be used exclusively for small group labs and hands-on activities. Despite their typically low completion rates, MOOCs have the potential to add significantly to public engagement with science.

  3. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  4. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arizona Border Study, which measured levels of metals, pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Arizona counties bordering Mexico, is an extension of the Arizona National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase...

  5. Digimarc Discover on Google Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Eliot; Rodriguez, Tony; Lord, John; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc® Discover platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio. The embedded watermark typically contains a unique code that identifies the containing media or object and a synchronization signal that allows the watermark to be read robustly. The Digimarc Discover smartphone application can read the watermark from a small portion of printed image presented at any orientation or reasonable distance. Likewise, Discover can read the recently introduced Digimarc Barcode to identify and manage consumer packaged goods in the retail channel. The Digimarc Barcode has several advantages over the traditional barcode and is expected to save the retail industry millions of dollars when deployed at scale. Discover can also read an audio watermark from ambient audio captured using a microphone. The Digimarc Discover platform has been widely deployed on the iPad, iPhone and many Android-based devices, but it has not yet been implemented on a head-worn wearable device, such as Google Glass. Implementing Discover on Google Glass is a challenging task due to the current hardware and software limitations of the device. This paper identifies the challenges encountered in porting Discover to the Google Glass and reports on the solutions created to deliver a prototype implementation.

  6. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  7. Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashman, Keith A.; Bird, Christina M.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into subpopulations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analyzing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. FORTRAN code for the KMM algorithm and directions for its use are available from the authors upon request.

  8. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  9. Astronomical Software---A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortridge, K.

    It is now impossible to imagine `doing astronomy' without using software. Sometimes it is hard to remember that it has not always been like this. Over a timescale now measured in decades, the art (or science) of astronomical programming has evolved. Once it involved the squeezing of hand-crafted assembler routines into insufficient memory. Now it includes the design of ambitiously large frameworks for data acquisition and reduction. The organisation required for the production of such software has had to grow to match these new ambitions. This review looks back on the path taken by this fascinating evolutionary process, in the hope that it can provide a background that may let us imagine where the next years will lead.

  10. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  11. Astronomical Data in Undergraduate courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, William I.; Swift, Carrie; Hughes, Kelli; Burke, Christopher J. F.; Burgess, Colin C.; Elrod, Aunna V.; Howard, Brittany; Stahl, Lucas; Matzke, David; Bord, Donald J.

    2016-06-01

    We present status and plans for our ongoing efforts to develop data analysis and problem-solving skills through Undergraduate Astronomy instruction. While our initiatives were developed with UM-Dearborn’s student body primarily in mind, they should be applicable for a wide range of institution and of student demographics. We focus here on two strands of our effort.Firstly, students in our Introductory Astronomy (ASTR 130) general-education course now perform several “Data Investigations”, in which they interrogate the Hubble Legacy Archive to illustrate important course concepts. This was motivated in part by the realization that typical public data archives now include tools to interrogate the observations that are sufficiently accessible that introductory astronomy students can use them to perform real science, albeit mostly at a descriptive level. We are continuing to refine these investigations, and, most importantly, to critically assess their effectiveness in terms of the student learning outcomes we wish to achieve. This work is supported by grant HST-EO-13758, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Secondly, at the advanced-undergraduate level, students taking courses in our Astronomy minor are encouraged to gain early experience in techniques of astronomical observation and analysis that are used by professionals. We present two example projects from the Fall 2015 iteration of our upper-division course ASTR330 (The Cosmic Distance Ladder), one involving Solar System measurements, the second producing calibrated aperture photometry. For both projects students conducted, analysed, and interpreted observations using our 0.4m campus telescope, and used many of the same analysis tools as professional astronomers. This work is supported partly from a Research Initiation and Seed grant from the

  12. How to Make a Club from Scratch: The Beginning of the University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Amy; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Carleton, T.; McCarthy, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning and maintaining an independent, student run club can be a challenge. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working hard to build a strong basis since its revitalization in 2007. Since that time, the club has evolved and learned strategies for increasing and maintaining membership through research, community outreach, fund raising, telescope building projects and educational scale models. We will discuss how club involvement benefits astronomy and non-astronomy majors, the University, the astronomical community and the local community through social support and networking.

  13. Aristotle University Astronomical Station at Mt. Holomon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdellidou, C.; Ioannidis, P.; Kouroubatzakis, K.; Nitsos, A.; Vakoulis, J.; Seiradakis, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Aristotle University Astronomical Station was established seven years ago in order to fulfill the educational needs of its students. Astronomical observations are undertaken using three fully equipped small telescopes. Some interesting results are presented below, including the study of asteroids and flare stars, the detection of optical emission from supernovae remnants and follow up observations in extra solar planets.

  14. Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendsen, Margaret L.

    2005-01-01

    Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

  15. COMMISSION 5: Documentation and Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise; Norris, Raymond P.; Bessel, M. S.; Dluzhnevskaia, O.; Jenkner, H.; Malkov, O.; Murtagh, F.; Nakajima, K.; Ochsenbein, F.; Pence, W.; Schmitz, M.; Wielen, R.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2007-03-01

    The triennial report of Commission V Documentation and Astronomical Data/Documentation et Données Astronomiques covers 2002-2005 activities, and in particular the activities of the five Working Groups: Working Group Astronomical Data; Working Group Designations; Working Group Libraries; Working Group FITS; Working Group Virtual Observatories; and of Task Force for the Preservation and Digitization of Photographic Plates.

  16. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  17. Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

  18. Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J. Nemiroff

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental astronomical questions on the composition of the universe, the abundance of Earth-like planets, and the cause of the brightest explosions in the universe are being attacked by robotic telescopes costing billions of dollars and returning vast pipelines of data. The success of these programs depends on the accuracy of automated real time processing of images never seen by a human, and all predicated on fast and accurate automatic identifications of known astronomical objects and new astronomical transients. In this paper the needs of modern astronomical pipelines are discussed in the light of fuzzy-logic based decision-making. Several specific fuzzy-logic algorithms have been develop for the first time for astronomical purposes, and tested with excellent results on a test pipeline of data from the existing Night Sky Live sky survey.

  19. Developing an astronomical observatory in Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troche-Boggino, Alexis E.

    Background: Paraguay has some heritage from the astronomy of the Guarani Indians. Buenaventura Suarez S.J. was a pioneer astronomer in the country in the XVIII century. He built various astronomical instruments and imported others from England. He observed eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and of the Sun and Moon. He published his data in a book and through letters. The Japanese O.D.A. has collaborated in obtaining equipment and advised their government to assist Paraguay in building an astronomical observatory, constructing a moving-roof observatory and training astronomers as observatory operators. Future: An astronomical center is on the horizon and some possible fields of research are being considered. Goal: To improve education at all possible levels by not only observing sky wonders, but also showing how instruments work and teaching about data and image processing, saving data and building a data base. Students must learn how a modern scientist works.

  20. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A. E-mail: russo@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  1. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  2. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  3. Electromagnetics at Arizona State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.

    1993-02-01

    The theoretical and experimental issues addressed by the faculty, research analysts, and graduate students working in the area of antennas, propagation, and scattering at the Telecommunications Research Center and related engineering departments of the Arizona State University (ASU) are discussed. The particular areas of research in this area include the following: slotted waveguide antennas, microstrip antennas, phased array antennas, conformal antenna arrays, broadband antennas, radar cross section (RCS) of scatterers, optical characterization of surface microfeatures, inverse SAR, materials for antenna and RCS pattern control, antennas on complex structures, and antenna and RCS measurements. Some of the problems that were investigated by the ASU are illustrated by representative examples.

  4. ARNOLD MESA ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic geochemical, and aeromagnetic investigations and a survey of mines and prospects in the Arnold Mesa Roadless Area, Arizona, provide little evidence for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Buried Proterozoic basement rocks are possible hosts of porphyry-type copper and massive sulfide deposits but the thick cover of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks precluded assessment of this possibility. Chemistry and temperature of spring and well waters suggest that a geothermal resource may exist near the eastern margin of the roadless area, but the anomaly has not been tested by drilling and this resource remains unverified. No other energy resources were identified.

  5. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  6. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  7. 21 CFR 808.53 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona. 808.53 Section 808.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.53 Arizona....

  8. Arizona Women in Poverty Hearings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coudroglou, Aliki

    Prepared at the request of Arizona Governor Bruce Babbit, this report documents the state of poverty among women in Arizona and recommends an action plan that will alleviate their poor economic status. Discussion focuses on three factors identified as influencing conditions of poverty experienced by women: changing family structure, the labor…

  9. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Arizona. 131.31 Section 131.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.31 Arizona. (a) (b) The following waters have, in addition to the uses designated by the...

  10. The Arizona Report, 1999-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the seven issues of "The Arizona Report" published in 1999-2002. A newsletter of the Mexican American Studies & Research Center (MASRC) at the University of Arizona, this publication reports on social, educational, health, and economic research on Mexican Americans and opportunities in higher education and professional…

  11. Arizona School Construction Costs: Sample Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the current Arizona Construction practices and costs in order to provide quantitative and qualitative information to the Arizona Department of Education that will assist in making recommendations and projections for school facilities statewide. The data were taken from an in-depth study of new schools under…

  12. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  13. Future Changes: Implications for Arizona's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Roger L.

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this document focuses (in Part I) on the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of future changes and their relationship to the Arizona Universities; and, (in Part II) provides background materials for…

  14. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  15. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  16. Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

    1999-08-01

    The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet

  17. Night Sky Network: A partnership with NASA, the ASP and Astronomical League

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chippindale, S.; Berendsen, M.

    2003-12-01

    In 2002, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) surveyed amateur astronomers to determine their views and experiences with public outreach. The ultimate goal was to discover methods to support amateur astronomers in their outreach efforts. The survey discovered that they are looking for ready-made, themed materials, training in astronomy content and presentation skills, mentoring, and networking to enhance their astronomy events and support their ability to do educational outreach. Acting on these results and with funding from NASA, the ASP is forming a nationwide coalition of amateur astronomy clubs whose members bring the science, technology and inspiration of NASA's missions to the general public. The program consists of three primary components: outreach materials, training, and community building. Member-based astronomy clubs will receive kits of materials on various astronomy topics to supplement and enhance their events as well as a "professional development" component that includes training on how to use the materials and tips to strengthen their individual presentation skills. The Night Sky Network web site includes public pages and a user area where success stories and challenges can be exchanged, new information downloaded, and a support area for amateur astronomers doing outreach. We are currently testing our first kit, "PlanetQuest: The Search for Another Earth", in over two dozen clubs across the country. The second kit, "Big Bang to Black Holes" is under development for NASA's Structure and Evolution of the Universe Forum through the SAO and will be beta tested over the spring and summer of 2004. Sponsored and supported by NASA-Navigator Program, NASA-SAO Education Forum, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and the Astronomical League.

  18. First Visiting Astronomers at VLT KUEYEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    few cases, the images of the objects behind the clusters are split into several components. Knowing the distance to the objects for which we see multiple images and the distribution of matter in the cluster that produce the lensing effect allows to determine the geometry of the universe in the corresponding direction , independently of its rate of expansion. For a given cluster lens, a minimum of three such multiple-imaged objects with measured distances and positions is in principle sufficient to determine the geometry of the universe in that direction, as expressed by the values of two of the main cosmological parameters, the density (Omega: ) and the cosmological constant (Lambda: ). Detailed observations of these cosmic mirages thus have a direct implication for our understanding of the universe in which we live. A study of the clusters of galaxies Abell 1689 and MS 1008 The first visiting astronomers to KUEYEN used FORS2 to measure the distances to some of the background objects that are being multiple-lensed by the cluster of galaxies Abell 1689 . This cluster was first discovered by American astronomer George Abell some thirty years ago when he studied photographic plates obtained at the Palomar Observatory. Since then, this cluster has been further observed and deep images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have revealed at least five multiple-lensed objects in this direction. However, because of the faintness of these images, it has so far not been possible to measure the distances to those objects. This has only become possible now, with the advent of new and powerful astronomical instruments like the FORS2 spectrograph at KUEYEN. At the beginning of the night - before Abell 1689 was high enough in the sky to be observable - the astronomers also observed another cluster lens, MS 1008 . This cluster was discovered with the Einstein X-ray satellite and has been studied in great detail by means of images in different colours by the VLT ANTU telescope

  19. Analysis of Infrared Astronomical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    Many Galactic objects are surrounded by dust which processes their radiation, shifting the spectral energy distribution to infrared wavelengths. Here we present systematic modeling of this phenomenon and analyze the resulting infrared emission for various Galactic objects. A major new result is the recognition that the radiative transfer problem possesses scaling properties. For a given dust chemical composition, the solution depends only on overall optical depth and the functional form of the radial dust distribution. We show that distribution of Galactic sources in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) color -color diagrams indeed can be understood in terms of these parameters. These methods are employed in a detailed analysis of late-type stars which are a subset of Galactic infrared objects. Dynamical structure and infrared emission of winds around these stars are studied in a self-consistent model that couples the equations of motion and radiative transfer. Thanks to its scaling properties, both the dynamics and IR spectrum of the solution are fully characterized by tauF, the flux averaged optical depth of the wind. Five types of dust grains are considered: astronomical silicate, crystalline olivine, graphite, amorphous carbon and SiC, as well as mixtures. Both dynamics and properties of infrared emission are in good agreement with observations, and show that virtually all IRAS point sources located in the relevant regions of the color-color diagrams can be explained as late-type stars. Because of general scaling properties, the angular profiles of surface brightness are essentially determined by overall optical depth and self-similarly scaled by the size of the dust condensation zone. We find that mid-IR is the best wavelength range to directly measure the size of this zone and identify the 15 best candidates for such future observations. We also show that the infrared emission should display time variability because of cyclical changes in overall

  20. Astronomers Find Rare Beast by New Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    speeds in these rare blasts, astronomers say, are caused by an "engine" in the center of the supernova explosion that resembles a scaled-down version of a quasar. Material falling toward the core enters a swirling disk surrounding the new neutron star or black hole. This accretion disk produces jets of material boosted at tremendous speeds from the poles of the disk. "This is the only way we know that a supernova explosion could accelerate material to such speeds," Soderberg said. Until now, no such "engine-driven" supernova had been found any way other than by detecting gamma rays emitted by it. "Discovering such a supernova by observing its radio emission, rather than through gamma rays, is a breakthrough. With the new capabilities of the Expanded VLA coming soon, we believe we'll find more in the future through radio observations than with gamma-ray satellites," Soderberg said. Why didn't anyone see gamma rays from this explosion? "We know that the gamma-ray emission is beamed in such blasts, and this one may have been pointed away from Earth and thus not seen," Soderberg said. In that case, finding such blasts through radio observations will allow scientists to discover a much larger percentage of them in the future. "Another possibility," Soderberg adds, "is that the gamma rays were 'smothered' as they tried to escape the star. This is perhaps the more exciting possibility since it implies that we can find and identify engine-driven supernovae that lack detectable gamma rays and thus go unseen by gamma-ray satellites." One important question the scientists hope to answer is just what causes the difference between the "ordinary" and the "engine-driven" core-collapse supernovae. "There must be some rare physical property that separates the stars that produce the 'engine-driven' blasts from their more-normal cousins," Soderberg said. "We'd like to find out what that property is." One popular idea is that such stars have an unusually low concentration of elements

  1. Astronomers Get New Tools for Gravitational-Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    Teamwork between gamma-ray and radio astronomers has produced a breakthrough in finding natural cosmic tools needed to make the first direct detections of the long-elusive gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein nearly a century ago. An orbiting gamma-ray telescope has pointed radio astronomers to specific locations in the sky where they can discover new millisecond pulsars. Millisecond pulsars, rapidly-spinning superdense neutron stars, can serve as extremely precise and stable natural clocks. Astronomers hope to detect gravitational waves by measuring tiny changes in the pulsars' rotation caused by the passage of the gravitational waves. To do this, they need a multitude of millisecond pulsars dispersed widely throughout the sky. However, nearly three decades after the discovery of the first millisecond pulsar, only about 150 of them had been found, some 90 of those clumped tightly in globular star clusters and thus unusable for detecting gravitational waves. The problem was that millisecond pulsars could only be discovered through arduous, computing-intensive searches of small portions of sky. "We've probably found far less than one percent of the millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way Galaxy," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The breakthrough came when an instrument aboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope began surveying the sky in 2008. This instrument located hundreds of gamma-ray-emitting objects throughout our Galaxy, and astronomers suspected many of these could be millisecond pulsars. Paul Ray of the Naval Research Laboratory initiated an international collaboration to use radio telescopes to confirm the identity of these objects as millisecond pulsars. "The data from Fermi were like a buried-treasure map," Ransom said. "Using our radio telescopes to study the objects located by Fermi, we found 17 millisecond pulsars in three months. Large-scale searches had taken 10-15 years to find that many," Ransom

  2. Ultraviolet observations of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report on 'Ultraviolet Observations of Astronomical Sources,' which ran for a total of three years, roughly between 1 July 1988 and 14 Feb. 1993 is presented. During the first year, I worked at Indiana University; since October, 1989, I have been at Tennessee State University. This grant has supported my studies of archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of zeta Aur binaries, cool stars that are paired with hot stars in binary systems. Such systems are important as a source of detailed knowledge about the structures of chromospheres and winds in cool giant and supergiant stars, since the hot star serves as a probe of many lines of sight through the cool supergiant star's outer atmosphere. By determining the physical conditions along many such lines of sight, a detailed two-dimensional map of the chromosphere and wind may be constructed. The grant grew out of my analysis of archival IUE observations of 31 Cyg in which I analyzed five epochs of an atmospheric eclipse that occurred in 1982. I fit the attenuation spectra of atmospheric eclipse throughout the ultraviolet (lambda(lambda)1175-1950 and lambda(lambda)2500-3100) with theoretically calculated spectra, thereby determining the physical properties of gas (mass column density of absorbers, temperature, and velocity spread) along each observed line of sight. A similar analysis for other such zeta Aur binaries was accomplished and theoretical models for the chromospheres of these stars based on my observations were constructed.

  3. Astronomical surveys and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  4. Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Wilhelm, R.

    2007-12-01

    Real Explorations in Astronomical Learning (REAL) is an innovative and new approach to student learning that thoughtfully integrates the excitement of space science discovery with science and mathematics. Students explore NASA images of planetary surfaces using the contexts of crater density, cratering rates, and surface age while developing critical thinking skills in science and mathematics that can be applied to any number of real life situations. Project REAL participants develop, implement, and evaluate an integrated astronomy curriculum designed for middle level students that focuses on the tools necessary for astronomy research concerning the origins and evolution of surface features on planetary bodies within our Solar System. Through the REAL curriculum, students experience the excitement of exploration by becoming authentic space science researchers. Students are provided with opportunities to: • Engage in hands-on space science research • Both quantitatively and qualitatively understand the phases of the Moon, and the origins and evolution of specific features on the surfaces of planetary bodies within our Solar System • Communicate their own scientific thinking and to understand others’ scientific thinking We present year one's findings concerning the state and effectiveness of this REAL curriculum funded by a NASA-IDEAS grant.

  5. Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergou, Attila; Berriman, Bruce; Good, John; Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Laity, Anastasia; Prince, Thomas; Williams, Roy

    2005-01-01

    "Montage" is the name of a service of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and of software being developed to implement the service via the World Wide Web. Montage generates science-grade custom mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. "Science-grade" in this context signifies that terrestrial and instrumental features are removed from images in a way that can be described quantitatively. "Custom" refers to user-specified parameters of projection, coordinates, size, rotation, and spatial sampling. The greatest value of Montage is expected to lie in its ability to analyze images at multiple wavelengths, delivering them on a common projection, coordinate system, and spatial sampling, and thereby enabling further analysis as though they were part of a single, multi-wavelength image. Montage will be deployed as a computation-intensive service through existing astronomy portals and other Web sites. It will be integrated into the emerging NVO architecture and will be executed on the TeraGrid. The Montage software will also be portable and publicly available.

  6. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  7. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  8. Chrysanthos Notaras as an Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, P.

    The aim of the present work is to emphasize the contribution of Chrysanthos Notaras (16??-1731) in the dispersion of Astronomy in the begining of the eighteenth century. Chysanthos Notaras, Partiarch of Jerusalem (1707-1731), is included among the most educated Greeks of his epoch. Although his first studies were suitable for ecclesiastic offices and religion, (since he studied ecclesiastic low, at Patavio, Italy), he continued at Paris for additional studies in Astronomy and Geography (1700). He became student of G.D. Cassini, who was the Director of Paris Observatory at that time, and he served as observer and astronomical instruments constructor, under Cassini's supervision. Chrysanthos Notaras included the teaching of "Astronomy" as a lesson in the schools of the Holy Sepulchre, in order to disperse the new ideas and knowledge about the earth and the universe among the young students. He published the first International Map (of the known world) in the Greek language in 1700 and in 1716 his book "Intoduction in Geography and Sphericals" was published in Paris. This book, written before 1707, was mainly an introduction to Astronomy and was used by the afterwards authors as an essential and basic manual and offered a lot to the enlightenment of the enslavement Greeks.

  9. A Future Astronomical Software Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosböl, P.; Tody, D.; Paioro, L.; Granet, Y.; Garilli, B.; Surace, C.; Opticon Fase Network

    2012-09-01

    Analyzing data sets in astronomy has become more and more complex and has driven the development of specific tools, functions and tasks. In order to integrate these tools in a global environment and thereby preserving them, the OPTICON Network 9.2 in coordination with US-VAO has outlined requirements, defined an architectural concept and developed a prototype of a Future Astronomical Software Environment (FASE). Important features are support for user scripting (e.g. Python), access to legacy applications (e.g. IRAF, MIDAS), integration with the Virtual Observatory (VO) for access to remote data and computation, and scalability supporting desktops to distributed cluster systems. A first prototype has been implemented and demonstrates the feasibility by offering access to numerous applications (e.g. ds9, ESO CPL pipelines, MIDAS, topcat) from a Python or Unix shell using VO-SAMP as a software bus. A simple packaging system is also provided to allow easy definition and sharing of applications at a Web portal.

  10. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  11. Hubble repair and more wins astronomers' acclaim.

    PubMed

    Travis, J

    1994-01-28

    The repaired Hubble Space Telescope overshadowed everything else at the American Astronomical Society (AAS) Meeting earlier this month in Alexandria, Virginia. The nearly 2000 astronomers who turned out for the society's largest meeting yet provided plenty of "oohs" and "aahs" for every new image. But, in between, some astronomers caught word of a new proposal about how to tell whether the universe is open or closed, more data about mysterious gamma ray bursts, and the crowning of the "Galaxy of the Year." PMID:17754874

  12. America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-01-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  13. Astronomical Site Characterization at the Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Varela, A. M.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma) and Teide Observatory (Tenerife) are prime astronomical sites, as confirmed by more than 30 years of intensive site-testing campaigns. The IAC has long been aware of the importance of promoting initiatives for the characterization and protection of the Canarian Observatories. For this purpose, in the late ’80s a Sky Team was created to measure the atmospheric parameters relating to astronomical observations, to design and develop new instruments and techniques for astronomical site testing, and to improve and maintain a high level of instrumentation in site characterization. New instruments and techniques are welcomed by the Observatories.

  14. Franklin Edward Kameny (1925-2011, Astronomer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Frank Kameny is best known today as one of the most important members of the gay rights movement in the United States, but he was also a PhD astronomer. In fact, it was his firing from his civil service position as astronomer for the US Army Map Service on the grounds of homosexuality that sparked his lifelong career of activism. Here, I explore some aspects of his short but interesting astronomical career and the role of the AAS in his life.

  15. "She is an astronomer" in Spain; the International Year of Astronomy 2009 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.

    2011-11-01

    The work of the Spanish node for the IYA2009 Cornerstoneproject, "She is an Astronomer" is presented. Our team developedseveral projects with the common goal of promoting gender equality andwomen participation in professional and amateur astronomy, andsupporting the training of young women researchers andtechnologists. The main ones were: 1)Calendar "Women astronomerswho made history". We highlighted exceptional women, fromdifferent epochs and countries, whose contributions to theadvancement of science deserve to transcend anonymity and occupy aplace in history.2) "Women in the stars" was a series of 8 TV programsdevoted to the contribution of Spanish women astronomers, made incollaboration with the UNED.3) "Women in Spanish Astronomy: analysis of a peculiar situation: A universe to discover", was the first sociological study of this type, including quantitative and qualitative (individual and group interviews) analyses. 4) The exhibit "She Astronomer", was aimed at teaching astronomy from a new perspective: the relevant contributions by women astronomers from different times and places.The main aims of the "Commission for Women and Astronomy",recently created within the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), are alsodescribed.

  16. Latitude: How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    First longitude, now latitude. From Latitude's title we cannot help thinking of Dava Sobel's recent bestseller, Longitude. I suppose it's unlikely to be such a moneymaker, but this delightful new book by Bill and Merri Sue Carter, a father and daughter team, is similar to Sobel's book. Both are physically small, with short chapters, which makes for a quick read. And both have a clear hero: John Harrison and his chronometers for longitude; and Seth Carlo Chandler Jr. and his almucantar for latitude. Both books eschew academic-style footnoting, although Latitude does list a few useful sources for each chapter and provides a comprehensive list of Chandler's astronomical publications. Chandler's name is known to most AGU members for its association with the 14-month wobble of the Earth's pole. He also discovered the slightly smaller annual wobble, and an argument can be made that he was the principal discoverer of polar motion, or latitude variation, in general.

  17. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    discovered so far? Astronomers, who have been observing the object regularly, guess that it had remained invisible because there must be a very thick shell of obscuring material surrounding it. If that was the case, only the most energetic radiation from the object could get through the shell; less-energetic radiation would be blocked. That could explain why space telescopes that are sensitive only to low-energy radiation had overlooked the object, while Integral, specialised in detecting very energetic emissions, did see it. To test their theory, astronomers turned to ESA's XMM-Newton space observatory, which observes the sky in the X-ray wavelengths. As well as being sensitive to high-energy radiation, XMM-Newton is also able to check for the presence of obscuring material. Indeed, XMM-Newton detected this object last February, as well as the existence of a dense 'cocoon' of cold gas with a diameter of similar size to that of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This obscuring material forming the cocoon is probably 'stellar wind', namely gas ejected by the supermassive companion star. Astronomers think that this gas may be accreted by the compact black hole, forming a dense shell around it. This obscuring cloud traps most of the energy produced inside it. The main author of these results, Roland Walter of the Integral Science Data Centre, Switzerland, explained: "Only photons with the highest energies [above 10 keV] could escape from that cocoon. IGR J16318-4848 has therefore not been detected by surveys performed at lower energies, nor by previous gamma-ray missions that were much less sensitive than Integral." The question now is to find out how many of these objects lurk in the Galaxy. XMM-Newton and Integral together are the perfect tools to do the job. They have already discovered two more new sources embedded in obscuring material. Future observations are planned. Christoph Winkler, ESA Project Scientist for Integral, said: "These early examples of using two

  18. Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2005 [and] Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.; Molnar, Alex; Merrill, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), a collaboration of Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, and the University of Arizona, conducted its first-annual survey of parents in a systematic effort to capture parent opinion and establish a framework for tracking parent views over time. Assessing parent opinion is…

  19. Geothermal resources in Arizona: a bibliography. Circular 23

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography references all reports and maps generated by the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology and the Arizona Geothermal Commercialization Team of the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arizona. To provide a more comprehensive listing of geothermal energy in Arizona, all available geothermal papers from other sources have been included. A total of 224 references are presented. (MHR)

  20. Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This meeting marks the the International Year of Astronomy by reviewing the extent to which astronomers are achieving the optimal rate of astronomical discovery. Can we identify and overcome the limits to progress? What steps can be taken to accelerate the rate of expansion of astronomical knowledge? What lessons can be learnt both from the recent and distant past? As the public announcements regarding the 2009 IYA have emphasized, new astronomical discoveries are currently being made at an extraordinary rate, while the invention of the telescope ushered in an equally momentous "golden age of discovery" 400 years ago. The meeting addresses a range of potential limits to progress-paradigmatic, technological, organizational, and political-examining each issue both from modern and historical perspectives, and drawing lessons to guide future progress. The program focusses on how astronomy actually progresses, using careful historical studies and real data, rather than anecdotes and folklore.

  1. Astronomical education in Tajikistan. Project TAJASTRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadinov, Khursandkul I.; Rahmonov, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    The centre of astronomy in Tajikistan is the Institute of Astrophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. This institute carries out scientific research and contributes to the preparation of the astronomical staff and to astronomical education. The reform of education in Tajikistan continues and now astronomy is studied in schools (together with physics) and at universities. The Tajik State Pedagogical University resumed in 2007 the training of teachers in physics and astronomy. Since 1999 the Tajik National University (TNU) offers a a specialty in astronomy. In 2006 is restored the Small Academy of Sciences (SAS) of Tajikistan. There is a planetarium in Khujand and in 2006 the Institute of Astrophysics, TNU and the Astronomical Society of Tajikistan, along with the support IBSP/UNESCO, organised the Training Methodical Center (TMC) ``TAJASTRO'' at the Hisar astronomical observatory for students, graduate students, young scientists, and teachers at secondary schools.

  2. Astronomical data bases and retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The status of the development of machine-readable stellar and extragalactic data bases is summarized, including several examples of astronomical applications using these data sets. The creation of a computerized bibliographical data base for cometary research is described.

  3. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  4. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.

    2015-09-01

    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  5. Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis cerberus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    The Arizona black rattlesnake makes its home at higher elevations in Arizona and far western New Mexico. The snake's use of high-altitude habitat and its black coloration as an adult distinguishes it from other subspecies of the western rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis), which prefer lower elevations and range from tan to reddish in color as adults. These physical and habitat differences are also reflected in genetic differences that suggest that the Arizona black rattlesnake may be a new species of rattlesnake. Despite the species's limited range, basic biological information needed to make management decisions is lacking for most Arizona black rattlesnake populations. To address this need, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conducted research on the species in Arizona national park units from 2003 to 2005. The research examined relative population abundance, movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and winter and summer habitat. Research in Arizona national parks was made possible through the support of the Western National Parks Association, Tonto National Monument, and the USGS Science Internships for Workforce Diversity Program. Importantly, the park-based research was used to augment a long-term mark-recapture study of the species that has been conducted by USGS biologists at sites near Flagstaff, Arizona, since 1999. USGS researchers were the first to conduct extensive studies of this species in the wild.

  6. ALE: Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Gimmestad, G.; Roberts, D.; Stewart, J.; Dawsey, M.; Fitch, J.; Smith, J.; Townsend, A.; Black, B.

    2006-12-01

    The primary impediment to precision all-sky photometry is the scattering or absorption of incoming starlight by the aerosols suspended in, and the molecules of, the Earth's atmosphere. The University of New Mexico (UNM) and the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) are currently developing the Astronomical LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) for Extinction (ALE), which is undergoing final integration and initial calibration at UNM. ALE is based upon a 527nm laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of 1500 pps, and rendered eyesafe by expanding its beam through a 32cm diameter transmitter. The alt-az mounted ALE will operate in multiple modes, including mapping the sky to obtain a quantitative measurement of extinction sources, measuring a monochromatic extinction coefficient by producing Langely plots, and monitoring extinction in the direction in which a telescope is observing. A primary goal is to use the Rayleigh scattered LIDAR return from air above 20km as a quasi-constant illumination source. Air above this altitude is generally free from aerosols and the variations in density are relatively constant over intervals of a few minutes. When measured at several zenith angles, the integrated line-of-sight extinction can be obtained from a simple model fit of these returns. The 69 microjoule exit pulse power and 0.6m aperture receiver will allow ALE to collect approximately one million photons per minute from above 20km, enough to enable measurements of the monochromatic vertical extinction to better than 1% under photometric conditions. Along the way, ALE will also provide a plethora of additional information about the vertical and horizontal distributions of low-lying aerosols, dust or smoke in the free troposphere, and high cirrus, as well as detect the passage of boundary layer atmospheric gravity waves. This project is funded by NSF Grant 0421087.

  7. He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a

  8. He2-90'S APPEARANCE DECEIVES ASTRONOMERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have stumbled upon a mysterious object that is grudgingly yielding clues to its identity. A quick glance at the Hubble picture at top shows that this celestial body, called He2-90, looks like a young, dust-enshrouded star with narrow jets of material streaming from each side. But it's not. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star. But the Hubble observations suggest that it may not fit that classification, either. The Hubble astronomers now suspect that this enigmatic object may actually be a pair of aging stars masquerading as a single youngster. One member of the duo is a bloated red giant star shedding matter from its outer layers. This matter is then gravitationally captured in a rotating, pancake-shaped accretion disk around a compact partner, which is most likely a young white dwarf (the collapsed remnant of a sun-like star). The stars cannot be seen in the Hubble images because a lane of dust obscures them. The Hubble picture at top shows a centrally bright object with jets, appearing like strings of beads, emanating from both sides of center. (The other streaks of light running diagonally from He2-90 are artificial effects of the telescope's optical system.) Each jet possesses at least six bright clumps of gas, which are speeding along at rates estimated to be at least 375,000 miles an hour (600,000 kilometers an hour). These gaseous salvos are being ejected into space about every 100 years, and may be caused by periodic instabilities in He2-90's accretion disk. The jets from very young stars behave in a similar way. Deep images taken from terrestrial observatories show each jet extending at least 100,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit equals the Earth-Sun distance, 93 million miles). The jets' relatively modest speed implies that one member of the duo is a white dwarf. Observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, however, discovered a

  9. Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    to reach the telescope, had indeed passed through helium, and not only that, the helium was of just the right variety to match the established theory. Dr Jakobsen has spent more than 20 years working on this subject. His recent efforts concentrated on seeking out a quasar unobscured by clouds of hydrogen, which block the tell-tale signature of helium. His search drew him to the Space Telescope project and during the telescope's early years in orbit he studied 25 likely quasars and found one promising candidate. Dr Jacobsen then had to wait for the telescope's new optics before he could get the quality of data he needed to prove the existence of helium. "We were looking for a break in the cloud cover, so to speak," the astronomer said. "We had a tantalising glimpse of the quasar with the aberrated telescope but it was only after we fixed it that we could really get a clear answer. One of the first things that we did once we had the corrective optics in place was look at this object and it was exactly as we'd hoped." Getting the Universe to measure up When it comes to studying the expansion of the Universe, however, the telescope has raised morn; questions than answers. By determining how fast the Universe is expanding astronomers will be able to calculate its age and size. It may then become possible to discover what is the ultimate fate of the Universe; will it simply continue to expand until it evaporates? Will the expansion come to a complete stop? Or will the Universe stop expanding, start contracting and end in a "big crunch"? The rate at which the Universe expands is known as the Hubble Constant or H0. To measure this value, astronomers need to calculate how far away a galaxy is and how fast it is moving away from us. The former is difficult to determine because reliable distance indicators, sometimes known as "cosmic yardsticks ", such as variable stars and supernovae, must be found in the galaxies. An international team of astronomers recently used the Hubble

  10. Astronomers and the Media: What Reporters Expect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedgfried, Tom; Witze, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Journalists writing about astronomy bring varying levels of knowledge to the task. Most rely on astronomers for help. To be most helpful, astronomers should familiarize themselves with the practices and needs of journalists and learn effective methods for presenting astronomy via news releases, interviews and news conferences. In all aspects of communicating with the media, the ability to express technical findings in plain language is essential.

  11. Large solar system planetoid discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A newly discovered planetoid, currently dubbed 2004 UN, could be confirmed as the largest such known body in the Kuiper Belt, scientists announced on 19 February.The planetoid, located about 4.4 billion miles from Earth, is estimated at about 1,400 kilometers in diameter, according to Michael Brown, associate professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  13. Geologic applications of ERTS images on the Colorado Plateau, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Three areas in central and northern Arizona centered on the (1) Verde Valley, (2) Coconino Plateau, and (3) Shivwits Plateau were studied using ERTS photography. Useful applications results include: (1) upgrading of the existing state geologic map of the Verde Valley region; (2) detection of long NW trending lineaments in the basalt cap SE of Flagstaff which may be favorable locations for drilling for new water supplies; (3) tracing of the Bright Angel and Butte faults to twice their previously known length and correlating the extensions with modern seismic events, showing these faults to be present-day earthquake hazards; (4) discovering and successfully drilling perched sandstone aquifers in the Kaibab Limestone on the Coconino Plateau; and (5) determining the relationship between the Shivwits lavas and the formation of the lower Grand Canyon and showing that the lavas should be an excellent aquifer, as yet untapped.

  14. Disturbances in the Arizona Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, Robert; Herman, Benjamin; Reagan, John

    1989-01-01

    Numerical modeling simulations of tropical squall lines were begun to determine the role of large scale terrain features over Arizona and Mexico in their initiation and propagation. Installation was completed for a short-base, high resolution lightning location and detection network in and around Tucson. Data from a Doppler wind profiler is being analyzed to determine the role of large scale heating over the inter-mountain plateau region in governing local diurnal wind variations and possible relationships to the monsoon flow. The portable solar photometer for determining high temporal resolution values of the local precipitable water vapor was completed and calibrated. The assembly is nearly completed for a multi-channel microwave passive radiometer to determine local temperature and water vapor profiles.

  15. Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, E.W.; Light, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in 1980 in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas.

  16. Evolving Graduate Programs in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as in many other top-ranked research institutions, there is a tension between the desire to give student broad enough skills for the workplace with the demands of the specific academic discipline. 2/3 of the Astronomy graduate students at Steward Observatory go on to permanent jobs at universities or observatories, but some of our most successful graduates take more diverse career paths. We do not wish to sacrifice academic rigor in astrophysics or the primary goal of training students in research. However, we are creating opportunities for (a) students to take M.Sc. and eventually Ph.D. degrees with a specialization in education, and (b) students with technical skills to have Ph.D. minors in optics, applied physics, or ECE. This second initiative is the subject of a pending NSF/IGERT proposal, with the science theme "Search for other Worlds."

  17. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  18. FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

  19. Astronomical Data Center Bulletin, volume 1, no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr. (Editor); Nagy, T. A. (Editor); Mead, J. M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Information about work in progress on astronomical catalogs is presented. In addition to progress reports, an upadated status list for astronomical catalogs available at the Astronomical Data Center is included. Papers from observatories and individuals involved with astronomical data are also presented.

  20. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  1. NASA's MISR Instrument Sees Arizona Wildfires Burn

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NASA’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra spacecraft show the Wallow and Horseshoe 2 Fires burning in Arizona mid-morning (local time) on Jun...

  2. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  3. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Gray, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors. This is likely of particular interest to the radio astronomy community given, for example, that survey projects contain groups dedicated to this topic. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex

  4. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2014-01-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors, and the local outlier factor. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex datasets that wishes to extract the full scientific value from its data.

  5. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  6. Optomechanical engineering education at University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.; Parks, Robert

    2009-08-01

    The College of Optical Sciences at University of Arizona has established excellent programs for training BS, MS, and Ph.D. students in optical sciences and engineering. Research activities at the University of Arizona have also been closely coupled to developments in the field of optomechanical engineering. In response to request from the optics industry, we have recently expanded the educational opportunities for BS and MS students to follow engineering curricula that provide the right mix of optics and mechanical engineering.

  7. Large astronomical catalog management for telescope operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffolo, Andrea; Benacchio, Leopoldo

    1998-07-01

    Large astronomical catalogues containing from a million up to hundreds of millions records are currently available, even larger catalogues will be released in the near future. They will have an important operational role since they will be used throughout the observing cycle of next generation large telescopes, for proposal and observation preparation, telescope scheduling, selection of guide stars, etc. These large databases pose new problems for fast and general access. Solutions based on custom software or on customized versions of specific catalogues have been proposed, but the problem will benefit from a more general database approach. While traditional database technologies have proven to be inadequate for this task, new technologies are emerging, in particular that of Object Relational DBMSs, that seem to be suitable to solve the problem. In this paper we describe our experiences in experimenting with ORDBMSs for the management of large astronomical catalogues. We worked especially on the database query language and access methods. In the first field to extend the database query language capabilities with astronomical functionalities and to support typical astronomical queries.In the second, to speed up the execution of queries containing astronomical predicates.

  8. 75 FR 67454 - First Arizona Savings, FSB, Scottsdale, Arizona; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision First Arizona Savings, FSB, Scottsdale, Arizona; Notice of Appointment of... Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance... 22, 2010. Dated: October 26, 2010. By the Office of Thrift Supervision. Sandra E. Evans,...

  9. Arizona Counselors' Perceptions of School to Work: Baseline Results. Arizona School to Work Briefing Paper #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Judith A.; Wright, Joel

    A baseline study of Arizona public school counselors ascertained the amount of time they spent individually with students and the nature of the counseling provided; it also measured their opinions and attitudes toward school-to-work (STW). Surveys were mailed to every Arizona high school and junior high/middle school, a random sample of elementary…

  10. Five Shoes Waiting To Drop on Arizona's Future. Arizona Policy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

    This fourth annual publication looks at five trends that threaten Arizona's future: (1) a talent shakeup where well-educated young professional and highly skilled immigrants leave the states; (2) the Latino education dilemma, manifest by the fact that only half of Arizona Latinos obtain a high-school diploma; (3) a fuzzy economic identity…

  11. 78 FR 13889 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... no. 19765a). In 1943, L.F. Brady donated three Hopi prayer sticks (cat nos. E-1787-1789) to the Arizona State Museum. In 1958, Father Victor Stoner donated a Snake Dance kilt (cat no. E-3606) to the... part of an exchange. In 1965, the Arizona State Museum purchased a polychrome medicine bowl (cat no....

  12. COMPARISONS OF PESTICIDE LEVELS AND EXPOSURES IN NHEXAS ARIZONA AND ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distributions of organophosphate (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon in exposure matrices such as indoor air, house dust, food, and water have been determined for 416 homes in the general Arizona population, and for 87 homes along the Arizona-Mexico border. The con...

  13. 76 FR 28079 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... worked stick object, 2 wooden awls, 89 glass beads, 1 lot of blue pigment, and 1 stick pin. The five... Arizona State Museum in 1943. In 1954, Mr. Joel Shiner collected 89 glass beads and 1 lot of blue pigment... the pigment were donated to the Arizona State Museum in 1955. There is no indication that...

  14. A Journal for the Astronomical Computing Community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, N.; Mann, R. G.

    2011-07-01

    One of the Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion sessions at ADASS XX considered whether a new journal is needed to serve the astronomical computing community. In this paper we discuss the nature and requirements of that community, outline the analysis that led us to propose this as a topic for a BoF, and review the discussion from the BoF session itself. We also present the results from a survey designed to assess the suitability of astronomical computing papers of different kinds for publication in a range of existing astronomical and scientific computing journals. The discussion in the BoF session was somewhat inconclusive, and it seems likely that this topic will be debated again at a future ADASS or in a similar forum.

  15. The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, O. N.

    1973-01-01

    Two prototype systems of The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS) have been delivered to Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). The AAPS was developed to automate and expedite the determination of astronomic positions (latitude and longitude). This equipment is capable of defining astronomic positions to an accuracy sigma = 0.3 in each component within a two hour span of stellar observations which are acquired automatically. The basic concept acquires observations by timing stellar images as they cross a series of slits, comparing these observations to a stored star catalogue, and automatically deducing position and accuracy by least squares using pre-set convergence criteria. An exhaustive DMA operational test program has been initiated to evaluate the capabilities of the AAPS in a variety of environments (both climatic and positional). Status of the operational test is discussed.

  16. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  17. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  18. DVD Database Astronomical Manuscripts in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.; Simonia, Ts.; Abuladze, T.; Chkhikvadze, N.; Samkurashvili, L.; Pataridze, K.

    2016-06-01

    Little known and unknown Georgian, Persian, and Arabic astronomical manuscripts of IX-XIX centuries are kept in the centers, archives, and libraries of Georgia. These manuscripts has a form of treaties, handbooks, texts, tables, fragments, and comprises various theories, cosmological models, star catalogs, calendars, methods of observations. We investigated this large material and published DVD database Astronomical Manuscripts in Georgia. This unique database contains information about astronomical manuscripts as original works. It contains also descriptions of Georgian translations of Byzantine, Arabic and other sources. The present paper is dedicated to description of obtained results and DVD database. Copies of published DVD database are kept in collections of the libraries of: Ilia State University, Georgia; Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK; Congress of the USA, and in other centers.

  19. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  20. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  1. ORCID Uptake in the Astronomical Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmquist, Jane

    2015-08-01

    The IAU General Assembly provides librarians with a unique opportunity to interact with astronomers from all over the world. From the perspective of an ORCID Ambassador, the Focus Group Meeting on "Scholarly Publication in Astronomy" also provides an opportunity to demonstrate the cooperation and collaboration needed by individual astronomers, societies, librarians, publishers and bibliographic database providers to achieve universal adoption of ORCID, a standard unique identifier for authors, just as the DOI (digital object identifier) has been adopted for each journal article published.I propose to 1) present at the Focus Group Meeting an update on the uptake of ORCID by members of the astronomical community and 2) set up a small station (TBA) near the IAU registration area where librarians can show researchers how to register for an ORCID in 30 seconds.

  2. Design of a multifunction astronomical CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dalei; Wen, Desheng; Xue, Jianru; Chen, Zhi; Wen, Yan; Jiang, Baotan; Xi, Jiangbo

    2015-07-01

    To satisfy the requirement of the astronomical observation, a novel timing sequence of frame transfer CCD is proposed. The multiple functions such as the adjustments of work pattern, exposure time and frame frequency are achieved. There are four work patterns: normal, standby, zero exposure and test. The adjustment of exposure time can set multiple exposure time according to the astronomical observation. The fame frequency can be adjusted when dark target is imaged and the maximum exposure time cannot satisfy the requirement. On the design of the video processing, offset correction and adjustment of multiple gains are proposed. Offset correction is used for eliminating the fixed pattern noise of CCD. Three gains pattern can improve the signal to noise ratio of astronomical observation. Finally, the images in different situations are collected and the system readout noise is calculated. The calculation results show that the designs in this paper are practicable.

  3. On Astronomical Records of Dangun Chosun Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Daile; Park, Changbom

    1993-10-01

    Events of eclipses as well as other major astronomical events observable in the eastern sector of Asian continent are computed and checked with astronomical records of antiquity. Particular attention was given to two types of the events recorded in remaining records of Dangun Chosun Period (DCP): (1) concentration of major planets near the constellation of Nu-Sung (Beta Aries) and (2) a large ebb-tide. We find them most likely to have occurred in real time. i.e., when the positions of the sun, moon, and planets happen to be aligned in the most appropriate position. For solar eclipses data, however, we find among 10 solar eclipse events recorded, only 6 of them are correct up to months, implying its statistical significance is no less insignificant. We therefore conclude that the remaining history books of DCP indeed contains important astronomical records, thereby the real antiquity of the records of DCP cannot be disproved.

  4. Education Efforts of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    I describe the education activities of the International Astronomical Union, particularly the work of Commission 46 on Education and Development. We are most interested in education in schools and for general university education rather than for pre-professional training or graduate schools. We have over 75 National Liaisons, mostly from member countries of the I.A.U. but some from nonmembers or regional groupings. We operate through 10 program groups, which are described at our Website at http://www.astronomyeducation.org. We also organize Special Sessions at General Assemblies of the International Astronomical Union, such as this Special Session 2 on Innovation in Teaching/ Learning Astronomy Methods, organized by Rosa Ros and me, and Special Session 5 on Astronomy for the Developing World, organized by John Hearnshaw. A modified version of our Special Session from the 2003 Sydney General Assembly was published as Teaching and Learning Astronomy: Effective Strategies for Educators Worldwide (Jay M. Pasachoff and John R. Percy, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2005). Michele Gerbaldi and Ed Guinan run the International Schools for Young Astronomers. Jay White heads the Teaching Astronomy for Development Program Group. John Hearnshaw runs the Program Group for the Worldwide Development of Astronomy. Charles Tolbert and John Percy run an Exchange of Astronomers program with a limited number of grants for stays of over three months between astronomers in developing countries and established astronomical institutions. Barrie Jones, as vice-president, aided by Tracey Moore, runs the Newsletter and keeps track of the National Liaisons list. I run the Program group of Public Education at the Times of Solar Eclipses.

  5. Early Proterozoic ophiolite, central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The 1.73 Ga Payson ophiolite is a pseudostratigraphic sequence of mafic plutons, dike swarms, sheeted dikes, and submarine basalts that intruded and erupted upon a 1.75-1.76 Ga magmatic-arc complex. The composition of the sheeted dikes is tholeiitic basalt (minor andesite) with island-arc affinities. The submarine basalts are overlain by dacitic breccias and a thick section of turbidites with ca. 1.72 Ga ash beds. The entire sequence was deformed, intruded by ca. 1.70 Ga granites, and unconformably overlain by fluvial to shallow-shelf sediments. Although most of the 1.8-1.6 Ga juvenile crust of Arizona consists of magmatic-arc rocks, the Payson ophiolite is unique and is interpreted to have formed the floor of an intra-arc basin. The ophiolite developed in situ on the older arc basement, as opposed to being thrust over it. The basin was accreted to the continent by ca. 1.70 Ga.

  6. SAO/NASA joint investigation of astronomical viewing quality at Mount Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bufton, J. L.; Hogan, D.; Kurtenbach, D.; Goodwin, K.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the astronomical seeing conditions have been made with a stellar-image monitor system at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. The results of this joint SAO-NASA experiment indicate that for a 15-cm-diameter telescope, image motion is typically 1 arcsec or less and that intensity fluctuations due to scintillation have a coefficient of irradiance variance of less than 0.12 on the average. Correlations between seeing quality and local meteorological conditions were investigated. Local temperature fluctuations and temperature gradients were found to be indicators of image-motion conditions, while high-altitude-wind conditions were shown to be somewhat correlated with scintillation-spectrum bandwidth. The theoretical basis for the relationship of atmospheric turbulence to optical effects is discussed in some detail, along with a description of the equipment used in the experiment. General site-testing comments and applications of the seeing-test results are also included.

  7. Astronomers gossip about the (cosmic) neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Jayawardhana, R

    1994-09-01

    The Hague, Netherlands, last month welcomed 2000 astronomers from around the world for the 22nd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From 15 to 27 August, they participated in symposia and discussions on topics ranging from the down-to-Earth issue of light and radio-frequency pollution to the creation of elements at the farthest reaches of time and space, in the big bang. Some of the most striking news, however, came in new findings from our galaxy and its immediate surroundings. PMID:17801522

  8. Formation and structure of neutrino astronomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tan; Luo, Liao-fu; Yang, Gou-chen

    1981-12-01

    Neutrinos with non-zero mass could gather to form a new kind of astronomical bodies: the Neutrino Astronomical Objects (NAO). We have investigated the mechanism of their formation and the relation of this formation to that of the galaxies, ascertained their e, p, He 4 content, whose presence should produce a series of observable effects. NAOs are a peculiar kind of heavenly bodies with many new properties. They have a linear size of the order of 100 pc, a total neutrino content of the order of 10 14M⊙ and an e, p, He 4 content of the order of 10 9M⊙.

  9. Johann and Elizabeth Hevelius, astronomers of Danzig.

    PubMed

    Cook, A

    2000-01-01

    Elizabeth Hevelius (1647-1693) was the second wife of Johann Hevelius, the renowned astronomer of Danzig, and assisted with his observations from the first years of her marriage. Hevelius wrote of her in his books as an able collaborator and she is portrayed in one of them observing with him. She brought out his final, posthumous work. With Johann, she received many notable visitors (including Edmond Halley) and observed with some of them at Danzig. She is the first woman astronomer of whom we have any record. PMID:10824438

  10. The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.

    2009-08-01

    Astronomical photographic data constitute an enormously important and, for the large part, unrepeatable resource for astronomical research. To answer the need for rescue, preservation and digitization of astronomical photographic data, the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) was established at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA is essential both for the health of astronomical science and for credibility of the current generation of astronomers as guardians of its unique heritage. The basic facility requirements met at PARI for APDA include: a secure area with controlled access; several thousand square feet of floor space with a solid foundation; a clean, dust-free environment with controlled humidity and temperature; protection from sunlight; office and lab space for high-resolution scanners and with internet access. APDA development is focused on collections in danger of disposal or extreme damage. Beyond this essential salvage effort, PARI is currently working to establish the physical archives environment, collection development plan, and standard finding aids for the archive. This essay describes the current set of collections, status for access, research resulting from the collections, and future direction of APDA.

  11. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  12. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  13. Distinguished Astronomer Awarded Jansky Lectureship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have awarded the 2008 Karl G. Jansky Lectureship to Dr. Arthur M. Wolfe of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The Jansky Lectureship is an honor established by the trustees of AUI to recognize outstanding contributions to the advancement of radio astronomy. Dr. Arthur M. Wolfe Dr. Arthur M. Wolfe CREDIT: UCSD Click on image for high-resolution file Dr. Wolfe has made major contributions in several areas of astronomy. Along with Rainer Sachs, he predicted the Sachs-Wolfe Effect, a phenomenon which forms the basis for modern precision cosmology using the background radio emission left over from the Big Bang. In the 1970s, he discovered that light emitted by very distant galaxies is absorbed by hydrogen atoms in previously-undetected intervening gas clouds. From the 1980s until the present, he used optical light emitted by distant quasars to show that these clouds are the progenitors of stars found in modern galaxies. This phenomenon has since been used extensively to study the production of heavy elements and history of star formation in the Universe. He also did landmark research on whether the fundamental constants of nature, such as the charge of the electron and the masses of elementary particles, do, in fact, remain constant through cosmological time. Dr. Wolfe was the Director of the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences at UCSD from 1997 to 2007. He joined UCSD as a Professor of Physics and Astronomy in 1989, leaving the University of Pittsburgh, where he had taught since 1973. He holds the Chancellor's Associates Chair of Physics at UCSD. Dr. Wolfe received his Ph.D from the University of Texas at Austin. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and received the Sackler Fellowship of the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, UK, in 2004. As Jansky Lecturer, Wolfe will give a presentation entitled, Finding the Gas that

  14. Archaeo-astronomical characteristics of the Kokino archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gjore

    In the North-East part of Macedonia, near to the peak Tatikjev Kamen, an archaeological site with vast quantity of artifacts, dated in the Bronze Age, was discovered in 2001. For the first time in Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), comprehensive archaeo-astronomical analysis of this site, providing extraordinary important results, was performed in 2002. The site contains a lot of materials typical for a megalithic observatory, 3800 years old. Three stone markers, pointing out the places of the sunrise on the days of the summer and winter solstice, as well as the vernal and autumn equinoxes, were found there. Four stone markers, indicating the places of the full Moon rise above the horizon, are recognized too. They are used in the days when the Moon has maximum or minimum declination - two of them in the summer and two of them - in the winter. There are also two other stone markers used for measuring the length of the lunar month in winter - when it has 29 days, and in summer - when it has 30 days. These markers give clear evidences that the ancient Balkan inhabitants used the observatory not only to monitor the movement of the Moon, but also to develop the lunar calendar with 19-year cycle. The archaeo-astronomical analysis presents also an evidence for the existence of one very characteristic stone marker, used for pointing out the sunrise position in a very important ritual day. This is the day when special ceremonies related to the end of the harvest, as well as to the ritual unification of the community leader with the God Sun, were performed. (Colour versions of the illustrations are presented as Appendix on the site of the journal.)

  15. The Condition of Pre-K-12 Education in Arizona: 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Education Policy Initiative, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper, the second annual report by the Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), is a collection of policy briefs on key issues in Arizona education. The authors of these briefs are on the faculty of Arizona's three public universities: Arizona State University (ASU), Northern Arizona University (NAU), and the University of Arizona (UA).…

  16. Combined ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Giampapa, M. S.; Huchra, J. P.; Noyes, R. W.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources are discussed. Some studies utilized IVE data. Non-radiative shock at the edge of the Cygnses Loop, stellar flares, local interestellar medium, hot galaxies, stellar mass ejection, contact binaries, double quasars, and stellar chromosphere and coronae are discussed.

  17. astLib: Tools for research astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Matt; Boada, Steven

    2016-07-01

    astLib is a set of Python modules for performing astronomical plots, some statistics, common calculations, coordinate conversions, and manipulating FITS images with World Coordinate System (WCS) information through PyWCSTools, a simple wrapping of WCSTools (ascl:1109.015).

  18. Public software for the astronomer - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Murtagh, Fionn

    1992-01-01

    Sources of public software are described that are available over wide-area research networks in journals and from government sources which may be valuable to the astronomer and astrophysicist. A very large amount of high-quality public software is accessible at all times. Locations with material useful for research are emphasized with practical suggestions regarding access.

  19. Professional Astronomers in Service to the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladyga, Michael; Waagen, E. O.

    2011-05-01

    Throughout its 100-year history, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has welcomed professional astronomers to its membership ranks, and has encouraged their participation as organization leaders. The AAVSO has been fortunate to have many distinguished professionals serve as officers (Directors, Presidents, Council), and as participants in its various scientific and organizational committees.

  20. Professional Astronomers in Service to the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladyga, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Throughout its 100-year history, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has welcomed professional astronomers to its membership ranks, and has encouraged their participation as organization leaders. The AAVSO has been fortunate to have over 60 distinguished professionals serve as officers (Directors, Presidents, Council), and as participants in its various scientific and organizational committees.

  1. An Astronomical Observatory in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L.; Gallego, T.; de La Torre, A.

    We describe a project developed at the University of Granada in collaboration with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía aimed at using a remote telescope for live astronomical observations from the classroom. Available instrumentation, software and activities are presented.

  2. Kepler as astronomical observer in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Official histories of science have consistently perpetuated the rumour that Kepler's poor eyesight prevented him from undertaking astronomical observations. However the condition of his eyesight could not have been so serious for in 1582, when his father made it possible for him to see a lunar eclipse, Kepler saw the moon emerge clearly. We find quite a lot of his astronomical observations especially of the years in Prague, mostly left in his manuscripts and unpublished until now. They will be edited in Vol. XXI.1 of the Kepler-Edition in the next future. Kepler's astronomical observations in Prague were mostly initiated by spectacular phenomena in the sky. He was self-critical enough to know, that his observations could not compete with those of the best observers of his time. It was not necessary for him to come up to highest standard of accuracy, and it was not possible to do so because he did not possess proper astronomical instruments. But nevertheless it was important for him as a theorist of astronomy and as a philosopher of nature to take a view of the phenomena which he wished to study carefully.

  3. Astronomía en la cultura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    La Astronomía en la Cultura es el estudio interdisciplinario a nivel global de la astronomía prehistórica, antigua y tradicional, en el marco de su contexto cultural. Esta disciplina abarca cualquier tipo de estudios o líneas de investigación en que se relacione a la astronomía con las ciencias humanas o sociales. En ella se incluyen tanto fuentes escritas, relatos orales como fuentes arqueológicas, abarcando entre otros, los siguientes temas: calendarios, observación práctica, cultos y mitos, representación simbólica de eventos, conceptos y objetos astronómicos, orientación astronómica de tumbas, templos, santuarios y centros urbanos, cosmología tradicional y la aplicación ceremonial de tradiciones astronómicas, la propia historia de la astronomía y la etnoastronomía (Krupp, 1989) (Iwaniszewski, 1994). En nuestro trabajo abordamos la historia y situación actual de esta disciplina, sus métodos y sus relaciones con otras áreas de investigación.

  4. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  5. Astronomical Data Bank: The Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David

    1983-01-01

    Provided are two tables which contain the latest orbital and physical characteristics of the planets and their main satellites. These tables are part of a series of information materials available from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1290 24th Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94122. (JN)

  6. Astroquery: querying astronomical web forms and databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-03-01

    Astroquery is an Astropy affiliated package for a set of tools for querying astronomical web forms and databases. In this lightning talk I give an overview of the available services and the usage of the package including a live demo of a typical use case.

  7. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  8. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  9. 7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF SILT. OLD TOOTH MARKS OF DRAGLINE BUCKET MADE IN 1909 CALICHE BOTTOM WERE STILL VISIBLE Photographer: unknown. February 1938 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING EAST. CURRENT LOCATION OF THE REAL-TIME WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATION Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 75 FR 60066 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...The Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Tucson, Arizona. The purpose of the meeting is for the committee members to discuss committee protocols, operating guidelines, and project proposal...

  13. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST OF PHOENIX. NOTE MEN DRILLING AND EXCAVATING IN OPERATION; CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE DISTANCE Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. 51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FLOOR SYSTEM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ERECTION DIAGRAM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). GENERAL LAYOUT. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). HANDRAIL DESIGN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FOUNDATIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). TITLE PAGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Discovering Network Structure Beyond Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the formation, evolution, and function of complex systems, it is crucial to understand the internal organization of their interaction networks. Partly due to the impossibility of visualizing large complex networks, resolving network structure remains a challenging problem. Here we overcome this difficulty by combining the visual pattern recognition ability of humans with the high processing speed of computers to develop an exploratory method for discovering groups of nodes characterized by common network properties, including but not limited to communities of densely connected nodes. Without any prior information about the nature of the groups, the method simultaneously identifies the number of groups, the group assignment, and the properties that define these groups. The results of applying our method to real networks suggest the possibility that most group structures lurk undiscovered in the fast-growing inventory of social, biological, and technological networks of scientific interest. PMID:22355667

  6. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  7. Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  8. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  9. Astronomical imaging with InSb arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipher, Judith L.

    Ten years ago, Forrest presented the first astronomical images with a Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) 32 x 32 InSb array camera at the first NASA-Ames Infrared Detector Technology Work-shop. Soon after, SBRC began development of 58 x 62 InSb arrays, both for ground-based astronomy and for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). By the time of the 1987 Hilo workshop 'Ground-based Astronomical Observations with Infrared Array Dectectors' astronomical results from cameras based on SBRC 32 x 32 and 58 x 62 InSb arrays, a CE linear InSb array, and a French 32 x 32 InSb charge injection device (CID) array were presented. And at the Tucson 1990 meeting 'Astrophysics with Infrared Arrays', it was clear that this new technology was no longer the province of 'IR pundits', but provided a tool for all astronomers. At this meeting, the first astronomical observations with SBRC's new, gateless passivation 256 x 256 InSb arrays will be presented: they perform spectacularly] In this review, I can only broadly brush on the interesting science completed with InSb array cameras. Because of the broad wavelength coverage (1-5.5 micrometer) of InSb, and the extremely high performance levels throughout the band, InSb cameras are used not only in the near IR, but also from 3-5.5 micrometer, where unique science is achieved. For example, the point-like central engines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are delineated at L' and M', and Bra and 3.29 micrometer dust emission images of galactic and extragalactic objects yield excitation conditions. Examples of imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution imaging, as well as deep, broad-band imaging with InSb cameras at this meeting illustrate the power of InSb array cameras.

  10. Astronomers Find First Earth-like Planet in Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Astronomers have discovered the most Earth-like planet outside our Solar System to date, an exoplanet with a radius only 50% larger than the Earth and capable of having liquid water. Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope, a team of Swiss, French and Portuguese scientists discovered a super-Earth about 5 times the mass of the Earth that orbits a red dwarf, already known to harbour a Neptune-mass planet. The astronomers have also strong evidence for the presence of a third planet with a mass about 8 Earth masses. ESO PR Photo 22a/07 ESO PR Photo 22a/07 The Planetary System Around Gliese 581 This exoplanet - as astronomers call planets around a star other than the Sun - is the smallest ever found up to now [1] and it completes a full orbit in 13 days. It is 14 times closer to its star than the Earth is from the Sun. However, given that its host star, the red dwarf Gliese 581 [2], is smaller and colder than the Sun - and thus less luminous - the planet nevertheless lies in the habitable zone, the region around a star where water could be liquid! The planet's name is Gliese 581 c. "We have estimated that the mean temperature of this super-Earth lies between 0 and 40 degrees Celsius, and water would thus be liquid," explains Stéphane Udry, from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) and lead-author of the paper reporting the result. "Moreover, its radius should be only 1.5 times the Earth's radius, and models predict that the planet should be either rocky - like our Earth - or fully covered with oceans," he adds. ESO PR Photo 22c/07 ESO PR Photo 22c/07 The star Gliese 581 "Liquid water is critical to life as we know it," avows Xavier Delfosse, a member of the team from Grenoble University (France). "Because of its temperature and relative proximity, this planet will most probably be a very important target of the future space missions dedicated to the search for extra-terrestrial life. On the treasure map of the Universe, one would be tempted to mark this planet with an X." The

  11. New Life for Astronomical Instruments of the Past at the Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, Liliya

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical instruments of the past are certainly valuable artifacts of the history of science and education. Like other collections of scientific equipment, they also demonstrate i) development of scientific and technical ideas, ii) technological features of the historical period, iii) professional features of artists or companies -- manufacturers, and iv) national and local specificity of production. However, astronomical instruments are also devices made for observations of rare phenomena -- solar eclipses, transits of planets of the solar disk, etc. Instruments used to study these rare events were very different for each event, since the science changed quickly between events. The Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University has a collection of tools made by leading European and local shops from the early nineteenth century. These include tools for optically observing the first artificial Earth satellites, photography, chronometry, and meteorology. In addition, it has assembled a library of descriptions of astronomical instruments and makers'price-lists. Of particular interest are the large stationary tools that are still active in their pavilions. Almost every instrument has a long interesting history. Museification of astronomical instruments gives them a second life, expanding educational programs and tracing the development of astronomy in general and scientific institution and region in particular. It would be advisable to first create a regional database of these rare astronomical instruments (which is already being done in Ukraine), then a common global database. By combining all the historical information about astronomical instruments with the advantages of the Internet, you can show the full evolution of an astronomical instrument with all its features. Time is relentless, and much is destroyed, badly kept and thrown in the garbage. We need time to protect, capture, and tell about it.

  12. Astronomical Data Center Bulletin, volume 1, number 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Mead, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Work in progress on astronomical catalogs is presented in 16 papers. Topics cover astronomical data center operations; automatic astronomical data retrieval at GSFC; interactive computer reference search of astronomical literature 1950-1976; formatting, checking, and documenting machine-readable catalogs; interactive catalog of UV, optical, and HI data for 201 Virgo cluster galaxies; machine-readable version of the general catalog of variable stars, third edition; galactic latitude and magnitude distribution of two astronomical catalogs; the catalog of open star clusters; infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations; the Air Force geophysics laboratory; revised magnetic tape of the N30 catalog of 5,268 standard stars; positional correlation of the two-micron sky survey and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalog sources; search capabilities for the catalog of stellar identifications (CSI) 1979 version; CSI statistics: blue magnitude versus spectral type; catalogs available from the Astronomical Data Center; and status report on machine-readable astronomical catalogs.

  13. Arizona Pupil Achievement Testing Statewide Report, June 1988 [and] Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    1988 is the eighth year of the Arizona Pupil Achievement Testing Program which is administered to fulfill the requirements of Arizona Revised Statutes Section 15-741 through Section 15-744. This legislation mandates that a nationally standardized norm-referenced achievement test be administered during April to all pupils enrolled in Arizona public…

  14. 76 FR 18777 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix... State Director's update on BLM programs and issues; updates on the Arizona Water Strategy,...

  15. 75 FR 28649 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...

  16. 76 FR 67206 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix... issues; updates on the Arizona Water Strategy, land use planning and public involvement, renewable...

  17. 75 FR 51840 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...

  18. 76 FR 44602 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix...; BLM State Director's update on BLM programs and issues; updates on the Arizona Water Strategy,...

  19. 75 FR 7518 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...

  20. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations in Arizona conducted on non-Federal and non-Indian lands. To the extent required by 30 CFR part... pollution rests with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and its Hearing Board. The Department... air quality standards as a part of a comprehensive air quality plan for Arizona. A.R.S. Title 49....

  1. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operations in Arizona conducted on non-Federal and non-Indian lands. To the extent required by 30 CFR part... pollution rests with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and its Hearing Board. The Department... air quality standards as a part of a comprehensive air quality plan for Arizona. A.R.S. Title 49....

  2. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operations in Arizona conducted on non-Federal and non-Indian lands. To the extent required by 30 CFR part... pollution rests with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and its Hearing Board. The Department... air quality standards as a part of a comprehensive air quality plan for Arizona. A.R.S. Title 49....

  3. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operations in Arizona conducted on non-Federal and non-Indian lands. To the extent required by 30 CFR part... pollution rests with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and its Hearing Board. The Department... air quality standards as a part of a comprehensive air quality plan for Arizona. A.R.S. Title 49....

  4. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operations in Arizona conducted on non-Federal and non-Indian lands. To the extent required by 30 CFR part... pollution rests with the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and its Hearing Board. The Department... air quality standards as a part of a comprehensive air quality plan for Arizona. A.R.S. Title 49....

  5. Missions and Priorities of Arizona Universities: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; And Others

    Results of a survey of public attitudes toward the activities conducted by Arizona's three public universities are presented, with a focus on the total Arizona university system rather than individual institutions. Priorities were assigned to the activities conducted by the three universities by all Arizona legislators and trustees, and random…

  6. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NHEXAS-ARIZONA BORDER STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NHEXAS-Arizona Border Study employed a population based probability design to recruit a representative cohort residing within 40 Km of the US-Mexico Border in Arizona. As an extension of the NHEXAS Arizona statewide survey, the border study was designed to determine the dis...

  7. Geothermal resources in Arizona: a bibliography. Circular 23

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    All reports and maps generated by the Geothermal Project of the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology and the Arizona Geothermal Commercialization Team of the University of Arizona are listed. In order to provide a more comprehensive listing of geothermal papers from other sources have been included. There are 224 references in the bibliography. (MHR)

  8. 76 FR 584 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...

  9. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-05-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U[sub 3]O[sub 8] over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer.

  10. The impaired physician: the Arizona experience.

    PubMed

    Geyser, M R

    1988-03-01

    The Arizona Board of Medical Examiners has developed in the past six years a program for rehabilitating impaired physicians who practice in the State of Arizona. The program is outlined in the article and the results show an 87.8 per cent rehabilitation rate for those doctors entering the program. Impaired physicians are required (with a few exceptions) to enter an approved inpatient program for three to four weeks; continue in an after care program following discharge from the inpatient program; and remain under Board control until rehabilitated. They are allowed to reenter practice following successful completion of the inpatient program. PMID:10318039

  11. Willow Fire Near Payson, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On July 3, 2004, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Willow fire near Payson, Arizona. The image is being used by the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC). The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight: the burned areas in dark red; the active fires in red-orange; vegetation in green; and smoke in blue.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. Science Team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards using the unique vantage point of

  12. Arizona-sized Io Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These images of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, show the results of a dramatic event that occurred on the fiery satellite during a five-month period. The changes, captured by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft, occurred between the time Galileo acquired the left frame, during its seventh orbit of Jupiter, and the right frame, during its tenth orbit. A new dark spot, 400 kilometers (249 miles) in diameter, which is roughly the size of Arizona, surrounds a volcanic center named Pillan Patera. Galileo imaged a 120 kilometer (75 mile) high plume erupting from this location during its ninth orbit. Pele, which produced the larger plume deposit southwest of Pillan, also appears different than it did during the seventh orbit, perhaps due to interaction between the two large plumes. Pillan's plume deposits appear dark at all wavelengths. This color differs from the very red color associated with Pele, but is similar to the deposits of Babbar Patera, the dark feature southwest of Pele. Some apparent differences between the images are not caused by changes on Io's surface, but rather are due to differences in illumination, emission and phase angles. This is particularly apparent at Babbar Patera.

    North is to the top of the images. The left frame was acquired on April 4th, 1997, while the right frame was taken on Sept. 19th, 1997. The images were obtained at ranges of 563,000 kilometers (350,000 miles) for the left image, and 505,600 kilometers (314,165 miles) for the right.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  13. Public perception of astronomers Revered, reviled and ridiculed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    Society's view of astronomers has changed over time and from culture to culture. This review discusses some of the many ways that astronomers have been perceived by their societies and suggests ways that astronomers can influence public perception of ourselves and our profession in the future.

  14. Biographies and Portraits of British and Other Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingley, Peter; Chibnall, Mary I.; Howarth, Ian; Lane, John; Mitton, Jacqueline; Penston, Margaret; Ridpath, Ian; Murdin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated as a document intended to serve as a general guide to the sources of biographies and portraits of astronomers for historians of astronomy and other researchers, particularly British astronomers. It was first compiled by the Librarian of the Royal Astronomical Society, Peter Hingley (1921-2012).

  15. Identifying the Functional Requirements for an Arizona Astronomy Data Hub (AADH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahlman, G.; Heidorn, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomy data represent a curation challenge for information managers, as well as for astronomers. Extracting knowledge from these heterogeneous and complex datasets is particularly complicated and requires both interdisciplinary and domain expertise to accomplish true curation, with an overall goal of facilitating reproducible science through discoverability and persistence. A group of researchers and professional staff at the University of Arizona held several meetings during the spring of 2015 about astronomy data and the role of the university in curation of that data. The group decided that it was critical to obtain a broader consensus on the needs of the community. With assistance from a Start for Success grant provided by the University of Arizona Office of Research and Discovery and funding from the American Astronomical Society (AAS), a workshop was held in early July 2015, with 28 participants plus 4 organizers in attendance. Representing University researchers as well as astronomical facilities and a scholarly society, the group verified that indeed there is a problem with the long-term curation of some astronomical data not associated with major facilities, and that a repository or "data hub" with the correct functionality could facilitate research and the preservation and use of astronomy data. The workshop members also identified a set of next steps, including the identification of possible data and metadata to be included in the Hub. The participants further helped to identify additional information that must be gathered before construction of the AADH could begin, including identifying significant datasets that do not currently have sufficient preservation and dissemination infrastructure, as well as some data associated with journal publications and the broader context of the data beyond that directly published in the journals. Workshop participants recommended that a set of grant proposal should be developed that ensures community buy-in and

  16. 78 FR 21412 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Arizona State Museum, University of... Museum, University of Arizona, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian... the Arizona State Museum. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control of the...

  17. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: ARIZONA LAB DATA (UA-D-24.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the Arizona Lab Data forms. It applies to electronic data corresponding to the Arizona Lab Data forms scanned and verified by the Data Staff during the Arizona NH...

  18. Chandra Discovers X-Ray Ring Around Cosmic Powerhouse in Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Grating. The Crab Nebula, easily the most intensively studied object beyond our solar system, is the remnant of a star that was observed to explode in 1054 A.D. Chinese astronomers in that year reported a "guest star" that appeared suddenly and remained visible for weeks, even during daytime. From gamma-ray telescopes to radio telescopes, the Crab has been observed using virtually every astronomical instrument that could see that part of the sky. Unraveling the mysteries of the Crab has proven to be the door to insight after insight into the workings of the universe. The Crab convincingly tied the origin of enigmatic "pulsars" to the stellar cataclysms known as supernovas. Observations of the expanding cloud of filaments in the Crab were instrumental in confirming the cosmic origin of the chemical elements from which planets (and people) are made. The nebula is located 6,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Taurus. The Crab pulsar, which was discovered by radio astronomers in 1968, is a neutron star rotating 30 times per second. Neutron stars are formed in the seconds before a supernova explosion when gravity crushes the central core of the star to densities 50 trillion times that of lead and a diameter of only 12 miles. Another consequence of the dramatic collapse is that neutron stars are rapidly rotating and highly magnetized. Like a gigantic cosmic generator, the rotating magnet generates 10 quadrillion volts of electricity, 30 million times that of a typical lightning bolt. "It is an incredibly efficient generator," Ruderman explained. "More than ninety-five percent efficient. There's nothing like it on Earth." Press: Fact Sheet To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra News Web site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight

  19. AstroNet: A Tool Set for Simultaneous, Multi-Site Observations of Astronomical Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya

    1995-01-01

    Earth-based, fully automatic "robotic" telescopes have been in routine operation for a number of years. As their number grows and their distribution becomes global, increasing attention is being given to forming networks of various sorts that will allow them, as a group, to make observations 24 hours a day in both hemispheres. We have suggested that telescopes based in space be part of this network. We further suggested that any telescope on this network be capable of asking, almost in real time, that other robotic telescopes perform support observations for them. When a target of opportunity required support observations, the system would determine which telescope(s) in the network would be most appropriate to make the observations and formulate a request to do so. Because the network would be comprised of telescopes located in widely distributed regions, this system would guarantee continuity of observations This report summarizes our efforts under this contract. We proposed to develop a set of data collection and display tools to aid simultaneous observation of astronomical targets from a number of observing sites. We planned to demonstrate the usefulness of this toolset for simultaneous multi-site observation of astronomical targets. Possible candidates or the proposed demonstration included the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), and ALEXIS, sounding rocket experiments. Ground-based observatories operated by the University of California, Berkeley, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Fairborn Observatory in Mesa, Arizona were to be used to demonstrate the proposed concept. Although the demonstration was to have involved astronomical investigations, the tools were to have been applicable to a large number of scientific disciplines. The software tools and systems developed as a result of the work were to have been made available to the scientific community.

  20. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  1. Automated microdensitometer for digitizing astronomical plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angilello, J.; Chiang, W. H.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Segmueller, A.

    1984-01-01

    A precision microdensitometer was built under control of an IBM S/1 time-sharing computer system. The instrument's spatial resolution is better than 20 microns. A raster scan of an area of 10x10 sq mm (500x500 raster points) takes 255 minutes. The reproducibility is excellent and the stability is good over a period of 30 hours, which is significantly longer than the time required for most scans. The intrinsic accuracy of the instrument was tested using Kodak standard filters, and it was found to be better than 3%. A comparative accuracy was tested measuring astronomical plates of galaxies for which absolute photoelectric photometry data were available. The results showed an accuracy excellent for astronomical applications.

  2. Physicists, Mathematicians and Astronomers- communists (Part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    The second part is continuig the edition of communists (physicists, mathematicians, astronomers), which were not included in the reference books by Yu.A. Hramov, A. N. Bogoliubov, I.G. Kolchinskii et al.. The author is discussing here also the relation between business and Communist party, especially in the Post Soviet Russia. A discussion of the biographies of Soviet scientists included in the Britannica is given, as well as a list of Russian scientists included in the Oxford Dictionary of Physics is given. Another part of the paper is pointing out the defficiencies of the last edition of the Great Russian Encyclopedic Dictionary (Drofa Eds, Moscow, 2009) in what concerns physicists, mathematicians and astronomers. A great number of Nobel Prize Winners was ommited in the edition of 2009.

  3. Lunar orbital photography of astronomical phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reports further progress on photography of faint astronomical and geophysical phenomena accomplished during the recent Apollo missions. Command module pilots have been able to photograph such astronomical objects as the solar corona, zodiacal light-corona transition region, lunar libration region, and portions of the Milky Way. The methods utilized for calibration of the film by adaptation of the High Altitude Observatory sensitometer are discussed. Kodak 2485 high-speed recording film was used in both 35-mm and 70-mm formats. The cameras used were Nikon f/1.2 55-mm focal length and Hasselblad f/2.8 80-mm focal length. Preflight and postflight calibration exposures were included on both the flight and control films, corresponding to luminances extending from the inner solar corona to as faint as 1/10 of the luminance of the light of the night sky. The photographs obtained from unique vantage points available during lunar orbit are discussed.

  4. The origins of Ptolemy's astronomical tables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. R.

    Following the line set by his earlier book 'The crime of Claudius Ptolemy' the author discusses here the numerous astronomical tables in Ptolemy's work that have been calculated with the aid of trigonometric tables, as well as a few that are nonlinear but that do not involve trigonometry. The purpose in this study is to determine, if possible, whether Ptolemy calculated these tables or whether he copied them from now-lost original works. The conclusion isthat Ptolemy made few if any original contributions to astronomy, either observational or computational.Contents: 1. Introduction; thetable of chords. 2. The tables of the latitude and of gnomon shadows.3. Tables of the Sun. 4. Astronomical geography. 5. The tables of theMoon. 6. Eclipse tables. 7. Tables of the planets. 8. The empirical basis for Hipparchus's mean motions of the Moon. 9. Summary and conclusions.

  5. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  6. Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O. (Editor); Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers at a workshop which consider the topic astronomical observations from a lunar base are presented. In part 1, the rationale for performing astronomy on the Moon is established and economic factors are considered. Part 2 includes concepts for individual lunar based telescopes at the shortest X-ray and gamma ray wavelengths, for high energy cosmic rays, and at optical and infrared wavelengths. Lunar radio frequency telescopes are considered in part 3, and engineering considerations for lunar base observatories are discussed in part 4. Throughout, advantages and disadvantages of lunar basing compared to terrestrial and orbital basing of observatories are weighted. The participants concluded that the Moon is very possibly the best location within the inner solar system from which to perform front-line astronomical research.

  7. Astronomical context coder for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pata, Petr; Schindler, Jaromir

    2015-10-01

    Recent lossless still image compression formats are powerful tools for compression of all kind of common images (pictures, text, schemes, etc.). Generally, the performance of a compression algorithm depends on its ability to anticipate the image function of the processed image. In other words, a compression algorithm to be successful, it has to take perfectly the advantage of coded image properties. Astronomical data form a special class of images and they have, among general image properties, also some specific characteristics which are unique. If a new coder is able to correctly use the knowledge of these special properties it should lead to its superior performance on this specific class of images at least in terms of the compression ratio. In this work, the novel lossless astronomical image data compression method will be presented. The achievable compression ratio of this new coder will be compared to theoretical lossless compression limit and also to the recent compression standards of the astronomy and general multimedia.

  8. Astronomical Publication in the Near Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2000-11-01

    A study is made of the number of astronomical papers, number of pages, mean paper lengths, authors per paper, and international authorship in recent decades, and this produces predictions for the coming decade or two. The first significant result is that the number of published research papers worldwide shows no abrupt changes due to increased technical and scientific capabilities, such as major increases in equipment sensitivity, new telescopes, breakthroughs in computing and publication techniques, or our ability to generate huge amounts of data. The second major result is that the number of papers is a function only of the number of astronomers. This Essay is one of a series of invited contributions which will appear in the PASP throughout the year 2000 to mark the upcoming millennium. (Eds.)

  9. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  10. Astronomía Mocoví

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

  11. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2015-03-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors and omissions in these records. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia many astronomical traditions were recorded but, cur- iously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  12. Near Infrared Astronomical Observing During the Daytime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinn Chee Jim, Kevin; Pier, Edward Alan; Cognion, Rita L.

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based, near-infrared astronomy has been mostly restriced to nighttime observing with occasional, bright solar system objects observed during the daytime. But for astronomical phenomena that are time-varying on timescales of less than a day, it would be advantageous to be able to gather data during the day and night. We explore some of the limitations of observing in the J, H, and K bands during the daytime. Atmospheric radiative transfer simulations show that K is the optimal common astronomical filter for daytime observations on Mauna Kea, but the J and H filters can also be used. Observations from Mauna Kea show that it is possible to observe objects at least as faint as K=15.5 during the early afternoon, with photometric accuracies only slightly worse than those obtained at night.

  13. Query driven visualization of astronomical catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactive visualization of astronomical catalogs requires novel techniques due to the huge volumes and complex structure of the data produced by existing and upcoming astronomical surveys. The creation as well as the disclosure of the catalogs can be handled by data pulling mechanisms (Buddelmeijer et al. 2011). These prevent unnecessary processing and facilitate data sharing by having users request the desired end products. In this work we present query driven visualization as a logical continuation of data pulling. Scientists can request catalogs in a declarative way and set process parameters directly from within the visualization. This results in profound interoperation between software with a high level of abstraction. New messages for the Simple Application Messaging Protocol are proposed to achieve this abstraction. Support for these messages are implemented in the Astro-WISE information system and in a set of demonstrational applications.

  14. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  15. Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, a real option for astronomical publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.; Allen, C.

    2011-10-01

    We present statistical data about the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica. We consider that this journal is well positioned in the international astronomical literature. Similarly we present information about the Serie de Conferencias, which also has a wide level of acceptance by the astronomical community.

  16. Applying artificial intelligence to astronomical databases - A survey of applicable technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    AI technologies which are relevant to astronomical data bases are reviewed, including intelligent interfaces, internal representations, and data analysis. The natural language query system developed for the Hubble Space Telescope and the technique of goal directed queries are considered. Two technologies which might lead to the development of pictorial interfaces are presented: one based on Bayesian probabilities, the other on associative memories. The development of a data analysis system which can discover classes of data within a data base without any information other than the data itself is examined. A prototype data analysis assistant to automatically develop and implement plans for data reduction is described.

  17. A Star in the Western Sky: John Birmingham, Astronomer and Poet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, P.

    John Birmingham (1814-1884) of Millbrook, County Galway, was an outstanding amateur astronomer, now completely forgotten. He discovered the 1866 nova, T Coronae Borealis. Later his name was assigned to a feature near Anaxagoras on the Moon. In 1884 the Royal Irish Academy awarded him its Cunningham Gold Medal for his catalogue of the red variable stars. John Birmingham was not only an acute observer, he also wrote numerous semi-popular articles on many aspects of astronomy. He was also active in geology and railway surveying.

  18. Planning for Arizona's Future. Paper P-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Roy

    The problem of how best to plan for Arizona's future is approached from two different angles. First, an outline is presented of 10 key assumptions regarding the most likely scenario for the United States in the 1980's. Assumptions are that there will be an unstable international environment but no nuclear war; fiscal conservatism in all areas of…

  19. Developmental Career Guidance Project. Pima County, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Susan L.; McKay, Joyce

    This description of career education activities in Pima County, Arizona, was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final report of this study.) This…

  20. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  1. State laser regulations: Arizona's approach and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    1992-06-01

    Approximately a dozen states have regulatory or statutory authority in the area of nonionizing radiation. With only half that number having established laser regulations. Examples are Texas, Florida, Arizona, Mass. many more are considering establishing such rules, such as N.J., Il., Neb. On the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration has been the most active entity. OSHA has just recently established laser safety guidelines for its inspection staff. In March of 1990 the State of Arizona enacted rules for the control of Nonionizing radiation. This fell under Article 14 of Tittle 12 of the Arizona Administrative Code, which is under the authority of the Arizona Radiation Regulatory Agency. The rules cover a wide range of nonionizing sources, but the major emphasis is in the area of laser devices. While all class lasers fall under Article 14, only Class IIIb and Class IV laser use facilities are required to be registered and inspected by the agency. The rules apply to all Class IIIb and Class IV laser users, meaning medical, industrial, entertainment, and also research facilities.

  2. Arizona Takes on School Construction and Renovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Philip E.

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a state superior court deadline for developing a constitutional school capital finance system, Arizona Governor Jane Hull signed legislation (Students FIRST) that dramatically reformed school construction. This legislation created a School Facilities Board and established three funds for improving school conditions and meeting building…

  3. Construction Services at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Gary

    Construction Services is an innovative response to a chronic construction-remodeling problem at Northern Arizona State University. It is an in-house facilities maintenance department designed to address a variety of needs: prevention of construction or remodeling done by individual staff or faculty members without regard for applicable codes;…

  4. Impact of Recent Extreme Arizona Storms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy rainfall on July 27-31, 2006, led to record flooding and an unprecedented outbreak of debris flows in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented floods of record at six streamflow gages in the Tucson basin, and at least 240 hillslope fai...

  5. The Political Spectacle of Arizona's Proposition 203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wayne E.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona's Proposition 203 places restrictions on bilingual and English-as-a-second-language programs and essentiality mandates English-only education for English language learners (ELLs). This article provides an analysis of this initiative and the wide variations in its interpretation and implementation. Data sources include official policy and…

  6. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  7. AEROSOL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS, PHOENIX, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atmospheric sampling program was carried out in the greater Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area in November, 1975. Objectives of the study were to measure aerosol mass flux through Phoenix and to characterize the aerosol according to particle type and size. The ultimate goal of...

  8. Arizona's Forgotten Children: Promises To Keep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    This report provides an Arizona perspective on the implications and effects of homelessness on children and youth, whether they live with their families or on their own. Statistics on homeless families are provided, and issues affecting homeless families are discussed. These issues involve shelters, child care, education, and health. Issues that…

  9. Stating the Case for CTE in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the academic success of CTE students in Arizona which is making a solid case for the role of career and technical education in America's high schools. When the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) issued its position paper, "Reinventing the American High School for the 21st Century," it contained much good…

  10. Educational Needs Assessment Program for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This report represents one step in Arizona's statewide student assessment program. The data presented here identify student achievement in grade 8, the end of the elementary school experience, in the basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. The needs assessment program (ENAPA) is described in section one. The design for this evaluation is…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Arizona students showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were gains at all three achievement levels in grade 8 for these subgroups.…

  12. Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

  13. 40 CFR 81.303 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.303 Arizona... citations affecting § 81.303 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Arizona—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area Designation Date 1...

  14. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The "Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999" is compiled from information supplied by the state's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Within each of these sections,…

  15. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Jan, Comp.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  16. Arizona Public Library Statistics. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1994-95. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise,and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups: (1)…

  17. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is a compilation of information supplied by Arizona public libraries. Data is arranged by a separate index divider for each of these county groups: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. Each section contains tables of the…

  18. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  19. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1995-96. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups:…

  20. ARIZONA OCCUPATIONAL RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT. PROGRAM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, ARTHUR M.

    MAJOR ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE ARIZONA RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT (RCU) FOR THE PERIOD FROM DECEMBER 1, 1967 THROUGH FEBRUARY 29, 1968 INCLUDE COMPLETING A STATEWIDE STUDY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, REORGANIZING A STATE VOCATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL TO IDENTIFY RESEARCH NEEDS, PREPARING AN OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION BROCHURE, ASSISTING…

  1. The State of Arizona's Children, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators of well-being: (1) prenatal care rate; (2) incidence of low birth weight infants; (3) immunization rate for 2-year-olds; (4) availability of state-approved child care spaces; (5) availability of preschool…

  2. Schizochromism in a Peregrine Falcon from Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Oliphant, L.W.; Fackler, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Herein, we report the first record of schizochromism in the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Our example is a nestling from southern Arizona. The lack of dark brown pigment in this bird made it closely resemble the blue-gray plumage of an adult. Near fledging time, the bird was eaten by its nestmates, so this article also documents cannibalism.

  3. 75 FR 62896 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Arizona Disaster AZ-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  4. 40 CFR 81.403 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arizona. 81.403 Section 81.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.403...

  5. 78 FR 57923 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arizona dated 09/13/2013. Incident: Yarnell Hill Fire. Incident Period: 06/28/2013 through 07/10/2013. Effective Date: 09/13/2013. Physical Loan Application Deadline DATE: 11/12/2013. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date:...

  6. 40 CFR 81.403 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arizona. 81.403 Section 81.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.403...

  7. Towards Good Statistical Practices in Astronomical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Astronomers do not receive strong training in statistical methodology and are therefore sometimes prone to analyze data in ways that are discouraged by modern statisticians. A number of such cases are reviewed involving the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, histograms and other binned statistics, various issues with regression, model selection with the likelihood ratio test, over-reliance on `3-sigma' criteria, under-use of multivariate clustering algorithms, and other issues.

  8. The la Plata Astronomical Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraco, H. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. El Centro de Datos Astron6micos tiene su sede en la Facuitad de Ciencias Astron6micas y Geofisicas d la Universidad Nacional de La Plata y funciona por convenio entre esta facultad y el Centre des Stellaires de la Universite' Louis Pasteur en Estrasburgo (CDS), Francia. La finalidad de este centro es la de proveer a los astr6nomos del area con copias de los alrededor de 500 acumulados y/o preparados por el CDS a la vez que promover la producci6n y/o acumulaci6n de en el rea. Para la realizaci6n de esta tarea se cuenta con el apoyo del Centro Superior para el Procesamiento de la Informaci6n (CESPI) de la UNLP cuyos equipos se describen. Las tareas que se estan realizando incluyen la distribuci6n de SIMBAD a los astr6nomos argentinos y se efectuan ensayos de distribuci6n en linea de CD-ROM TEST DISK del Astronomical Data Center (ADC) de la NASA que contiene los 31 mas solicitados por los astr6nomos de todo el mundo. ABSTRACl The La Plata Astronomical Data Center operates by an agreement between the Facultad de Ciencias Astron6micas y Geofisicas at La Plata University and the Centre des Donnees Stellaires of Louis Pasteur University at Strasbourg (CDS), France. The purpose of the Center is to provide to the area astronomers with copies of the catalogs they need amongst those stored and/or prepared at CDS. At the same time the center will act of the astronomical data produced within its area. K words: DATA ANALYSIS

  9. Source detection for the infrared astronomical satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Hibbard, T. N.; Moyd, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    A recursive algorithm is described which detects and characterizes point sources and extended sources in the data obtained from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) in the presence of non-stationary noise. The analysis of tests using simulated data indicates that the performance of the point source detector is very close to that expected from a matched filter with stationary gaussian noise. The false alarm rate of the extended source detector tends to be higher than expected at a given SNR.

  10. Astronomical image denoising using dictionary learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckouche, S.; Starck, J. L.; Fadili, J.

    2013-08-01

    Astronomical images suffer a constant presence of multiple defects that are consequences of the atmospheric conditions and of the intrinsic properties of the acquisition equipment. One of the most frequent defects in astronomical imaging is the presence of additive noise which makes a denoising step mandatory before processing data. During the last decade, a particular modeling scheme, based on sparse representations, has drawn the attention of an ever growing community of researchers. Sparse representations offer a promising framework to many image and signal processing tasks, especially denoising and restoration applications. At first, the harmonics, wavelets and similar bases, and overcomplete representations have been considered as candidate domains to seek the sparsest representation. A new generation of algorithms, based on data-driven dictionaries, evolved rapidly and compete now with the off-the-shelf fixed dictionaries. Although designing a dictionary relies on guessing the representative elementary forms and functions, the framework of dictionary learning offers the possibility of constructing the dictionary using the data themselves, which provides us with a more flexible setup to sparse modeling and allows us to build more sophisticated dictionaries. In this paper, we introduce the centered dictionary learning (CDL) method and we study its performance for astronomical image denoising. We show how CDL outperforms wavelet or classic dictionary learning denoising techniques on astronomical images, and we give a comparison of the effects of these different algorithms on the photometry of the denoised images. The current version of the code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/556/A132

  11. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  12. How do earth tides affect astronomers?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasao, T.

    1978-01-01

    Earth tides affect astronomical observations of the Earth's rotation in the following two ways: (1) verticals are deflected; and (2) the polar moment of inertia of the Earth is changed causing periodic variations in the rotation rate. The diurnal and semidiurnal tides and nutation were examined in periodic variations. Results indicate little change occured in the polar motions. Nutation observations were disturbed rather seriously by the diurnal tides.

  13. ASTROPHYSICS: Astronomers Spot Their First Carbon Bomb.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-11-17

    Carbon on the surface of an ultradense star detonated in a 3-hour thermonuclear explosion, according to a report at a meeting here last week of the American Astronomical Society's High Energy Astrophysics Division. If confirmed, the burst would be the first known cosmic explosion fueled solely by carbon rather than hydrogen or helium and could verify or revise models of carbon combustion. PMID:17787227

  14. Astronomical Orientations in Sanctuaries of Daunia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.; Polcaro, V. F.; Sisto, A. M. Tunzi; Zupone, M. Lo

    2015-05-01

    Prehistoric sanctuaries of Daunia date back several thousand years. During the Neolithic and Bronze Ages the farmers in that region dug hypogea and holes whose characteristics suggest a ritual use. In the present article we summarize the results of the astronomical analysis of the orientation of the rows of holes in three different sites, and we point out the possible use of the setting of the stars of Centaurus. An interesting archaeological confirmation of an archaeoastronomical prediction is also reported.

  15. Commission 5: Documentation and Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Raymond P.; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Genova, Françoise; Grothkopf, Uta; Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Pence, William D.; Schmitz, Marion; Hanisch, Robert J.; Zhou, Xu

    IAU Commission 5 deals with data management issues, and its working groups and task groups deal specifically with information handling, with data centres and networks, with technical aspects of collection, archiving, storage and dissemination of data, with designations and classification of astronomical objects, with library services, editorial policies, computer communications, ad hoc methodologies, and with various standards, reference frames, etc., FITS, astronomys Flexible Image Transport System, the major data exchange format, is controlled, maintained and updated by the Working Group FITS.

  16. Cave of the Astronomers at Xochicalco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    The chimney built in the roof of the artificial large cave at Xochicalco, known as "Cave of the astronomers", has been interpreted as a solar zenithal observation tube. Nevertheless, different elements and especially the latitude of the site itself led the author to present a lunar hypothesis. Precise measurements of the impact of light inside the cave show the degree of precision that can be obtained in this camera obscura.

  17. Encyclopedias of Astronomical Biographies - Status and Prospects --

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    Simple requests for biographies of famous astronomers can easily be satisfied. Short accounts of their lives are to be found in many books and encyclopedias. However, most of these sources are very incomplete, i. e.\\ do not provide information on less famous persons, and are not up to scientific standards. The most comprehensive sources of scientific biographies, Poggendorffs Biographisch-Literarisches Handwoerterbuch and Dictionary of Scientific Biography, are also not complete, partly not up-to-date and for most users not easily accessible. The most recent and most comprehensive dictionary of astronomical biography, containing 500 short entries, was written in Russian. Although a lot of information on biographies is available in publications, these are spread over thousands of volumes. There is no bibliography of these papers and books. During the last three years, short biographies of astronomers were also published in the World Wide Web. Some of these are on a very high scientific level. The author's collection of links to such WWW pages (http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~pbrosche/hist\\_astr/ ha\\_pers.html}) contains currently several thousand entries for more than 1200 persons related to the history of astronomy. This electronic ``encyclopedia'' in distributed form is now the most comprehensive and concentrated source for astronomical biographies. However, there are several problems arising from the electronic form of publication and from the uncoordinated and not always qualified efforts of the authors. The paper will discuss proposals, plans and first results of filling the gaps and increasing the quality, as well as some principal problems of writing short biographies and making them available to the public.

  18. Software Helps Extract Information From Astronomical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Booth; Ebert, Rick; Laughlin, Gaylin

    1995-01-01

    PAC Skyview 2.0 is interactive program for display and analysis of astronomical images. Includes large set of functions for display, analysis and manipulation of images. "Man" pages with descriptions of functions and examples of usage included. Skyview used interactively or in "server" mode, in which another program calls Skyview and executes commands itself. Skyview capable of reading image data files of four types, including those in FITS, S, IRAF, and Z formats. Written in C.

  19. AWOB: A Collaborative Workbench for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lemson, G.; Bulatovic, N.; Makarenko, V.; Vogler, A.; Voges, W.; Yao, Y.; Kiefl, R.; Koychev, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present the Astronomers Workbench (AWOB1), a web-based collaboration and publication platform for a scientific project of any size, developed in collaboration between the Max-Planck institutes of Astrophysics (MPA) and Extra-terrestrial Physics (MPE) and the Max-Planck Digital Library (MPDL). AWOB facilitates the collaboration between geographically distributed astronomers working on a common project throughout its whole scientific life cycle. AWOB does so by making it very easy for scientists to set up and manage a collaborative workspace for individual projects, where data can be uploaded and shared. It supports inviting project collaborators, provides wikis, automated mailing lists, calendars and event notification and has a built in chat facility. It allows the definition and tracking of tasks within projects and supports easy creation of e-publications for the dissemination of data and images and other resources that cannot be added to submitted papers. AWOB extends the project concept to larger scale consortia, within which it is possible to manage working groups and sub-projects. The existing AWOB instance has so far been limited to Max-Planck members and their collaborators, but will be opened to the whole astronomical community. AWOB is an open-source project and its source code is available upon request. We intend to extend AWOB's functionality also to other disciplines, and would greatly appreciate contributions from the community.

  20. Philosophy for the Creation of Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, T.; Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.; English, J.; Pu'Uohau-Pummill, K.

    2005-12-01

    The quality of modern astronomical data, the power of modern computers and the agility of current image-processing software enable the creation of high-quality images in a purely digital form. The combination of these technological advancements has created a new ability to make colour astronomical images. These programs use a layering metaphor that allows for an unlimited number of astronomical datasets to be combined in any desired colour scheme, creating an immense parameter space to be explored. A philosophy is presented on how to use scaling, colour and composition to create images that simultaneously highlight scientific detail and are aesthetically appealing. This philosophy is necessary because most datasets do not correspond to the wavelength range of sensitivity of the human eye. The use of visual grammar, defined as the elements that affect the interpretation of an image, can maximize the richness and detail in an image while maintaining scientific accuracy. By properly using visual grammar, one can imply qualities that a two-dimensional image cannot show intrinsically, such as depth, motion and energy. In addition, composition can be used to engage viewers and keep them interested for a longer period of time. The use of these techniques can result in a striking image that will effectively convey the science within the image to scientists and to the public. Details of the pictorial examples used are presented in the conference web-proceedings and webcast.